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# CE3610 Environmental

Engineering
Modelling in Environmental Engineering :
Transport and Transformation Models

## Modelling is a very important activity in environmental

engineering
The need for modelling arises from the complex systems
and processes that must be addressed.
Environmental engineers are frequently challenged to
explain why an environmental system behaves as it
does, to predict how it will evolve if left undisturbed, or
to discern how a system will respond to a change.
Qualitative judgment has to be supported by
quantitative evidence!!! Environmental Scientists
usually provide the qualitative judgements but not the
quantitative ones.
Modelling in Environmental Engineering : Transport
and Transformation Models
Example: Effect of subsurface contamination of a
chemical storage tank on ground water quality

## Not all effects and scenarios could be experimentally

determined. So environmental engineers develop and
use models to interpret observations or to make
predictions. (global warming prediction is a model
calculation in itself)
Mass Balance Approach

Balance
Deposit Withdrawal

## Balance = Deposit - Withdrawal

Mass Balance Approach

Balance
Deposit Withdrawal

## Balance = Deposit Withdrawal + interest

Mass Balance Approach

Accumulation
Input Output

## Accumulation = Input Output

Example.1.1 (single input/output)

## Accumulated amount (L) =

Input (1.5L) Output (0.8 L)
= 0.7 L= 0.7 L
Accumulated amount (kg)=
Input (1.5L*1kg/L) Output (0.8 L*1kg/L)
= 0.7 L*1kg/L = 0.7 kg
Example.1.2
Water

## Accumulation rate (L/min) =

Input rate (1.5L/min) Output rate (0.8 L/min)
= 0.7 L/min
Accumulated amount (kg)=
Input (1.5L/min*1kg/L) Output (0.8 L/min*1kg/L)
= 0.7 L/min*1kg/L = 0.7 kg/min
Mass Balance Approach

Balance
Deposit Withdrawal

## Balance = Deposit Withdrawal + interest

Mass Balance Approach

Accumulation
Input Output

## Accumulation = Input Output + growth (-ve if decay)

Reactor configurations..summarizing

## 1. batch reactors (BR) Many chemical processes are batch

produced e.g. BOD test, reaction time is important.

## 2. Complete mixed flow rectors (Continuously stirred tank

reactor)- (CSTR) well mixed, no concentration gradient and
hence equal to effluent concentration, common in wwT in
anaerobic processes, resident time is an important parameter.

## 3. Plug flow reactors (PFR)- longer the reactor, greater the

conversion. Most common in activated WWT.
Analysis of performance of rector types

## In reactor analysis the following may occur;

1. Accumulation -/+
2. Input through the system boundary or by generation within the
reactor due to reaction
3. Output through the system boundary or by consumption due to
reaction
Material balance for a material A

## Q- flow rate m3/s

CA - concentration of material A, mg/L
CAo effluent concentration, mg/L
V volume of fluid in the reactor, m3
rA rate of reaction of material A, mg/L.s
Batch/Plug flow reactors

## Consider batch processes and plug flow processes are considered

similar for analysis

## For batch process;

Q=0, V=constant eq (1) becomes
0+0+rAV = V dCA/dt
rA = dCA/dt
Batch/Plug flow

rA = -k0

-k0 = dCA/dt
Batch/Plug flow

rA = -k1 CA

## -k1 CA= dCA/dt

1 C Ai
CAo = CAi e-kt t ln
k C Ao
Complete mixed flow reactors

dCA/dt = 0

## QCAi QCAo +rAV = 0

-rA=Q/V(CAi CAo )
CMF reactors

rA = -k0

## V/Q hydraulic retention time, T

CAi CAo = k0 T CAo = CAi k0 T
CMF reactors

## For first order equations;

rA = -k1 CAo
-rA=Q/V(CAi CAo ); Substituting rA = -k1 CAo

## ( CAi CAo )/ CAo =k1 T

( Cai/CAo 1 )/ =k1 T
Cai/CAo ) =k1 T+1

CAo =CAi/(1+k1 T)
Reaction order

## The rate at which reactions occur usually is determined by

measuring the concentration of either a reactant or a product as
the reaction proceeds to complete.
Note that reaction rate coefficients depend
on temperature

## Given the temperature 8/5/2016

differences are small
Typical rate expressions for selected
processes
8/5/2016
Problem 1

8/5/2016
Problem 2

Glucose was added to a batch culture of m/o and the removal was measured
over time.
Conc. Of glucose time (days)
As COD mg/l
180 0
155 5
95 12
68 22
42 31
26 40
Determine the order of reaction and reaction constant.
Treatment process kinetics (continued)

## Types of reactors commonly used in wastewater treatment

1. Batch reactors
2. complete mix flow (CMF) or continuous flow stirred (CFST)
3. Complete mix reactors in series
4. Ideal plug flow (PF)
5. Ideal plug flow with retard reaction rate
6. Plug flow with axial dispersion
Important relationships for different reactor
configurations (summery)

## At steady state conditions with first order reactions;

For a batch reactor or plug flow reactor the following will
apply:
CAo = Cai.exp(-k0t)
For a completely mixed reactor or continuous stirred tank
reactor
CAo =Cai/(1+k1 T)
Where k is the decay rate coefficient. If growth occurs, -k
will have to be replaced by in these equations.
For n CMF reactors in series

C Ai 1 C Ai
C Ao T ( 1)
1 k1T k1 C Ao
C Ai
C1 1 k1T C Ai Q, CAi C1 C2 Cn
C2 V,K
1 k1T 1 k1T (1 k1T ) 2
C Ai 1

Cn 1 C Ai n
(1 k1T ) n T 1
k1 Cn

Example 2.

## Concentration of a pollutant is reduced from 300 mg/l to

50 mg/l as the liquid flow containing the pollutant passes
through a CMF reactor
If the reaction in the reactor follows 1st order kinetics
and the liquid flow rate is 900 m3/day, what is the
volume of the reactor when reaction rate constant k=0.6
/day
Example 3.

## It is desired that the concentration of the contaminant

be reduced from 150 mg/l to 25 mg/l for a flow of 3000
m3/d. Assuming 1st order kinetics with k=0.5 /d, compare
the total volume required for the following reactor
systems
1. single CMF reactor
2. 2 CMF reactors in series
3. single P.F. reactor
In case of industrial w/w, it is better to select CMF
reactors.
Reason: if there is a poisonous substance is
introduced in to the reactor, it will be diluted due to
mixing where as in P.F. it is not so. Due to this
poisonous substance the m/o can be killed during
which time the reactor operations cease.
As the no. of reactors in series increases the total
reactor volume decreases to obtain the same
efficiency. Such a system approaches a P. F reactor
system.
Reference

2003