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Common Defects Possible Causes Recommendation

a) Poor concrete a) (i) Proper compaction


Honeycomb compaction due to method should be
ineffective vibration or adopted and carried out.
rebar congestion. (ii) Concrete mix design
b) Grout leakage along the and workability should
perimeter side forms due be reviewed and
to: adjusted when needed.
i. Loose or missing bolts/ (iii) Appropriate concrete
fixing pins. vibrator such as clamp-
ii. Damage rubber gasket on form vibration can be
seal. used to attain better
iii. Mould part is defective. compaction.
(iv) Rebar congestion can
c) Improper workability of be alleviated by having
concrete Using stiff larger (that is, lesser)
concrete which is hard to rebars or by increasing
place the sectional dimensions
d) Placement of concrete of elements where
from height When we possible.
pour concrete from a (v) Mechanical couplers
certain height the or sleeves can be used to
aggregates and mortar simplify the
get separated and settle reinforcement layout
down partly which and to minimize rebar
causes honeycombs in congestion.
concrete.
e) Additional water cement b) Defective mould forms
ratio than the allowable and accessories should
limit on site for be repaired or replaced
workability the excess to prevent grout leakage
amount of water cement during concreting.
ratio will result in
separation of aggregates
from the mortar
f) Presence of Coarse
Aggregates Using the
improper bigger size of
aggregates in concrete
makes the smaller
particles hard to
penetrate through them
and leaves the concrete
voids.