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JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC RESEARCH FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY

Impact Factor 1.393, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 2, Issue 6, July 2014

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THICKNESS DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT


BY USE OF STABILIZERS IN BLACK COTTON SOIL

KHUNT KISHAN*
C. B. MISHRA**
A. A. AMIN***

*Student of M. Tech., B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidhyanagar, Gujarat, India


**Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil Engg., B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidhyanagar, Gujarat, India
***Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engg, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India

ABSTRACT
Road development is one of the major parts of growing infrastructure which is
expanding at a very fast rate; the construction of roads is of major concern in India as it
promotes access to economic and social services, generating agricultural income and
productive employment. Owing to repetition of high commercial vehicles on constant road
width results into deterioration of roads, this may be due to poor strength of soils used as sub
grade. It is the duty of an engineer to come out with suitable economic design using locally
available materials in the interest of economy thereby constantly improve quality, strength
and durability of roads. This paper deals with a laboratory investigation of soil stabilization
using the consolid system (solidry and other material consolid 444). Initially the tests are
conducted to determine physical & engineering properties of natural soil by conducting
laboratory tests and also to evaluate the improvement in properties by the addition of
stabilizers to be used in pavement design for economy. The comparative study of thickness is
also done.

KEYWORDS: Stabilization, Consolid, Solidry, Strength

INTRODUCTION
Several types of advanced materials are tried to establish the efficiency of new
materials in road construction. However, the use of new materials and technologies is not
becoming popular owing to certain procedural constraints as well as lack of awareness and
therefore appropriate steps may have to be taken for popularizing the new technologies for
building better roads with less cost. Adoption of such technique may also result in the
conservation of natural resources, energy and environment. Roads are having different layers
which provide strength for sustaining the heavy loads due to vehicle movement. If sub grade
soil has poor properties, it needs modification or stabilization with stabilizers to improve its
properties. Along with improvement in engineering properties of soil, stabilization is also

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JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC RESEARCH FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY
Impact Factor 1.393, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 2, Issue 6, July 2014

used to achieve economy in terms of cost by reducing thickness of layers of pavement. The
consolid treatment proves to be one of the best available stabilizers for various soils. Black
cotton soil is highly plastic soil and bearing strength is very less compared to other soil. By
adopting consolid 444 and solidry in required doses, bearing strength can be improved.
Various laboratory tests are carried out to access the soil parameter improvements.

Objectives
To determine the physical & engineering properties of natural soil by conducting
laboratory tests and also to evaluate the improvement in properties by the addition of
stabilizers to be used in pavement design for economy.

Materials Used For the Study:


Soil
The study area is selected is of Surat (Latitude: 21.195 N & Longitude: 72.819 E) south
Gujarat. The visual examination indicates that the soil is having black colour and possesses
the quality under moisture changes to expand soil and swell. Such soil causes distresses of
road. Hence alteration of any inherent property of a soil is needed to improve its engineering
performance.

The Consolid System


Consolid system has got the potential for permanent Soil Stabilization. In consolid system
both Consolid444 (Liquid) and Solidry (Powder) products are used separately and is
commercially available. It is procured from competent authority of company Mr. Manish
Shah, Ahmedabad for study purpose.

Consolid 444 is a chemical liquid white substance having the property to lower water
absorption through reducing the capillary activity, reduce permeability, lowers OMC and
increases density of treated soil. Such properties reduces swelling and shrinking behavior.
Solidry is a dry, grey coloured chemical substance. It prevents the treated soil from water
soaking in by closing the capillary. It allows better compaction of the treated soil and
increases desired density to meet the load carrying capacity of traffic.

Experimental Investigations
Laboratory tests are conducted for determining the properties of the natural soils are Grain
size analysis, Atterbergs limit tests, Modified proctor test & CBR test, for the treated soil,

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JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC RESEARCH FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY
Impact Factor 1.393, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 2, Issue 6, July 2014

before mixing with Consolid System materials, the soils were at Optimum Moisture Content
(OMC) as determined by Modified proctor test. Various amounts of Consolid System
materials were added.

Tests on Natural Soil


Table.1 Test results on Natural soil
Grain Size
Atterbergs Limit
(%) (IS: 1498
(%) IS 2720 Part 5 Moisture CBR
1970)
FSI Dry (%)
(IS: Density OMC
(IS: Type
Soil 2720 (gms/cc)
Silt/cl (%) 2720 of Soil
Sand LL PL PI Part
ay 40) (IS:2720 Part
Part 8) 16)
(%)

BC Soil 12 88 59 24 35 60 1.607 24.20 2.0 CH

It is utmost important to determine the type of soil as it is on this basis the treatment is
chosen for design. As PI value obtained is in the range of 20 to 40 hence the soil is
categorized as black cotton considered as expansive.

Tests on Untreated Soil, Treated With Solidry and Treated With C-444

Solidry & consolid 444 are mixed separately with black cotton soil in different proportions
to get optimum percentage of given stabilizers. Following are the different proportions of
stabilizers which can be effectively utilized to alter the properties of black cotton soil. As
suggested in manufacturer guidelines, it is applied at a rate of 1% to 2% by weight of soil
sample for both stabilizers. The results obtained of Atterbergs limit, free swell index,
modified proctor test for different proportions of solidry and consolid 444 mixed with black
cotton soil are as shown in table:

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JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC RESEARCH FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY
Impact Factor 1.393, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 2, Issue 6, July 2014

Table.2 Test results on untreated, treated with solidry & consolid - 444
Atterberg Modified
Plastici Free
Sr. Black cotton soil + s Limit Proctor Test
ty Swell
No. Stabilizers MDD OMC
LL PL Index Index
(gms/cc) (%)
1. Soil (99%) + C - 444 (1%) 58 31 27 16 1.670 19.51
2. Soil (98.7%) + C - 444 (1.3%) 60 39 21 17 1.696 17.07
3. Soil (98.3%) + C - 444 (1.7%) 55 32 23 17 1.713 14.06
4. Soil (98%) + C - 444 (2%) 59 34 25 16 1.682 18.21
5. Soil (99%) + Solidry (1%) 64 36 28 48 1.740 20.60
6. Soil (98.7%) + Solidry (1.3%) 61 38 23 40 1.781 13.10
7. Soil (98.3%) + Solidry (1.7%) 63 39 24 33 1.870 14.29
8. Soil (98%) + Solidry (2%) 63 40 23 32 1.840 13.50

CBR Test Results for Natural Soil with and without Solidry & Consolid 444
After modified proctor test, CBR test were performed on given proportions of solidry &
consolid 444. The soak CBR test is carried out for 4 days (96 hrs) in accordance to IS: 2720
(part 16) - 1987. 5mm penetration value of CBR repeatedly is obtained hence taken into
consideration for design after correction. The values obtained are as shown in figure:

Comparison of CBR Value with Black Cotton Soil


25
20.53
18.46 19.05
20
16.07
CBR(%)

15
8.88 9.42 8.73
10 8.23

5 2
0
BCSOIL 1.0%C 1.3%C 1.7%C 2.0%C 1.0%SD 1.3%SD 1.7%SD 2.0%SD
444 444 444 444

Fig.1 Comparison of CBR value with black cotton soil

The chart shows that CBR value is high, when 1.7% solidry is added with black cotton soil. It
is evident that CBR value of highly plastic soil or black cotton soil is very low.

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JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC RESEARCH FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY
Impact Factor 1.393, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 2, Issue 6, July 2014

Thickness Design
In order to design a flexible pavement IRC: 37 2001 & IRC: 37 2012 are used in which
the evaluation of factors (design traffic, vehicle damage factor, design life, etc.) are
considered for state highway. Thickness design for untreated soil, untreated soil treated with
solidry and treated with C-444 is carried out. The data for pavement design are assumed for
state highway which are given below and from that thickness design of flexible pavement is
worked out.
Data:
Design Traffic : 550 CVPD
Lane Distribution Factor (D) : 50 percent (Two lane single carriage way)
Vehicle Damage Factor (F) : 3.5 (Plain terrain)
Design Life (n) : 15 years
Annual Growth Rate (r) : 5 percent
Width : 7.5 m
Design Soak CBR : 2% (Obtained)

Design Calculations:
Cumulative No. of standard axle load

CSAL 15 msa is taken into consideration for untreated soil having 2% CBR, for untreated
soil treated with solidry having 15% CBR and untreated soil treated with C-444 having 9%
CBR. The corresponding thickness design for all is worked out as per IRC: 37 2012, pg.26.

Comparison of Thickness of Natural & Treated Layer

1000 ComparisonofNatural&TreatedLayer

800
40
Thickness(mm)

105 BC
600 40 40
50 65 DBM
250
400 250 250 G.Base
GSB
200 380 200 200
Treatedbase
100 100
0 0
UntreatedSoil
TreatedwithSolidry
TreatedwithC 444

Fig.2 Comparison of un-treated & Treated Layer

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JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC RESEARCH FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY
Impact Factor 1.393, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 2, Issue 6, July 2014

Conclusions
The scientific analysis carried out to determine different properties to meet the
pavement needs is carried out using laboratory investigations of the study. Based on
the study following conclusions can be drawn:
The soil investigation indicates clearly the problem with soil is existing which one can
know from grain size analysis too as silt content is large. The liquid limit and plastic
limit identified is for black cotton soil as CH category. It has potential to swell. The
compact test carried out on it shows that moisture content is 24.2% and MDD is 1.607
gms/cc. The CBR test conducted on this soil is shows a very low CBR value for 5 mm
penetration (2.0%).
Comparing the tests on free swell index values with untreated soil, untreated soil
treated with dosages of solidry and also treated with dosages of C-444 clearly shows
that free swell index values are reduced more than 50% which indicates that the
characteristics of swelling and the swelling pressure of black cotton soils is reduced
considerably. The range of high plastic condition of soil with water content is reduced
to medium plastic condition. This makes the soil a bit dry as the sensitivity towards
water is controlled by admixtures. This finally improves stability also.
For the ideal CH category soil more than 98.3% proportion while the other use of
solidry as a stabilizer in small dosages shows the high reduction in optimum moisture
content, thereby showing significant rise in CBR value (20.53%) at 1.7% solidry by
weight of soil.
Thickness design is worked out for state highway (2 lane) keeping in aspect 550
CVPD on the Black cotton soil. CSAL 15 msa is taken into consideration for
untreated soil having 2% CBR, for untreated soil treated solidry having 15% CBR
and untreated soil treated with C-444 having 9% CBR. The histogram shows that soil
treated with 1.7 % Solidry shows significant reduction in thickness for required
loading. Also it highlights the thicknesses of every layer. The economy is also
achieved as less amount of material is utilized for road construction without any
compromise with quality and load. . The use of consolid system can be attractive and
most viable alternative in the regions where scarcity of granular material and stone
metals are of high cost.

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References
1. IS: 2720 (Part IV) 1985, Determination of Grain Size Analysis
2. IS: 2720 (Part V) 1985, Determination of Liquid and Plastic Limit
3. IS: 2720 (Part VIII) 1983, Determination of Water Content Dry Density Relation
Using Heavy Compaction
4. IS: 2720 (Part XVI) 1997, Laboratory Determination of CBR
5. IS: 2720 (Part XL) 1977, Determination of Free Swell Index
6. IRC: 37 2001, Guidelines for the design of Flexible Pavements
7. IRC: 37 2012, Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements
8. A. U. Ravi Shankar, Harsha Kumar Rai & Ramesha Mithanthaya I., Bio-Enzyme
Stabilized Lateritic Soil as a Highway Material Journal of the Indian Roads
Congress, pp. 143 151, July September 2009
9. B. M. Patil & K. A. Patil, Improvement in Properties of Sub Grade Soil by Using
Pond Ash and Chemical Additive, Indian Highways, pp. 35-41, August - 2013
10. Bambang Ismanto SISWOSOEBROTHO, Consolid system in Soil Stabilization,
Proceeding of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Volume 3, No. 1,
pp.461-475, October 2001,
11. Guideline for Modification and Stabilization of soils and base for use in Pavement
Structures, Texas Department of Transportation, Construction Division, September
2005.
12. K. J. Osinubi, M. A. Oyelakin & A. O. Eberemu, Improvement of Black Cotton Soil
with Ordinary Portland Cement Locust Bean Waste Ash Blend, EJGE, Vol. 16, pp.
619 627, 2011
13. Willbard N. J. Kassian, Typical Field Application of Consolid in Tanzania, pp. 391
405.

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