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03/11/2016

SALIENT FEATURES OF PAKISTANS


AGRICULTURE

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Salient features of Pakistans Agriculture

Soil:
Sandy to sandy loam soil
Organic matter varies from 0.45-0.58%.
Nitrogen 0.04 to 0.06%
Phosphorus less than 10 ppm (10 mg/kg)
No deficiency of potash (deficiency level is 125 ppm)
1/5 of Punjab area lies under rainfed conditions.
Range lands cover about 60% area of country.

Problems of Pakistans Soils

Waterlogging, salinity/alkalinity, low soil


fertility, and less organic matter are problems
of irrigated areas.
Soil erosion, water conservation, and low soil
fertility are problems of barani areas.

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Crops
Cultivated or cropped area divided into two
major zones.
Rained (barani)
Irrigated
Total irrigated area of Pakistan: 18.63 M. Ha
Punjab: 14.41 M ha

Seed Distribution
Wheat 11%
Cotton 60%
Rice 6.24%
Maize 100%
Chickpea 1.74%

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Yield Gap

Difference between potential and national


average yield is called yield gap.

Cereals 81%
Pulses 76%
Oilseed 70%

Climate
Arid climate with low rainfall and humidity
and high solar radiations, high temperature in
summer days and very low in winter nights.
Annual rainfall = 200 mm in most areas
Sindh & Punjab = 60 % rainfall in Monsoon
(July-September)
Balochistan & KPK = Maximum rainfall in
Oct-March

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Irrigated and barani area


Irrigated area = 17.12 mha
Rainfed = 5 mha
Rangeland = 45.2 mha

Land Utilization in Pakistan (mha)


Total geographical area = 79.61 mha
Reported area = 57.08 mha
Forest area = 4.21 mha
Not available for cultivation = 23.45 mha
Culturable waste = 8.20 mha
Cultivated area (current fallow + net area sown) =
21.21 mha
Total cropped area (net area sown + area sown more
than once) = 23.80 mha

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Food Crops
Wheat
Millet (Bajra)
Rice
Barley
Maize
Sorghum

Fiber Crops
Cotton
Flax
Ramie
Sunhemp
Jute

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Sugar Crops
Sugarcane
Sugarbeet
Stivia
Sweet sorghum

Oilseed Crops
Rapeseed and Mustard
Linseed
Soybean
Sesame
Sunflower
Groundnut
Castor bean (Arind)

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Pulses
Gram
Lentil
Mungbean
Mashbean

Fodders
Berseem
Lucern
Oat
Sorghum
Guara
Mottgrass
Maize
Millet

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Cash Crops
Sugarcane
Cotton
Tobacco
Sugarbeet

Cropping Seasons
Pakistan has two main cropping season, while
2 minor cropping seasons.

Main cropping seasons are Rabi and Kharif


seasons.
Minor cropping seasons are Zaid-rabi and
Zaid-kharif seasons.

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Rabi Season
Oct- Nov to April-May

Wheat
Oat
Barley
Gram
Lentil
Berseem
Lucern

Kharif Season
April-May to Oct-November

Rice
Maize
Sorghum
Mungbean
Sorghum
Sesame

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Zaid-rabi Season
Jan-Feb to May-June

Tobacco

Zaid-kharif Season
Aug-Sept to Feb-March

Toria

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Vital sector of Pakistan's economy


Accounts for 21 percent of GDP
Directly supports three-quarters of the country's
population, employs half the labor force, and
contributes a large share of foreign exchange earnings
Main agricultural products are cotton, wheat, rice,
sugarcane, fruit and vegetables, in addition to milk,
beef, mutton, and poultry.
Pakistan depends on one of the world's largest
irrigation systems to support production.

Rice
US$ 1.70 bln US$ 3.36 bln
Cotton Wheat

US$ 2.94 bln US$ 302 mln

Maize Major Crops Citrus

US$ 3.01 bln


US$ 324 mln Milk and milk
products
Live
Mango
Stock
Sugarcane
US$ 418 mln US$ 1.02 bln

Source: http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx

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Pakistans Agriculture is
The
Largest
3rd 3rd 5th 5th 5th
Largest Largest Largest Largest Largest
Producer Herd of Producer Producer Producer Producer
of Kinnow Livestock of Dates of Mango of Cotton of Milk

Contribution to GDP 21.8%


(more than US$37 billion to the national economy)
Labor Force Employment 45.0%
Average Growth past 6 years 3.7%
Contribution of different Sub-Sectors in Agriculture
1. Crops (Wheat, Rice, Cotton, Sugarcane) 32.8%
2. Livestock 53.2%
3. Fisheries 4.0%
4. Forestry 2.0%
Share in Export Earnings (Raw/Processed)
1. Cotton + Cotton Based Products 64.7%
2. Fruits, Rice, Fish, Leather 18.2%
3. Others 17.1%

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Pakistans Livestock

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th


Largest Largest Largest Largest Largest

Segment of Sector of Herd of Exports Producer of


rural economy economy Livestock Products Milk

Livetsock
11%

45% Livestock
Agriculture
55%

Other
Livestock Livestock 89%
contributes 55.1% of accounts for
Agriculture sector. 11.5% of GDP.

Contributed approximately 55.2% of agriculture value


added and 11.4% to national GDP in 201011.

Gross value addition of livestock at current factor cost


has increased from Rs. 1304.6 billion (200809) to Rs.
1537.5 billion (200910) showing an increase of 17.8 %.

Pakistan earned US$717 million from leather exports in


2009 and a meager US$96 million from meat exports.

The food industry attracted Foreign Direct Investment of


US$ 108.3 million in 2009-10.

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With an estimated 33 billion liters of annual milk production from 50


million animals, managed by over 8 million farming households
Livestock sector contributed approximately 53.2 percent of the
agriculture value added and 11.4 percent to national GDP during
2009 10
The milk economy in terms of value is over 27% of the total
Agriculture sector
Additional potential of 3 billion liters of milk, with a growth rate
faster than any other sector
Of the total 33 billion liters of milk produced, 71% is rural based and
29% is urban based
Of the total production, around 3% is processed and marketed
through formal channels
40% Supply and Demand gap exists in Pakistan, which again is an
opportunity

Production: 0.6 MMT (marine 63% & inland 37%)


Value: US$300 million
Aquaculture: 45% (solely inland prod.)
Consumption:
- Domestic: 0.3MMT - 50%
- Export 0.12MMT - 19 % ( $ 200 million)
- Fish meal 0.18MMT - 31 %
Source of livelihood: 400,000 fishermen
Potential for export : $ 1 billion
Potential domestic consumption : 1 MMT

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A Country Study

SERIAL NO. FACTS PUNJAB


1 Geographical Area 20.63

2 Total Reported Area 17.49

3 Forest Area 0.49

4 Not Available For Cultivation 2.95

5 Culturable Waste 1.56

6 Cultivated Area 12.49

7 Current Fallow 1.39

8 Net Area Sown 11.10

9 Area Sown More than Once 5.86

10 Total Cropped Area 16.96

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SERIAL NO. FACTS SINDH


1 Geographical Area 14.09

2 Total Reported Area 14.09

3 Forest Area 1.03

4 Not Available For Cultivation 6.77


5 Culturable Waste 1.42

6 Cultivated Area 4.87

7 Current Fallow 2.06

8 Net Area Sown 2.81

9 Area Sown More than Once 1.01

10 Total Cropped Area 3.82

SERIAL NO. FACTS KPK


1 Geographical Area 10.17

2 Total Reported Area 8.34

3 Forest Area 1.33

4 Not Available For Cultivation 3.90

5 Culturable Waste 1.24

6 Cultivated Area 1.86

7 Current Fallow 0.56

8 Net Area Sown 1.30

9 Area Sown More than Once 0.57

10 Total Cropped Area 1.87

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SERIAL NO. FACTS BALUCHISTAN


1 Geographical Area 34.72

2 Total Reported Area 17.16

3 Forest Area 1.36

4 Not Available For Cultivation 9.83

5 Culturable Waste 3.98

6 Cultivated Area 1.99

7 Current Fallow 0.92

8 Net Area Sown 1.07

9 Area Sown More than Once 0.08

10 Total Cropped Area 1.15

SERIAL NO. FACTS PAKISTAN


1 Geographical Area 79.61

2 Total Reported Area 57.08

3 Forest Area 4.21

4 Not Available For Cultivation 23.45

5 Culturable Waste 8.20

6 Cultivated Area 21.21

7 Current Fallow 4.93

8 Net Area Sown 16.28

9 Area Sown More than Once 7.52

10 Total Cropped Area 23.80

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PROVINCE WATER LOGGED %age


And SALINE
AREA (000 ha)

PUNJAB 130.4 0.6

SINDH 294.3 2.1

KPK 0.2 0.0

BALUCHISTAN 15.2 0.04

CROPS AREA IN (000 ha) PERCENT OF TOTAL


AREA
FOOD CROPS 13879 58

CASH CROPS 4054 17

PULSES 1465 6

OILSEEDS 748 3

VEGETABLES 398 2

CONDIMENTS 223 1

FRUITS 857 4

OTHERS 2174 9

TOTAL 23798 100

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Irrigation: Life blood of agriculture


Agriculture is the main player of the economy of Pakistan with 21%
contribution to GDP and more than 45% contribution in labor force
Pakistans agriculture rely heavily on irrigation.
Pakistan has the worlds largest contiguous irrigation system
Pakistan ranks 4th in the world as for as irrigated area ( About 7%) is
concerned. About 36 MA( About 75% of the cultivated area) in Pakistan
is irrigated land.
Pakistan has invested heavily in the irrigation sector. Allocated about
$ 8 billion in this sector up to the year 2011-12

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Annual rainfall (125mm in South-East to 750mm North-West)


Total water generated by rainfall is around
32 BCM
Contribution to crops is 10-20%

Exploitation of Groundwater is 59 BCM


Over 9,00,000 private tube wells
40% of total supply at farm-gate

Total Inflow is 171 BCM


Tarbela (10.38 BCM - 485 ft),
Mangla (5.90 BCM - 380 ft)
48 Canals (61000 km), 19 Barrages
1,70,000 Watercourses (1.6 Million km)

Water is becoming scarce with each passing day. Per


capita availability of fresh water in Pakistan has
decreased by about 800% since 1950.
Efficient and judicious use of the irrigation water is the
only sustainable option left with us.
Surface water is still the largest source of irrigation in
Pakistan (31% as a single source)
Irrigation system is over burdened and loosing its
efficiency due to increasing gap in actual and required
O&M expenditures (Actual O&M expenses made only
about 20-30% of required expenses)
Govt. has to subsidize major portion of the O&M
expenditures (about 70% according to an estimate)

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Global
1950 16,800 cubic meters per annum
2000 6,800 cubic meters per annum
Reduction: 60 % in 50 years
Pakistan
1950 5,300 cubic meters per annum
2000 1,200 cubic meters per annum !!!!
Reduction: 77 % in 50 years
Critical limit 1,000 cubic meters per person
per annum

Year Population (Million) Water availability per capita (m3)

1951 34 5300

1961 46 3950

1971 65 2700

1981 84 2100

1991 115 1600

2000 148 1200

2010 168 1066

2020 196 915

2025 209 850

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Irrigated Area 36 million acres


(14.56 million hectares)

Length of Canals 56,073km


Length of Water Courses 1.6 million km

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Delivery at Loss
Location Head
(MAF) % age MAF

Main and Branch Canals 106 15 16

Disty. And Minors 90 8 7


Watercourses 83 30 25
Fields 58 30 17 30%
Crop Use 41
Total 62 65
The additional irrigation water requirement at farm gate has been estimated at 12.61
MAF, which is 31.93 MAF at canal head (PWSS 2002). Which we can save even if we save
water at water course level

A : Problems from management perspective


o Overall water scarcity, low water availability during winter and at the
beginning and end of summer with limited reservoir capacity.

o Physical and technical limitations of the system.

o Low efficiency in delivery and use.

o Inequitable water distribution.

o Inadequate operation and maintenance of the system

o Excess seepage and wastage in the system.

o Insufficient cost recovery ( O&M expenditures are more


than recovery of Aabiana).

o Administrative and financial constraints.

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B- Problems from Farmers Perspective


o Unreliable and inequitable distribution of irrigation water.

o Deterioration of the canal system and frequent breaches due to weak bands.

o Increased cases of water theft and failure of management to check them.

o Increase in water disputes and delay in actions and justice.

o Political interference in system management.

o Increasing cost of groundwater extraction

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Technical
Land leveling to apply water more uniformly
Efficient sprinklers to apply water more uniformly
Furrow and bed cultivation to save water
Drip irrigation to conserve water

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Managerial

Better irrigation scheduling


Improving canal operations for timely deliveries
Applying water when most crucial to a crops yield
Water-conserving tillage and field operation
methods
Better maintenance of canal, watercourses and
equipment
Recycling drainage water

Institutional
Establishing water users organizations for better
management of water
Fostering rural infrastructure for private sector
dissemination of efficient technologies
Better training and extension efforts

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Agronomic
Selecting crop varieties with high yields per cubic
meter of transpired water
Inter-cropping to maximize use of soil moisture
Better matching crops to climate conditions and the
quality of water available
Crop rotations to maximize output under condition of
soil and water salinity
Selecting drought-tolerant crops where water is scarce
or unreliable
Breeding water-efficient crop varieties

Limited Cultivable Area


Water Logging and Salinity
Slow Growth of Allied Products
Low Per Hectare Yield
Inadequate Infrastructure
Uneconomic Land Holdings
Old Methods of Production
Inadequate Supply of Agricultural
Inputs
Lack of Irrigation Facilities
Inadequate Agricultural Research
Problem of Land Reforms
Defective Land Tenure System
Subsistence Farming
Improper Crop Rotation

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Various Plant
Diseases
Natural Calamities
Scarcity of HYV Seeds
Under Utilization of
Land

Consumption Oriented
Farmers Litigation
Joint Family System
Illiteracy and Ill-health
Political Instability

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Lack of Credit
Poor Financial
Position of Farmers
Instability in Market
Prices
Shortage of
Agricultural Finance

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