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I

KARL MARX
FRIEDRICH ENGELS
GESAMTAUSGABE
(MEGA)
ERSTE ABTEILUNG

WERKE ARTIKEL ENTWRFE

B A N D 13

Herausgegeben vom Institut fr Marxismus-Leninismus

beim Zentralkomitee der

Kommunistischen Partei der Sowjetunion

und vom Institut fr Marxismus-Leninismus

beim Zentralkomitee der

Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands


KARL MARX
FRIEDRICH ENGELS
WERKE ARTIKEL
ENTWRFE
JANUAR BIS DEZEMBER
1854
TEXT

DIETZ VERLAG BERLIN

1985
Redaktionskommission der Gesamtausgabe:
Gnter Heyden und Anatoli Jegorow (Leiter),
Erich Kundel und Alexander Malysch (Sekretre),
Georgi Bagaturija, Rolf Dlubek, Heinrich Gemkow, Lew Golman,
Michail Mtschedlow, Richard Speri

Redaktionskommission der Ersten Abteilung:


Rolf Dlubek (Leiter),
Erich Kundel, Alexander Malysch, Richard Speri, Inge Taubert

Bearbeitung des Bandes:


Manfred Neuhaus (Leiter),
Helmut Findeisen, Karl-Frieder Grube, Giesela Neuhaus und Klaus-Dieter Neumann
Gutachter: Brigitte Rieck, Walentina Smirnowa und Galina Woitenkowa

Text und Apparat


Mit 13 Abbildungen, 9 Karten sowie 3 Kartenskizzen von Friedrich Engels
Dietz Verlag Berlin 1985
Lizenznummer 1
LSV0046
Technische Redaktion: Friedrich Hackenberger, Heinz Ruschinski
und Waltraud Schulze
Korrektur: Hanna Behrendt, Marlies Fischer und Jutta Knopp
Einband: Albert Kapr
Typografie: Albert Kapr/Horst Kinkel
Schrift: Times-Antiqua und Maxima
Printed in the German Democratic Republic
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Betrieb der ausgezeichneten Qualittsarbeit
Papierherstellung: VEB Druck- und Spezialpapiere Golzern
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13500
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Einleitung 13*

Editorische H i n w e i s e 41 "

Verzeichnis d e r Abkrzungen, Siglen und Z e i c h e n 625

KARL MARX FRIEDRICH ENGELS: ARTIKEL


ENTWRFE JANUAR BIS DEZEMBER 1 8 5 4

Friedrich Engels T h e European W a r 3 657

Karl Marx T h e W e s t e r n P o w e r s and T u r k e y 8 661

Karl Marx T h e W a r in t h e East 18 668

Friedrich Engels T h e Last Battle in Europe 27 675

Karl Marx T h e Fighting in t h e EastFinances of Austria and


FranceFortification of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e 30 677

Karl Marx T h e C z a r ' s ViewsPrince Albert 35 680

Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels Fortification of Constanti-


nopleDenmark's NeutralityComposition of British Parlia-
mentCrop Failure in Europe 39 683

Karl Marx C o u n t Orlov's MissionRussian Finances during


the War 46 688

Karl Marx Blue BooksParliamentary D e b a t e s on Febru-


ary 6Count Orlov's MissionOperations of t h e Allied Fleet
T h e Irish BrigadeConcerning t h e C o n v o c a t i o n of t h e Labour
Parliament 50 692

5*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Karl Marx Russian DiplomacyThe Blue Book on t h e
Eastern Q u e s t i o n M o n t e n e g r o 56 699

Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels T h e W a r Q u e s t i o n in Europe 63 703

Karl Marx Declaration of t h e Prussian CabinetNapoleon's

PlansPrussia's Policy 67 705

Karl Marx D e b a t e s in Parliament 69 706

Karl Marx Parliamentary D e b a t e s of February 22Pozzo di


Borgo's DispatchThe Policy of t h e W e s t e r n P o w e r s 81 713
Karl Marx English and French W a r PlansGreek Insur-
rectionSpainChina 88 717
Karl Marx Austrian Bankruptcy 94 723

Karl Marx O p e n i n g of t h e Labour ParliamentEnglish W a r


Budget 100 728

Karl Marx Letter to t h e Labour Parliament 107 731

Karl Marx T h e Labour Parliament 111 732

Friedrich Engels Retreat of t h e Russians from Kalafat 116 734

Karl Marx T h e G r e e k Insurrection 120 740

Karl Marx T h e D o c u m e n t s on t h e Partition of Turkey 123 742

Karl Marx T h e S e c r e t Diplomatic C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 136 747

Karl Marx Declaration of WarOn t h e History of t h e Eastern

Question 150 752

Friedrich Engels T h e Fortress of Kronstadt 158 756

Karl Marx British FinancesThe T r o u b l e s at Preston 168 765

Friedrich Engels T h e Russian Army 173 769

Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels T h e European W a r 178 772

Karl Marx T h e W a r D e b a t e in Parliament 181 775

Karl Marx Russia and t h e G e r m a n P o w e r s - C o r n Prices 192 780

Friedrich Engels Position of t h e Armies in Turkey 198 785

Karl Marx Reshid Pasha's NoteAn Italian N e w s p a p e r on


t h e Eastern Q u e s t i o n 202 787
Karl Marx G r e e c e and TurkeyTurkey and t h e W e s t e r n
PowersFalling off in W h e a t Sales in England 207 794

6*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Friedrich Engels T h e Turkish W a r 211 796

Karl Marx T h e G r e e k InsurrectionThe Polish Emigra-


tionThe Austro-Prussian TreatyRussian D o c u m e n t s 214 798

Karl Marx T h e B o m b a r d m e n t of O d e s s a G r e e c e - P r o c l a -
mation of Prince Daniel of MontenegroManteuffel's S p e e c h 221 806

Friedrich Engels N e w s from t h e European C o n t e s t 228 814

Karl Marx British Finances 230 816

Friedrich Engels A Famous Victory 237 822

Karl Marx Attack upon SevastopolClearing of Estates in

Scotland 241 827

Friedrich Engels T h e W a r 246 829

Friedrich Engels T h e P r e s e n t Condition of t h e English


ArmyTactics, Uniform, C o m m i s s a r i a t , e t c . 253 833
Friedrich Engels Ships and Forts 259 836

Karl Marx T h e Treaty b e t w e e n Austria and PrussiaParlia-


m e n t a r y D e b a t e s of May 29 264 840

Karl Marx T h e Formation of a Special Ministry of W a r in


BritainThe W a r on t h e DanubeThe Economic Situation 269 843

Karl Marx Reorganisation of t h e British W a r Administra-


tionThe Austrian SummonsBritain's Economic Situation
St. Arnaud 275 846

Friedrich Engels T h e Siege of Silistria 281 851

Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels State of t h e Russian W a r 290 856

Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels T h e Russian R e t r e a t 296 860

Karl Marx T h e W a r - D e b a t e in Parliament 300 862

Karl Marx T h e Insurrection at MadridThe Austro-Turkish


T r e a t y - M o l d a v i a and Wallachia 308 866

Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels T h e W a r on t h e D a n u b e 316 871

Karl Marx T h e Details of t h e Insurrection at MadridThe


Austro-Prussian SummonsThe N e w Austrian LoanWalla-
chia 321 874

Karl Marx Excitement in ItalyThe Events in SpainThe


Position of t h e G e r m a n StatesBritish M a g i s t r a t e s 329 881

7*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Karl Marx A C o n g r e s s at ViennaThe Austrian LoanProc-
lamations of Dulce and O'DonnellThe Ministerial Crisis in
Britain 342 886

Karl Marx T h e Spanish RevolutionGreece and T u r k e y 348 891

Karl Marx T h e W a r D e b a t e s in Parliament 354 896

Karl Marx T h e Policy of AustriaThe W a r D e b a t e s in t h e

H o u s e of C o m m o n s 361 899

Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels T h a t Bore of a W a r 370 903

Karl Marx Espartero 375 906

Friedrich Engels T h e Attack on t h e Russian Forts 381 910

Karl Marx Evacuation of t h e Danubian PrincipalitiesThe


Events in SpainA N e w Danish ConstitutionThe C h a r t i s t s 383 912
Karl Marx Evacuation of Moldavia and WallachiaPoland-
D e m a n d s of t h e Spanish People 390 916

Karl Marx T h e Eastern QuestionThe Revolution in Spain


T h e Madrid Press 396 920

Karl Marx Revolution in SpainBomarsund 403 928

Friedrich Engels T h e C a p t u r e of Bomarsund (First Article) 408 932

Friedrich Engels T h e C a p t u r e of Bomarsund (Second Article) 412 935


Karl Marx Revolutionary Spain 416 938
First Article 416
S e c o n d Article 422
Third Article 427
Fourth Article 431
Fifth Article 436
Sixth Article 439
S e v e n t h Article 448
Eighth Article 452
Ninth Article 458

Karl Marx Centraljunta (Draft) 466 962

Karl Marx Spain-Intervention (Draft) 473 969

Karl Marx T h e Reaction in Spain 476 979

Karl Marx P r o g r e s s of t h e War. S e p t e m b e r 8 , 1 8 5 4 482 983

Karl Marx T h e Rumours a b o u t Mazzini's ArrestThe Austrian


C o m p u l s o r y LoanSpainThe Situation in Wallachia 490 986

8*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Karl Marx T h e Actions of t h e Allied FleetThe Situation in
t h e Danubian PrincipalitiesSpainBritish Foreign T r a d e 495 989

Friedrich Engels T h e Attack on Sevastopol 503 993

Friedrich Engels T h e N e w s from t h e C r i m e a 509 997

Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels T h e Sevastopol Hoax 514 1000

Karl Marx/ Friedrich Engels T h e Sevastopol HoaxGeneral


News 518 1003

Friedrich Engels T h e Battle of t h e Alma 522 1007

Friedrich Engels T h e Military P o w e r of Russia 527 1012

Friedrich Engels T h e S i e g e of Sevastopol 533 1016

Friedrich Engels T h e C a m p a i g n in t h e C r i m e a 537 1019

Friedrich Engels T h e W a r in t h e East 544 1022

Friedrich Engels T h e Battle of Inkerman 551 1029

Friedrich Engels T h e C r i m e a n C a m p a i g n 556 1034

Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels P r o g r e s s of t h e W a r . D e c e m b e r


1 4 / 1 5 , 1854 562 1039

Friedrich Engels T h e Military P o w e r of Austria 568 1042

ANHANG

Dubiosa 575 1047

The War 577 1049

T h e English Middle Class (First Article) 579 1051

T h e English Middle Class (Second Article) 583 1054

Artikel, d i e mit Hilfe v o n M a r x und E n g e l s v e r f a t


wurden 585 1057

Wilhelm Pieper T h e C o b u r g s 587 1059

Ernest Jones Different F e a t u r e s of Popular Feeling 589 1061

Ernest Jones Discoveries M a d e T o o Late 592 1063

9*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Von M a r x und Engels m i t u n t e r z e i c h n e t e D o k u m e n t e 597 1065

P r o g r a m m e of t h e Labour Parliament 599 1067

Verzeichnis nicht b e r l i e f e r t e r Arbeiten 1069

REGISTER

Literaturregister 1075
I. A r b e i t e n von Marx und Engels 1075
II. Arbeiten a n d e r e r Autoren 1077
III. Periodica 1118

Namenregister 1124

G e o g r a p h i s c h e s Register 1168

Sachregister 1184

Verzeichnis der Abbildungen

The People's Paper. London. Nr. 98, 18. Mrz 1854. Titelseite (Aus-
schnitt) mit Marx' Letter to the Labour Parliament" 109
New-York Weekly Tribune. Nr. 656, 8. April 1854. Titelseite (Aus-
schnitt) mit Marx' Artikel The Documents on the Partition of
Turkey" 125
Friedrich Engels: The Fortress of Kronstadt. Seite 1 159
Kartenskizze von Engels aus seinem Artikel The Fortress of Kron-
stadt". Seite 6 163
The People's Paper. London. Nr. 108, 27. Mai 1854. Titelseite (Aus-
schnitt) mit Engels' Artikel The War" 247
Notizen von Jenny und Karl Marx ber das Absenden einiger
Artikel an die New-York Tribune" im Mai und Juni 1854 261
New-York Semi-Weekly Tribune. Nr.957, 28.Juli 1854. Titelseite
(Ausschnitt) mit Marx' Artikel Excitement in Italy..." 331
Titelseiten (Ausschnitte) von drei Ausgaben derNew-YorkTribune",
in denen Marx' Artikel Excitement in Italy" erschien 335
Karl Marx: Central junta (Draft). Seite 1 467
Karl Marx: Spain-Intervention (Draft). Seite 3 471
Notizen von Marx ber das Absenden einiger Artikel an die New-
York Tribune" im August, September und Oktober 1854 486

10*
Inhalt

Text Apparat
Notizen von Marx ber das Absenden einiger Artikel an die New-
York Tribune" im Oktober und November 1854 529
Kronstat. From the Russian Survey. London 1853 757
Cronstadt in the Baltic with the Fortifications, Batteries & Range
of the Guns 6c. London 1854 761
Town & Harbour of Odessa. London 1854 823
The Town & Harbour of Sevastopol with the Batteries & Approaches.
London 1854 837
Plan der Belagerung von Silistria 1828/1829. Nach: [Helmut Karl
Bernhard] von Moltke: Der russisch-trkische Feldzug in der euro-
pischen Trkei 1828 und 1829. Berlin 1845 853
Map of the Ottoman Empire, Kingdom of Greece, and the Russian
Provinces on the Black Sea. Nach: The Illustrated London News.
r. 697, 12. August 1854 921
Seite aus Marx' Exzerpten zur spanischen Geschichte 941
Plan of the Battle of the Alma. Nach: The Illustrated London News.
r. 709, 28. Oktober 1854 1009
Kartenskizze von Engels aus seiner Vorarbeit zum Artikel The
Military Power of Russia" 1013
Gefechtsskizze von Engels aus seiner Vorarbeit zum Artikel The
War in the East" 1023
Seite aus Engels' Vorarbeit zum Artikel The War in the East" 1027
The Environs of Sevastopol with the Batteries & Approaches. London
1854 1 031

Sebastopol and Balaklava. Shewing the Position of the Allied Forces.


Nach: The Illustrated London News. Nr.716, 9. Dezember 1854 1 037

11*
KARL M A R X

FRIEDRICH ENGELS

W E R K E ARTIKEL E N T W R F E

J A N U A R BIS D E Z E M B E R

1854
Friedrich Engels
The European War

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 3992, 2. Februar 1854

The European War.


At last, the long-pending question of T u r k e y a p p e a r s to h a v e r e a c h e d a stage
w h e r e diplomacy will n o t m u c h longer be able to monopolize t h e g r o u n d for
its ever-shifting, ever-cowardly, and ever-resultless m o v e m e n t s . T h e F r e n c h
5 and British fleets h a v e entered t h e B l a c k S e a in order to p r e v e n t t h e R u s s i a n
N a v y from doing h a r m either to t h e T u r k i s h fleet or the T u r k i s h coast. T h e
C z a r Nicholas long since declared t h a t s u c h a step would b e , for him, t h e
signal for a declaration of w a r . Will he n o w stand it quietly?
It is n o t to. be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e c o m b i n e d fleets will at o n c e attack and
10 d e s t r o y either t h e R u s s i a n s q u a d r o n or t h e fortifications a n d n a v y - y a r d s of
Sevastopol. O n t h e contrary, w e m a y r e s t a s s u r e d t h a t the instructions w h i c h
diplomacy has p r o v i d e d for t h e t w o admirals are so contrived as to e v a d e ,
as m u c h as possible, t h e c h a n c e of a collision. B u t naval and military m o v e -
m e n t s , o n c e o r d e r e d , are subject n o t to t h e desires a n d plans of diplomacy,
15 b u t to laws of their o w n w h i c h c a n n o t be violated without endangering the
safety of t h e whole expedition. D i p l o m a c y n e v e r intended t h e R u s s i a n s to
be b e a t e n at Oltenitza; b u t a little latitude o n c e given to O m e r P a s h a , and
military m o v e m e n t s o n c e begun, t h e action of t h e t w o hostile c o m m a n d e r s
w a s carried on in a sphere w h i c h w a s to a great e x t e n t uncontrollable by the
20 E m b a s s a d o r s at Constantinople. T h u s , t h e fleets o n c e r e m o v e d from their
moorings in the Beicos r o a d s , t h e r e is no telling h o w s o o n t h e y m a y find
t h e m s e l v e s in a position from which L o r d A b e r d e e n ' s prayers for p e a c e , or
L o r d P a l m e r s t o n ' s collusion with R u s s i a c a n n o t d r a w them, and w h e r e t h e y
will h a v e to c h o o s e b e t w e e n an infamous r e t r e a t or a resolute struggle. A
25 n a r r o w land-locked sea like the E u x i n e , w h e r e the opposing navies can
hardly contrive to get out of sight of e a c h other, is precisely the locality in
w h i c h conflicts u n d e r such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , m a y b e c o m e n e c e s s a r y almost
daily. A n d it is n o t to be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e C z a r will allow, without opposition,
his fleet to be b l o c k a d e d in Sevastopol.

3
Friedrich Engels

If, t h e n , a E u r o p e a n w a r is to follow from this step, it will be in all likelihood


a w a r b e t w e e n Russia on one h a n d , a n d England, F r a n c e a n d T u r k e y on t h e
o t h e r . T h e e v e n t is p r o b a b l e e n o u g h to w a r r a n t us in comparing the c h a n c e s
of s u c c e s s and striking t h e b a l a n c e of active strength on e a c h side, so far
as w e c a n d o so. 5
B u t will Russia stand alone? W h a t p a r t will Austria, P r u s s i a and the
G e r m a n and Italian S t a t e s , their d e p e n d a n t s , t a k e in a general w a r ? It is
r e p o r t e d that L o u i s B o n a p a r t e has notified the A u s t r i a n G o v e r n m e n t t h a t
if in c a s e of a conflict with Russia, Austria should side with t h a t p o w e r , the
F r e n c h G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d avail itself of t h e elements of insurrection w h i c h 10
in Italy a n d H u n g a r y only require a spark to be kindled again into a raging
fire, and that t h e n t h e restoration of Italian a n d H u n g a r i a n nationality w o u l d
be a t t e m p t e d by F r a n c e . S u c h a threat m a y h a v e its effect u p o n A u s t r i a ; it
m a y c o n t r i b u t e to k e e p h e r neutral as long as possible, b u t it is not to be
e x p e c t e d t h a t Austria will long be enabled to k e e p aloof f r o m s u c h a struggle, 15
should it c o m e to p a s s . T h e v e r y fact of the t h r e a t having b e e n u t t e r e d , m a y
call forth partial insurrectionary m o v e m e n t s in Italy, w h i c h could n o t b u t
m a k e A u s t r i a a still m o r e d e p e n d a n t and still m o r e subservient vassal of
Russia. A n d t h e n , after all, h a s not this N a p o l e o n i c g a m e b e e n played o n c e
a l r e a d y ? Is it to be e x p e c t e d t h a t the m a n w h o r e s t o r e d the P o p e to his 20
t e m p o r a l t h r o n e , and w h o h a s a candidate c u t and dried for the Neapolitan
m o n a r c h y , will give to the Italians w h a t t h e y w a n t as m u c h as i n d e p e n d e n c e
from A u s t r i a unity? Is it to be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e Italian people will r u s h
headlong into such a snare? No d o u b t t h e y are sorely o p p r e s s e d by A u s t r i a n
rule, b u t t h e y will n o t be v e r y anxious to contribute to t h e glory of an E m p i r e , 25
w h i c h is already tottering in its native soil of F r a n c e , a n d of a m a n w h o w a s
t h e first t o c o m b a t their o w n revolution. T h e Austrian G o v e r n m e n t k n o w s
all this, and therefore we m a y a s s u m e that it will be m o r e influenced by its
o w n financial e m b a r r a s s m e n t s t h a n b y t h e s e Bonapartistic t h r e a t s ; w e m a y
also be certain t h a t at t h e decisive m o m e n t , t h e influence of the Czar will 30
be p a r a m o u n t at Vienna, a n d will entangle A u s t r i a on t h e side of Russia.
P r u s s i a is attempting t h e same game w h i c h she p l a y e d in 1780,1800 and
1805. H e r plan is to form a league of neutral Baltic, or N o r t h G e r m a n S t a t e s ,
at t h e h e a d of w h i c h she c a n perform a p a r t of s o m e i m p o r t a n c e , a n d t u r n
to w h i c h e v e r side offers her t h e greatest a d v a n t a g e s . T h e almost comical 35
uniformity with w h i c h all these attempts h a v e e n d e d by throwing t h e greedy,
vacillating a n d pusillanimous Prussian G o v e r n m e n t into t h e a r m s of Russia,
belongs to history. It is n o t be e x p e c t e d that P r u s s i a will n o w e s c a p e her
habitual fate. S h e will p u t out feelers in every direction, offer herself at public
auction, intrigue in b o t h c a m p s , swallow camels and strain at g n a t s , lose 40
w h a t e v e r c h a r a c t e r m a y p e r c h a n c e y e t be left to her, get b e a t e n , a n d at last

4
The European War

b e k n o c k e d d o w n t o t h e l o w e s t bidder, w h o , i n this a n d i n e v e r y o t h e r
instance, will be Russia. S h e will n o t be an ally, b u t an i n c u m b r a n c e to
Russia, for she will t a k e c a r e to h a v e h e r a r m y d e s t r o y e d b e f o r e h a n d , for
h e r o w n a c c o u n t a n d gratification.
5 Until at least o n e of the G e r m a n P o w e r s is involved in a E u r o p e a n w a r ,
t h e conflict c a n only rage in T u r k e y , on t h e B l a c k S e a and in t h e Baltic. T h e
naval struggle m u s t , during this period, be the m o s t important. T h a t t h e allied
f l e e t s c a n d e s t r o y Sevastopol a n d t h e R u s s i a n Black S e a fleet; t h a t t h e y c a n
t a k e and hold the Crimea, o c c u p y O d e s s a , close the S e a of Azoff, a n d let
10 loose t h e m o u n t a i n e e r s of t h e C a u c a s u s , t h e r e is no doubt. W i t h rapid and
energetic action nothing is m o r e e a s y . Supposing this to o c c u p y the first
m o n t h of active o p e r a t i o n s , a n o t h e r m o n t h might bring t h e steamers of the
combined fleets to the British C h a n n e l , leaving the sailing vessels to follow;
for t h e T u r k i s h fleet w o u l d t h e n be capable of doing all t h e w o r k w h i c h might
15 be required in t h e B l a c k Sea. To coal in t h e C h a n n e l and m a k e other prepara-
tions, might t a k e another fortnight; a n d t h e n , united to t h e Atlantic and
C h a n n e l fleets of F r a n c e and Britain, t h e y might a p p e a r before the e n d of
M a y in t h e r o a d s of C r o n s t a d t in s u c h a force as to assure t h e s u c c e s s of
an attack. T h e m e a s u r e s to be t a k e n in t h e Baltic are as self-evident as those
20 in t h e Black Sea. T h e y consist in an alliance, at any price, with S w e d e n ; an
act of intimidation against D e n m a r k , if n e c e s s a r y ; an insurrection in Finland,
w h i c h w o u l d b r e a k o u t u p o n landing a sufficient n u m b e r of t r o o p s a n d a
g u a r a n t e e that no p e a c e w o u l d be c o n c l u d e d e x c e p t u p o n t h e condition of
this province being reunited to S w e d e n . T h e t r o o p s landed in Finland w o u l d
25 m e n a c e P e t e r s b u r g , while t h e fleets should b o m b a r d Cronstadt. This place
is certainly v e r y strong by its position. T h e c h a n n e l of d e e p w a t e r leading
up to the r o a d s will hardly admit of t w o men-of-war a b r e a s t presenting their
b r o a d s i d e s t o the batteries, w h i c h are established n o t only o n the main island,
b u t on smaller r o c k s , b a n k s a n d islands a b o u t it. A certain sacrifice, n o t only
30 of m e n , b u t of ships, is unavoidable. B u t if this be t a k e n into a c c o u n t in the
v e r y plan of t h e attack, if it be o n c e resolved t h a t s u c h a n d s u c h a ship m u s t
be sacrificed, a n d if t h e plan be carried out vigorously a n d unflinchingly,
C r o n s t a d t m u s t fall. T h e m a s o n r y of its b a t t l e m e n t s c a n n o t for a n y length
of time withstand t h e c o n c e n t r a t e d fire of h e a v y Paixhans guns, t h a t m o s t
35 destructive of all a r m s w h e n e m p l o y e d against stone walls. L a r g e screw-
s t e a m e r s , with a full c o m p l e m e n t of s u c h guns amidships, would v e r y soon
p r o d u c e an irresistible effect, t h o u g h of c o u r s e t h e y w o u l d in t h e a t t e m p t
risk their o w n existence. B u t w h a t are t h r e e or four screw-ships of t h e line
in c o m p a r i s o n with C r o n s t a d t , the k e y of the R u s s i a n E m p i r e , w h o s e p o s s e s -
40 sion w o u l d leave St. P e t e r s b u r g without defense.
W i t h o u t O d e s s a , C r o n s t a d t , Riga, S e v a s t o p o l , with Finland e m a n c i p a t e d ,

5
Friedrich Engels

a n d a hostile a r m y at the gates of the capital, w i t h all her rivers a n d h a r b o r s


closed u p , w h a t would R u s s i a b e ? A giant without a r m s , w i t h o u t e y e s , with
n o o t h e r r e s o u r c e t h a n trying t o c r u s h h e r o p p o n e n t s u n d e r t h e weight o f h e r
c l u m s y t o r s o , t h r o w n h e r e and t h e r e at r a n d o m w h e r e v e r a hostile battle-cry
w a s h e a r d . If the maritime p o w e r s of E u r o p e should act t h u s resolutely a n d 5
vigorously, t h e n P r u s s i a and A u s t r i a might so far be relieved from the control
of R u s s i a t h a t t h e y might e v e n join t h e allies. F o r b o t h t h e G e r m a n p o w e r s ,
if secure at h o m e , w o u l d be r e a d y to profit by t h e e m b a r r a s s m e n t s of Russia.
B u t i t i s n o t t o b e e x p e c t e d that L o r d A b e r d e e n a n d M . D r o u y n d e L ' H u y s
should a t t e m p t s u c h energetic steps. T h e p o w e r s t h a t be are n o t for striking 10
their b l o w s home, and if a general w a r b r e a k s out, t h e energy of t h e c o m -
m a n d e r s will be shackled so as to r e n d e r t h e m i n n o c u o u s . If n e v e r t h e l e s s ,
decisive victories occur, care will be t a k e n t h a t it is by m e r e c h a n c e , and t h a t
their c o n s e q u e n c e s are as harmless as possible for t h e e n e m y .
T h e w a r on the Asiatic shore of the Black S e a might at o n c e be p u t an e n d 15
t o b y t h e f l e e t s ; t h a t o n t h e E u r o p e a n side w o u l d g o o n comparatively
u n i n t e r r u p t e d . T h e Russians, b e a t e n o u t of t h e Black Sea, deprived of O d e s s a
a n d Sevastopol, could not c r o s s t h e D a n u b e without g r e a t risk, (except in
t h e direction of Servia, for insurrectionary p u r p o s e s , ) b u t t h e y might v e r y
well hold t h e Principalities, until superior forces a n d t h e risk of large bodies 20
of t r o o p s being landed on their flank and r e a r should drive t h e m o u t of
Wallachia. Moldavia they n e e d n o t e v a c u a t e without a general action, for
flank a n d rear d e m o n s t r a t i o n s w o u l d t h e r e be of little i m p o r t a n c e , as long
as C h o t i n a n d Kishenieff offered t h e m a safe c o m m u n i c a t i o n with Russia.
B u t as long as t h e w a r is confined to the W e s t e r n P o w e r s and T u r k e y on 25
t h e o n e h a n d , a n d R u s s i a on t h e other, it will not be a E u r o p e a n w a r s u c h
as we h a v e seen since 1792. H o w e v e r , let it o n c e c o m m e n c e , and the in-
dolence of the W e s t e r n P o w e r s , and t h e activity of R u s s i a will s o o n c o m p e l
A u s t r i a and Prussia to decide for the A u t o c r a t . P r u s s i a will p r o b a b l y be of
no great a c c o u n t , as it is m o r e t h a n likely t h a t h e r a r m y , w h a t e v e r its capaci- 30
ties m a y b e , will b e w a s t e d b y p r e s u m p t i o n a t s o m e second J e n a . Austria,
notwithstanding h e r b a n k r u p t condition, notwithstanding t h e insurrections
t h a t m a y o c c u r in Italy and H u n g a r y , will be no contemptible o p p o n e n t . R u s -
sia herself obliged to k e e p up h e r a r m y in t h e Principalities, a n d on t h e Cau-
casian frontier, to o c c u p y Poland, to h a v e an a r m y for the defense of the 35
Baltic coast, a n d especially of St. P e t e r s b u r g a n d Finland, will h a v e v e r y few
t r o o p s to spare for offensive o p e r a t i o n s . If Austria, R u s s i a a n d Prussia, (al-
w a y s supposing t h e latter not y e t p u t to rout,) c a n m u s t e r five or six h u n d r e d
t h o u s a n d m e n o n t h e Rhine and the A l p s , i t will b e m o r e t h a n c a n b e r e a s o n -
ably e x p e c t e d . A n d for five h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d allies, t h e F r e n c h alone are a 40
m a t c h , supposing t h e m to be led by Generals n o t inferior to t h o s e of their

6
The European War

o p p o n e n t s , a m o n g w h o m the A u s t r i a n s alone p o s s e s s c o m m a n d e r s w o r t h y o f
the n a m e . T h e R u s s i a n Generals are n o t formidable, a n d a s t o the P r u s s i a n s ,
t h e y h a v e no Generals at all; their officers are hereditary subalterns.
B u t we m u s t n o t forget t h a t t h e r e is a sixth p o w e r in E u r o p e , w h i c h at given
5 m o m e n t s asserts its s u p r e m a c y over t h e w h o l e of t h e five so-called " g r e a t "
p o w e r s and m a k e s t h e m t r e m b l e , e v e r y o n e of t h e m . T h a t p o w e r is the
Revolution. L o n g silent and retired, it is n o w again called to action by t h e
commercial crisis, and by t h e scarcity of food. F r o m M a n c h e s t e r to R o m e ,
from Paris to W a r s a w a n d P e s t h , it is omnipresent, lifting up its h e a d a n d
10 awaking from its slumbers. Manifold are t h e s y m p t o m s of its returning life,
e v e r y w h e r e visible in t h e agitation a n d disquietude w h i c h h a v e seized t h e
proletarian class. A signal only is w a n t e d , and this sixth and greatest E u -
r o p e a n p o w e r will c o m e forward, in shining armor, a n d sword in h a n d , like
M i n e r v a from the h e a d of t h e Olympian. This signal the impending E u r o p e a n
15 w a r will give, a n d t h e n all calculations as to t h e b a l a n c e of p o w e r will be u p s e t
by t h e addition of a n e w element w h i c h , e v e r b u o y a n t and youthful, will as
m u c h baffle the plans of t h e old E u r o p e a n p o w e r s , a n d their Generals, as
it did from 1792 to 1800.

7
Karl Marx
The Western Powers and Turkey

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 3988, 28. Januar 1854
From Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , T u e s d a y , J a n . 10, 1854.

T h e charge against Mr. S z e m e r e of having revealed the place w h e r e the


H u n g a r i a n c r o w n w a s concealed, w a s first b r o u g h t f o r w a r d b y t h e V i e n n a
Soldatenfreund, the a v o w e d organ of the Austrian police, and this single fact 5
should h a v e sufficed to p r o v e t h e falsehood of t h e accusation. T h e police
is n o t u s e d to gratuitously d e n o u n c e its o w n accomplices, while it is o n e of
its habitual tricks to t h r o w suspicion on t h e innocent, in o r d e r to c o v e r t h e
culpable. A m a n of t h e standing and the influence of M r . S z e m e r e w o u l d be
t h e v e r y last to be spontaneously sacrificed by t h e A u s t r i a n police, h a d t h e y 10
b e e n able to secure his cooperation. If the secret w a s n o t b e t r a y e d by t h e
indiscretion of o n e of t h e agents of Mr. Kossutha c a s e by no m e a n s im-
probableI c a n n o t b u t suspect the C o u n t K . B a t t h y a n y , n o w resident a t
Paris, of having b e e n t h e traitor. He w a s o n e of t h e v e r y f e w p e r s o n s initiated
into the secret of the place w h e r e the regalia w e r e hidden, and he is the only 15
m a n a m o n g t h e m w h o has applied to the V i e n n a C o u r t for an amnesty. This
last fact I h a v e r e a s o n to s u p p o s e , he will n o t d e n y .
L o r d H a r d i n g e , t h e British Commander-in-Chief, h a s b e e n prevailed u p o n
to w i t h d r a w his resignation. As to t h e D u k e of Norfolk, we are informed by
t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n t of The Dublin Evening Mail, t h a t "a bit of p a l a c e gossip 20
h a s got w i n d . A certain noble D u k e , w h o holds an office at court, in com-
mendam, with t h e highest hereditary feudal dignity in t h e S t a t e , m a d e a little
t o o free, it is said, with t h e c h a m p a g n e at t h e royal table, t h e result of w h i c h
w a s the loss of his m o s t noble equilibrium in t h e dining-room, and the in-
v o l v e m e n t of Majesty itself in t h e c a t a s t r o p h e . T h e c o n s e q u e n c e of this 25
annoying contretemps h a s b e e n the resignation of the noble D u k e and the
a p p o i n t m e n t of E a r l S p e n c e r as L o r d H i g h S t e w a r d of h e r M a j e s t y ' s
Household."
M r . Sadleir, t h e b r o k e r of the Irish brigade, h a s again t e n d e r e d his resigna-

8
The Western Powers and Turkey

tion of his ministerial post, w h i c h h a s this t i m e b e e n a c c e p t e d by L o r d


A b e r d e e n . This position h a s b e c o m e u n t e n a b l e after the public disclosures
m a d e before an Irish c o u r t of law as to t h e scandalous m e a n s by w h i c h he
h a d contrived to get into Parliament. T h e control of t h e Cabinet of all t h e
5 T a l e n t s over t h e Irish brigade will n o t be strengthened by this u n t o w a r d
event. T h e bread-riots w h i c h o c c u r r e d o n F r i d a y and S a t u r d a y a t C r e d i t t o n ,
D e v o n s h i r e , w e r e a sort of popular a n s w e r to t h e glowing descriptions of
prosperity w h i c h t h e ministerial and free t r a d e p a p e r s thought fit to a m u s e
their r e a d e r s with at t h e obsequies of t h e y e a r 1853.
10 T h e Patrie states from T r e b i z o n d t h a t t h e R u s s i a n " C h a r g d'Affaires at
T e h e r a n , having d e m a n d e d t h e dismissal of t w o of t h e most popular Minis-
ters of the S h a h of Persia, the p e o p l e b e c a m e excited, and the C o m m a n d e r
of t h e G u a r d said he would n o t a n s w e r for public tranquillity if this d e m a n d
w e r e complied with. A c c o r d i n g to this a c c o u n t , it w a s the dread of an e x -
15 plosion from t h e dislike of t h e people for R u s s i a t h a t i n d u c e d t h e S h a h to
r e n e w his relations with the Charg d'Affaires of E n g l a n d . "
To the huge m a s s of diplomatic p a p e r s , c o m m u n i c a t e d to the public, are
n o w a d d e d a Note of the Four Powers d a t e d t h e 12th of D e c e m b e r a n d jointly
a d d r e s s e d b y their respective E m b a s s a d o r s a t Constantinople t o t h e P o r t e ,
20 a n d a n e w circular of Mr. D r o u y n de T H u y s to t h e F r e n c h diplomatic agents,
dated Paris, D e c . 30. O n perusing t h e n o t e o f the F o u r P o w e r s , w e u n d e r s t a n d
t h e e x t r e m e agitation which prevailed at Constantinople after t h e a c c e p t a n c e
o f the N o t e b y t h e P o r t e b e c a m e k n o w n , t h e insurrectionary m o v e m e n t
occurring on the 21st., and t h e necessity t h e T u r k i s h Ministry w a s placed
25 in, solemnly to proclaim that t h e o p e r a t i o n s of the w a r w o u l d not be inter-
r u p t e d nor interfered with by t h e r e n e w e d p e a c e negotiations. Just nine d a y s
after the intelligence of the t r e a c h e r o u s and c o w a r d l y b u t c h e r y at Sinope
h a d r e a c h e d Constantinople and a r o u s e d t h r o u g h o u t the O t t o m a n E m p i r e
o n e t r e m e n d o u s cry for r e v e n g e , the F o u r P o w e r s coolly invite, and t h e
30 E m b a s s a d o r s of G r e a t Britain a n d F r a n c e force t h e P o r t e to enter into
negotiations with t h e C z a r , t h e b a s e of w h i c h is t h a t all t h e ancient treaties
shall be renewed; t h a t t h e firmans relative to t h e spiritual privileges o c t r o y e d
by the Sultan to his Christian subjects, shall be a c c o m p a n i e d by n e w assur-
a n c e s given to e a c h of t h e s e p o w e r s , c o n s e q u e n t l y to t h e C z a r ; t h a t t h e P o r t e
35 shall n a m e a plenipotentiary to establish an armistice: t h a t it shall allow
R u s s i a to e r e c t a c h u r c h and a hospital at J e r u s a l e m a n d pledge itself to the
P o w e r s , consequently to the Czar, to ameliorate its internal administrative
system. T h e P o r t e shall n o t only n o t receive any indemnity at all for t h e h e a v y
losses it has u n d e r g o n e c o n s e q u e n t on t h e piratical acts of the M u s c o v i t e ;
40 all t h e chains in w h i c h R u s s i a h a s m a d e T u r k e y d a n c e for a quarter of a
c e n t u r y , shall n o t only be forged a n e w , b u t the prisoner shall be k e p t closer

9
Karl Marx

t h a n b e f o r e ; t h e P o r t e shall lay itself at t h e m e r c y of t h e A u t o c r a t by giving


him humble a s s u r a n c e s with regard to t h e firmans relative to the spiritual
privileges of its Christian subjects, and pledging itself to h i m with regard to
its internal administrative s y s t e m ; t h u s surrendering at o n c e the religious
p r o t e c t o r a t e a n d t h e dictation over its civil g o v e r n m e n t to t h e Czar. In 5
c o m p e n s a t i o n for such a surrender the P o r t e receives t h e p r o m i s e of " t h e
m o s t speedy evacuation possible of t h e Principalities," t h e invasion of w h i c h
L o r d Clanricarde declared to be " a n act of p i r a c y , " a n d t h e a s s u r a n c e that
t h e p r e a m b l e of the treaty of July 13,1841 w h i c h h a s p r o v e d so t r u s t w o r t h y
a safeguard against Russia shall be formally confirmed. 10
Although the unfathomable abjectness of t h e s e pitiful " P o w e r s " r e a c h e d
its highest possible pitch in frightening, s o m e d a y s after t h e e v e n t of Sinope,
the Porte into a negotiation on s u c h b a s e s , t h e y will n o t get rid of their
e m b a r r a s s m e n t in this sneaking way. T h e Czar h a s g o n e t o o far to suffer e v e n
t h e a p p e a r a n c e of his p r e t e n d e d exclusive p r o t e c t o r a t e over t h e Christian 15
subjects of T u r k e y to be supplanted by a E u r o p e a n o n e , a n d already we are
informed by the V i e n n a c o r r e s p o n d e n t of The Times t h a t " A u s t r i a h a s
d e m a n d e d w h e t h e r t h e Russian Court w o u l d object to a E u r o p e a n protector-
ate o v e r t h e Christians in T u r k e y . T h e reply, in m o s t positive language, w a s
t h a t R u s s i a would permit no other P o w e r to meddle in t h e question of t h e 20
G r e e k C h u r c h . R u s s i a had treaties with t h e P o r t e a n d .would settle t h e
question w i t h h e r a l o n e . " We are also informed by The Standard t h a t
" N i c h o l a s will n o t a c c e p t any proposition n o t p r o c e e d i n g directly from the
T u r k i s h sovereign individually, t h u s rejecting any right of mediation or
interference on the p a r t of the E u r o p e a n Powersan insult to t h o s e P o w e r s 25
w h i c h n o n e c a n regard as u n m e r i t e d . "
T h e only important passage of the circular of M o n s i e u r D r o u y n de l ' H u y s
is t h a t announcing the e n t r a n c e of t h e united s q u a d r o n s into t h e Black Sea,
with a view to " c o m b i n e their m o v e m e n t s in s u c h a m a n n e r as to p r e v e n t
t h e territory or t h e flag of T u r k e y from being t h e object of any fresh attack 30
on t h p a r t of t h e naval forces of R u s s i a . " Non bis in idem. Lamoutarde aprs
la viande. The Morning Chronicle of y e s t e r d a y p u b l i s h e d a telegraphic dis-
p a t c h from its c o r r e s p o n d e n t at Constantinople, d a t e d t h e 30th, stating t h a t
t h e c o m b i n e d fleets h a d entered t h e Black Sea. " T h e fleets m a y enter t h e
B l a c k S e a , " says The Daily News, " o n l y to do w h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n doing 35
in t h e Bosphorusnothing." According to The Press, " O r d e r s h a v e already
b e e n sent o u t for o n e ship from the English a n d o n e from t h e F r e n c h fleet
to enter t h e Black Sea, a n d u n d e r flag of truce to enter Sevastopol. W h e n
t h e r e t h e y are to inform the Russian Admiral t h a t if he leaves the p o r t of
S e v a s t o p o l he will be immediately fired i n t o . " Although t h e R u s s i a n fleet, 40
at this n o t v e r y propitious season, and after their glorious exploit at Sinope,

10
The Western Powers and Turkey

h a v e nothing w h a t e v e r to call t h e m out into t h e Black Sea, t h e Czar will n o t


allow England and F r a n c e to exclude him, e v e n temporarily, from w a t e r s
from which he h a s s u c c e e d e d in excluding t h e m e v e r since 1833. His prestige
w o u l d be gone w e r e he n o t to a n s w e r this c o m m u n i c a t i o n by a declaration
5 of war. "A declaration of w a r of R u s s i a against F r a n c e and E n g l a n d , " says
t h e Neue Preussische Zeitung, " i s m o r e p r o b a b l e t h a n a speedy p e a c e b e -
t w e e n Russia and T u r k e y . "
At N e w r y (Ulster), a great meeting w a s held for the p u r p o s e of taking into
consideration the u n p r o v o k e d aggression of R u s s i a against T u r k e y . I am glad
10 to be enabled, t h r o u g h t h e friendly c o m m u n i c a t i o n from Mr. U r q u h a r t of t h e
N e w r y report, to give y o u r r e a d e r s t h e m o s t r e m a r k a b l e passages of t h a t
gentleman's speech. H a v i n g explained, o n several o c c a s i o n s , m y o w n views
of t h e Oriental question, I n e e d n o t point out t h o s e topics on w h i c h I m u s t
disagree from Mr. U r q u h a r t . L e t me only r e m a r k t h a t his views are confirmed
15 by t h e intelligence t h a t " t h e p e a s a n t s of L e s s e r Wallachia, assisted by t h e
Wallachian soldiery, h a v e r i s e n against t h e R u s s i a n s . T h e whole c o u n t r y i n
t h e environs of Kalefat and along t h e left shore of t h e D a n u b e , is in motion.
T h e R u s s i a n functionaries h a v e e v a c u a t e d T u r m a l . "
After some introductory r e m a r k s M r . U r q u h a r t said:
20 . . . " I n those m a t t e r s w h i c h affect our g r a v e s t interests and intercourse
with foreign States, t h e r e is neither restraint of law, nor guidance of system,
t h e r e is no responsibility to the nation, no penalties for the omission of a n y
duty, or for t h e p e r p e t r a t i o n of any c r i m e ; y o u are entirely destitute of all
Constitutional m e a n s of restraint, b e c a u s e y o u are either k e p t in ignorance
25 or y o u are misinformed. This s y s t e m is, t h e r e f o r e , o n e calculated to p e r v e r t
the nation, to corrupt t h e G o v e r n m e n t and to e n d a n g e r the State. M e a n w h i l e ,
y o u are o p p o s e d to a G o v e r n m e n t , t h e m o s t crafty a n d systematic, t h e most
hostile and u n s c r u p u l o u s , and w h i c h h a s w o r k e d its w a y t o t h a t p r e e m i n e n c e
of p o w e r by which it t h r e a t e n s t h e world, t h r o u g h the u s e which it h a s b e e n
30 enabled to m a k e of the v e r y G o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h it labors to overthrowand
t h e r e is this peculiarity in our condition, as t h e r e w a s formerly in t h a t of
Athensthat R u s s i a has found or formed t h e chief instruments of her great-
n e s s in t h e b r e a s t of t h a t S t a t e , w h o s e public councils m o s t o p p o s e d h e r
policy. T h e r e is for this a substantive r e a s o n t h a t England in such m a t t e r s
35 is t h e black spot of ignorance. T h e U n i t e d States has a President, and he
exercises the due prerogatives of r o y a l t y ; t h e r e is a S e n a t e w h i c h controls
the executive, and has prior k n o w l e d g e of its a c t s ; ( h e a r , h e a r and c h e e r s . )
In F r a n c e , t h e r e h a v e b e e n r e p e a t e d l y C o m m i t t e e s of Parliament, to in-
vestigate t h e national transactions, calling for d o c u m e n t s , and bringing
40 b e f o r e t h e m the Foreign Minister for examination. T h e r e , t o o , the nation is
alert, according, at least, to its k n o w l e d g e , a n d so is t h e G o v e r n m e n t ; for

11
Karl Marx

on s u c h m a t t e r s hinge the existence of ministries and of dynasties. In Austria,


t h e r e is at least a m o n a r c h , a n d he h a s k n o w l e d g e of t h e acts of his s e r v a n t s .
In T u r k e y and in Russia, y o u see t h a t in o n e c o u n t r y t h e feeling of the p e o p l e
c o n s t r a i n s t h e G o v e r n m e n t , a n d i n t h e other t h e G o v e r n m e n t r e p r e s e n t s t h e
will of the nation. England alone r e m a i n s w i t h a c r o w n , w i t h o u t authority, 5
w i t h a G o v e r n m e n t without s y s t e m , with a Parliament w i t h o u t control, a n d
a nation without k n o w l e d g e . ( H e a r , H e a r . ) Reverting n o w to the application
of this state of things, to the facts before u s , I h a v e first to tell youand it
is the salient matterthat R u s s i a has no force to effect her t h r e a t s , and t h a t
she h a s calculated merely u p o n t h e facility of terrifying y o u by groundless 10
f e a r s , t h a t she h a s h a d n o p u r p o s e w h a t e v e r o f m a k i n g w a r o n T u r k e y , t h a t
she h a s no m e a n s for doing so, t h a t she h a s n o t e v e n m a d e disposition for
s u c h an object, t h a t she has calculated u p o n y o u restraining T u r k e y , so t h a t
she might o c c u p y her p r o v i n c e s , and calculates further u p o n y o u for forcing
from t h a t State such compliance w i t h insolent d e m a n d s as shall b r e a k up the 15
O t t o m a n E m p i r e . (Hear, hear.) It is by y o u r E m b a s s a d o r in Constantinople
a n d by y o u r s q u a d r o n in the B o s p h o r u s t h a t she is a b o u t to achieve her e n d s .
A n d h e r e I must a d v e r t to a statement m a d e by my gallant friend Colonel
C h e s n e y , and a t t h e same time supply a n omission w h i c h h e has m a d e . H e
stated, t h a t as matters stood before t h e P r u t h w a s c r o s s e d , T u r k e y w a s m o r e 20
t h a n a m a t c h for Russia, b u t he did not give y o u the high estimate he en-
tertains and h a s e x p r e s s e d of t h e military qualities of t h e T u r k s . He stated,
e v e n a t the p r e s e n t m o m e n t , and w i t h all the i m m e n s e a d v a n t a g e s w h i c h y o u
h a v e enabled R u s s i a t o acquire, h e w a s still i n d o u b t w h e t h e r T u r k e y w a s
n o t a m a t c h for Russia. On this point I h a v e n o t the s h a d o w of a doubt, if 25
y o u grant m e t w o conditionsthe first, t h a t y o u r E m b a s s a d o r a n d y o u r
s q u a d r o n are w i t h d r a w n , the second, t h a t T u r k e y r e c o v e r s its emasculating
reliance on foreigners. B u t after t h a t c a m e a n o t h e r statement, doubtingly
indeed m a d e , b u t w h i c h from his high authority, and t h e r e is no higher
authority in t h e s e mattersmay carry an u n d u e weight or b e a r an u n - 30
justifiable interpretation. He said t h a t the m o m e n t might be at p r e s e n t favor-
able for Russia, b e c a u s e the D a n u b e w a s frozen, a n d she might p u s h her
f o r c e s across into Bulgaria. B u t w h a t forces h a s she got to p u s h into Bulgar-
ia? E u r o p e h a s for m a n y m o n t h s given h e e d t o exaggerated s t a t e m e n t s ; w e
h a v e b e e n industriously informed of the v a s t a c c u m u l a t i o n s of her forces 35
p r e p a r e d to c o m e in action. T h e y w e r e currently r a t e d for 150,000 m e n , a n d
t h e people w e r e r e a d y to believe that 150,000 m e n sufficed for the c o n q u e s t
of T u r k e y . I r e c e i v e d some time ago an official s t a t e m e n t w h i c h r e d u c e d to
80,000 m e n , the w h o l e n u m b e r that h a d crossed the P r u t h , of w h i c h b e t w e e n
20,000 or 30,000 h a d already perished by disease or w e r e in hospital. T h e 40
s t a t e m e n t w a s sent b y m e t o o n e o f the n e w s p a p e r s , b u t w a s n o t inserted,

12
The Western Powers and Turkey

being considered incredible. R u s s i a has n o w published her o w n statement,


reducing the entire n u m b e r to 70,000 m e n . (Cheers.) Putting aside t h e n t h e
relative strength of b o t h E m p i r e s , if all their forces w e r e brought up it m u s t
be clear t h a t R u s s i a h a d no intention of making w a r with s u c h an a m o u n t
5 of force as this. N o w w h a t w a s t h e force w h i c h T u r k e y h a d to o p p o s e ? No
less t h a n , at t h e time referred t o , 180,000 m e n b e t w e e n the Balkan and t h e
D a n u b e , n o w increased to 200,000 m e n in strong, fortified positions, with
a Russian force r e d u c e d to 50,000 m e n at t h e outside, a n d t h e s e demoralized
b y defeat a n d infected b y desertion. A s t o t h e qualities o f t h e T u r k i s h t r o o p s
10 and their superiority to the R u s s i a n s , y o u h a v e heard the t e s t i m o n y of
General Bern; y o u h a v e t h e living t e s t i m o n y of Colonel Chesneyconfirmed
b y t h e e v e n t s w h i c h h a v e filled E u r o p e w i t h a s t o n i s h m e n t a n d admiration.
O b s e r v e we are n o t n o w u p o n t h e point of t h e relative p o w e r of t h e t w o
E m p i r e s b u t of t h a t of the intention a n d m o d e of proceeding of t h e one
15 Russia. My argument is t h a t she did n o t p r o p o s e making w a r ; b e c a u s e , on
the o n e hand, she h a d n o t u p o n the spot t h e requisite force, a n d , o n t h e o t h e r ,
t h a t she could r e c k o n on t h e Cabinet of England. R u s s i a h a d no intention
of making warshe has no intention n o w . This is w h a t I h a v e stated b e f o r e
t h e warthat she w o u l d enter and o c c u p y t h e Principalities by t h e aid of
20 England. H o w h a v e I b e e n able to prognosticate? N o t , certainly, by t h e
knowledge of R u s s i a ' s designs, w h i c h t h o u s a n d s k n o w as well or b e t t e r t h a n
m e , b u t by the knowledge of E n g l a n d ' s c h a r a c t e r . B u t let us reconsider t h e
caseit is t o o important to p a s s it over. Colonel C h e s n e y said t h a t the real
question w a s t h e r e s e r v e w h i c h R u s s i a h a d b e h i n d the P r a t h . O f t h a t r e s e r v e
25 he h a d h e a r d lately a great deal. O s t e n S a c k e n , with his 50,000 m e n , w a s on
full m a r c h on the D a n u b e to retrieve the disaster of Oltenitza. N o w , t h e
50,000 m e n dwindled to 18,000, a n d t h e b e s t of all is, that e v e n t h e y h a v e
not arrived. ( L a u g h t e r and cheering.) Taking t h e n Colonel C h e s n e y ' s
n u m b e r , 75,000, r e d u c e d by d e a t h s a n d sickness to 50,000, a n d throwing into
30 t h e s e the 18,000 of ubiquitous r e s e r v e , we shall only h a v e , after all,
70,000 m e n to o p e r a t e against 200,000 strongly e n t r e n c h e d a n d in a m o u n -
tainous region, and at a s e a s o n of t h e y e a r w h e n , h i t h e r t o , t h e Russians h a v e
invariably retired from t h e field. N o w let me recall t h e e v e n t s of the late w a r
in 1828 and '29. T u r k e y w a s t h e n in convulsions. T h e n M u s s u l m a n ' s sword
35 w a s t u r n e d against M u s s u l m a n ' s ; t h e p r o v i n c e s w e r e in revolt, G r e e c e in
insurrection, the old military force annihilated, t h e n e w conscripts scarcely
disciplined, a n d amounting only to 33,000 m e n . T h e c o m m a n d of t h e B l a c k
Sea w r e n c h e d from T u r k e y by British b r o a d s i d e s , delivered in full force in
t h e harbor of N a v a r i n o ; and t h e n it w a s t h a t Russia, b a c k e d by England and
40 F r a n c e , m a d e a spring u p o n T u r k e y and r e a c h e d t h e center of her p r o v i n c e s
b e f o r e she k n e w t h a t w a r w a s declared. A n d h o w m a n y m e n d o y o u think

13
Karl Marx

she t h e n judged i t p r u d e n t t o e m p l o y ? T w o h u n d r e d and sixteen t h o u s e n d .


( C h e e r s . ) A n d y e t it w a s only by deception a n d t h r o u g h t h e influence of t h e
English E m b a s s a d o r , w h o unfortunately h a d r e t u r n e d , t h a t she w a s seduced
to sign t h a t t r e a t y of Adrianople t h a t w a s surprised from her. ( H e a r , h e a r . )
L o o k at T u r k e y n o w , united in h e a r t and feeling, with a heroism inspired at 5
o n c e by t h e love of country and detestation of outrageswith united au-
thority, ample r e s o u r c e s , able to dispose of 300,000 v o l u n t e e r s , of the m o s t
martial c h a r a c t e r to be found on t h e face of t h e earthof 250,000 disciplined
troopsvictorious in Asiawith the c o m m a n d of t h e B l a c k Seanot lost, be
it o b s e r v e d , as I shall presently show, at Sinopewith steam to c o n v e y , 10
w i t h o u t loss of m e n or time, her contingents to t h e scene of action from the
r e m o t e s t p r o v i n c e s of the E m p i r e , from t h e s n o w y hights of the C a u c a s u s
to the arid deserts of Arabia, from the w a s t e s of Africa to the Persian
Gulfone spirit of indignation prevailsof m a n h o o d has b e e n a r o u s e d . ( H e a r
and c h e e r s . ) Y e s , b u t as in the former w a r , a N a v a r i n o b r o u g h t t h e C o s s a c k s 15
a c r o s s t h e Balkan; so n o w m a y t h e screw propellers of Britain, e v e n without
w a r , bring Russian hulks to the Dardanelles. B u t I am speaking of R u s s i a n
intentions, t h a t is t h e point. It is in Downing-st. t h a t this victory is to be
achieved, and n o t i n the E a s t . M e a n w h i l e , are y o u u n s c a t h e d ? I s t h e r e a m a n
b e f o r e me w h o d o e s n o t suffer in s u b s t a n c e ? Is t h e r e o n e the price of w h o s e 20
b r e a d is not e n h a n c e d , w h o s e e m p l o y m e n t , or the e m p l o y m e n t of his capital
is not curtailed? ( H e a r , hear. ) W h o s e t a x e s are n o t i n c r e a s e d ? Is not Change-
alley c o n v u l s e d ? H a v e we n o t seen by this m o v e m e n t of Russian t r o o p s a
d i s t u r b a n c e of t h e m o n e y m a r k e t p r o d u c e d equal to two-thirds of t h a t
e x p e r i e n c e d in 1847and yet R u s s i a has n e v e r intended w a r . H a v e we n o t 25
seen t h e G o v e r n m e n t s of E u r o p e degraded a n d t h e g r o u n d w o r k laid of
insurrections and convulsionsand yet R u s s i a n e v e r intended w a r . H a v e w e
n o t seen the O t t o m a n E m p i r e exhausting itself by an e n o r m o u s military
establishment of half a million of m e n , b e c a u s e R u s s i a has displaced 70,000
t r o o p s to feed at her e x p e n s e a n d at the e x p e n s e of t h e operatives of Great 30
Britain? Andall this b e c a u s e you h a v e believed p e o p l e e a s y of belief t h a t
R u s s i a w a s so strong t h a t she could not be resistedTurkey so w e a k t h a t
she could n o t be supported. Really we live in an age of d r e a m s and of fables;
w e are m e n not t o believe this only, w e are m e n t o believe t h a t R u s s i a i s more
powerful t h a n all t h e p o w e r s of the world b a n d e d against her. The Times 35
m a k e s light of t h e a r m y of M o s l e m s , m a k e s equally light of t h e armies of
F r a n c e a n d the navies of England, and gravely tells us t h a t all E u r o p e and
T u r k e y to b o o t m a y as soon attempt to k e e p t h e R u s s i a n s o u t of Con-
stantinople, as to k e e p the n o r t h winds from blowing a c r o s s the Sarmatian
Plains. A n d t h e argument as regards E u r o p e is j u s t as g o o d as respecting 40
T u r k e y ; yet T u r k e y will fall, if y o u p e r s e v e r e . R u s s i a has displaced

14
The Western Powers and Turkey

70,000 m e n , and in c o n s e q u e n c e T u r k e y is m o v e d with terror and in-


dignationEngland convulsed with fear and panicRussia, t o o , c o n v u l s e d
with shouts of laughter. ( L a u g h t e r a n d prolonged cheering.) I h a v e said I
w o u l d r e v e r t to the affair of Sinope, or as it h a s b e e n justly t e r m e d , t h e little
5 N a v a r i n o . I d o n ' t refer to t h a t ungraceful e v e n t in reference to our conduct
for we h a v e d o n e in this nothing m o r e disgraceful t h a n in the restbut I refer
to it as bearing u p o n t h e relative strength of t h e t w o parties. So considered,
it has a d d e d nothing to R u s s i a ' s p o w e r , and t a k e n nothing from that of
T u r k e y , b u t the r e v e r s e . It has placed in the m o s t unmistakable light the
10 justifiable fears of the R u s s i a n s of T u r k i s h p r o w e s s . H e r e we h a v e seen a
fact without parallel e v e n in our o w n naval annalsfrigates laying t h e m s e l v e s
alongside line-of-battle ships, and c o m m a n d e r s casting the t o r c h into t h e
p o w d e r magazine, and offering t h e m s e l v e s up for h o l o c a u s t on their c o u n -
t r y ' s shrine. W h a t m a y n o t be achieved against a G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h in e v e r y
15 act, a n d especially in this, is t h e object of a b h o r r e n c e and disgust to e v e r y
h u m a n being. O b s e r v e t h a t t h e maritime force of T u r k e y is u n t o u c h e d ; n o t
a line-of-battle ship, n o t a steamer has b e e n sacrificed. N o w she is doubly
insured in the c o m m a n d of t h e Black S e a if the diplomatists are w i t h d r a w n ;
and it is t h e y , a n d t h e y alone, w h o h a v e p r o d u c e d t h e so-called disaster of
20 Sinope. B u t that disaster w a s p r e p a r e d for another e n d ; it w a s as a rod a n d
a goad to urge the lagging b e a s t s of b u r d e n in Paris a n d in L o n d o n , and to
drive t h e m into enforcing t h e t e r m s of settlement u p o n t h e belligerents.
Before I e n t e r e d this meeting, I h e a r d it stated by a gentleman of t h e C o m -
mittee, that it w a s perfectly c o m p e t e n t for E n g l a n d and F r a n c e to interpose
25 b e t w e e n t h e m if t h e y e x p e c t e d by so doing to secure p e a c e . I k n o w t h a t w h a t
he h a s stated is t h e general impression t h r o u g h o u t this land, b u t I did not
t h e less on that a c c o u n t listen to h i m with horror. W h o g a v e y o u t h e right
to go a b o u t the world enforcing p e a c e by a r m s ? It is o n e thing to resist
aggression, it is another thing to c o m m i t it. ( H e a r , h e a r ! ) Y o u c a n n o t inter-
30 p o s e even to save T u r k e y , save by declaring w a r against Russia. Y o u r inter-
position, h o w e v e r , will be for R u s s i a ' s behoof, a n d at h e r dictation, a n d with
the effect of imposing conditions on T u r k e y w h i c h m u s t bring h e r fall . . .
In y o u r negotiations y o u will p r o p o s e to T u r k e y to relieve her from h e r p a s t
treaties with R u s s i a in consideration of a E u r o p e a n settlement. T h i s h a s ,
35 indeed, b e e n already p u t forward, a n d h a s b e e n received with acclamation
by a nation w h i c h h a s acclaims r e a d y for e v e r y perversion. G o o d H e a v e n s !
a E u r o p e a n settlement! T h a t is w h a t T u r k e y has to rely upon. Surely your
treaty of V i e n n a w a s a E u r o p e a n settlement, and w h a t w a s the result? T h a t
settlement w a s important by its establishment of Poland; a n d what befell
40 P o l a n d ? W h e n Poland h a d fallen, w h a t did your Minister tell y o u respecting
t h a t t r e a t y ? W h y , it w a s this: " T h a t it h a d given to England the right to

15
Karl Marx

e x p r e s s an opinion regarding the e v e n t s of P o l a n d . " After going on to state


t h a t h e h a d r e m o n s t r a t e d o n t h e subject b e f o r e t h e event, h e s a y s : " B u t
R u s s i a t o o k another view of the c a s e . " A n d so it will be with your p r e s e n t
settlement; she will t a k e another view of t h e c a s e . ( L o u d c h e e r s . ) T h e s e
w o r d s w e r e stated in the H o u s e of C o m m o n s ; t h e y w e r e uttered by the very 5
Minister (Lord Palmerston) w h o h a s n o w in his h a n d s t h e fate of T u r k e y ,
as he h a d of Poland. B u t n o w you are w a r n e d ; t h e n y o u w e r e u n c o n s c i o u s .
. . . L e t me refer to a piece of intelligence recently published in The Times
n e w s p a p e r . It is t h e r e stated that o u r Minister in Persia had had a difference
with t h e G o v e r n m e n t of t h e S h a h , w h o w a s on t h e point of yielding, w h e n 10
the Minister of Russia interposed to e x a s p e r a t e the quarrel. T h u s t h e r e y o u
h a v e at the o n e and at the s a m e m o m e n t R u s s i a driving England out of Persia,
a n d England imposing Russia on T u r k e y . This s a m e letter mentions that an
e m b a s s y h a d r e a c h e d T e h e r a n ; that t h e Affghans w e r e in t h e greatest state
of ferment, and that D o s t M a h o m e d , the implacable e n e m y of Russia, had 15
m u c h at h e a r t the success of his e m b a s s y w h i c h w a s to m o v e P e r s i a to
s u p p o r t T u r k e y . N o w , y o u will recollect t h a t sixteen y e a r s ago, England
m a d e w a r against t h e Affghans, with t h e p u r p o s e of dethroning D o s t Ma-
h o m e d , b e c a u s e he w a s the e n e m y of England and t h e firm ally of Russia.
N o w , p e r h a p s your G o v e r n m e n t believed this. If it did, it is v e r y strange t h a t 20
i t w a s not u p o n R u s s i a t h e y m a d e war, b u t u p o n t h e Affghans, w h i c h w a s
exactly the c o u r s e to throw t h e m into t h e a r m s of Russia. B u t y o u r G o v e r n -
m e n t entertained no such belief; it t h e n perfectly k n e w t h a t D o s t M a h o m e d ,
as n o w a p p e a r s , was t h e implacable foe of Russia, a n d it was on t h a t v e r y
a c c o u n t that it had attacked him. T h e fact has b e e n established, and in the 25
H o u s e of C o m m o n s it has b e e n t h e r e p r o v e d , t h a t d o c u m e n t s h a d b e e n
absolutely forged representing D o s t M a h o m e d falsely as the ally of Russia.
T h e E n v o y of England himself sent h o m e t h e original for publication.
( S h a m e . ) This is b u t the legitimate result of the secrecy in the G o v e r n m e n t
a n d t h a t ignorance in the nation to which I already referred. T h e r e is n o t a 30
m a n i n this a s s e m b l y u p o n w h o m m y e y e s c a n r e s t , w h o i s not b y sufferance
a participator in this crime, a n d w h o by this indifference to his c o u n t r y ' s acts
and h o n o r is n o t degraded to the position of a slave, while u n d e r the delusion
t h a t he is a freeman. ( H e a r , h e a r . ) May I tell y o u something of w h a t is
thought of y o u by strangers? Y o u h a v e h e a r d recently m u c h of G e r m a n 35
influences at Court. P e r h a p s y o u would like to h e a r something of t h e opinions
of G e r m a n cousins of the Q u e e n ; and let me tell y o u , if G e r m a n y is Russian,
it is E n g l a n d t h a t has made her so. Listen n o w to. t h e s e w o r d s :
"If T u r k e y is not interfered with by England and F r a n c e she will conquer.
If, on the contrary, the W e s t e r n P o w e r s , in their infatuated subservience 40
c a n n o t refrain from 'mediating,' or from meddling w i t h t h e affairs of the E a s t ,

16
The Western Powers and Turkey

T u r k e y is d o o m e d , and universal dominion of the M u s c o v y C o s s a c k s will


soon sway the destinies of this world! Y e t h o w noble has hitherto b e e n t h e
position and attiude of poor T u r k e y , in spite of all diplomatic e m b e z z l e m e n t ,
and though she mistook a b a n d of assassins for her friends. M a t t e r s look,
5 indeed, gloomy! and I h a v e hourly b e e n expecting a b o m b a r d m e n t by t h e
allied fleets of her capital in o r d e r to b e n d her moral heroism to disgraceful
submission. T h e T u r k s m a y truly s a y : 'Longa est injuria, longae ambages,
sed summa sequar fastigia rerum/'What a c o n t r a s t in their p r e s e n t b e h a v i o r
as c o m p a r e d with that of England on similar occasions ! they ' m a k e war'
10 England carries on piracy. Recollect only t h e 'Declaration of L i m a ' and t h e
invasion of Affghanistan, the b o m b a r d m e n t of C o p e n h a g e n and t h e battle
of N a v a r i n o and then think of T u r k e y as it stands there at presentabased
and threatened, e v e n invaded and p r o v o k e d by the 'civilized world;' she
remains amid all her trials, calm and judicious, firm and resolute, b u t se-
15 rene.
Y o u m a y judge by this t h a t there are t h o s e in the loftiest station w h o m a y
sigh in vain for the privilege w h i c h y o u r indulgence affords to me of finding
a v e n t for my indignation, a n d the opportunity of warning of coming e v e n t s .
Suffer me then to tell y o u t h e position in w h i c h y o u stand. Britain p r e s e n t s
20 t w o features, she is an idiot at h o m e , she is a m a n i a c abroad, an armed
m a n i a c , endangering h e r o w n life and the lives of o t h e r s . Y o u are n o t so
individually though y o u are so collectively. A w a k e n t h e n your individual
intelligence and restrain the c o r p o r a t e m a n i a c until y o u have time to treat
the disordered brainthis system from w h i c h all the evil p r o c e e d s . " ( L o u d
25 and long continued c h e e r i n g ) .
I m a y add to Mr. U r q u h a r t ' s s p e e c h t h a t L o r d P a l m e r s t o n ' s last coup
d'clat and the favor of the people b e s t o w e d u p o n him, h a v e m a d e him Prime
Minister in reality, if n o t in n a m e .
Karl M a r x .

17
Karl Marx
The War in the East

The Zuid Africaan.


Kapstadt, 6. Mrz 1854
L o n d o n , J a n u a r y 14, 1854.

At last, this long pending " E a s t e r n Q u e s t i o n " a p p e a r s to h a v e r e a c h e d a step


w h e r e diplomacy will not m u c h longer be enabled to m o n o p o l i z e this ground
for its e v e r shifting a n d e v e r resultless m o v e m e n t s . On t h e 3rd inst. the
F r e n c h a n d British fleets h a v e entered the Black Sea, in o r d e r to p r e v e n t 5
t h e R u s s i a n n a v y from doing h a r m either to the T u r k i s h fleet or t h e T u r k i s h
coast. O n c e b e f o r e the C z a r Nicholas h a s declared t h a t s u c h a step w o u l d
b e , for him, the signal for a declaration of w a r . Will he n o w stand it quietly?
T h e r e is a r e p o r t to-day that the combined F r e n c h a n d English fleets, together
w i t h t h e first division of the T u r k i s h n a v y , are transporting 17,000 T u r k s to 10
B a t o u m . If this be correct, it is as m u c h an act of w a r as if t h e y m a d e a direct
a t t a c k u p o n S e b a s t o p o l , and the Czar c a n n o t b u t declare w a r a t o n c e .
B u t w o u l d Russia stand alone? W h i c h p a r t w o u l d A u s t r i a and Prussia t a k e
in a general w a r ?
It is reported that Louis B o n a p a r t e has notified to t h e A u s t r i a n g o v e r n m e n t 15
t h a t , if in c a s e of a conflict with Russia, A u s t r i a sided w i t h this p o w e r , t h e
F r e n c h G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d avail itself of the e l e m e n t s of insurrection, w h i c h ,
in Italy and Poland, only required a spark to be kindled again into a raging
fire, a n d that t h e n the restoration of Italian and Polish nationality w o u l d be
a t t e m p t e d by F r a n c e . T h e Austrian g o v e r n m e n t , h o w e v e r , we m a y con- 20
fidently a s s u m e , will be m o r e influenced by its o w n financial e m -
b a r r a s s m e n t s t h a n by the threats of B o n a p a r t e .
T h e state of the Austrian E x c h e q u e r m a y be inferred from t h e late aug-
m e n t a t i o n of its depreciated n o t e s a n d from t h e r e c e n t e x p e d i e n t of the
g o v e r n m e n t enacting a discount of 15 pet. u p o n t h e p a p e r m o n e y issued by 25
t h e m s e l v e s . This device, working t h e depreciation of their o w n p a p e r , per-
h a p s carries tax-making ingenuity to its perfection, it is putting a t a x on the
p a y m e n t o f t a x e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e G e r m a n p a p e r s , t h e Austrian b u d g e t for
1854 will show a deficit of 45,000,000 firs, on the ordinary service, and
50,000,000 firs, on the extraordinary. F o r t h e 100th time A u s t r i a is moving 30
t o w a r d s a loan, b u t in a m a n n e r w h i c h p r o m i s e s no s u c c e s s . It is n o w

18
The War in the East

p r o p o s e d to raise a loan of 50,000,000 firs, for t h e m o s t ostensible p u r p o s e


of paying interest d u e and s o m e other pressing d e m a n d s .
W h e n t h e n e w s of t h e intended e n t r a n c e of the united s q u a d r o n into the
Black S e a r e a c h e d Vienna, the m o n e y c h a n g e r s h a d e n o u g h t o d o t o change
5 p a p e r c u r r e n c y for silver coin. P e o p l e with 100 and 200 florins t h r o n g e d to
their counting h o u s e s with a view to secure their endangered t r e a s u r e s .
N e v e r t h e l e s s , on t h e decisive m o m e n t , the influence of St. P e t e r s b u r g at
V i e n n a will be p a r a m o u n t a n d entangle Austria, on the side of Russia, into
t h e coming struggle. As to Prussia she is attempting the same game as in 1780,
10 in 1800 and 1805, to form a league of neutral Baltic or N o r t h e r n G e r m a n
S t a t e s , at the head of w h i c h she might play a p a r t of some i m p o r t a n c e and
t u r n to w h i c h side w a s to offer h e r the greatest a d v a n t a g e s .
T h a t t h e T u r k o - E u r o p e a n f l e e t s c a n d e s t r o y Sebastopol and t h e Russian
Black S e a fleet, t h a t t h e y c a n t a k e p o s s e s s i o n of, and hold the K r y m , o c c u p y
15 Odessa, close t h e sea of Azoff a n d let loose t h e mountaineers of t h e C a u c a -
s u s , t h e r e is no doubt. T h e m e a s u r e s to be t a k e n in the Baltic a r e as self-
evident as t h o s e in t h e Black S e a : an alliance at a n y price with S w e d e n ; an
act of intimidation against D e n m a r k , if n e c e s s a r y ; an insurrection in Finland,
w h i c h would b r e a k o u t u p o n landing a sufficient n u m b e r of t r o o p s , a n d a
20 g u a r a n t e e that no p e a c e w o u l d be c o n c l u d e d e x c e p t u p o n the condition of
this province being re-united to S w e d e n : t h e t r o o p s landed in Finland, to
m e n a c e P e t e r s b u r g while t h e fleet b o m b a r d s C r o n s t a d t .
All will d e p e n d on the maritime p o w e r s of E u r o p e acting resolutely and
vigorously.
25 T h e New Prussian Gazette of t h e 29th ult. confirms t h e a c c o u n t of the
E m p e r o r of R u s s i a having o r d e r e d t h a t all t h e forces in his empire to be
placed on a war-footing. N o t only h a s he w i t h d r a w n his deposits from the
b a n k s of England and F r a n c e , b u t also o r d e r e d v o l u n t a r y collections to be
raised on the p a r t of his nobility, and the railways in progress to be sus-
30 p e n d e d , in order to d e v o t e to w a r all t h e m e n a n d m o n e y required for their
construction.
On the other hand a r m a m e n t s in F r a n c e are going on m o r e actively t h a n
e v e r , t h e s e c o n d m o i e t y of the contingent of 80,000 m e n of t h e class of 1852
having b e e n called out. In F r a n c e , t o o , a loan of 200,000,000 frs. (about
35 8,000,000) has long b e e n c o n t e m p l a t e d , b u t , t h e d e a r t h of food, t h e failure
in t h e w i n e and silk c r o p s , t h e prevailing c o m m e r c i a l a n d industrial distress,
t h e great a p p r e h e n s i o n s entertained a b o u t t h e p a y m e n t s t o b e m a d e a t t h e
e n d of F e b r u a r y , t h e d o w n w a r d t e n d e n c y of t h e funds and railway shares,
all t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t e n d by no m e a n s to facilitate such a transaction.
40 It is the intention of the British g o v e r n m e n t , as we are informed by the
Times, to raise the n u m b e r of s e a m e n a n d marines for the c u r r e n t y e a r to

19
Karl Marx

53,000 m e n , w h i c h is an increase of a b o u t 8,000 on t h e n u m b e r v o t e d for last


year, a n d a further addition to t h e 5,000 menraised u n d e r t h e o r d e r s of
L o r d D e r b y ' s administration. T h e total increase in t h e N a v y since 1852 m a y
t h e r e f o r e be stated of about 13,000 m e n . F o r t h e force n o w to be raised
for the service of t h e fleet 38,000 will be s e a m e n a n d b o y s , and 15,000 5
marines.
At last the m u r d e r is out, as regards t h e affair of Sinope. T h e s t a t e m e n t s
published of the relative strength of R u s s i a a n d T u r k e y at t h a t p l a c e , show
t h a t t h e Russians had 3 steam t w o - d e c k e r s , o n e three-decker and 680 guns
on their side m o r e t h a n the Turkish forces. So considered the e v e n t of Sinope 10
h a s a d d e d nothing to R u s s i a ' s p o w e r , and t a k e n nothing from t h a t of T u r k e y ,
b u t the r e v e r s e . H e r e we h a v e seen a fact w i t h o u t parallel e v e n in o u r o w n
annalsfrigates laying themselves alongside line-of-battle ships, and c o m -
m a n d e r s casting the t o r c h into t h e p o w d e r m a g a z i n e and offering themselves
up for holocaust on their c o u n t r y ' s shrine. T h e real maritime force of T u r k e y 15
is u n t o u c h e d ; n o t a line-of-battle ship, n o t a steamer having b e e n sacrificed.
This is n o t all. According to the last intelligence r e c e i v e d , o n e of the finest
t h r e e - d e c k e r s of the R u s s i a n fleet, the Rostislav, a 120-gun ship, h a s b e e n
sunk b y the T u r k s . This fact, k e p t b a c k hitherto u n d e r t h e specious p r e t e x t
t h a t the Rostislav did n o t sink during the action, b u t immediately afterwards, 20
is n o w admitted by the R u s s i a n s , and forms a good set-off against the
d e s t r o y e d T u r k i s h ships. If o n e three-decker w a s actually sunk, we m a y
e x p e c t t h a t the other Russian vessels received v e r y serious h a r m indeed
during the action, and after all the victory of Sinope m a y h a v e m o r e disabled
t h e Russian t h a n t h e T u r k i s h fleet. W h e n the P a s h a of E g y p t h e a r d of the 25
disaster at Sinope, he o r d e r e d the immediate a r m a m e n t of 6 frigates, 5 cor-
v e t t e s a n d 3 brigs, destined to fill up the c h a s m w h i c h has b e e n p r o d u c e d
in t h e material of the T u r k i s h fleet.
T h e Egyptian steam-frigate Pervaz-Bahri disabled and t a k e n after nearly
five h o u r s struggle by the far larger Russian steam-frigate Vladimir, w a s so 30
riddled w i t h shot that she could hardly be b r o u g h t into S e b a s t o p o l , and w h e n
t h e r e , sank at o n c e . T h e Pervaz-Bahri w a s only carried into the h a r b o u r of
S e b a s t o p o l by the aid of its chief-engineer, M r . Bell, an Englishman, w h o w a s
p r o m i s e d on t h e p a r t of the Admiral Kornoff, if he s u c c e e d e d in taking it
t h e r e in safety, to be set immediately at liberty. W h e n arrived at Sebastopol, 35
instead of being released, M r . Bell and his sub-engineers a n d stokers w e r e
p u t into close confinement, with the miserable allowance of 3d. a-day for
their m a i n t e n a n c e and given t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o m a r c h
80 miles on foot, at this inclement season, into t h e interior. Prince M e n s h i -
kof f, w h o c o m m a n d s at Sebastopol, w a s a p p r o v e d by t h e Czar and his minis- 40
t e r s , w h o t u r n e d a deaf ear to the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of o u r C o n s u l at O d e s s a

20
The War in the East

and the British A m b a s s a d o r at St. P e t e r s b u r g . It w a s already k n o w n t h a t at


the battle of Sinope t w o English m e r c h a n t - m e n , following private t r a d e , w e r e
heedlessly and ruthlessly involved in the general destruction. T h e following
is the simple narrative of t h e destruction of o n e of t h e s e vessels as given
5 by a F r e n c h p a p e r :
" O n the 30th N o v e m b e r the brigantine H o w a r d , belonging t o Bideford,
a seaport in the S o u t h of E n g l a n d , had finished the discharge of a cargo of
coals to t h e Austrian C o n s u l , Mr. Pirentz, at Sinope, and w a s then at a n c h o r
taking in ballast with a view of sailing to F a t s a h for a cargo of c o r n , w h i c h
10 she had engaged to carry to E n g l a n d , w h e n the Russian fleet suddenly c a m e
in sight, and without giving a n y notice w h a t e v e r , or affording any o p p o r t u n i t y
for foreign vessels to r e m o v e o u t of danger, c o m m e n c e d a h e a v y fire of shot
and shells on the T u r k i s h fleet lying at a n c h o r and in a few m i n u t e s entirely
d e s t r o y e d the H o w a r d and other m e r c h a n t vessels in the h a r b o u r . " This
15 atrocious infraction on international law is p a r a d e d in the O d e s s a bulletin,
while the Russian journals simultaneously a n n o u n c e d in insulting language
that, while the English fleets d a r e d n o t enter the Black Sea, t h e English
g o v e r n m e n t d a r e d n o t refuse the u s e of its d o c k y a r d s to repair a R u s s i a n
man-of-war.
20 T h e latest mails h a v e b r o u g h t us m o r e supplementary n e w s with regard
to the military e v e n t s w h i c h lately t o o k place in Asia. It a p p e a r s that t h e
T u r k s h a v e b e e n compelled entirely t o e v a c u a t e t h e R u s s o - A r m e n i a n terri-
tory, b u t the precise result of t h e e n g a g e m e n t s , w h i c h determined this retreat,
i s n o t y e t k n o w n . O n e T u r k i s h c o r p s h a d p e n e t r a t e d o n t h e direct r o a d t o
25 Akkalzikhe from A r d a h a n , while a n o t h e r b o d y t o o k the m o r e southern r o a d
from K a r s by A l e x a n d r o p o l (in Georgian Giimri) to Tiflis. B o t h t h e s e c o r p s ,
it a p p e a r s , w e r e m e t by the R u s s i a n s . A c c o r d i n g to the Russian a c c o u n t s the
T u r k s w e r e r o u t e d on either line and lost a b o u t 40 pieces of c a n n o n ; as to the
T u r k i s h a c c o u n t s we h a v e nothing official b u t in private c o r r e s p o n d e n c e the
30 retreat is explained by t h e necessity of going into winter q u a r t e r s . Certain
it is, that the T u r k s h a v e e v a c u a t e d the R u s s i a n territory with the exception
of F o r t St. N i c h o l a s , that t h e R u s s i a n s followed t h e m , and that their ad-
v a n c e d guard e v e n v e n t u r e d to within a mile of K a r s , w h e r e it w a s repulsed.
We k n o w b e s i d e s , t h a t t h e T u r k i s h a r m y of Anatolia, recruited as it is from
35 the Asiatic p r o v i n c e s , the seat of old M o s l e m barbarism, a n d counting in its
r a n k s a great n u m b e r of irregulars, unreliable t h o u g h generally b r a v e sol-
diers of a d v e n t u r e , fancy w a r r i o r s , a n d filibusters of Kurdistanthat t h e
a r m y of Anatolia, is nothing like t h e staid, disciplined and drilled a r m y of
Roumelia, w h e r e t h e c o m m a n d e r k n o w s h o w m a n y a n d w h a t m e n h e has from
40 day to d a y u n d e r his c o m m a n d , a n d w h e r e t h e thirst for i n d e p e n d e n t ad-
v e n t u r e and private plunder is held u n d e r c h e c k by articles of w a r and courts

21
Karl Marx

martial. W e k n o w t h a t t h e R u s s i a n s , v e r y h a r d u p for t r o o p s i n t h e beginning


of the Asiatic campaign, h a v e b e e n reinforced by the 13th division of infantry
(16,000 m e n ) u n d e r L i e u t e n a n t G e n e r a l Obrucheff II, and by a b o d y of
C o s s a c k s from t h e D o n ; w e k n o w t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n able t o k e e p the
m o u n t a i n e e r s in b o u n d s , to maintain their c o m m u n i c a t i o n as well across the 5
C a u c a s u s b y Vladikavkaz a s b y sea t o O d e s s a a n d Sebastopol. U n d e r t h e s e
c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and considering t h a t the T u r k i s h c o m m a n d e r A b d i P a s h a w a s
either a traitor or a d u n c e (he has b e e n recalled since and A h m e d P a s h a h a s
b e e n sent in his stead), we should n o t w o n d e r at all if t h e T u r k s had b e e n
w o r s t e d , although t h e r e c a n be no d o u b t of t h e exaggeration prevailing in 10
t h e R u s s i a n bulletins.
On t h e D a n u b e , the Russians h a v e s o m e time ago attacked Matchin, a fort
situated on an arm of t h e D a n u b e . A steamer c a m e up with t w o gun b o a t s ;
t h e y w e r e m e t by a hot fire; t h e gun b o a t s , it is said, w e r e sunk, and the
s t e a m e r so far damaged that it had to m a k e the b e s t of its w a y h o m e . T h r e e 15
or four skirmishes o c c u r r e d , partly b e t w e e n t h e o u t p o s t s at Kalafat, partly
b e t w e e n the Russian p o s t s o n the D a n u b e a n d small T u r k i s h parties w h o
c r o s s e d t h e river in order to surprise t h e m . T h e T u r k s ascribe to t h e m s e l v e s
t h e advantage in all the e n c o u n t e r s . It is to be regretted t h a t t h e T u r k i s h
irregulars, fit m o r e for this duty t h a n for a n y other, h a v e n o t long since b e e n 20
o r d e r e d to carry on this w a r on a small scale with the greatest activity. T h e y
w o u l d h a v e p r o v e d m o r e t h a n a m a t c h for the C o s s a c k s , disorganized the
necessarily faulty system of o u t p o s t s of the e n e m y , faulty b e c a u s e extending
o v e r a line 300 miles in length: t h e y w o u l d h a v e disturbed the Russian
p l a n s , obtained a perfect knowledge of t h e e n e m y ' s m o v e m e n t s a n d 25
might w i t h p r o p e r caution and boldness h a v e b e e n victorious in e v e r y
encounter.
F r o m telegraphic n e w s , received this m o m e n t , it a p p e a r s t h a t " o n the 6th
of this m o n t h , a Turkish division, 15,000 strong, with 15 pieces of artillery,
a t t a c k e d the e n t r e n c h e d position of Citale, n o t far from Kalafat, and t o o k 30
it with s t o r m ; that the Russians lost 2,500 m e n a n d that a reinforcement of
18,000 R u s s i a n s marching from K a r a k a l , w a s forced to retire with a loss of
250 m e n . " A c c o r d i n g to another report, t h e great majority of the population
of L e s s e r Wallachia has risen against, and K r a j o v a b e e n placed in a state
of siege by, the R u s s i a n s . 35
M e a n w h i l e Russia e x h a u s t e d herself in efforts to s e d u c e or alarm in all
q u a r t e r s of t h e world, on o u r Indian frontiers, in Persia, Servia, S w e d e n ,
D e n m a r k , etc. In Persia t h e British minister h a d h a d a difference with t h e
G o v e r n m e n t of t h e Shah, w h o w a s on the point of yielding, w h e n the R u s s i a n
A m b a s s a d o r interposed not only to e x a s p e r a t e t h e S h a h against England, b u t 40
to drive him into active hostility t o o , a n d a declaration of w a r against the

22
The War in the East

Porte. This intrigue, h o w e v e r , is said to h a v e b e e n baffled by t h e British


C h a r g d'Affaires, M r . T h o m p s o n ' s m e n a c e of withdrawing from T e h e r a n ,
by the d r e a d of an immediate explosion from t h e dislike of t h e Persian p e o p l e
for Russia, and by the arrival of an Affghan E m b a s s y threatening, if Persia
5 formed an alliance w i t h Russia, an invasion of the Persian territory by t h e
Affghans.
A c r o w d of R u s s i a n agents w a s simultaneously o v e r r u n n i n g Servia
seeking o u t and applying t h e m s e l v e s to t h e places a n d p e r s o n s formerly
k n o w n by their a t t a c h m e n t to the b a n i s h e d family of the Obrenovichspeak-
10 ing to some of the y o u n g Prince Michaelto o t h e r s of his old father Milosh
now making t h e m h o p e , t h r o u g h the p r o t e c t i o n of Russia, [for] the extension
of t h e limits of Serviathe formation of a n e w kingdom of Illyria, w h i c h
should unite all t h o s e w h o s p o k e t h e Servian language actually u n d e r t h e
domination of T u r k e y and Austria,and n o w announcing to t h e m , in c a s e
15 of r e s i s t a n c e , innumerable armies and utter subjugation. N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g
t h e s e intrigues, in opposite s e n s e s , t h a t R u s s i a c e a s e d not to c a r r y on, she
has not succeeded i n breaking the b o n d s b e t w e e n t h e Servians and t h e Sultan,
but, o n t h e contrary, t w o firmans w e r e e x p e c t e d from Constantinople a t
Belgrad, t h e one suppressing all t h e relations existing b e t w e e n Servia a n d
20 Russia, a n d the other confirming all t h e privileges c o n c e d e d , at different
e p o c h s , t o t h e Servian p e o p l e . T h e n , t h e R u s s i a n G o v e r n m e n t h a s actively
p u r s u e d negotiations at Stockholm and C o p e n h a g e n , for the p u r p o s e of
inducing t h e g o v e r n m e n t s of S w e d e n and D e n m a r k to side with h e r in t h e
approaching E u r o p e a n struggle; the great object she has in securing their
25 alliance, being to obtain the closing of the p a s s a g e s of the S o u n d a n d Belts
against the W e s t e r n P o w e r s . All she has effected till n o w , is the conclusion
of a treaty b e t w e e n S w e d e n , D e n m a r k a n d P r u s s i a concerning an a r m e d
neutrality, and p r e p a r a t i o n s of a r m a m e n t s , ostensibly directed against her-
self. Private letters from S w e d e n exult in the possibility of the D u c h y of
30 Finland, so shamefully seized by R u s s i a w i t h o u t a declaration of w a r , being
restored to the Scandinavian K i n g d o m . As to D e n m a r k , the attitude, n o t of
the people, b u t of t h e court, is m o r e equivocal. It is e v e n r u m o u r e d that t h e
p r e s e n t D a n i s h Minister of Foreign Affairs will resign a n d be replaced by
C o u n t Reventlow-Criminil, a m a n k n o w n to be intimately c o n n e c t e d w i t h
35 t h e C o u r t of St. P e t e r s b u r g . In F r a n c e t h e " f u s i o n " of t h e Orleanists and
Legitimists o w e s to Russia t h e sort of s u c c e s s it h a s m e t with, while t h a t s a m e
p o w e r is stirring up h e a v e n a n d e a r t h to d e s t r o y t h e entente cordiale existing
b e t w e e n the G o v e r n m e n t s of England and F r a n c e a n d to sow distrust b e -
t w e e n t h e m . A t t e m p t s are being m a d e by s o m e of the Paris journals, in t h e
40 p a y of Mr. Kisseleff, to create a belief that t h e English g o v e r n m e n t is n o t
sincere, a n d we see that in E n g l a n d a journal, in t h e p a y of Mr. de B r u n n o w ,

23
Karl Marx

in r e t u r n casts d o u b t s on the sincerity of the F r e n c h G o v e r n m e n t . A n o t h e r


b l o w , principally aimed against the W e s t e r n p o w e r s , is the Russian prohibi-
tion relative to the exportation of Polish corn.
In the m e a n time the m o v e m e n t s of W e s t e r n diplomacy w e r e by no m e a n s
hostile to Russia, b u t exhibited, on the contrary, rather too anxious a tend-
e n c y to temporise w i t h justice and to c o m p r o m i s e w i t h crime. It is n o w
o b v i o u s to e v e r y o n e that their c o u r s e has b e e n a mistaken and mischievous
o n e . T h e resurrection of the V i e n n a c o n f e r e n c e and the p r o t o c o l d r a w n up
by t h e m on the 5th ult., the letter of the F r e n c h and British A m b a s s a d o r s
at Constantinople to Reshid Pasha, the collective n o t e of t h e 4 great p o w e r s
p r e s e n t e d to the P o r t e on the 15th, and a c c e p t e d by t h e Sultan on the 31st
ult., the circular of M r . D r o u y n De l ' H u y s , a n n o u n c i n g the e n t r a n c e of the
united fleets into the Black Sea, to the F r e n c h diplomatic agents, dated 30th
ult., s u c h are the principal e v e n t s of the diplomatic history of the last 6 w e e k s .
As to the protocol of the V i e n n a conference your r e a d e r s will h a v e b e e n
informed of its c o n t e n t s before n o w . C a n t h e r e be anything m o r e ludicrous
t h a n its assertion that " t h e a s s u r a n c e s given on several occasions by t h e
E m p e r o r of R u s s i a exclude the idea that t h a t august S o v e r e i g n entertains
a n y w i s h to interfere with the integrity of the O t t o m a n E m p i r e , " and anything
m o r e mischievous t h a n its urging on T u r k e y the propriety of consenting to
a 3 m o n t h s ' armistice? T w o days after the n e w s of the disgraceful b u t c h e r y
at Sinope h a d r e a c h e d Constantinople on t h e 5th ult., Reshid P a s h a ad-
d r e s s e d a letter to L o r d Stratford de Redcliffe and G e n e r a l B a r a g u a y D ' H i l -
liers, c o m m u n i c a t i n g the n e w s from Sinope and asking that t h e fleets might
enter t h e Black Sea. On t h e 12th, a w e e k after t h e d a t e of Reshid P a s h a ' s
n o t e , he received a v e r y indifferent a n s w e r on the p a r t of t h e t w o A m b a s s a -
d o r s , intimating to him that " t h e p r e s e n c e of the U n i t e d S q u a d r o n had 'a
political signification,' c o n s e q u e n t l y no military o n e , a n d t h a t it w a s 'a moral
support,' c o n s e q u e n t l y no naval o n e . " T h u s the P o r t e w a s c o e r c e d into the
a c c e p t a n c e of the joint N o t e of the 4 p o w e r s p r e s e n t e d to her on the
15th D e c e m b e r . This note grants the P o r t e n o t only no c o m p e n s a t i o n w h a t -
e v e r for the losses she has u n d e r g o n e c o n s e q u e n t u p o n t h e piratical acts of
t h e A u t o c r a t ; it insists n o t only u p o n the r e n e w a l of all the ancient treaties
of Kainardji, Adrianople, Unkiar Skellessi, etc., w h i c h h a v e furnished, for
a c e n t u r y and a half, the arsenal from w h i c h R u s s i a has d r a w n her w e a p o n s
of fraud, interference, progress and incorporation; b u t it allows the Czar to
c a r r y t h e point of the religious p r o t e c t o r a t e and administrative dictation over
T u r k e y by stipulating that " t h e communication of the firmans relative to the
spiritual privileges o c t r o y e d by the Sublime P o r t e to all its subjects n o t
M u s u l m e n , should be m a d e to all the p o w e r s , a n d a c c o m p a n i e d by suitable
a s s u r a n c e s given to e a c h of t h e m , " and t h a t the P o r t e shall declare on its

24
The War in the East

p a r t its firm resolution to d e v e l o p m o r e efficaciously its administrative


system and internal r e f o r m s .
T h e s e n e w propositions, while in their letter, investing the 5 p o w e r s of
E u r o p e with a joint p r o t e c t o r a t e o v e r the Christian subjects of T u r k e y , give
5 in reality, t h e p r o t e c t o r a t e to R u s s i a alone. T h e a r r a n g e m e n t is to b e , t h a t
F r a n c e and Austria being R o m a n Catholic countries, a r e t o h a v e t h e p r o t e c -
torate over the R o m a n Catholic Christians in T u r k e y , a n d England a n d
P r u s s i a being P r o t e s t a n t countries, are t o h a v e the p r o t e c t o r a t e over t h e
P r o t e s t a n t subjects of the Sultan, while R u s s i a is to h a v e the p r o t e c t o r a t e
10 over those professing t h e G r e e k faith. N o w , as the R o m a n Catholics do n o t
n u m b e r 800,000, nor the P r o t e s t a n t s 200,000, while t h o s e w h o profess t h e
G r e e k religion a m o u n t to nearly 10,000,000, it is plain that the Czar w o u l d
indeed acquire the p r o t e c t o r a t e o v e r the Christian subjects in T u r k e y . T h e s e
proposals of the 4 p o w e r s w e r e n o t a c c e p t e d by the P o r t e till on the 19th
15 ult., w h e n Riza P a s h a and Halil P a s h a h a d e n t e r e d the ministry, t h e s u c c e s s
of the P e a c e or R u s s i a n p a r t y having b e e n t h u s assured.
On the 21st ult., w h e n it b e c a m e k n o w n that the Council of Ministers h a d
notified to t h e F o u r A m b a s s a d o r s t h e a d o p t i o n of t h e propositions t h e y h a d
suggested, the Sofias (students) a s s e m b l e d to p r e s e n t a petition against t h e
20 resolution t a k e n by the g o v e r n m e n t , a n d the o u t b r e a k of disturbances w a s
only prevented by the arrest of the ringleaders. So g r e a t w a s the e x a s p e r a -
tion, which prevailed at Constantinople, t h a t t h e Sultan did not v e n t u r e to
repair o n . t h e following d a y to the Divan, nor p r o c e e d , as usual, amidst the
t h u n d e r of the c a n n o n , and t h e h u r r a h s of t h e foreign w a r c r e w , to t h e m o s q u e
25 of T o p h a n a ; and that Reshid P a s h a fled for refuge from his o w n palace in
Stamboul to the palace contiguous to t h e r e s i d e n c e of the Sultan. On t h e
following d a y the public mind w a s s o m e w h a t calmed by a proclamation on
the part of the Sultan, that no stop should be p u t to the military o p e r a t i o n s .
T h e s e t o r t u o u s , pusillanimous and inexplicable m o v e m e n t s of the W e s t e r n
30 diplomacy, w h i c h , t h r o u g h o u t the d r e a r y history of the last 9 m o n t h s , almost
e x h a u s t e d public patience, h a v e t h r o w n d o u b t s u p o n the sincerity of the
British G o v e r n m e n t , and as the public feel t h e m s e l v e s at a loss to u n d e r s t a n d
the motives t h a t m a y h a v e c a u s e d the long e n d u r a n c e on the p a r t of the
W e s t e r n p o w e r s , secret influences are s p o k e n of, and r u m o u r s are in-
35 dustriously spread, that Prince Albert, t h e h u s b a n d of the Q u e e n , is inter-
fering in t h e affairs of t h e E x e c u t i v e ; t h a t he is not only attending on his
Sovereign L a d y at the meetings of her Council, b u t is using his influence to
control the advice of the responsible a d v i s e r s ; that, while exercising his
opportunity to be p r e s e n t at the meeting of the Q u e e n with her ministers,
40 he is in c o n s t a n t and direct c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h foreign c o u r t s , including t h e
Russian o n e , b u t e x c e p t t h a t of F r a n c e . A n o t h e r tale is, t h a t the " f u s i o n "

25
Karl Marx

of the Orleans and elder B o u r b o n b r a n c h e s of the late royal family of F r a n c e


r e c e i v e s almost as m u c h c o u n t e n a n c e from o u r c o u r t as it d o e s from that
of Russia, and the visit of the D u k e of N e m o u r s at the court of Q u e e n
Victory, fresh from the meeting with " H e n r y the F i f t h , " is pointed at as a
proof. A fourth report, that the negotiations in t h e E a s t e r n Question, h a v e , 5
with the a s s e n t of Russia, b e e n delegated to t h e sole intermediation of C o u n t
Buol-Schauenstein, brother-in-law of C o u n t Meyendorf, is cited as evidence
t h a t this g o v e r n m e n t has never desired i n d e p e n d e n t or effective negotiations,
b u t h a s , from t h e first, sought to aid t h e designs of R u s s i a a n d h e r allies, while
seeming to o p p o s e her. Mr. R o e b u c k , it is confidently stated, will bring the 10
whole question of C o b u r g influence b e f o r e the H o u s e of C o m m o n s , while
L o r d B r o u g h a m is said to intend bringing it b e f o r e t h e H o u s e of L o r d s . T h e r e
is no d o u b t t h a t t h e Coburg influences form, at this m o m e n t , the almost
exclusive topic of conversation in the metropolis. Parliament will r e a s s e m b l e
on the 31st instant. 15
So stern a winter as the p r e s e n t o n e h a s n o t b e e n k n o w n since 1809. T h e
intensity of the cold has b e e n by no m e a n s t h e m o s t trying incident; the
i n c e s s a n t changes b o t h of t e m p e r a t u r e and of the c h a r a c t e r of the w e a t h e r
h a v e b e e n far w o r s e . T h e trains r u n on the railway w i t h t h e greatest dif-
ficulty; in some parts transit a p p e a r s to be quite cut off; a n d in the m e a n s 20
of c o m m u n i c a t i o n England is t h r o w n b a c k to times forgotten. T h e electric
telegraph h a s b e e n u s e d to mitigate the inconvenience of c o m m e r c i a l d o c u -
m e n t s , intercepted by snow drifts, and to p r e v e n t t h e noting of bills for
unexplained n o n - p a y m e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s the noting of m o r e t h a n 500 bills
in L o n d o n illustrates the social a n a r c h y o c c a s i o n e d by t h e u n c o m m o n in- 25
c l e m e n c y of the season. T h e p a p e r s are filled with r e c o r d s of the fearful
s h i p w r e c k s c a u s e d by the s n o w s t o r m s and gales, particularly on the E a s t e r n
coast. Although the recently published tables of trading, navigation a n d
r e v e n u e show a continuance of the prosperity w i t h w h i c h 1853 began, the
severity of the season, coupled with the rising prices of the first necessaries, 30
principally of c o r n , coals and tallow, acts as a h a r d p r e s s u r e u p o n the con-
dition of the lower classes. N u m e r o u s c a s e s of starvation h a v e o c c u r r e d .
B r e a d riots in t h e W e s t are n o w forming an a c c o m p a n i m e n t to t h e lock-outs
in the N o r t h .
T i m e , h o w e v e r , compels to defer a detailed a c c o u n t of t r a d e and c o m m e r c e 35
to a following letter.

26
Friedrich Engels
The Last Battle in Europe

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr.3997, 8. Februar 1854

The Last Battle in Europe.


T h e letters of o u r L o n d o n c o r r e s p o n d e n t s a n d the E u r o p e a n journals enable
us at last to appreciate in all its bearings t h e prolonged struggle b e t w e e n t h e
T u r k s and R u s s i a n s , of w h i c h T s h e t a l e , a small village nine miles n o r t h of
5 Kalefat, w a s the arena. N e x t to the fact t h a t the series of sanguinary actions
in question w a s characterized by great b r a v e r y a n d that the T u r k s c a m e off
victors, the m o s t striking feature of the w h o l e is that it is w i t h o u t practical
result, so far as the expulsion of the R u s s i a n s from Wallachia is c o n c e r n e d .
This c o m e s from a mistake on the p a r t of the T u r k s to w h i c h we h a v e m o r e
10 t h a n o n c e h a d occasion to direct the attention of our r e a d e r s . We allude to
their sending a separate a r m y to Kalefat, in order to shut up the r o a d to
Servia, while the p r e s e n c e of a strong a n d c o n c e n t r a t e d force n e a r R u s t c h u k
and H i r s o v a would h a v e b e e n the b e s t g u a r a n t e e against the Russians ventur-
ing into t h a t p r o v i n c e . S u c h a force w o u l d h a v e m e n a c e d the c o m m u n i c a t i o n s
15 of any Russian a r m y marching w e s t w a r d , while a bridge and bridge-head at
Oltenitza or s o m e w h e r e t h e r e a b o u t s , fortified like that of Kalefat, could h a v e
maintained a footing for t h e m on t h e left b a n k of t h e D a n u b e . B u t e v e n
w i t h o u t that, the R u s s i a n s could n o t c r o s s t h e U p p e r D a n u b e and m a r c h into
Servia, without leaving the T u r k s t o c r o s s t h e L o w e r D a n u b e and m a r c h u p o n
20 B u c h a r e s t . Of c o u r s e , in saying this, we r e c k o n the relative strength of the
parties to be w h a t it is in reality, and ascribe a decided superiority of n u m b e r s
to the T u r k i s h a r m y of Roumelia, o v e r the R u s s i a n a r m y of Wallachia.
N o w the fact is t h a t t h e T u r k s h a v e u s e d their superiority in the v e r y w a y
to nullify it and provide for being finally b e a t e n . T h e y did n o t c o n c e n t r a t e
25 their forces on t h e L o w e r D a n u b e , b u t divided t h e m . While 30,000 to
35,000 m e n occupied Widdin and Kalefat, the r e s t of the a r m y r e m a i n e d on
the Middle a n d L o w e r D a n u b e . T h e y o c c u p y t h e a r c of a circle, while t h e
R u s s i a n s o c c u p y t h e c h o r d of this a r c . T h u s t h e latter h a v e less space to
t r a v e r s e in order to c o n c e n t r a t e all their t r o o p s on a given spot. M o r e o v e r ,

27
Friedrich Engels

t h e shorter r o a d s of t h e Russians are t h r o u g h a level c o u n t r y , while t h e longer


o n e s of t h e T u r k s p a s s over hills and c r o s s m a n y m o u n t a i n t o r r e n t s . T h e
T u r k i s h position is, then, as disadvantageous as c a n b e , a n d yet it has b e e n
t a k e n in order to satisfy t h e old prejudice t h a t t h e r e is no b e t t e r w a y of barring
a r o a d against an e n e m y than by placing yourself across it. 5
On the 20th of D e c e m b e r O m e r P a s h a knew at Shumla, t h a t the Russians
w e r e preparing a general a t t a c k u p o n Kalefat for the 13th of J a n u a r y . He
h a d t w e n t y - t w o d a y s ' time; y e t such is the position of Kalefat with regard
to t h e other stations of the T u r k i s h a r m y , t h a t it d o e s n o t a p p e a r that he could
bring on any re-enforcements e x c e p t a few r e s e r v e s from Sofia. On t h e other 10
h a n d , t h a t the R u s s i a n s , w i t h o u t having received a n y considerable re-en-
f o r c e m e n t s from homeon J a n u a r y 3rd O s t e n - S a c k e n ' s ubiquitous c o r p s
w a s n o t y e t at Bucharestshould v e n t u r e u p o n a c o n c e n t r a t i o n so far w e s t ,
s h o w s t h a t either the state of t h e w e a t h e r and of t h e D a n u b e did n o t allow
t h e T u r k s to cross the river lower d o w n , or that Gorchakoff h a d o t h e r r e a s o n s 15
to be assured of their inactivity in that quarter. T h e T u r k s at Kalefat w e r e
o r d e r e d to attack the Russians while y e t in t h e act of concentrating t h e m -
selves. T h e b e s t w a y to do this w a s to r e p e a t the e x p e r i m e n t of Oltenitza.
W h y w a s not this d o n e ? T h e bridge at Kalefat s t a n d s , in spite of winter and
floating ice, and t h e r e w a s no position lower d o w n w h e r e a similar bridge 20
and bridge-head could be erected. Or had O m e r P a s h a b e e n o r d e r e d to k e e p
on the right b a n k of the river? T h e r e is so m u c h of a contradictory n a t u r e
in the T u r k i s h proceedings, bold and clever m e a s u r e s are so regularly fol-
lowed by t h e m o s t palpable sins of omission and c o m m i s s i o n t h a t diplomatic
agency m u s t be at the b o t t o m of it. At all e v e n t s , Gorchakoff w o u l d n o t h a v e 25
stirred an inch t o w a r d Kalefat, h a d he n o t b e e n certain t h a t the T u r k s w o u l d
not r e p e a t t h e Oltenitza m o v e m e n t .
Altogether some 30,000 Russians m u s t h a v e b e e n sent against Kalefat, for
w i t h a lesser force t h e y would hardly h a v e v e n t u r e d to attack a fortified
position, defended by a garrison of 10,000 m e n , w i t h at least 10,000 m o r e for 30
p u r p o s e s of r e s e r v e or sally. At least one-half, then, of the Russian active
a r m y i n Wallachia w a s concentrated t h e r e . W h e r e a n d h o w could the other
half, spread over a long line, h a v e resisted a T u r k i s h force crossing at Olte-
nitza, Silistria or H i r s o v a ? And if the c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n Widdin and
Kalefat could be k e p t up without difficulty, t h e n t h e r e w a s a possibility of 35
crossing at other points. T h u s t h e Russians by their position on the c h o r d
of the a r c , the periphery of w h i c h w a s held by the T u r k s , w e r e enabled to
bring a superior force to the field of battle at T s h e t a l e , while the T u r k s could
not re-enforce their corps at Kalefat, though a w a r e of t h e intended a t t a c k
long b e f o r e h a n d . T h e T u r k s deprived of that m o v e m e n t of diversion which 40
w o u l d h a v e p r e v e n t e d the w h o l e battle, deprived of the c h a n c e of succor,

28
The Last Battle in Europe

w e r e r e d u c e d to their b r a v e r y and to the h o p e of cutting up the e n e m y in


detail before his c o n c e n t r a t i o n w a s c o m p l e t e d . B u t e v e n this h o p e w a s slight,
for t h e y could not m o v e v e r y far from Kalefat, and e v e r y hostile corps of
inferior strength could retire o u t of t h e circle of their operations. T h u s they
5 fought for five d a y s , generally w i t h s u c c e s s , b u t at last h a d to retire again
to their e n t r e n c h m e n t s in the villages a r o u n d Kalefat, the Russian forces
being decidedly superior in strength at the e n d , w h e n n e w r e - e n f o r c e m e n t s
arrived. T h e result is t h a t the R u s s i a n a t t a c k u p o n Kalefat is m o s t p r o b a b l y
averted or delayed, and that [the] T u r k s h a v e s h o w n that in the o p e n field,
10 no less t h a n behind r a m p a r t s and ditches, t h e y c a n fight well. T h e m u r d e r o u s
character of the e n c o u n t e r s m a y be inferred from the statement of a letter
from Bucharest, to the effect that in the e n g a g e m e n t s o n e w h o l e regiment
of Russian rifles, and all but 465 m e n of a regiment of lancers, w e r e c o m -
pletely annihilated.
15 At Oltenitza the T u r k s w e r e a t t a c k e d in their e n t r e n c h e d positions by the
R u s s i a n s ; at Tshetale the Russians w e r e a t t a c k e d in their e n t r e n c h e d posi-
tions b y t h e T u r k s . O n b o t h o c c a s i o n s the T u r k s h a v e p r o v e d victorious, b u t
without reaping a n y positive results from their victory. T h e battle of Olte-
nitza h a p p e n e d just w h e n t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n of an armistice w a s on its w a y
20 from Constantinople to the D a n u b e . A n d t h e battle of Tshetale curiously
coincides with the n e w s of the D i v a n having a c c e p t e d the last proposals of
p e a c e , imposed u p o n t h e m b y their W e s t e r n allies. I n the o n e instance t h e
machinations of diplomacy are nullified in the clash of a r m s , while, in t h e
other, the bloody w o r k of w a r is simultaneously frustrated by some secret
25 diplomatic agency.

29
Karl Marx
The Fighting in the EastFinances of Austria and F r a n c e -
Fortification of Constantinople

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 3997, 8. Februar 1854
From Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , F r i d a y , J a n . 20, 1854.

T h e latest mails h a v e brought u s some s u p p l e m e n t a r y n e w s w i t h regard t o


t h e military e v e n t s which lately t o o k place in Asia. It a p p e a r s that the T u r k s
h a v e b e e n compelled entirely to e v a c u a t e t h e R u s s o - A r m e n i a n territory, b u t 5
t h e precise result of the engagements w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d their r e t r e a t , is n o t
k n o w n . T h e T u r k s h a d p e n e t r a t e d o n the direct r o a d t o Akhaltzik from
A r d a h a n , while a n o t h e r b o d y t o o k the m o r e s o u t h e r n r o a d from K a r s b y
A l e x a n d r o p o l (in Georgian, Giimri) to Tiflis. B o t h t h e s e c o r p s , it a p p e a r s ,
w e r e m e t by the R u s s i a n s ; according to the Russian a c c o u n t s , the T u r k s w e r e 10
r o u t e d on either line and lost a b o u t forty pieces of c a n n o n ; as to the T u r k i s h
a c c o u n t s , we h a v e nothing official, b u t in private c o r r e s p o n d e n c e the r e t r e a t
is explained by the necessity of going into winter q u a r t e r s .
T h e only thing certain is this, that the T u r k s h a v e e v a c u a t e d t h e R u s s i a n
territory with t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e F o r t St. N i c h o l a s ; t h a t t h e R u s s i a n s 15
followed t h e m , and that their advanced guard e v e n v e n t u r e d to within a mile
o f K a r s , w h e r e i t w a s repulsed. W e k n o w , b e s i d e s , t h a t t h e T u r k i s h a r m y
of Anatolia, recruited as it is from the Asiatic p r o v i n c e s , t h e seat of the old
M o s l e m b a r b a r i s m , a n d counting in its r a n k s a great n u m b e r of irregulars,
unreliable, though generally b r a v e , soldiers of a d v e n t u r e , fancy w a r r i o r s and 20
flibusters, t h a t this a r m y of Anatolia is nothing like t h e stern, disciplined
a n d drilled a r m y o f Roumelia, w h o s e c o m m a n d e r k n o w s h o w m a n y and w h a t
m e n h e h a s from day t o day u n d e r his c o m m a n d , a n d w h e r e t h e thirst for
i n d e p e n d e n t a d v e n t u r e and private plunder is held u n d e r c h e c k by articles
of w a r and c o u r t s martial. We k n o w t h a t t h e R u s s i a n s , w h o w e r e v e r y h a r d 25
up for t r o o p s in the beginning of t h e Asiatic campaign, h a v e b e e n reenf o r c e d
by 16,000 m e n u n d e r Lieut. Gen. Obrutscheff I I , a n d by a b o d y of C o s s a c k s
from the D o n ; w e k n o w t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n able t o k e e p the m o u n t a i n e e r s
within b o u n d s , to maintain their c o m m u n i c a t i o n , as well a c r o s s t h e C a u s a s u s
by Vladikavkaz, as by sea to O d e s s a and Sevastopol. 30

30
The Fighting in the EastFinances of Austria and France

U n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and considering t h a t the T u r k i s h c o m m a n d e r


Abdi P a s h a w a s either a traitor or a d u n c e (he h a s b e e n recalled since a n d
placed u n d e r arrest a t K a r s ; A h m e d P a s h a w a s sent i n his place) w e should
n o t w o n d e r at all if t h e T u r k s h a d b e e n w o r s t e d , although t h e r e c a n be no
5 d o u b t of the exaggeration prevailing in t h e R u s s i a n bulletins. We r e a d in t h e
Augsburger Zeitung t h a t " t o w a r d s t h e e n d of N o v e m b e r , S h a m y l m a d e a
d e s p e r a t e a t t e m p t to force his w a y to the south, in order to effect a direct
c o m m u n i c a t i o n with t h e T u r k s . T h e strength of his c o r p s w a s estimated at
from 10,000 to 16,000 m e n , a n d it is affirmed t h a t the M u r i d e s , t h e flower
10 of his t r o o p s , w e r e cut to p i e c e s . " This h o w e v e r w a n t s confirmation.
At last the m u r d e r is out, as r e g a r d s the affair at Sinope. O n e of t h e finest
t h r e e - d e c k e r s of the R u s s i a n fleetthe Rostislav, 120-gun shipwas sunk
t h e r e b y t h e T u r k s . T h i s factkept b a c k hitherto u n d e r the specious p r e t e x t
that the Rostislav did n o t sink during t h e action, b u t immediately afterward
15 is n o w admitted by t h e R u s s i a n s , a n d f o r m s a good set-off against t h e
d e s t r o y e d T u r k i s h ships. If o n e t h r e e - d e c k e r w a s actually sunk, we m a y
suppose t h a t the other R u s s i a n vessels received v e r y serious h a r m indeed
during the actionand, after all, t h e v i c t o r y of Sinope m a y h a v e m o r e dis-
abled the Russian t h a n t h e T u r k i s h fleet. Altogether, the T u r k s a p p e a r to fight
20 like T u r k s w h e n on t h e water. T h e E g y p t i a n steam frigate P e r v a z Bahri,
disabled and t a k e n after nearly five h o u r s struggle by the far larger R u s s i a n
steam-frigate Vladimir, w a s so riddled with shot t h a t she could hardly be
b r o u g h t into Sevastopol, a n d w h e n t h e r e , s a n k at o n c e . So far, t h e n , t h e prizes
carried off by the Russians a m o u n t to nothing, a n d indeed t h e impossibility
25 for t h e m to carry off a single prize from Sinope s h o w s b o t h the o b s t i n a c y
of t h e T u r k i s h defense a n d t h e mutilated state of t h e R u s s i a n fleet after t h e
action.
T h e r e is a r e p o r t t h a t the c o m b i n e d F r e n c h and English fleets, together
with t h e first division of the T u r k i s h N a v y , are transporting 17,000 T u r k s
30 to B a t u m . If this be t r u e , it is as m u c h an a c t of w a r as if t h e y m a d e a direct
attack u p o n Sevastopol, a n d t h e C z a r c a n n o t b u t declare w a r a t o n c e .
Immediately prior to t h e e n t r a n c e of the c o m b i n e d fleets into t h e B l a c k Sea,
t h e Czar is said to h a v e sent his m a n d a t e for the withdrawal of all his vessels
of w a r from the w a t e r s of the E u x i n e to Sevastopol. A letter dated Odessa,
35 D e c e m b e r 24, r e p o r t s t h a t " t h e c o m m a n d e r of t h e Russian flotilla in the sea
of Azoff h a d sent o n e of his aides-de-camp to Sevastopol to explain h o w
critical his position w a s . T w o c o r p s of 12,000 m e n e a c h w e r e r e a d y to be
e m b a r k e d at Sevastopol, w h e n this o p e r a t i o n of w a r w a s p a r a l y z e d by the
n e w s of t h e imminent e n t r a n c e of t h e u n i t e d fleets into t h e E u x i n e . "
40 F r o m the last telegraphic n e w s r e c e i v e d it a p p e a r s t h a t the R u s s i a n s in-
t e n d e d attempting a general a t t a c k on t h e T u r k i s h lines at Kalefat, on the

31
Karl Marx

13th inst., t h e Russian N e w - Y e a r ' s day. T h e y h a d already p u s h e d f o r w a r d


a b o u t 10,000 m e n in e n t r e n c h m e n t s at T s h e t a l e , a village nine English miles
n o r t h of Kalefat, b u t w e r e p r e v e n t e d from concentrating their whole avail-
able force by t h e Turkish General's getting t h e start of t h e m , storming t h e
e n e m y ' s e n t r e n c h m e n t s with 15,000 or 18,000 m e n , proving victorious in a 5
series of most m u r d e r o u s e n c o u n t e r s t h a t t o o k place on t h e 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th
a n d 10th inst., and finally forcing t h e Russians to retire in t h e direction of
K r a j o v a . T h e Russians themselves confess a loss of 1,000 killed and
4,000 w o u n d e d . General A n r e p , we are told by the telegraph, " w h o c o m -
m a n d e d t h e R u s s i a n s , w a s severely w o u n d e d , as well as General T u i n o n t . " 10
On the 10th, it is stated, the T u r k s w h o w e r e c o m m a n d e d by Selim P a s h a ,
(the Pole Zedlinsky,) again retired to Kalefat. T h u s far t h e telegraphic n e w s ,
hitherto the only source of information a b o u t t h e s e m o s t important e v e n t s .
T h e r e p o r t winding u p , on t h e one h a n d , with t h e r e t i r e m e n t of t h e R u s s i a n s
on K r a j o v a , and of the T u r k s , on the other, to Kalefat, e v o k e s a suspicion 15
t h a t great strategical faults h a v e again b e e n c o m m i t t e d o n b o t h sides. T h e r e
is o n e report afloat that O m e r P a s h a c a u s e d a w h o l e corps to p a s s t h e
[Danube] b e t w e e n the Aluta and t h e Shyl, t h u s menacing t h e c o m -
munications of the Russian corps at K r a j o v a . B u t h o w could the T u r k s c r o s s
the D a n u b e , w h i c h is filled with floating m a s s e s of ice, at any other point 20
t h a n Kalefat, w h e r e alone t h e y w e r e p r e p a r e d for such an e m e r g e n c y ?
T h e defeats t h e Russians m e t with a t Kalefat are p e r h a p s m o r e i m p o r t a n t
in a political t h a n a military view. Coupled with t h e e n t r a n c e of the united
fleets into the Black Sea, they cut off the last probability of the C z a r ' s
yielding to the h u m b l e supplication for p e a c e f o r w a r d e d by t h e courier of 25
the V i e n n a conference t o St. Petersburg. O n t h e other h a n d t h e y m u s t
p r o d u c e t h e immediate effect on neighboring Servia of strengthening t h e
N a t i o n a l p a r t y and intimidating the Russian o n e , w h o h a v e lately b e e n lifting
up their h e a d s with amazing i m p u d e n c e at Belgrade. P r i n c e Alexander, it is
t r u e , and the m a s s of the Servian p e o p l e , could n o t be prevailed u p o n to b r e a k 30
t h e b o n d s b e t w e e n their c o u n t r y a n d t h e Sultan, although a c r o w d of Russian
agents is simultaneously overrunning Servia, carrying on their intrigues in
opposite sensesseeking out and applying t h e m s e l v e s to the places a n d
p e r s o n s formerly k n o w n for their a t t a c h m e n t to the banished family of t h e
Obrenovichspeaking to some of the y o u n g P r i n c e Michaelto o t h e r s of his 35
old father Miloshnow making t h e m h o p e , t h r o u g h t h e protection of Russia,
for t h e extension of the limits [of] Serviathe f o r m a t i o n of a n e w kingdom
of Illyria, which would unite all those w h o speak t h e Servian language n o w
u n d e r t h e domination of T u r k e y a n d Austriaand n o w announcing to t h e m ,
in c a s e of resistance, innumerable armies and u t t e r subjugation. Y o u are 40
a w a r e t h a t Prince Milosh, residing at Vienna, is t h e old protg of Metternich,

32
The Fighting in the EastFinances of Austria and France

while Michael, his son, is a m e r e c r e a t u r e of Russia, w h o in 1842 r e n d e r e d


t h e princedom v a c a n t by flying from Servia. T h e R u s s i a n defeat at Kalefat
will, at the same time, relieve A u s t r i a from the fear of a R u s s i a n a r m y
appearing b e f o r e Belgrade a n d evoking a m o n g t h e subjects of Austria, of
5 c o m m o n origin a n d faith w i t h herself, t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s of their o w n
strength a n d of t h e degradation t h e y e n d u r e in t h e domination of t h e Ger-
mans.
As to Austria, I m a y state en passant, t h a t she h a s at last, r e n o u n c e d t h e
long-cherished h o p e of raising a n e w loan. T h e state of her E x c h e q u e r m a y
10 be inferred from t h e e x p e d i e n t h e r G o v e r n m e n t h a s recently r e s o r t e d to, of
exacting a discount of 15 per cent, u p o n its o w n p a p e r moneya financial
m a n e u v e r only to be c o m p a r e d with t h e devises of the swindling ingenuity
of t h e F r e n c h Rois Faux Monnayeurs, w h o a p p r e c i a t e d t h e coin w h e n t h e y
h a d to pay, and depreciated it w h e n t h e y h a d to receive m o n e y . A c c o r d i n g
15 to t h e G e r m a n p a p e r s , the Austrian b u d g e t for 1854 will show a deficit of
45,000,000 florins on t h e ordinary service, and 50,000,000 florins on t h e
extraordinary. W h e n e v e r n e w s of warlike c h a r a c t e r r e a c h e s Vienna, p e o p l e
t h r o n g to the banking-houses, in o r d e r to c h a n g e p a p e r currency for silver
coin.
20 F r a n c e , t o o , it is k n o w n , has long b e e n moving for a loan of
200,000,000 francs, (8,000,000 sterling), b u t t h e dearth of food, t h e failure
of the wine and silk c r o p s , the prevailing c o m m e r c i a l a n d industrial distress,
t h e great a p p r e h e n s i o n s entertained a b o u t t h e p a y m e n t s t o b e m a d e a t t h e
end of F e b r u a r y , the d o w n w a r d t e n d e n c y of t h e public funds and railway
25 s h a r e s , all t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s h a v e by no m e a n s t e n d e d to facilitate such
a transaction. B o n a p a r t e could not s u c c e e d in finding t a k e r s at the B o u r s e ,
for t h e n e w loan. T h e r e r e m a i n e d n o r e s o u r c e s a v e t h a t r e c u r r e d t o o n t h e
e v e of the c o u p d'tatthe sending Persigny to t h e B a n k of F r a n c e , forcing
out of it 50,000,000 francs, ($10,000,000), and leaving in their place t h a t
30 a m o u n t of treasury b o n d s , u n d e r the head of " s e c u r i t i e s . " This was actually
d o n e on N e w - Y e a r ' s day. T h e fall of t h e funds to 69 hailed this financial c o u p
d'tat. T h e G o v e r n m e n t will, as we are n o w officially informed, obtain a l o a n
from t h e B a n k of F r a n c e of 2,000,000 or 3,000,000 francs, against t r e a s u r y
b o n d s . T h o s e not acquainted w i t h w h a t p a s s e d o n N e w - Y e a r ' s d a y i n the
35 parlor of t h e B a n k of F r a n c e , will be at a loss to u n d e r s t a n d h o w t h e b a n k
has b e e n prevailed u p o n to a c c e p t a loan rejected at the B o u r s e .
As to Persia the n e w s continues to be contradictory. According to o n e
r e p o r t t h e Persian a r m y is marching u p o n E r z e r u m and Bagdad ; according to
another t h e Russian intrigue h a s b e e n baffled by t h e British Charg d'Af-
40 f aires, M r . T h o m p s o n , w h o m e n a c e d w i t h d r a w a l from T e h e r a n , by t h e d r e a d
of an immediate explosion of t h e dislike of t h e Persian people for Russia,

33
Karl Marx

a n d by the arrival of an Affghan E m b a s s y , threatening, if Persia f o r m e d an


alliance with Russia, an invasion of the P e r s i a n territory by t h e Affghans.
A c c o r d i n g to private c o r r e s p o n d e n c e from Constantinople, published in
t h e Patrie, the D i v a n has resolved to f ortity Constantinople on t h e land side.
A mixed commission, consisting of E u r o p e a n a n d O t t o m a n officers, is said 5
to h a v e already c o m m e n c e d the p r e p a r a t o r y s u r v e y of the localities. T h e
fortification of Constantinople would altogether c h a n g e the c h a r a c t e r of
R u s s o - T u r k i s h warfare, a n d p r o v e t h e heaviest b l o w e v e r dealt t o t h e
eternal d r e a m s of t h e self-styled heir of t h e B y z a n t i n e E m p e r o r s .
T h e r u m o r of Austria's concentrating a c o r p s d'arme in t h e B a n a t , to be 10
placed u n d e r t h e c o m m a n d of General C o u n t Schlick, is contradicted by t h e
German Press.
T h e Correspondenz, of Berlin, states t h a t general o r d e r s h a v e b e e n given
to t h e authorities to hold t h e m s e l v e s p r e p a r e d , in c a s e of a mobilization of
the L a n d w e h r . 15
O v e r t u r e s have b e e n m a d e from St. P e t e r s b u r g to the Cabinet of C o p e n h a -
g e n for t h e cession of t h e Island of B o r n h o l m to Russia. " B o r n h o l m , " as it
is justly r e m a r k e d by The Daily News, " m i g h t be a M a l t a or Gibraltar of t h e
Baltic. It is within a d a y ' s sail of the S u n d and C o p e n h a g e n , a n d placed by
n a t u r e at t h e v e r y throat of the Baltic." 20
In t h e m e s s a g e sent by L o r d Redclif f e to the G o v e r n o r of S e v a s t o p o l , and
intimating to h i m t h e a p p e a r a n c e of t h e united s q u a d r o n in t h e Black Sea,
the only object of the m o v e m e n t is stated to be " t h e protection of t h e
Ottoman territoryrom all aggression or hostile a c t s , " no mention being m a d e
of t h e p r o t e c t i o n of t h e Ottoman flag. 25
As all the a c c o u n t s received from P a r i s , V i e n n a , Berlin, Constantinople
a n d St. Petersburg, indicate t h e p r o s p e c t of war, prices h a v e generally de-
clined in all stock m a r k e t s on b o t h sides of the C h a n n e l .
Karl Marx.

34
Karl Marx
The Czar's ViewsPrince Albert

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 4000, 11. Februar 1854
From Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , T u e s d a y , Jan. 24, 1854.

T h e a t t e m p t s of the R u s s i a n a r m y to c r o s s t h e D a n u b e simultaneously on
t h e whole line of operationsat Matshin, Giurgevo and Kalefatare to be
5 considered as reconnoitering m a n e u v e r s rather t h a n as serious a t t a c k s ,
w h i c h c a n hardly b e v e n t u r e d u p o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t forces General G o r c h a -
koff h a s to dispose of.
L a s t S a t u r d a y ' s Pressthe Disraeli paperpublished a n o t e of a con-
versation v e r y recently held at G a t c h i n a b e t w e e n t h e Czar a n d a " d i s -
io tinguished" Englishman. A l m o s t t h e w h o l e of t h e daily L o n d o n p r e s s h a s
reprinted this n o t e , which, besides t h e k n o w n a n d worn-out c o m m o n - p l a c e s
of R u s s i a n diplomacy, contains s o m e interesting statements. T h e C z a r
"distinctly stated t h a t t h e u l t i m a t u m of Menchikoff h a d not b e e n dis-
a p p r o v e d of in L o n d o n , b u t t h a t t h e English Ministry, having been informed
15 that it would probably be accepted by the Porte, h a d recognized it as a
satisfactory settlement." This would only p r o v e t h a t p o o r J o h n Russell w a s
falsely informed by B a r o n de B r u n n o w as to t h e " p r o b a b l e " intentions of
t h e Sublime P o r t e , a n d t h a t t h e P o r t e ' s refusing to yield to t h e Menchikoff
ultimatum at o n c e , w a s by no m e a n s t h e fault of the Coalition Cabinet. T h e
20 C z a r goes on informing " t h e individual of distinction" that " w h e n t h e n e w s
of t h e victory of Sinope arrived, General Castelbajac (the F r e n c h E m -
b a s s a d o r ) a d d r e s s e d him a letter beginning something in this w a y : ' A s a
Christian and as a soldier, p e r m i t me to congratulate your Imperial Majesty
on the glorious victory obtained by y o u r M a j e s t y ' s fleet.' " L e t me r e m a r k
25 t h a t General Castelbajac, an old Legitimist a n d a relative of L a r o c h e j a c -
quelein's, gained his generalship, n o t by services in the c a m p , b u t by less
dangerous service in t h e a n t e - c h a m b e r s of t h e Court, and t h e a r d e n t con-
fession of exalted royalist principles. B o n a p a r t e appointed him as E m -
b a s s a d o r to the C o u r t of St. P e t e r s b u r g , with a view to give t h e Czar a proof

35
Karl Marx

of deference to his personal w i s h e s , although he w a s fully a w a r e that Castel-


bajac w a s to conspire with t h e Czar for t h e restoration of t h e B o u r b o n s r a t h e r
t h a n further the interests of his nominal m a s t e r . This Castelbajac, t h e n , is
t h e v e r y m a n to h a v e congratulated t h e Czar " a s a soldier and a Christian"
on the resultless b u t c h e r y of Sinope. " H e did n o t b e l i e v e , " t h e C z a r is stated 5
to h a v e said, " t h a t England, with a Bourgeois Parliament, could c a r r y on a
w a r with glory." T h e r e is no d o u b t that the C z a r k n o w s his C o b d e n s a n d his
Brights, and estimates at its just value the m e a n a n d abject spirit of t h e
E u r o p e a n middle classes. Finally, the Czar is quite right in stating that, on
t h e o n e hand, he h a d not b e e n p r e p a r e d for warfully c o n v i n c e d as he w a s 10
that he should obtain all he cared for by t h e simple act of bullyingand t h a t ,
on t h e other hand, if war w e r e brought about, it would be t h e " w a r of in-
c a p a c i t i e s , " making it inevitable by their anxious efforts to p r e v e n t it, and
plunging into it finally in order to cover their b l u n d e r s a n d save their places.
"Public opinion is half inclined to sacrifice Prince Albert at t h e shrine of 15
r u m o r . A whisper, which w a s first insinuated for party u s e s , h a s g r o w n into
a roar, and a constructive hint h a s swelled into a positive and m o n s t r o u s
fiction. T h a t t h o s e w h o seek t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e Q u e e n should find Prince
Albert with her Majesty, is a fact w h i c h r a t h e r w o n the s y m p a t h y and e s t e e m
of the English public; b u t t h e n it w a s said t h a t he a t t e n d e d meetings of t h e 20
Q u e e n with h e r Ministers; next, that Ministers w e r e m a d e a w a r e of his
presencethat, h o w e v e r reluctant to p r o c e e d w i t h business b e f o r e a third
p a r t y , t h e y found it n e c e s s a r y to do sothat it e v e n b e c a m e n e c e s s a r y to
defend their opinions before t h e Princethat t h e Prince, in fact, interfered
with their counsel to their Sovereignthat he n o t only influenced the R o y a l 25
mind, b u t possessing the p o w e r of free c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h foreign C o u r t s ,
he constituted an unlicensed channel for information b e t w e e n the con-
fidential council of t h e Q u e e n and t h e Cabinets of foreign p o t e n t a t e s , p e r h a p s
of the enemies of Englandthat in short, Prince Albert w a s a traitor to his
Q u e e n , that he had b e e n i m p e a c h e d for high t r e a s o n , a n d finally, t h a t on a 30
charge of high treason he had b e e n arrested and c o m m i t t e d to the T o w e r .
This w a s t h e story n o t only told in all parts of E n g l a n d a day or t w o b a c k ,
b u t b y some b e l i e v e d . "
I q u o t e the a b o v e passage from The Spectator, in o r d e r to show your
r e a d e r s h o w public r u m o r has b e e n induced by t h e Palmerstonian p r e s s to 35
m a k e a poor stupid young m a n the scapegoat of the responsible Ministers.
Prince Albert is a G e r m a n Prince, c o n n e c t e d with most of t h e absolute and
despotic G o v e r n m e n t s of the Continent. Raised to the r a n k of Prince-Consort
in G r e a t Britain, he has devoted his time partly to fattening pigs, to inventing
ridiculous hats for the army, to planning m o d e l lodging h o u s e s of a peculiarly 40
t r a n s p a r e n t a n d uncomfortable kind, to the H y d e Park Exhibition, and to

36
The Czar's ViewsPrince Albert

a m a t e u r soldiery. He h a s b e e n considered amiable and harmless, in point of


intellect b e l o w the general average of h u m a n beings, a prolific father a n d
an obsequious h u s b a n d . Of late, h o w e v e r , he has b e e n deliberately magnified
into the most influential m a n a n d t h e m o s t dangerous c h a r a c t e r of t h e U n i t e d
5 Kingdom, said to dispose of the w h o l e State machinery at the secret dictation
of Russia. N o w t h e r e c a n exist b u t little d o u b t that t h e Prince exercises a
direct influence in Court affairs, and, of c o u r s e , in the interest of d e s p o t i s m .
T h e Prince c a n n o t b u t act a Prince's p a r t , a n d w h o was ever silly e n o u g h
to suppose he w o u l d n o t ? B u t I need n o t inform your r e a d e r s of the utter
10 i m p o t e n c y to which British Royalty itself has b e e n r e d u c e d by t h e British
oligarchy, so that, for instance, K i n g William I V , a decided foe to Russia,
w a s forced by his Foreign Ministera m e m b e r of t h e Whig oligarchyto
act as a foe to T u r k e y . H o w p r e p o s t e r o u s , t h e n , to s u p p o s e Prince Albert
to be able to c a r r y o n e single point in defiance of t h e Ministry, e x c e p t so
15 far as little C o u r t affairs, a dirty riband, or a tinsel star, are c o n c e r n e d ! U s e
is m a d e of his absolutist penchants to blind t h e p e o p l e ' s e y e s as to the plots
and treacheries of the responsible Ministers. If the o u t c r y and attack m e a n s
anything it m e a n s an a t t a c k on royalist institutions. If t h e r e w e r e no Q u e e n
t h e r e would be no Princeif there w e r e no t h r o n e there would be no C o u r t
20 influences. Princes would lose their p o w e r if t h r o n e s w e r e n o t t h e r e to b a c k
t h e m , and for them to lean u p o n . But, n o w m a r k ! the p a p e r s w h i c h go the
farthest in their "fearful b o l d n e s s , " w h i c h cry t h e loudest and try to m a k e
a sort of political capital o u t of Prince Albert, are t h e m o s t eager in their
assertions of loyalty to the t h r o n e and in fulsome adulation of t h e Q u e e n .
25 As to the T o r y p a p e r s this proposition is self-evident. As to the radical
Morning Advertiser, it is t h e s a m e j o u r n a l w h i c h hailed B o n a p a r t e ' s c o u p
d'tat, and recently attacked an Irish p a p e r for having d a r e d to find fault w i t h
t h e Q u e e n , on the occasion of her p r e s e n c e at Dublin, which r e p r o a c h e s t h e
F r e n c h Revolutionists with professing Republicanism, and continues to
30 designate L o r d P a l m e r s t o n as t h e savior of England. T h e whole is a Palmer-
stonian trick. P a l m e r s t o n , by the revelations of his Russianism and his
opposition to the n e w R e f o r m Bill, has b e c o m e unpopular. T h e latter act h a s
t a k e n t h e liberal gilding off his m u s t y gingerbread. N e v e r t h e l e s s , he w a n t s
popularity in order to b e c o m e Premier, or at least Foreign Minister. W h a t
35 an admirable opportunity to stamp himself a Liberal again a n d to play the
part of B r u t u s , p e r s e c u t e d by secret C o u r t influences. A t t a c k a Prince-
Consorthow taking for the p e o p l e . He'll be the m o s t popular s t a t e s m a n of
t h e age. W h a t an admirable opportunity of casting obloquy on his p r e s e n t
colleagues, of stigmatizing t h e m as the tools of Prince Albert, and of con-
40 vincing t h e Court that P a l m e r s t o n must be a c c e p t e d on his o w n t e r m s . T h e
T o r i e s , of c o u r s e , join in t h e cry, for c h u r c h and c r o w n are little to t h e m

37
Karl Marx

c o m p a r e d with p o u n d s and a c r e s , and t h e s e t h e cotton-lords are winning


from t h e m fast. A n d if the T a r i e s , in the n a m e of " c o n s t i t u t i o n " a n d " l i b e r t y "
t a l k daggers against a Prince, w h a t enlightened Liberal would n o t t h r o w
himself worshiping at their feet!
At t h e annual meeting of the M a n c h e s t e r C o m m e r c i a l Association the 5
President, Mr. Aspinall T u r n e r , declared with regard to t h e strikes and look-
o u t s a n d the general agitation of t h e w o r k i n g m e n , w h i c h he justly described
as " t h e civil w a r going on b e t w e e n m a s t e r s a n d operatives in L a n c a -
shire"that, " a s M a n c h e s t e r h a d p u t d o w n r o y a l t y r a n n y and aristocratic
t y r a n n y , so it w o u l d also deal with t h e t y r a n n y of D e m o c r a c y . " 10
" H e r e we h a v e , " exclaims The Press, " a n involuntary avowal of the policy
of t h e M a n c h e s t e r school. T h e c r o w n is in E n g l a n d supremethen diminish
t h e royal p o w e r . T h e aristocracy stands before ussweep it from our p a t h .
W o r k i n g m e n agitatecrush t h e m t o t h e e a r t h . "
Karl Marx. 15

38
Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels
Fortification of ConstantinopleDenmark's Neutrality-
Composition of British Parliament-
Crop Failure in Europe

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 4004, 16. Februar 1854
From Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , F r i d a y , Jan. 27, 1854.

T h e fortification of Constantinople w o u l d b e , as I stated in my last letter,


t h e m o s t important step t h e T u r k s could t a k e . Constantinople o n c e fortified,
5 with suitable strengthening of t h e forts on t h e B o s p h o r u s and Dardanelles,
the i n d e p e n d e n c e of T u r k e y , or of a n y p o w e r holding t h a t capital, w o u l d
require no foreign g u a r a n t e e . T h e r e is no t o w n m o r e e a s y to be fortified t h a n
Constantinople. O n e single side of t h e triangle onlythe o n e t o w a r d t h e
landwould require a c o n t i n u o u s r a m p a r t ; the s e c o n d , t o w a r d t h e S e a of
10 M a r m o r a , a n d t h e third, t o w a r d t h e G o l d e n H o r n , require no fortifications.
A line of d e t a c h e d forts, at a c o n v e n i e n t distance from the enceinte, a n d
continued e a s t w a r d s o a s t o p r o t e c t Pera, Galata a n d t h e n o r t h - e a s t e r n b a n k
of t h e G o l d e n H o r n , w o u l d b o t h strengthen t h e enceinte and p r e v e n t an
e n e m y from turning it and carrying on w o r k s of siege on t h e hills c o m m a n d i n g
15 the t o w n from behind P e r a and Galata.
S u c h a fortress w o u l d be almost impregnable. Its c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c a n n o t
be c u t off, unless t h e Dardanelles or t h e B o s p h o r u s is forced, and if t h a t w e r e
t h e c a s e t h e City w o u l d b e a t o n c e lost. B u t t w o s u c h n a r r o w passages m a y
easily be fortified so strongly t h a t no hostile fleet c a n p a s s through. A R u s s i a n
20 a r m y coming from the land side w o u l d h a v e to rely u p o n perilous sea c o m -
munication with S e v a s t o p o l a n d O d e s s a , a n d could hardly hold o u t for t h e
time required to t a k e t h e t o w n , while its c o n t i n u o u s falling off in n u m b e r s
w o u l d e x p o s e it to defeats from t h e garrison of t h e t o w n a n d t h e r e s e r v e s
arriving from Asia.
25 T h e reply of R u s s i a to t h e declaration of neutrality on the p a r t of D e n m a r k
arrived at C o p e n h a g e n on t h e 20th inst. R u s s i a is stated to refuse to c o n s e n t
to t h e neutrality, calling on D e n m a r k to t a k e o n e side or t h e other. Im-
mediately after this notification, t h e E m b a s s a d o r s of F r a n c e , England and
Prussia, are said to h a v e h a d a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e D a n i s h Ministers. N o w , I

39
Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels

am informed from a v e r y t r u s t w o r t h y source, although I c a n , of c o u r s e , n o t


v o u c h for the correctness of the information, t h a t t h e p r o t e s t is b u t a feint
on t h e part of t h e Cabinet of St. P e t e r s b u r g calculated to drive t h e other
p o w e r s the faster into a formal a c k n o w l e d g m e n t of the t e r m s on w h i c h the
D a n i s h neutrality is p r o p o s e d . I am a s s u r e d t h a t r e c e n t negotiations w e r e 5
going o n b e t w e e n D e n m a r k o n the o n e side, and F r a n c e and England o n the
other, according to which, in the c a s e of war, England w a s to o c c u p y t h e
S o u n d with her men-of-war, and F r a n c e the D u c h y of Schleswig, w i t h a corps
d ' a r m e . T o t h w a r t this combination, c o m m u n i c a t e d t o N e s s e l r o d e b y t h e
Minister Oerstedt, Russia is said to h a v e intimated to the C o p e n h a g e n 10
Cabinet to p r o p o s e t h e declaration of neutrality. He n o w feigns to o p p o s e ,
a n d w h i c h , if adhered to by F r a n c e and England, Will n o t only b r e a k up their
original plan, b u t also, by exempting from t h e l a w s of war, goods carried in
neutral vessels, will secure the e x p o r t of R u s s i a n m e r c h a n d i s e by the Bal-
tic. 15
T h e C z a r ' s p r o t e s t against the p u r c h a s e , on t h e p a r t of Prussia, of an
O l d e n b u r g p o r t in t h e N o r t h Sea, is a bona fide p r o t e s t , a s t o n i s h e d as t h e
Berlin public is said to h a v e b e e n at this other s y m p t o m of the ubiquitous
intermeddling of Timour T a m e r l a n e ' s successor.
T h e great " M a n c h e s t e r R e f o r m m e e t i n g " h a s " c o m e off, a n d a great piece 20
of h u m b u g it w a s , " as The Englishman justly r e m a r k s . T h e A b e r d e e n policy
extolled, T u r k e y insulted, Russia glorified, all interference b e t w e e n foreign
states disclaimedthese few topics which, as far as foreign policy is con-
c e r n e d , form the regular stock-in-trade of the M a n c h e s t e r schoolhave again
b e e n expatiated on by Messrs. C o b d e n , Bright and t h e other " 'umble and 25
'omely m e n , " w h o w a n t t o h a v e a " m a n o f p e a c e " a t the " H o r s e G u a r d s , "
a n d a " l o o k o u t " at t h e H o u s e of L o r d s to sell t h e English and to undersell
all o t h e r nations.
Mr. C o b d e n ' s s p e e c h w a s a m e r e repetition, a n d a disingenuous one t o o ,
of t h e s p e e c h he m a d e at t h e closing of Parliament. T h e only luxury of novelty 30
he indulged in consisted of t w o argumentsthe o n e directed against F r a n c e ,
t h e o t h e r against America. It looks rather suspicious t h a t the same m a n w h o
t o o k so p r o m i n e n t a p a r t in bringing a b o u t t h e alliance with F r a n c e at the
t i m e w h e n t h e exploits of t h e D e c e m b r i s t s had a r o u s e d a cry of indignation
in E n g l a n d , is n o w busied in undoing his o w n w o r k by sneering at t h a t al- 35
liance, a n d denouncing it as " i n c o n s i d e r a t e " and " u n t i m e l y . " As to America,
M r . C o b d e n declares that it is from the g r o w t h of its m a n u f a c t u r e s and
c o m m e r c e , and n o t from the warlike policy of Russia, t h a t England m a y fear
to see e n d a n g e r e d t h e g r a n d e u r of h e r commercial a n d national prosperity.
H o w d o e s this tally with his professional free t r a d e c a n t , according to which 40
t h e commercial prosperity of o n e people d e p e n d s on t h e growth of t h e

40
Fortification of ConstantinopleDenmark's NeutralityComposition of British Parliament

c o m m e r c e and industry of all other p e o p l e s , t h e notion of any d a n g e r o u s


rivalry b e t w e e n t w o industrial p e o p l e s being disclaimed as a fallacy of
protectionist " q u a c k s ? " H o w d o e s this tally with " E n g l a n d ' s , b y t h e magic
of her machinery, having united forever two r e m o t e h e m i s p h e r e s in t h e
5 b o n d s of p e a c e , by placing E u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a in absolute and inextricable
dependence on each other?" It is n o t t h e first t i m e t h a t M r . C o b d e n , in o r d e r
to divert from Russia the suspicions and t h e animosity of t h e English people,
is anxious to turn t h e m against the U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a . In 1836, t h e
seizure of an English vessel on t h e Circassian c o a s t by a R u s s i a n man-of-war,
10 and the fiscal regulations of the St. P e t e r s b u r g Cabinet with regard to t h e
navigation of the D a n u b e , together with t h e revelations published in The
Portfolio, having e v o k e d t h e w r a t h of t h e English p e o p l e , and, a b o v e all,
t h e commercial classes, against Russia,Mr. C o b d e n , at t h a t e p o c h y e t " a n
infant in literary life a n d unlearned in public s p e a k i n g , " published a small
15 a n o n y m o u s p a m p h l e t , entitled "Russia: A Cure for Russophobia. By a
Manchester Manufacturer. " In this p a m p h l e t it is argued t h a t "in less t h a n
t w e n t y y e a r s t h i s " ( n a m e l y , t h e fear of t h e g r o w t h of American p r o s p e r i t y ,
a n d not of Russian aggrandizement, ) "will be the sentiment of the people
of E n g l a n d generally; a n d t h e s a m e c o n v i c t i o n s will be forced upon the
20 Government of the country." In t h e s a m e p a m p h l e t he professed that, "in
examining the various g r o u n d s u p o n which t h o s e w h o discuss t h e subject
t a k e up their hostile attitude t o w a r d the R u s s i a n nation, we h a v e d i s c o v e r e d ,
with infinite surprise a n d a d e e p conviction of t h e t r u t h , t h a t a c e n t u r y of
aristocratic G o v e r n m e n t in E n g l a n d h a s impregnated all classes with the
25 haughty and arrogant spirit of their r u l e r s ; " (against m e e k Russia!) that "if
the G o v e r n m e n t of St. P e t e r s b u r g w e r e transferred to the shores of t h e
B o s p h o r u s , a splendid a n d substantial E u r o p e a n city would, in less t h a n
t w e n t y y e a r s , spring up in the place of t h o s e h u t s which n o w constitute t h e
capital of T u r k e y ; noble buildings would arise, learned societies flourish, a n d
30 the arts p r o s p e r . If R u s s i a ' s G o v e r n m e n t should attain to t h a t actual p o w e r ,
she w o u l d cease the w a r s of t h e s w o r d and begin t h e battle with t h e wilder-
n e s s , by constructing railroads, building bridges, by fostering the a c -
c u m u l a t i o n of capital, the growth of cities, and the increase of civilization
and freedom... T h e slavery w h i c h pollutes Constantinople w o u l d instantly
35 disappear, and c o m m e r c e and laws protecting life and property"(as n o w
exemplified in Moldo-Wallachia)"take its p l a c e . "
" A s a proof of R u s s i a ' s civilization and c o n s e q u e n t l y her right to appropri-
ate T u r k e y , Mr. C o b d e n told his astonished r e a d e r s that t h e Russian mer-
c h a n t possessed of 10-15,000 r o u b l e s , n o t only engages in foreign c o m m e r c e ,
40 b u t is "exempt from corporal punishment, and qualified to drive about in
a carriage and pair. " A r e we t h e n to be a s t o n i s h e d at t h e R u s s i a n E m p e r o r ' s

41
Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels

r e c e n t l y e x p r e s s e d conviction that " E n g l a n d , with a Bourgeois Parliament


could n o t c a r r y on a w a r with g l o r y ? " So deeply i m b u e d w a s Mr. C o b d e n
in 1836, with t h e " w i c k e d n e s s of the public writers and s p e a k e r s , " w h o
v e n t u r e d to find fault with the A u t o c r a t of all t h e R u s s i a s , t h a t he w o u n d
up his p a m p h l e t with t h e question: " A n d w h o a n d w h a t are t h o s e writers a n d 5
s p e a k e r s ? H o w long shall political q u a c k s be permitted, without fear of
p u n i s h m e n t , to inflame the minds a n d disorder t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of a w h o l e
n a t i o n ? " T h o s e "public writers and s p e a k e r s , " w e p r e s u m e , w h o p o s s e s s
10,000 to 15,000 roubles and are able to drive a b o u t in a carriage a n d pair,
to be e x e m p t e d at least from " c o r p o r a l punishment." Till n o w , M r . C o b d e n ' s 10
Philo-Russian m a n i a h a d b e e n considered, by s o m e , as o n e of t h e multifar-
ious c r o t c h e t s he u s e s to t r a d e in, by o t h e r s as the n e c e s s a r y offspring of
his p e a c e doctrine. Of late, h o w e v e r , t h e public h a s b e e n informed by o n e
w h o justly describes himself as the "literary h o r s e , or ass if y o u l i k e , " of
t h e late Anti-Corn L a w L e a g u e , that, w h e n Mr. C o b d e n w r o t e his first 15
p a m p h l e t , " h e h a d b e e n to Russia on a commercial e r r a n d of his o w n , in
1834-35, and w a s successful," t h a t his " h e a r t and calico w e r e b o t h in R u s s i a
in 1836;" a n d that his anger at t h e " E n g l i s h w r i t e r s , s p e a k e r s , a u t h o r s and
r e v i e w e r s , " originated from their criticising his n e w c u s t o m e r , Nicholas of
Russia. 20
As t h e H o u s e of C o m m o n s is to r e a s s e m b l e in a few d a y s , it seems p r o p e r
to give, in a c o n d e n s e d form, the statistics of British representation:
Seats. Percentage
of the actual
Representation. 25
The relations of Peers possess 103 -1
Irish Peers 17,0
The country gentlemen 266 41,3
Men of letters and science 20 3,0
The army and navy 30 4,6 30
The commercial and moneyed interest 109 17,1
The lawyers 107 17,0
The workingmen's interest None.
Total seats occupied 641

T h e ttsh Peers in t h e H o u s e of C o m m o n s a r e : V i s c o u n t P a l m e r s t o n , for 35


T i v e r t o n ; V i s c o u n t Barrington, for B e r k s h i r e ; E a r l A n n e s l e y , for G r i m s b y ;
V i s c o u n t M o n c k , for P o r t s m o u t h ; V i s c o u n t G a l w a y , for R e t f o r d ; a n d L o r d
H o t h a m , for E a s t Y o r k s h i r e . T h e m e n of literature and science a r e : Benjamin
Disraeli, for B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e ; T h o m a s M a c a u l a y , t h e historian, for E d i n -
b u r g h ; M a c G r e g o r , t h e commercial statist, for Glasgow; William Stirling, 40
a u t h o r of Annals of the Artists of Spain, e t c . , for P e r t h s h i r e ; W m . G l a d s t o n e ,
a u t h o r of The State in its Relation to the Church, a n d o t h e r w o r k s , for Oxford

42
Fortification of ConstantinopleDenmark's NeutralityComposition of British Parliament

U n i v e r s i t y ; Dr. A u s t e n H. L a y a r d , a u t h o r of Nineveh and its Remains, e t c . ,


for A y l e s b u r y ; J a m e s Wilson, t h e E d i t o r of The Economist, for W e s t b u r y ;
Sir William M o l e s w o r t h , the E d i t o r of H o b b e s ' w o r k s , etc., for S o u t h w a r k ;
Sir E. L. Bulwer L y t t o n , poet, dramatist, novelist, for H e r t f o r d s h i r e ; William
5 J o h n s o n F o x , A n t i - C o r n - L a w L e a g u e writer, for Oldham ; W. A. M a c k i n n o n ,
a u t h o r of a (very pitiful) History of Civilization, etc., for R y e ; R. M o n c k t o n
M i l n e s , a u t h o r of Memorials of Travel, e t c . , a n d Benjamin Oliveira, a u t h o r
of a Tour in the East, b o t h for P o n t e f r a c t ; E d w a r d Miall, a u t h o r of several
theological and political w o r k s , for R o c h d a l e ; William M u r e , a u t h o r of a
10 History of Grecian Literature, for R e n f r e w s h i r e , Scotland; W. P. U r q u h a r t ,
a u t h o r of The Life of Francisco Sforza, for W e s t m e a t h C o u n t y , I r e l a n d ;
R o b e r t S t e p h e n s o n , t h e celebrated railway engineer, for W h i t b y ; William
Micheli, physician, for B o d m i n ; J o h n B r a d y , surgeon, for Leitrim. W h e t h e r
L o r d J o h n Russell m a y be safely classed u n d e r t h e h e a d of literary gentlemen
15 I d a r e n o t decide.
T h e r e a r e , at least, 100 s e a t s , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of w h i c h are nominally
elected b y t h e constituencies, b u t really appointed b y D u k e s , E a r l s , M a r -
q u i s e s , ladies and other p e r s o n s , w h o t u r n their local influence to political
account. T h e Marquis of W e s t m i n s t e r , for instance, disposes of t w o seats
20 for C h e s t e r , a t o w n mustering 2,524 e l e c t o r s ; the D u k e of N o r f o l k of o n e
seat for Arundel; the D u k e of S u t h e r l a n d of t w o seats for Newcastle-under-
L y n e ; t h e Marquis of L a n s d o w n e of o n e seat for Calne ; the E a r l Fitz-William
of t w o seats for M a l t n ; t h e D u k e of R i c h m o n d of t w o seats for Chichester;
Miss Pierse of o n e seat for N o r t h a l l e r t o n , e t c .
25 T h e disproportion on o n e side of t h e electoral b o d y , a n d on the other of
t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , w h e n c o m p a r e d with t h e entire population, m a y b e
s h o w n b y s o m e few i n s t a n c e s :
In B e r k s h i r e t h e entire population a m o u n t s to 170,065, and the n u m b e r of
electors to 7,980. It c h o o s e s nine r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s for the H o u s e , while
30 L e i c e s t e r s h i r e , w i t h an entire population of 230,308, and a constituency of
13,081 disposes of six seats only; Lincolnshire, with a population of 407,222,
a n d 24,782 electors, disposes of thirteen seats in t h e H o u s e , while Middle-
sex, with an entire population of 1,886,576, a n d a constituency of
113,490 elects only f o u r t e e n m e m b e r s . L a n c a s h i r e , w i t h a population of
35 2,031,236, h a s a c o n s t i t u e n c y of only 81,786 electors, a n d disposes of b u t
twenty-six seats in the H o u s e , while B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e , with an entire popula-
tion of 163,723, a n d with 8,125 electors, is r e p r e s e n t e d by eleven m e m b e r s .
S u s s e x , with an entire population of 336,844, a n d with 18,054 electors, elects
eighteen m e m b e r s , while Staffordshire, w i t h a population of 678,716, a n d
40 w i t h 29,667 electors, elects only s e v e n t e e n .
T h e relation of t h e Electoral b o d y to t h e population is:

43
Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels

In England o n e C o u n t y Elector r e p r e s e n t s 20,7 p e r s o n s of the C o u n t y


population.
In W a l e s o n e C o u n t y Elector r e p r e s e n t s 20,0 p e r s o n s of the C o u n t y
population.
In Scotland o n e C o u n t y Elector r e p r e s e n t s 34,4 p e r s o n s of the C o u n t y 5
population.
In E n g l a n d o n e B o r o u g h Elector r e p r e s e n t s 18,0 p e r s o n s of t h e b o r o u g h
population.
In W a l e s o n e B o r o u g h Elector r e p r e s e n t s 24,4 p e r s o n s of the b o r o u g h
population. 10
In Scotland o n e B o r o u g h Elector r e p r e s e n t s 23,8 p e r s o n s of the b o r o u g h
population.
T h e d a t a for Ireland are not so c o m p l e t e as for E n g l a n d and Scotland; b u t
t h e following m a y be t a k e n as a fair a p p r o x i m a t i o n for t h e same period,
1851-52. 15
O n e Elector in an Irish C o u n t y r e p r e s e n t s 36 p e r s o n s of the C o u n t y
population.
O n e Elector in an Irish b o r o u g h r e p r e s e n t s 23 p e r s o n s of the b o r o u g h
population.
T h e general deficiency of the E u r o p e a n Grain m a r k e t s m a y be stated as 20
follows: t h e deficiency of grain in F r a n c e in place of being t e n millions of
hectolitres, as stated by the Moniteur, to calm t h e alarm, greatly e x c e e d s
t w e n t y millions, t h a t is, more t h a n eight million q u a r t e r s of English m e a s u r e ;
and the deficiency of p o t a t o e s is not less t h a n one-fourth of the average of
t h e last five y e a r s , while t h e deficiency in w i n e , oil a n d c h e s t n u t s is yet 25
greater. T h e deficiency in the p r o d u c e of c o r n in Belgium and Holland is
a b o u t four millions of hectolitres; that of t h e R h i n e P r o v i n c e s , Prussia a n d
Switzerland, at a m o d e r a t e estimate, is t a k e n to e x c e e d ten million hectoli-
t r e s . T h e estimated deficiency in Italy is k n o w n to be v e r y great, b u t t h e r e
is greater difficulty in arriving at e v e n a p r o x i m a t e result. T h e lowest esti- 30
m a t e , h o w e v e r , gives t e n millions of hectolitres of grain, or a deficiency
t h r o u g h o u t the great grain producing districts of W e s t e r n E u r o p e of n o t less
t h a n forty-four millions of hectolitres, ( s e v e n t e e n million quarters.) T h e
deficiency in England is k n o w n to e x c e e d five million q u a r t e r s of grain, and
calculations w o r t h y of grave consideration give t h a t a m o u n t as the deficiency 35
in w h e a t alone. T h u s there is a fatal deficiency in t h e last h a r v e s t in W e s t e r n
E u r o p e alone of no less t h a n t w e n t y - t w o million q u a r t e r s , without taking into
a c c o u n t t h e great inferiority a n d short-coming of other cereals, and t h e
general p r e v a l e n c e of the potato-rota deficiency w h i c h , if valued in w h e a t ,
m u s t be equal to at least five million q u a r t e r s , or a grand total of t w e n t y - s e v e n 40
million q u a r t e r s of grain.

44
Fortification of ConstantinopleDenmark's NeutralityComposition of British Parliament

As to the supplies that m a y be e x p e c t e d from foreign m a r k e t s , it is asserted


b y v e r y c o m p e t e n t commercial authority:
" I n Poland the c r o p s h a v e b e e n v e r y short; in R u s s i a , deficient, as seen
by t h e high prices a s k e d for grain at t h e Baltic p o r t s before our deficiencies
5 w e r e k n o w n . A n d t h o u g h in the D a n u b i a n p r o v i n c e s the h a r v e s t has n o t
failed, yet t h e stocks t h e r e , as well as at O d e s s a , are greatly lessened by t h e
i m m e n s e exportations t o t h e M e d i t e r a n e a n a n d t o F r a n c e . A s t o A m e r i c a , i t
is unable to supply t w o million of q u a r t e r s . All t h e ships of t h e world are
inadequate to the supply of a quantity n e a r , or e v e n approaching a m o i e t y
10 of t h e deficiency, w h i c h at p r e s e n t is k n o w n to all E n g l a n d to exist."
Karl Marx.

45
Karl Marx
Count Orlov's MissionRussian Finances during the War

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr.4007, 20. Februar 1854
From Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , F r i d a y , F e b . 3, 1854.

I w a s able to see the State procession of the Q u e e n to o p e n Parliament, as


i t p a s s e d t h e H o r s e G u a r d s . T h e T u r k i s h E m b a s s a d o r w a s r e c e i v e d with loud
c h e e r s and h u r r a h s . Prince Albert, w h o s e c o u n t e n a n c e w a s deadly pale, w a s 5
furiously hissed by t h e c r o w d s on b o t h sides of t h e streets, while t h e Q u e e n
w a s sparing of her usual salutes and morbidly smiled at the u n w o n t e d
manifestations of popular discontent. In a previous letter I h a v e r e d u c e d t h e
anti-Albert m o v e m e n t to its true dimensions, proving it to be a m e r e p a r t y
trick. T h e public d e m o n s t r a t i o n is, n e v e r t h e l e s s , of a v e r y grave character, 10
as it p r o v e s the ostensible loyalty of t h e British p e o p l e to be a m e r e con-
ventional formality, a c e r e m o n i o u s affectation w h i c h c a n n o t withstand the
slightest shock. Probably it m a y induce t h e C r o w n to dismiss a Ministry, the
anti-national policy of w h i c h t h r e a t e n s to e n d a n g e r its o w n security.
W h e n t h e r e c e n t mission of C o u n t Orloff to t h e V i e n n a Cabinet b e c a m e 15
k n o w n The Times informed its credulous r e a d e r s t h a t Orloff w a s the v e r y
m a n t h e C z a r used to employ on pacific e r r a n d s . N o w I n e e d not inform you
t h a t this same Orloff a p p e a r e d in the spring of 1833 at Constantinople to
s q u e e z e o u t of the Porte the treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi. W h a t he n o w asks
from t h e Cabinet at V i e n n a is the permission to send a R u s s i a n c o r p s from 20
W a r s a w , by w a y of H u n g a r y , to t h e D a n u b i a n seat of w a r . It m a y be con-
sidered as t h e first result of his p r e s e n c e at Vienna, t h a t A u s t r i a n o w insists
u p o n t h e P o r t e ' s dismissing its p r e s e n t c o m m a n d e r s on t h e DanubeSelim
P a s h a , Ismail P a s h a and O m e r Pashaon t h e plea t h a t t h e y are r e n e g a d e s
a n d revolutionists. E v e r y o n e acquainted w i t h t h e pasjt history of T u r k e y 25
k n o w s t h a t from t h e beginning of t h e O s m a n p o w e r all h e r great generals,
admirals, diplomatists and ministers h a v e always b e e n Christian r e n e g a d e s ,
S e r b s , G r e e k s , Albanians, e t c . W h y not ask R u s s i a t o dismiss t h e forty o r
fifty m e n she has bought from all parts of E u r o p e , a n d w h o constitute her

46
Count Orlov's MissionRussian Finances during the War

w h o l e stock of diplomatic ingenuity, political intelligence a n d military


ability? In t h e m e a n t i m e A u s t r i a h a s c o n c e n t r a t e d 80,000 m e n on t h e T u r k i s h
frontiers in Transylvania a n d H u n g a r y , a n d o r d e r e d a B o h e m i a n c o r p s
mustering some 30,000 m e n t o join t h e m . T h e P r u s s i a n G o v e r n m e n t o n its
5 part is stated to h a v e declined to c o m p l y with t h e c o m m a n d of t h e C z a r
ordering F r e d e r i c k William IV to send a c o r p s of 100,000 m e n to o c c u p y
Poland in t h e n a m e a n d interest of Russia, a n d t h u s set t h e garrisons t h e r e
at liberty to m a r c h to t h e s o u t h for t h e p r o s e c u t i o n of t h e c a m p a i g n in t h e
Principalities.
10 In a previous letter I called y o u r attention to t h e r e c e n t financial e x p e d i e n t
r e s o r t e d to by t h e Austrian G o v e r n m e n t of exacting a discount of 15 p e r cent,
u p o n their o w n p a p e r m o n e y , w h e n paid for t a x e s . This ingenious " t a x u p o n
t h e p a y m e n t of t a x e s " is n o w e x t e n d e d to Italy also. T h e Milan Gazette of t h e
22d inst. publishes a d e c r e e from t h e A u s t r i a n Minister of F i n a n c e , a n n o u n c -
15 ing that " i n c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e fall in t h e value of p a p e r m o n e y it will n o t
be received at the C u s t o m H o u s e unless at a discount of 17 per c e n t . "
As to the Russian E x c h e q u e r , I h a d on a previous occasion, at the b e -
ginning of w h a t is called t h e E a s t e r n complication, to w a r n y o u r r e a d e r s
against t h e industriously circulated s t a t e m e n t of the " h i d d e n " t r e a s u r e s
20 slumbering in t h e vaults of t h e B a n k of St. P e t e r s b u r g , and the ridiculous
exaggeration of t h e v a s t m o n e t a r y p o w e r t h a t R u s s i a c a n wield at a given
m o m e n t . M y views are fully confirmed b y w h a t h a s h a p p e n e d since. N o t only
h a s the Czar b e e n forced to w i t h d r a w his metallic deposits from t h e b a n k s
of E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e , b u t , m o r e o v e r , to c o m m i t an act of fraudulent
25 confiscation. Prince P a s h k e w i t c h h a s informed the W a r s a w mortgage or
discount B a n k t h a t its capital will be t a k e n as a forced loan, although t h e
statutes of that b a n k forbid its advancing m o n e y u p o n a n y security b u t landed
property. We are also informed t h a t t h e R u s s i a n G o v e r n m e n t i n t e n d s issuing
a sum of 60,000,000 r o u b l e s in inconvertible p a p e r , to defray the e x p e n s e s
30 of t h e war. This c o n t r i v a n c e is no n e w o n e on t h e p a r t of t h e P e t e r s b u r g
Cabinet. At the close of 1768, C a t h e r i n e II, in o r d e r to m e e t the e x p e n s e s
of t h e w a r with T u r k e y , f o u n d e d a b a n k of assignats, ostensibly instituted
o n t h e principle o f issuing convertible n o t e s p a y a b l e t o t h e b e a r e r . B u t b y
a well-managed oversight, she forgot to tell t h e public in w h a t sort of m o n e y
35 t h e s e n o t e s w e r e to be p a y a b l e , a n d s o m e m o n t h s later t h e p a y m e n t s w e r e
only m a d e i n c o p p e r coin. B y a n o t h e r u n t o w a r d " a c c i d e n t " i t h a p p e n e d t h a t
t h e s e c o p p e r coins w e r e o v e r v a l u e d b y 5 0 p e r cent, w h e n c o m p a r e d with t h e
u n c o i n e d metal, a n d only circulated at their nominal value in c o n s e q u e n c of
their great scarcity a n d t h e w a n t of small m o n e y for retail p u r p o s e s . T h e
40 convertibility of the n o t e s w a s , t h e r e f o r e , a m e r e trick.
In t h e first instance Catherine limited t h e w h o l e issue to 40,000,000 roubles,

47
Karl Marx

in 25 rouble n o t e s , the rouble representing a silver coin varying from 38 to


40 d. British m o n e y , according to t h e rate of e x c h a n g e , being equivalent to
s o m e w h a t a b o v e 100 c o p p e r c o p e k s . At t h e d e a t h of Catherine, in 1796, t h e
m a s s of this p a p e r m o n e y h a d risen to 157,000,000, nearly four times its
original a m o u n t . T h e e x c h a n g e on L o n d o n h a d c o m e d o w n from 4 I d . in 1787 5
to 31d. in 1796. During the t w o s u b s e q u e n t g o v e r n m e n t s , a rapid increase
of issues having t a k e n place, in 1810 the p a p e r circulation r e a c h e d
2
577,000,000, and t h e p a p e r rouble w a s only w o r t h 2 5 / c o p e k s , i.e., o n e -
5

q u a r t e r of its value in 1788; a n d e x c h a n g e on L o n d o n , in t h e a u t u m n of 1810,


sunk to 1 lVzd. the rouble, instead of representing 38-40d. In 1817 the a m o u n t 10
of n o t e s in circulation w a s 836,000,000, according to t h e s t a t e m e n t of C o u n t
Gurieff ..As the c u s t o m - h o u s e duties and other t a x e s w e r e calculated in silver
r o u b l e s , t h e G o v e r n m e n t n o w declared t h e s e assignats t o b e receivable i n t h e
p r o p o r t i o n of 4 to 1, thus avowing a depreciation of 75 p e r cent. During the
p r o g r e s s of the depreciation, t h e prices of c o m m o d i t i e s r o s e proportionably, 15
subject to v e r y great fluctuations, which c o m m e n c e d troubling the Cabinet
itself, a n d forced it to c o n t r a c t foreign loans in order to w i t h d r a w from
circulation a portion of the n o t e s . On the 1st of J a n u a r y , 1821, their a m o u n t
w a s a n n o u n c e d t o h a v e b e e n r e d u c e d t o 640,000,000. T h e s u b s e q u e n t wars
w i t h T u r k e y , Persia, Poland, Chiva, etc., again swelled t h e m a s s of the b a n k 20
assignats, lowered the e x c h a n g e s a n e w , and subjected all commodities to
e x t e n s i v e and irregular oscillations of prices. It w a s n o t till the 1st July, 1839,
t h a t t h e r a t e of e x c h a n g e , being ameliorated in c o n s e q u e n c e of an e n o r m o u s
e x p o r t of grain to England, t h e Czar issued a m a n i f e s t o , according to w h i c h ,
from t h e 1st of July, 1840, t h e huge m a s s of b a n k assignats w a s to be con- 25
v e r t e d into b a n k n o t e s payable on d e m a n d in silver r o u b l e s at t h e full a m o u n t
of 38d. T h e Czar Alexander h a d declared t h e assignats to be receivable, on
t h e p a r t of the tax-gatherer, at the p r o p o r t i o n of 4 to 1 ; b u t the C z a r Nicholas
is said to h a v e restored t h e m , by his c o n v e r s i o n , to their full original value
again. T h e r e w a s , h o w e v e r , a curious little clause a n n e x e d , ordering t h a t for 30
e v e r y one of such n e w n o t e s t h r e e a n d a half of t h e old o n e s should be
delivered u p . T h e old note w a s not declared to be d e p r e c i a t e d to 28 p e r cent,
of its original a m o u n t , b u t 3 V2 of the old n o t e s w e r e declared to be equivalent
to a full new n o t e . H e n c e we may infer, on t h e o n e h a n d , t h a t t h e Russian
Cabinet is as conscientious and punctilious in financial as in diplomatic 35
distinctions; and on t h e other, t h a t t h e m e r e danger of an approaching w a r
suffices to throw it b a c k into all the m o n e t a r y difficulties w h i c h N i c h o l a s
h a s tried for about t w e n t y y e a r s to emerge from.
O n e o f t h e E u r o p e a n G o v e r n m e n t s after the o t h e r c o m e s f o r w a r d appeal-
ing to t h e p o c k e t s of its b e l o v e d subjects. E v e n t h e King of sober-minded 40
H o l l a n d d e m a n d s of the States General 600,000 rix-dollars for w o r k s of

AL
Count Orlov's MissionRussian Finances during the War

fortification a n d defense, adding " t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s may d e t e r m i n e him to


mobilize a portion of the a r m y and to send o u t his fleets."
If it w e r e possible to m e e t real w a n t s and to fill the general v a c u u m of
m o n e y chests by any ingenious art of book-keeping, the contriver of t h e
5 F r e n c h budget, as published s o m e d a y s ago in t h e Moniteur, w o u l d h a v e d o n e
the thing; b u t t h e r e is n o t t h e smallest s h o p k e e p e r at Paris u n a w a r e of t h e
fact that, by t h e m o s t skilfull grouping of figures, o n e c a n n o t get o u t of t h e
b o o k s of his creditor, and t h a t the h e r o of t h e 2d of D e c e m b e r , deeming t h e
public p o c k e t to be inexhaustible, has recklessly run into the nation's debt.
10 T h e r e c a n be imagined nothing m o r e naif t h a n t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t of t h e
D a n i s h Ministry at the sitting of the Folkething, on the 17th inst., that the
G o v e r n m e n t intended postponing to a m o r e expedient season t h e proposition
to change the fundamental institutions of D e n m a r k , and introduce their m u c h
cherished Whole State Constitution. (Gesammtstaatsverfassung.)
15 Karl Marx.

49
Karl Marx
Blue BooksParliamentary Debates on February 6
Count Orlov's MissionOperations of the Allied Fleet-
The Irish BrigadeConcerning the Convocation
of the Labour Parliament

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 4008, 21. Februar 1854
F r o m Our O w n C o r r e s p o n d e n t .

L o n d o n , T u e s d a y , F e b . 7, 1854.

T h e "Rights and Privileges of the G r e e k a n d L a t i n C h u r c h e s , " as the minister-


ial b l u e - b o o k o n t h e E a s t e r n Question h a s b e e n ingeniously baptized, h a v e
b e e n subjected by m e , to a scrutinizing perusal, and I intend shortly to give
y o u r r e a d e r s a c o n d e n s e d survey of this diplomatic labyrinth. F o r t h e
p r e s e n t , I c o n t e n t myself with the simple a s s u r a n c e t h a t a m o r e m o n s t r o u s
m o n u m e n t of G o v e r n m e n t a l infamies and imbecility h a s , p e r h a p s , n e v e r
b e e n b e q u e a t h e d to history. A n d , let us r e m e m b e r , w h a t M r . Balie said in
t h e H o u s e of C o m m o n s on t h e value of t h e s e b l u e - b o o k s : " A s for in-
formation, t h e y h a d quite as m u c h on this subject as t h e y requirednot, he
admitted, official informationbut quite as m u c h as t h e y w e r e likely to
r e c e i v e from a blue-book t h a t had b e e n carefully prepared, and had con-
cealed all that a Government might desire. He s p o k e f r o m e x p e r i e n c e , ('hear,
h e a r , ' a n d laughter from the ministerial b e n c h e s , ) from a knowledge of h o w
b l u e - b o o k s relating to Foreign Affairs h a d b e e n p r e p a r e d for this H o u s e . "
I k n o w v e r y well t h a t L o r d P a l m e r s t o n , w h e n o n c e a c c u s e d of having per-
v e r t e d t h e d o c u m e n t s relating to t h e Af f g h a n war, of having s u p p r e s s e d m o s t
i m p o r t a n t passages in d i s p a t c h e s , and e v e n of having deliberately falsified
o t h e r s , m a d e t h e following ingenious reply: "Sir, if a n y such thing h a d b e e n
d o n e , w h a t w a s t o p r e v e n t the two a d v e r s e G o v e r n m e n t s , w h o succeeded
us in p o w e r , o n e of w h i c h e n d u r e d for five yearsfrom proclaiming t h e fact
a n d p r o d u c i n g t h e real d o c u m e n t s ? " B u t I k n o w equally well t h a t the secret
of t h e s e b l u e - b o o k dodges is t h e v e r y secret of t h e alternate Whig a n d T o r y
succession in g o v e r n m e n t , e a c h p a r t y having a greater interest to maintain
t h e capability of its o p p o n e n t for succession, t h a n by ruining their mutual
political " h o n o r " to c o m p r o m i s e the g o v e r n m e n t of t h e ruling classes alto-
gether. This is w h a t t h e British are pleased to call t h e o p e r a t i o n of their
glorious constitution.

50
Blue BooksParliamentary Debates on February 6Count Orlov's Mission

L o r d Clanricarde h a d given notice that he w o u l d m o v e a discussion of t h e


E a s t e r n question in t h e H o u s e of L o r d s , y e s t e r d a y . Consequently, great
expectations w e r e entertained, and t h e H o u s e almost c r o w d e d . Mr. U r q u h a r t
did n o t hesitate e v e n to designate, in y e s t e r d a y ' s Morning Advertiser, L o r d
5 Clanricarde as t h e future leader of t h e national p a r t y , r e m e m b e r i n g t h a t he
w a s the only m a n w h o o p p o s e d , in 1829, t h e Russians in crossing t h e Balkan,
b u t forgetting, n o doubt, t h a t t h e same noble Marquis w a s , during the
m o m e n t o u s e p o c h of 1839-40, L o r d P a l m e r s t o n ' s E m b a s s a d o r at t h e C o u r t
of St. Petersburg, and his chief i n s t r u m e n t in bringing a b o u t t h e separate
10 t r e a t y of 1840 a n d the r u p t u r e w i t h F r a n c e .
T h e public has b e e n decidedly disappointed b y the d e b a t e s , a s t h e Marquis
of Clanricarde, inferring from t h e r e p o r t s in t h e public p a p e r s , t h a t " t h e r e
a p p e a r e d to be something of t h e s e m b l a n c e of negotiations still going on at
Vienna, w a s extremely sorry to occasion a n y discussion which might p r e v e n t
15 a peaceful termination to t h o s e n e g o t i a t i o n s . " Accordingly, he g a v e notice
of his intention to bring f o r w a r d a m o t i o n on t h e s a m e subject this d a y w e e k .
T h e noble Marquis c o n t e n t e d himself w i t h asking L o r d Clarendon " w h e t h e r
any a n s w e r h a d y e t b e e n received from t h e E m p e r o r o f R u s s i a t o t h e V i e n n a
p r o p o s a l s ? " and " w h a t instructions h a d b e e n given to the British Minister
20 at St. P e t e r s b u r g ? " L o r d C l a r e n d o n ' s reply w a s , " t h a t he h a d only received
this afternoon an official s t a t e m e n t of the facts from V i e n n a . " T h e E m p e r o r
of R u s s i a h a d rejected t h e V i e n n a n o t e , a n d offered, in its stead, a c o u n t e r
project. O n t h e 2 d inst. t h e C o n f e r e n c e h a d b e e n called together, and h a d
rejected o n its p a r t the c o u n t e r project. " T h e n e w proposals put f o r w a r d b y
25 R u s s i a w e r e wholly unacceptablethey could n o t be transmitted to C o n -
stantinople, and, therefore, t h e r e w a s a n e n d o f t h e m . H e h a d n o r e a s o n t o
think t h a t fresh negotiations o n t h e subject w o u l d b e r e n e w e d . A s t o t h e
p r e s e r v a t i o n of p e a c e , he held out no s u c h e x p e c t a t i o n at all." W i t h regard
t o t h e other question p u t b y L o r d Clanricarde, h e stated t h a t " o n S a t u r d a y
30 evening B a r o n B r u n n o w called on him at t h e Foreign Office and placed in his
h a n d s a n o t e , in w h i c h he a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e a n s w e r he h a d received from
h i m t o t h e inquiry h e w a s instructed t o m a k e b y his G o v e r n m e n t , w a s not
of a kind that permitted him to continue diplomatic relations, and that,
therefore, diplomatic relations b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d England w e r e suspended.
35 B a r o n B r u n n o w h a d t a k e n l e a v e of h i m on S a t u r d a y evening, b u t it w a s t h e n
t o o late t o depart from L o n d o n , a n d h e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t h e w a s t o leave early
this m o r n i n g . "
M. de Kisseleff, we are informed by telegraph, left Paris y e s t e r d a y a n d
is g o n e to Brussels. T h e official or G o v e r n m e n t journals state t h a t all t h e
40 E m b a s s y at L o n d o n w o u l d be b r o k e n u p , a n d e v e r y R u s s i a n leave England.
B u t I h a p p e n to k n o w , from an excellent s o u r c e , t h a t , on t h e contrary, t h e

51
Karl Marx

n u m b e r of Russians in England will only be diminished by the p e r s o n of the


E m b a s s a d o r , and t h a t t h e whole personnel remains at L o n d o n u n d e r t h e
s u p e r i n t e n d e n c e of M. de Berg, First S e c r e t a r y of t h e E m b a s s y . As to t h e
position of the British E m b a s s a d o r at t h e C o u r t of St. Petersburg, L o r d
Clarendon declared that " a s it w a s half past 6 o'clock on S a t u r d a y w h e n 5
B a r o n B r u n n o w called u p o n him, a n d as it w a s n e c e s s a r y to h a v e previous
c o m m u n i c a t i o n with t h e F r e n c h G o v e r n m e n t , it w a s n o t possible at the
m o m e n t to send instructions to t h e British Minister at St. P e t e r s b u r g , b u t t h e y
had already held communication with the F r e n c h E m b a s s a d o r on the subject,
and instructions w o u l d be sent to Sir G. S e y m o u r a n d General de astelbajac 10
t o m o r r o w , w h i c h w o u l d place t h e m o n exactly t h e same footing a s t h e
R u s s i a n E m b a s s a d o r h e r e , and diplomatic relations b e t w e e n the t w o c o u n -
tries and Russia would be s u s p e n d e d . "
L o r d J o h n Russell r e p e a t e d in the H o u s e of C o m m o n s the declaration of
L o r d C l a r e n d o n in t h e U p p e r H o u s e , and L o r d P a l m e r s t o n a n n o u n c e d t h a t 15
" h e would bring forward a m e a s u r e to consolidate t h e militia laws, in w h i c h
it w a s his intention that a militia force should be organized for Scotland a n d
Ireland, the period of enrollment depending u p o n t h e v o t e s of the H o u s e . "
T h e English a r m y is to be a u g m e n t e d immediately by 11,000 m e n ; 1,500 c o a s t
guards are also to be e m b a r k e d forthwith, intended to form a stock for t h e 20
c r e w s of t h e newly commissioned ships. A royal proclamation has b e e n
issued forbidding the exportation of any vessels of w a r , military stores and
a m m u n i t i o n to Russia. E m b a r g o has b e e n laid by t h e naval authorities visiting
t h e private dock-yards on the T h a m e s on t w o vessels in c o u r s e of con-
struction for Russian account. A contract, on behalf of t h e British G o v e r n - 25
m e n t , for coal sufficient for steamers of the aggregate a m o u n t of
11,000 h o r s e - p o w e r , has b e e n concluded at C o p e n h a g e n . Admiral Sir Charles
N a p i e r is to h a v e c o m m a n d of t h e Baltic fleet a b o u t to be formed.
T h e official Wiener Zeitung a n n o u n c e s t h a t " t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a s received
notice t h a t Russia has expressly declared to t h e F o u r P o w e r s that she regards 30
herself as released from the promise m a d e at O l m t z to remain on t h e
defensive in t h e Principalities."
Concerning t h e object of the mission of C o u n t Orloff at V i e n n a a n u m b e r
of conflicting r u m o r s are afloat; t h e m o s t credible of w h i c h a p p e a r s to be
contained in t h e Berlin c o r r e s p o n d e n c e of to-day's Times. " R u s s i a , " says 35
this c o r r e s p o n d e n t , "invites Austria and Prussia to enter with her into a t r e a t y
of neutrality for all contingencies; suggests to t h e m to m a k e the declaration
of their neutrality the c o m m o n expression of t h e neutrality of t h e G e r m a n
B u n d ; u n d e r t a k e s to c o m e to the assistance of t h e B u n d should any of its
m e m b e r s be a t t a c k e d ; and binds herself, in t h e c a s e of a n y territorial changes 40
having to be arranged at the end of the w a r , to conclude no p e a c e without

52
Blue BooksParliamentary Debates on February 6Count Orlov's Mission

having d u e consideration for t h e interests of t h e G e r m a n P o w e r s in s u c h


territorial changes. In this p r o p o s a l for a t r e a t y of neutrality distinct
reference is m a d e to t h e principles a n d provisions of the Holy Alliance of
1815."
5 As to the decision p r o b a b l y c o m e to by A u s t r i a and Prussia, I can only
r e p e a t t h e convictions already r e c o r d e d by me on this question. Austria will
e n d e a v o r by e v e r y m e a n s to maintain her position of neutrality as long as
she will be permitted to do so, a n d will declare for Russia w h e n t h e p r o p e r
time has arrived. Prussia, on t h e other h a n d , is likely again to miss t h e p r o p e r
10 t i m e for abandoning her neutrality a n d will e n d by calling u p o n herself t h e
fate of another J e n a .
We learn from Constantinople t h a t the combined fleet h a v e r e t u r n e d to
their anchorage at Beicos, notwithstanding t h e following order, sent out to
t h e m , o n behalf o f the E m b a s s a d o r s , b y t h e S a m s o n : " T h e E m b a s s a d o r s are
15 surprised at t h e s u d d e n resolution of t h e Admirals, m o r e particularly at the
p r e s e n t m o m e n t , w h e n a T u r k i s h steam-flotilla is on t h e point of starting with
ammunition and other stores for t h e a r m y of Anatolia. T h e orders of t h e
F r e n c h and British G o v e r n m e n t s w e r e formal and precise, ( t h e y w e r e in-
deed, b u t not t h e original o r d e r s with which t h e Admirals w e r e dispatched,
20 b u t only those just r e c e i v e d , ) respecting the protection to be afforded by
t h e combined fleets to t h e O t t o m a n flag and territory, and t h e attention of
b o t h Admirals is again called to the stringent n a t u r e of t h e s e instructions
which h a d b e e n duly notified to t h e m . T h e Admirals, it would appear, con-
sider that the m e a s u r e s entrusted to their e x e c u t i o n m a y be equally well
25 effected, w h e t h e r the force u n d e r their c o m m a n d be stationed at Beicos or
Sinope, ( i n this c a s e , it w o u l d a p p e a r to o t h e r s , that the same instructions
might h a v e b e e n carried out by t h e fleets quietly remaining at Malta a n d
T o u l o n . ) This is a m a t t e r which m u s t entirely depend u p o n their judgment,
and on t h e m t h e responsibility will r e s t . "
30 T h e Russian fleet is k n o w n to be at Kaffa near the Strait of Yenikale,
w h e n c e t h e distance to B a t u m is only o n e third of the distance b e t w e e n
B a t u m a n d Beicos. Will the admirals be able to p r e v e n t a Sinope at B a t u m ,
" w h e t h e r they b e stationed a t Beicos o r e l s e w h e r e ? "
Y o u will r e m e m b e r t h a t t h e C z a r ' s first proclamation a c c u s e d t h e Sultan
35 of enlisting u n d e r his b a n n e r the revolutionary dregs of. all E u r o p e . N o w ,
while L o r d Stratford de Redcliffe declares to L o r d D u d l e y Stuart that he
could n o t assist him in organizing a n y of t h o s e dregs as a voluntary legion, t h e
Czar has himself b e e n t h e first to establish a revolutionary c o r p s , the so-
called Greco-Slavonian L e g i o n w i t h t h e direct intention of provoking t h e Sul-
40 t a n ' s subjects to revolt. T h e c o r p s is being organized in Wallachia a n d n u m -
b e r s already, according to R u s s i a n s t a t e m e n t s , a b o v e 3,000 m e n , n o t to be

53

Karl Marx

paid in bons perptuit, as t h e Wallachians t h e m s e l v e s , colonels b e i n g


p r o m i s e d 5 ducats p e r d a y ; majors 3 d u c a t s ; captains 2; subaltern officers 1,
a n d soldiers 2 zwanzigers, t h e a r m s to be supplied by Russia.
M e a n w h i l e the a r m a m e n t s of F r a n c e seem no longer to be intended to
r e m a i n on paper. As you k n o w , the r e s e r v e s of 1851 h a v e b e e n called out 5
and in t h e last few d a y s i m m e n s e military stores h a v e b e e n sent from A r r a s
to M e t z a n d Strasburg. General Plissier h a s left for Algiers with o r d e r s to
select t h e different corps w h i c h are to form the expedition to Constantinople,
for w h i c h Sir J . B u r g o y n e and Colonel A r d a n t h a v e g o n e to p r e p a r e
quarters. 10
T h e r u m o r e d p a s s a g e of O m e r P a s h a at the head of a large a r m y , t h o u g h
if a t t e m p t e d it could hardly be e x e c u t e d at a m o r e o p p o r t u n e m o m e n t , since
t h e R u s s i a n s are k n o w n t o b e c o n c e n t r a t e d a t K r a j o v a , b e t w e e n B u c h a r e s t
and Kalafat, yet n e e d s confirmation.
To r e t u r n to the doings of t h e British Parliament, t h e r e is, of c o u r s e , n o t 15
m u c h to be mentioned, with the exception of t h e proposition of a bill for
throwing o p e n the coast-trade to foreign vessels, a proposition which has
n o t met with a single protest. Protestation m u s t be decidedly dead, since it
s h o w s no capacity to m a k e the slightest stand against the universal invasion
of t h e m o d e r n principle of c o m m e r c e : to b u y in t h e c h e a p e s t m a r k e t what- 20
e v e r y o u require. H o w far t h e c h e a p e s t c r e w is qualified to p r o t e c t life and
p r o p e r t y , t h e late c a t a s t r o p h e of t h e " T a y l e u r " h a s shown.
M r . I. Butt, in y e s t e r d a y ' s sitting of t h e C o m m o n s , gave notice " t h a t
t o - m o r r o w he should m o v e t h a t t h e r e should be r e a d by the Clerk, at the table
of the H o u s e , an article published in The Times of to-day, and t h e previous 25
s t a t e m e n t s of The Dublin Freeman's Journal, i m p u t i n g to t h e (Irish) m e m b e r s
of the H o u s e a trafficking in places for m o n e y . He should also m o v e for a
Select C o m m i t t e e to inquire into t h e allegations of s u c h trafficking as con-
tained in t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s . " W h y Mr. B u t t is indignant only at t h e traffick-
ing for m o n e y will be u n d e r s t o o d by t h o s e w h o r e m e m b e r t h a t t h e legality 30
of a n y other m o d e of trafficking w a s settled during last session. Since 1830
Downing-st. has b e e n placed at t h e mercy of t h e Irish Brigade. It is t h e Irish
m e m b e r s w h o h a v e created and k e p t in place the Ministers to their mind.
In 1834 t h e y d r o v e from t h e Cabinet Sir J. G r a h a m and L o r d Stanley. In 1835
t h e y compelled William TV to dismiss the Peel Ministry and to r e s t o r e the 35
M e l b o u r n e Administration. F r o m the general election of 1837 d o w n to that I
of 1841, while t h e r e w a s a British majority in t h e L o w e r H o u s e o p p o s e d to
t h a t Administration, t h e votes of t h e Irish Brigade w e r e strong e n o u g h to
I
\
t u r n t h e scale and k e e p it in office. It w a s t h e Irish Brigade again w h o installed
t h e Coalition Cabinet. With all this p o w e r of Cabinet-making, t h e Brigade 40 \
h a v e n e v e r p r e v e n t e d any infamies against their o w n c o u n t r y nor any in- 1
I)

54
Blue BooksParliamentary Debates on February 6Count Orlov's Mission

justice to t h e English people. T h e period of their greatest p o w e r w a s at t h e


time of O'Connell, from 18341841. To w h a t a c c o u n t w a s it t u r n e d ? T h e Irish
agitation w a s n e v e r anything b u t a c r y for t h e Whigs against the Tories, in
order t o extort places from the W h i g s . N o b o d y w h o k n o w s anything a b o u t
5 t h e so-called Lichfield-house c o n t r a c t , will differ from this opinionthat
contract by w h i c h O'Connell w a s to v o t e for, b u t licensed to s p o u t against,
t h e Whigs on condition t h a t he should n o m i n a t e his o w n Magistrates in
Ireland. It is time for the Irish Brigade to p u t off their patriotic airs. It is time
for t h e Irish people to p u t off their d u m b h a t r e d of the English a n d call their
io o w n representatives to an a c c o u n t for their w r o n g s .
T h e " S o c i e t y o f A r t s a n d T r i c k s " h a v e lately v e n t u r e d o n a n e s c a m o t a g e
of the L a b o r Parliament by a c o u n t e r m o v e i n t e n d e d to " s e t t l e " the still
enduring struggle b e t w e e n t h e capitalists a n d w o r k i n g m e n of England. T h e
meeting w a s presided over by a noble L o r d , and delegates from b o t h parties
15 h a d b e e n invited to discuss their grievances after the fashion of t h e L u x e m -
b o u r g c o n f e r e n c e s of M. Louis Blanc. T h e h u m b u g w a s protested against by
Mr. E r n e s t J o n e s , in the n a m e of the w o r k i n g classes, and old R o b e r t O w e n
told t h e s e enlightened gentlemen t h a t no arbitration n o r device, nor art of
any kind, could ever fill the gulf dividing the t w o great fundamental classes
20 of this or any country. It is superfluous to a d d t h a t t h e meeting dissolved
u n d e r an ample cover of ridicule. T h e Chartists of L o n d o n a n d the Provincial
Delegates held a public meeting on t h e following day, w h e n t h e p r o p o s a l of
the L a b o r Parliament w a s u n a n i m o u s l y a p p r o v e d , and t h e 11th M a r c h n a m e d
for its opening at Manchester.
25 Karl M a r x .

55
Karl Marx
Russian DiplomacyThe Blue Book
on the Eastern QuestionMontenegro

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr.4013, 27. Februar 1854

From Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , F r i d a y , F e b . 10, 1854.

A t t h e time w h e n the treaty o f neutrality w a s c o n c l u d e d b e t w e e n D e n m a r k


and S w e d e n , I stated my conviction, c o n t r a r y to t h e c u r r e n t opinion in
E n g l a n d and F r a n c e , that it w a s not by a n y m e a n s to be looked u p o n as a
t r i u m p h of t h e W e s t e r n P o w e r s , and t h a t t h e p r e t e n d e d p r o t e s t of R u s s i a
against t h a t treaty w a s nothing b u t a feint. T h e Scandinavian p a p e r s , and The
T i m e s ' c o r r e s p o n d e n t , quoting from t h e m , are n o w u n a n i m o u s in recording
the s a m e opinion, declaring the whole t r e a t y to be t h e w o r k of Russia.
T h e propositions submitted by C o u n t Orloff to the V i e n n a C o n f e r e n c e ,
a n d rejected b y t h e m , w e r e a s follows:
1. R e n e w a l of the old treaties.
2. P r o t e c t o r a t e of R u s s i a over t h e G r e e k Christians of T u r k e y .
3. Expulsion of all political refugees from the O t t o m a n E m p i r e .
4. Refusal to admit the mediation of any o t h e r P o w e r , and to negotiate
o t h e r w i s e t h a n directly with a T u r k i s h E n v o y , to be sent to St. P e t e r s -
burg.
On t h e latter point C o u n t Orloff declared his r e a d i n e s s to c o m p r o m i s e , b u t
t h e Conference refused. W h y did the Conference refuse? Or w h y did the
E m p e r o r of R u s s i a refuse the last t e r m s of t h e C o n f e r e n c e ? T h e propositions
are the same on b o t h sides. T h e r e n e w a l of t h e old treaties h a d b e e n stipulat-
ed, t h e R u s s i a n P r o t e c t o r a t e admitted with only a modification in t h e f o r m ;
and, as t h e last point h a d b e e n a b a n d o n e d by R u s s i a herself, t h e Austrian
d e m a n d for the expulsion of the refugees could n o t h a v e b e e n t h e c a u s e of
a r u p t u r e b e t w e e n Russia and the West. It is evident, t h e n , that t h e position
of the E m p e r o r of Russia is n o w such as to p r e v e n t him from accepting any
t e r m s a t t h e h a n d s o f E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e , and t h a t h e m u s bring T u r k e y
to his feet either with or without the c h a n c e of a E u r o p e a n w a r .
In military circles the latter is n o w regarded as inevitable, and the p r e p a r a -

56
ir
Russian DiplomacyThe Blue Book on the Eastern QuestionMontenegro

tions for it are going on in e v e r y quarter. Admiral B r u a t h a s already left Brest


for Algiers, w h e r e he is to e m b a r k 10,000 m e n a n d sixteen English Regiments
stationed in Ireland are o r d e r e d to hold t h e m s e l v e s r e a d y to go to Con-
stantinople. T h e expedition c a n only h a v e a twofold object: either to c o e r c e
5 t h e T u r k s into submission to Russia, as Mr. U r q u h a r t a n n o u n c e s , or to c a r r y
on the w a r against Russia in real earnest. In b o t h c a s e s the fate of the T u r k s
is equally certain. O n c e more h a n d e d over to Russia, not indeed directly, b u t
to her dissolving agencies, the p o w e r of the O t t o m a n E m p i r e w o u l d s o o n
be r e d u c e d , like t h a t of the L o w e r E m p i r e , to t h e precincts of the capital.
10 T a k e n u n d e r the absolute tutorship of F r a n c e a n d England the sovereignty
of t h e O t t o m a n s over their E u r o p e a n e s t a t e s would be no less at an end. If
we are to take the w a r into our h a n d s , o b s e r v e s The Times,v/e m u s t h a v e t h e
control over all the operations. In this c a s e t h e n , t h e T u r k i s h Ministry would
be placed under the direct administration of the W e s t e r n E m b a s s a d o r s , t h e
15 T u r k i s h W a r Office u n d e r t h e W a r Offices of England and F r a n c e , and t h e
Turkish armies under the c o m m a n d of F r e n c h and English G e n e r a l s . T h e
T u r k i s h E m p i r e , in its ancient conditions of existence, has c e a s e d to b e .
After his complete " f a i l u r e " at V i e n n a , C o u n t Orloff is n o w gone b a c k to
St. Petersburg"with t h e a s s u r a n c e of t h e A u s t r i a n a n d Prussian neutrality,
20 u n d e r all c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " On the other h a n d , the telegraph r e p o r t s from
V i e n n a that a change has t a k e n place in t h e T u r k i s h Ministry, the Seraskier
and K a p u d a n P a s h a having resigned. The Times c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d how the
w a r p a r t y could h a v e b e e n defeated a t the v e r y t i m e t h a t F r a n c e and England
w e r e going to w a r . F o r my p a r t , if the n e w s be t r u e , I c a n v e r y well u n d e r s t a n d
25 the " g o d - s e n t " o c c u r r e n c e as t h e w o r k of t h e English Coalition r e p r e s e n t a -
tive at Constantinople, w h o m we find so repeatedly regretting, in his b l u e -
b o o k dispatches, t h a t " h e could hardly yet go so far in his p r e s s u r e on t h e
T u r k i s h Cabinet as it might be d e s i r a b l e . "
T h e blue b o o k s begin with d i s p a t c h e s relating to the d e m a n d s put forward
30 on t h e part of F r a n c e with r e s p e c t to t h e H o l y Shrinesdemands n o t wholly
b o r n e out by the ancient capitulations, and ostensibly m a d e with t h e view to
enforce t h e s u p r e m a c y of t h e L a t i n over the G r e e k C h u r c h . I am far from
participating in t h e opinion of Mr. U r q u h a r t , according to w h i c h the Czar h a d ,
by secret influences at Paris, seduced B o n a p a r t e to r u s h into this quarrel in
35 o r d e r to afford Russia a p r e t e x t for interfering herself in behalf of the privi-
leges of t h e G r e e k Catholics. It is well k n o w n t h a t B o n a p a r t e wanted to b u y ,
cote que cote, t h e s u p p o r t of t h e Catholic p a r t y , w h i c h he regarded from
t h e v e r y first as t h e main condition for t h e s u c c e s s of his usurpation. Bona-
p a r t e w a s fully a w a r e of t h e a s c e n d a n c y of the Catholic C h u r c h over t h e
40 p e a s a n t population of F r a n c e , and t h e p e a s a n t r y w e r e to m a k e him E m p e r o r
in spite of the bourgeoisie and in spite of the proletariat. M. de Falloux, t h e

57
Karl Marx

Jesuit, w a s the most influential m e m b e r of t h e first ministry he formed, and


of w h i c h Odilon Barrot, the soi-disant Voltairian, w a s t h e nominal head. T h e
first resolution a d o p t e d by this ministry, on t h e v e r y day after t h e in-
auguration of B o n a p a r t e as President, w a s the f a m o u s expedition against the
R o m a n Republic. M. de Montalembert, the chief of the Jesuit p a r t y , w a s his 5
m o s t active tool in preparing the o v e r t h r o w of t h e parliamentary rgime and
t h e coup d'tat of t h e 2d D e c e m b e r . In 1850, t h e Univers, t h e official o r g a n
of the Jesuit p a r t y , called day after day on the F r e n c h G o v e r n m e n t to t a k e
active steps for t h e protection of t h e interests of t h e L a t i n C h u r c h in t h e East.
Anxious to cajole and win over the P o p e , and to be c r o w n e d by him, B o n a - 10
p a r t e h a d r e a s o n s t o a c c e p t the challenge a n d m a k e himself a p p e a r t h e " m o s t
C a t h o l i c " E m p e r o r of F r a n c e . The Bonapartist usurpation, therefore, is the
true origin of the present Eastern complication. It is t r u e t h a t B o n a p a r t e
wisely w i t h d r e w his prentensions as s o o n as he p e r c e i v e d the E m p e r o r
Nicholas r e a d y to m a k e t h e m t h e p r e t e x t for excluding h i m from t h e con- 15
clave of E u r o p e , and Russia w a s , as usual, eager to utilise the e v e n t s w h i c h
she h a d n o t t h e p o w e r to create, as Mr. U r q u h a r t imagines. B u t it r e m a i n s
a m o s t curious p h e n o m e n o n in history, that t h e p r e s e n t crisis of the O t t o m a n
E m p i r e h a s b e e n p r o d u c e d b y t h e same conflict b e t w e e n t h e L a t i n and
G r e e k C h u r c h e s w h i c h o n c e gave rise to the foundation of t h a t E m p i r e in 20
Europe.
It is not my intention to investigate the whole c o n t e n t s of t h e "Rights and
Privileges of the L a t i n and G r e e k C h u r c h e s , " b e f o r e having considered a
most important incident entirely s u p p r e s s e d in t h e s e blue b o o k s , viz: T h e
A u s t r o - T u r k i s h quarrel about M o n t e n e g r o . T h e necessity to previously treat 25
this affair is t h e m o r e urgent, as it will establish t h e existence of a c o n c e r t e d
plan b e t w e e n Russia and Austria for the subversion and division of the
T u r k i s h E m p i r e , a n d as t h e very fact of E n g l a n d ' s putting t h e s u b s e q u e n t
negotiations b e t w e e n the Court of St. P e t e r s b u r g and the P o r t e into t h e h a n d s
of Austria, c a n n o t fail to t h r o w a m o s t curious light on t h e c o n d u c t of t h e 30
English Cabinet throughout this E a s t e r n question. In the a b s e n c e of a n y
official d o c u m e n t s on t h e Montenegro affair, I refer to a b o o k , which has
only j u s t b e e n published, on this subject, and is entitled the " H a n d b o o k of
t h e E a s t e r n Q u e s t i o n , " b y L . F . Simpson.
T h e T u r k i s h fortress of Zabliak (on t h e frontiers of M o n t e n e g r o and 35
Albania) w a s stormed by a band of Montenegrins in D e c e m b e r , 1852. It is
r e m e m b e r e d t h a t O m e r P a s h a w a s o r d e r e d b y t h e P o r t e t o repel t h e ag-
g r e s s o r s . T h e Sublime Porte declared t h e w h o l e c o a s t of Albania in a state
of b l o c k a d e , a m e a s u r e which apparently could be directed only against
Austria a n d her navy, and which indicated t h e conviction of t h e T u r k i s h 40
Ministry t h a t Austria had p r o v o k e d the Montenegrin revolt.

58
Russian DiplomacyThe Blue Book on the Eastern QuestionMontenegro

T h e following article, u n d e r date of Vienna, D e c e m b e r 29,1852, a p p e a r e d


t h e n in the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung;
"If Austria wished to assist the M o n t e n e g r i n s , t h e blockade could n o t
p r e v e n t it. If t h e Montenegrins d e s c e n d e d from their m o u n t a i n s , Austria
5 could provide t h e m w i t h a r m s and a m m u n i t i o n by C a t t a r o , in spite of t h e
p r e s e n c e of the T u r k i s h fleet in t h e Adriatic. Austria d o e s n o t a p p r o v e either
of t h e p r e s e n t incursion of t h e M o n t e n e g r i n s , nor of the revolution which
is on the eve of breaking out in Herzegovina and Bosnia among the Chris-
tians. She h a s constantly p r o t e s t e d against t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s of the Christians,
10 and that in t h e n a m e of h u m a n i t y ; A u s t r i a is obliged to o b s e r v e neutrality
t o w a r d t h e E a s t e r n C h u r c h . T h e last n e w s from Jerusalem will h a v e s h o w n
h o w fiercely religious h a t r e d b u r n e d t h e r e . T h e agents of A u s t r i a must,
therefore, e x e r t all their efforts to maintain p e a c e b e t w e e n the G r e e k Chris-
tians and t h e Latin Christians of t h e E m p i r e . "
15 F r o m this article we glean, firstly, that coming revolutions of the T u r k i s h
Christians w e r e anticipated as certain, t h a t t h e w a y for t h e R u s s i a n c o m -
plaints concerning the oppression of the G r e e k C h u r c h w a s paved by Austria,
a n d that t h e religious complication about the H o l y Shrines w a s e x p e c t e d
to give occasion for A u s t r i a ' s " n e u t r a l i t y . "
20 In the same m o n t h a n o t e w a s a d d r e s s e d to the P o r t e by Russia, w h o
offered her mediation in M o n t e n e g r o , w h i c h w a s declined on t h e g r o u n d t h a t
t h e Sultan w a s able himself to uphold his o w n rights. H e r e we see R u s s i a
operating exactly as she did at t h e t i m e of t h e G r e e k revolutionfirst offering
to p r o t e c t the Sultan against his subjects, with t h e view of protecting after-
25 w a r d his subjects against t h e Sultan, if h e r assistance should not be ac-
cepted.
T h e fact that t h e r e existed a c o n c e r t b e t w e e n R u s s i a and Austria for the
o c c u p a t i o n of t h e Principalities, e v e n at this early time, m a y be gleaned from
a n o t h e r e x t r a c t from t h e Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung, of 30th D e c e m b e r ,
30 1852:
"Russia, w h i c h has only recently a c k n o w l e d g e d the i n d e p e n d e n c e of
M o n t e n e g r o , c a n scarcely r e m a i n an idle spectator of e v e n t s . M o r e o v e r ,
commercial letters and travelers, from M o l d a v i a a n d Wallachia, m e n t i o n t h a t
from Wolhynia d o w n t o the m o u t h o f t h e P r a t h , t h e c o u n t r y s w a r m s with
35 R u s s i a n t r o o p s , and t h a t r e n f o r c e m e n t s are continually arriving."
Simultaneously the V i e n n a journals a n n o u n c e d t h a t an A u s t r i a n a r m y of
observation w a s assembling o n t h e A u s t r o - T u r k i s h frontiers.
O n D e c e m b e r 6 , 1 8 5 2 , L o r d Stanley interpellated L o r d M a l m e s b u r y w i t h
r e s p e c t to t h e affairs of M o n t e n e g r o , and B o n a p a r t e ' s noble friend m a d e t h e
40 following declaration:
" T h e noble lord intimated his desire to ask w h e t h e r a n y change had r e -

59
Karl Marx

cently t a k e n place in the political relations of t h a t wild c o u n t r y bordering


on Albania, called M o n t e n e g r o . I believe t h a t no c h a n g e w h a t e v e r has t a k e n
place with r e s p e c t to its political relations. T h e chief of that c o u n t r y b e a r s
a double title; he is head of the G r e e k C h u r c h in that c o u n t r y , and he is also
t h e t e m p o r a l sovereign. B u t with r e s p e c t to his ecclesiastical position he is 5
under the jurisdiction of the Emperor of Russia, who is considered to be the
head of the whole Greek Church. T h e chief of M o n t e n e g r o h a s b e e n " (as
I believe all his ancestors w e r e before him) " a c c u s t o m e d to r e c e i v e from the
sanction and recognition of the E m p e r o r his Episcopal jurisdiction and titles.
W i t h r e s p e c t to the i n d e p e n d e n c e of t h a t c o u n t r y , w h a t e v e r t h e opinion of 10
different p e r s o n s m a y be as to t h e advantage of s u c h a position, t h e fact is
that Montenegro has been an independent country for something like
150 years, a n d t h o u g h various attempts h a v e b e e n m a d e by t h e P o r t e to bring
it into subjection, t h o s e attempts h a v e failed o n e after another, and the
c o u n t r y is in the same position n o w t h a t it w a s s o m e 200 y e a r s a g o . " 15
I n this s p e e c h L o r d M a l m e s b u r y , the t h e n T o r y S e c r e t a r y for Foreign
Affairs, quietly dissects t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e by separating from it a c o u n t r y
t h a t had e v e r belonged to it, recognising at the s a m e time the E m p e r o r of
R u s s i a ' s spiritual pretensions over subjects of t h e P o r t e . W h a t are we to say
of t h e s e two sets of Oligarchs, e x c e p t that t h e y rival e a c h o t h e r in imbe- 20
cility?
T h e P o r t e w a s , of c o u r s e seriously alarmed at this s p e e c h of a British
Minister, a n d t h e r e a p p e a r e d , shortly afterward, in an English n e w s p a p e r
t h e following letter from Constantinople, dated J a n u a r y 5, 1853:
" T h e P o r t e has experienced the greatest irritation owing to L o r d M a l m e s - 25
b u r y ' s declaration in the H o u s e of L o r d s t h a t M o n t e n e g r o w a s i n d e p e n d e n t .
He t h u s played into the h a n d s of R u s s i a and Austria, by w h i c h E n g l a n d will
lose t h a t influence and confidence which she has h i t h e r t o enjoyed. In the
first article of the t r e a t y of Sistow, concluded b e t w e e n the P o r t e and A u s t r i a
in 1791, (to which treaty England, Holland a n d P r u s s i a w e r e mediating 30
parties) it is expressly stipulated t h a t an a m n e s t y should be granted to the
subjects of b o t h P o w e r s w h o h a d t a k e n p a r t against their rightful sovereigns,
viz: the Servians, Montenegrins, Moldavians and Wallachians, n a m e d as
rebel subjects of t h e Porte. T h e Montenegrins w h o reside in Constantinople,
of w h o m t h e r e are 2,000 to 3,000, p a y t h e haratch or capitation-tax, and in 35
judicial p r o c e d u r e with subjects of o t h e r P o w e r s at Constantinople, the
M o n t e n e g r i n s are always considered and t r e a t e d as T u r k i s h subjects w i t h o u t
objection."
In the beginning of J a n u a r y , 1853, the A u s t r i a n G o v e r n m e n t sent B a r o n
Kellner v o n Kllenstein, an aide-de-camp of t h e E m p e r o r , to C a t t a r o to 40
w a t c h t h e c o u r s e of e v e n t s , while M r . d'Ozeroff, t h e R u s s i a n E n v o y at C o n -

60
Russian DiplomacyThe Blue Book on the Eastern QuestionMontenegro

stantinople h a n d e d in a p r o t e s t to t h e D i v a n against t h e c o n c e s s i o n s m a d e
to t h e L a t i n s in t h e question of the H o l y Shrines. At t h e e n d of J a n u a r y , C o u n t
Leiningen arrived at Constantinople, a n d was admitted on t h e 3d F e b r u a r y ,
to a private audience with the Sultan, to w h o m he delivered a letter from
5 t h e Austrian E m p e r o r . T h e P o r t e refused to c o m p l y with his d e m a n d s , a n d
C o u n t Leiningen t h e r e u p o n g a v e in an ultimatum, allowing the Porte four
d a y s to answer. T h e P o r t e immediately placed itself u n d e r t h e protection of
England a n d F r a n c e , which did n o t p r o t e c t her, while C o u n t Leiningen
refused their mediation. On F e b r u a r y 15, he had obtained everything he h a d
10 asked for (with t h e e x c e p t i o n of A r t . I l l ) and his ultimatum w a s a c c e p t e d .
It contained the following articles:
" I . I m m e d i a t e evacuation of M o n t e n e g r o and the establishment of the
status quo ante bellum.
II. A declaration by w h i c h the P o r t e is to engage herself to maintain the
15 status quo of t h e territories of K l e c k a n d Sutorina, and to recognize t h e mare
clausum in favor of Austria.
III. A strict inquiry to t a k e p l a c e concerning t h e acts of M u s s u l m a n fanati-
cism c o m m i t t e d against t h e Christians of B o s n i a and Herzegovina.
I V . Removal of all the political refugees and r e n e g a d e s at p r e s e n t in the
20 provinces adjoining t h e Austrian frontiers.
V. Indemnity of 200,000 florins to certain A u s t r i a n m e r c h a n t s , w h o s e
c o n t r a c t s h a d b e e n arbitrarily annulled, a n d t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of t h o s e con-
tracts for all the time t h e y w e r e agreed on.
V I . Indemnity of 56,000 florins to a m e r c h a n t w h o s e ship and cargo had
25 b e e n unjustly confiscated.
V I I . E s t a b l i s h m e n t of n u m e r o u s consulates in Bosnia, Servia, H e r z e g o -
v i n a and all over Roumelia.
V I I I . Disavowal of t h e c o n d u c t maintained in 1850, in the affair of t h e
refugees."
30 Before acceding to this ultimatum, t h e O t t o m a n P o r t e , as Mr. S i m p s o n
s t a t e s , a d d r e s s e d a n o t e to t h e E m b a s s a d o r s of England a n d F r a n c e ,
demanding a promise from t h e m of positive assistance in t h e e v e n t of a
w a r with Austria. " T h e t w o Ministers n o t being able t o pledge t h e m s e l v e s
in a definite m a n n e r , " t h e T u r k i s h G o v e r n m e n t yielded to the energetic
35 proceedings of C o u n t Leiningen.
O n F e b r u a r y 28th, C o u n t L e i n i n g e n arrived a t V i e n n a , and Prince M e n c h i -
koff at Constantinople. On t h e 3d of M a r c h , L o r d J o h n Russell h a d t h e
i m p u d e n c e to declare, in a n s w e r to an interpellation of L o r d D u d l e y Stuart,
that
40 " I n answer to representations m a d e to the Austrian G o v e r n m e n t , assur-
a n c e h a d b e e n given t h a t t h e latter held t h e s a m e views as the English

61
Karl Marx

G o v e r n m e n t o n the subject; and, t h o u g h h e could n o t state the precise t e r m s


of the arrangement that had b e n m a d e , the intervention of F r a n c e and E n g -
l a n d h a d b e e n successful, and he t r u s t e d t h e late differences w e r e n o w over.
T h e c o u r s e a d o p t e d b y England h a d b e e n t o give T u r k e y s u c h advice a s
w o u l d maintain her h o n o r and her i n d e p e n d e n c e . ***. F o r his o w n part, he
thought t h a t on grounds of right, of international l a w , of faith t o w a r d o u r
ally, a n d also on grounds of general policy a n d e x p e d i e n c y , the maintenance
of the integrity and independence of Turkey was a great and ruling point of
the foreign policy of England."
Karl Marx.

62
Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels
The War Question in Europe

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr.4019, 6. Mrz 1854

The War Question in Europe.


T h o u g h the arrival of the Nashville p u t s us in p o s s e s s i o n of no decisive n e w s
from the seat of w a r , it p u t s us in p o s s e s s i o n of a fact of great significance
in the p r e s e n t state of affairs. This is t h a t n o w , at the eleventh hour, w h e n
5 t h e Russian E m b a s s a d o r s at Paris and L o n d o n h a v e left, w h e n t h e British
and F r e n c h E m b a s s a d o r s at St. P e t e r s b u r g are recalled, w h e n the naval a n d
military strength of F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d is being already c o n c e n t r a t e d for
immediate actionat this v e r y last m o m e n t , t h e t w o W e s t e r n G o v e r n m e n t s
are making fresh proposals to negotiate by w h i c h they c o n c e d e almost
10 everything that R u s s i a w a n t s . It will be r e m e m b e r e d that the m a i n point
claimed by Russia w a s h e r right of settling directly with t h e P o r t e , a n d
w i t h o u t t h e interference of the o t h e r P o w e r s , a quarrel which, it w a s p r e -
t e n d e d , c o n c e r n e d R u s s i a a n d T u r k e y only. This point has n o w b e e n con-
c e d e d to Russia. T h e p r o p o s a l s are contained in t h e letter of N a p o l e o n , w h i c h
15 we c o p y in another place, a n d are to the effect t h a t R u s s i a shall t r e a t with
T u r k e y direct, while the t r e a t y to be c o n c l u d e d b e t w e e n the t w o parties shall
be g u a r a n t e e d by the four P o w e r s . This g u a r a n t e e is a d r a w b a c k u p o n t h e
concession, as it gives the W e s t e r n P o w e r s a r e a d y p r e t e x t to interfere in
any future quarrel of t h e kind. B u t it d o e s n o t m a k e matters w o r s e for R u s s i a
20 t h a n t h e y are n o w , w h e n the E m p e r o r N i c h o l a s m u s t see that any a t t e m p t
of his at a d i s m e m b e r m e n t of T u r k e y c a n n o t be carried out without the risk
of a w a r with England and F r a n c e . A n d t h e n , t h e actual gain to R u s s i a will
d e p e n d u p o n the n a t u r e of the t r e a t y w h i c h is n o t y e t c o n c l u d e d ; and Russia,
having seen in how cowardly a m a n n e r the W e s t e r n P o w e r s n o w shrink from
25 t h e necessity of war, will b u t h a v e to k e e p h e r armies c o n c e n t r a t e d , and to
continue her system of intimidation in o r d e r to gain e v e r y point during t h e
negotiations. Besides, R u s s i a n diplomacy n e e d hardly be afraid of a c o n t e s t
w i t h those egregious E m b a s s a d o r s w h o m a n u f a c t u r e d the f a m o u s , blunder-
ing first V i e n n a n o t e .

63
Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels

W h e t h e r , h o w e v e r , the Czar will a c c e p t this p r o p o s a l , or t r u s t to his army,


r e m a i n s to be seen. He c a n n o t afford to go t h r o u g h s u c h a r m a m e n t s and
dislocations of troops over his v a s t E m p i r e o n c e in e v e r y five y e a r s . T h e
p r e p a r a t i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e on such a scale, t h a t a v e r y great material gain
only c a n r e p a y their cost. T h e Russian population are thoroughly r o u s e d to 5
warlike enthusiasm. We h a v e seen a c o p y of a letter from a Russian mer-
chantnot o n e of the m a n y G e r m a n , English, or F r e n c h t r a d e r s , w h o h a v e
settled in Moscowbut a real old M u s c o v i t e , a genuine son of Sviatala Russ,
w h o holds s o m e goods on consignment for English a c c o u n t , a n d h a d b e e n
a s k e d w h e t h e r in case of w a r t h e s e goods would r u n t h e risk of confiscation. 10
T h e old R u s s , quite indignant at the imputation thus cast u p o n his G o v e r n -
m e n t , and perfectly well acquainted with the official phraseology, according
to w h i c h R u s s i a is the great c h a m p i o n of " o r d e r , p r o p e r t y , family, and
religion," in contrast to t h e revolutionary and socialist countries of t h e W e s t ,
retorts that " H e r e in Russia, God be praised, the distinction b e t w e e n mine 15
a n d thine is yet in full force, and your p r o p e r t y h e r e is as safe as a n y w h e r e .
I w o u l d even advise y o u to send over as m u c h of your p r o p e r t y as y o u can,
for it will p e r h a p s be safer here t h a n w h e r e it is n o w . As to your countrymen,
you may perhaps have reason to fear, as to y o u r p r o p e r t y , n o t at all."
In the m e a n t i m e , the a r m a m e n t s p r e p a r e d in England and F r a n c e are u p o n 20
a m o s t extensive scale. T h e F r e n c h o c e a n s q u a d r o n h a s b e e n ordered from
B r e s t to T o u l o n in order to t r a n s p o r t t r o o p s to the L e v a n t . F o r t y or sixty
t h o u s a n d , according to different s t a t e m e n t s , are to be sent, a large portion
of t h e m to be drafted from the African a r m y ; the expedition will be v e r y
strong in riflemen, a n d be c o m m a n d e d either by B a r a g u a y d'Hilliers or by 25
St. A r n a u d . T h e British G o v e r n m e n t will send a b o u t 18,000 m e n , (22 regi-
m e n t s of 850 each.) and, at the date of our last advices, a portion of t h e m
h a d already e m b a r k e d for Malta, w h e r e the general r e n d e z v o u s is to b e . T h e
infantry go in s t e a m e r s , and sailing vessels are e m p l o y e d for t h e c o n v e y a n c e
of cavalry. T h e Baltic fleet, w h i c h is to be c o n c e n t r a t e d off S h e e r n e s s , in 30
the T h a m e s , by the 6th of March, will consist of fifteen ships of t h e line, eight
frigates, and s e v e n t e e n smaller vessels. It is t h e largest fleet t h e British h a v e
got together since t h e last w a r ; a n d as o n e half of it will consist of paddle
or screw s t e a m e r s , and as the rating and weight of metal is at p r e s e n t about
50 per cent, higher t h a n fifty y e a r s ago, this Baltic fleet m a y prove to be t h e 35
strongest a r m a m e n t ever turned out by any c o u n t r y . Sir Charles N a p i e r is
to c o m m a n d it; if t h e r e is to be war, he is t h e m a n to bring his guns to b e a r
at o n c e u p o n the decisive point.
On t h e D a n u b e , the battle of T s h e t a t e has evidently had the effect of
delaying t h e R u s s i a n attack u p o n Kalafat. T h e R u s s i a n s h a v e b e e n convinced 40
by t h a t five d a y s ' struggle that it will be no e a s y m a t t e r to t a k e an intrenched

64
The War Question in Europe

c a m p w h i c h c a n send o u t s u c h sallies. I t s e e m s t h a t e v e n the positive c o m -


m a n d of the A u t o c r a t himself is n o t sufficient, after s u c h a foretaste, to drive
his t r o o p s to a r a s h attempt. T h e p r e s e n c e of General Schilder, Chief of t h e
E n g i n e e r s , w h o w a s sent from W a r s a w o n p u r p o s e , seems e v e n t o h a v e h a d
5 a result contrary to the Imperial o r d e r , for i n s t e a d of hurrying on t h e attack,
an inspection of the fortifications from a distance w a s sufficient to c o n v i n c e
him t h a t m o r e t r o o p s a n d m o r e h e a v y guns w e r e n e e d e d t h a n could a t o n c e
b e brought u p . Accordingly the R u s s i a n s h a v e b e e n concentrating w h a t e v e r
forces t h e y could a r o u n d Kalaf at, a n d bringing up their siege guns, of which,
10 it s e e m s , t h e y b r o u g h t s e v e n t y - t w o into Wallachia. The London Times
estimates their forces at 65,000 m e n , which is r a t h e r high, if we consider t h e
strength of the w h o l e R u s s i a n a r m y in t h e Principalities. This a r m y n o w
consists of six divisions of infantry, t h r e e divisions of cavalry, a n d a b o u t
t h r e e h u n d r e d field-guns, besides C o s s a c k s , riflemen, and other special
15 c o r p s , of a total nominal strength b e f o r e t h e beginning of the war, of
120,000 m e n . A s s u m i n g their l o s s e s , by sickness and on t h e bate-f ield, to
be 30,000 m e n , t h e r e remain a b o u t 90,000 c o m b a t a n t s . Of t h e s e , at least
35,000 are required to guard the line of the D a n u b e , to garrison the principal
t o w n s , and t o maintain t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . T h e r e would remain, t h e n , a t
20 t h e v e r y outside, 55,000 m e n for an a t t a c k u p o n Kalafat.
N o w look at t h e r e s p e c t i v e positions of the t w o armies. T h e R u s s i a n s
neglecting t h e w h o l e line of t h e D a n u b e , disregarding t h e position of O m e r
P a s h a at Shumla, direct their m a i n b o d y , a n d e v e n their h e a v y artillery, to
a point on their e x t r e m e right, w h e r e t h e y are further from B u c h a r e s t , their
25 immediate b a s e of o p e r a t i o n s , than the T u r k s are. Their r e a r is therefore as
m u c h e x p o s e d as it possibly c a n b e . W h a t is w o r s e still is that, in order to
get some slight p r o t e c t i o n for their rear, t h e y are obliged to divide their
forces, a n d to a p p e a r b e f o r e Kalafat with a force which by no m e a n s has
that evident superiority w h i c h , by insuring s u c c e s s , might justify s u c h a
30 m a n e u v e r . T h e y leave from thirty to forty per cent, of their a r m y scattered
behind the main b o d y , and t h e s e t r o o p s are certainly n o t capable of repelling
a resolute attack. T h u s , neither is t h e c o n q u e s t of Kalafat a s s u r e d , nor t h e
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s of the besieging a r m y placed o u t of the r e a c h of danger.
T h e blunder is so evident, so colossal, t h a t nothing short of absolute certainty
35 of the fact can m a k e a military m a n believe t h a t it has b e e n committed.
If O m e r P a s h a , w h o still h a s a superior force disposable, p a s s e s the D a n u b e
at any point b e t w e e n R u s t c h u k and Hir sova, with say s e v e n t y t h o u s a n d m e n ,
the Russian a r m y m u s t either be annihilated to t h e last m a n or t a k e refuge
in Austria. He h a s h a d a full m o n t h for c o n c e n t r a t i n g such a m a s s . W h y d o e s
40 he not cross a river w h i c h is n o w no longer o b s t r u c t e d by floating ice? W h y
does he n o t e v e n r e t a k e his tte-de-pont at Oltenitza, in order to be able to

65
Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels

m o v e at a n y m o m e n t ? T h a t O m e r P a s h a is ignorant of the c h a n c e s t h e
R u s s i a n s h a v e given h i m b y their unheard-of blunder i s impossible. H e m u s t ,
it w o u l d seem, be tied by diplomatic action. H i s inactivity m u s t be i n t e n d e d
to f o r m an offset against t h e naval p r o m e n a d e of t h e c o m b i n e d fleets in t h e
B l a c k Sea. T h e Russian a r m y m u s t n o t be annihilated or driven to t a k e refuge 5
i n Austria, b e c a u s e t h e n p e a c e w o u l d b e e n d a n g e r e d b y fresh complications.
A n d in order to suit the intrigues and the sham-action of diplomatic j o b b e r s ,
O m e r P a s h a m u s t allow t h e Russians t o b o m b a r d Kalafat, t o place their
w h o l e a r m y , all their siege artillery at his m e r c y , w i t h o u t his being allowed
to profit by t h e occasion. It would indeed s e e m t h a t if t h e R u s s i a n c o m - 10
m a n d e r h a d n o t h a d a material, positive g u a r a n t e e t h a t his flanks and r e a r
w o u l d n o t b e attacked, h e w o u l d n e v e r h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o m a r c h u p o n
Kalafat. O t h e r w i s e , in spite of all stringent instructions, he would d e s e r v e
t o b e tried a t t h e d r u m h e a d a n d shot. A n d u n l e s s , b y t h e steamer n o w d u e
h e r e , or at furthest within a few d a y s , we h e a r t h a t O m e r P a s h a h a s c r o s s e d 15
t h e D a n u b e a n d m a r c h e d u p o n Bucharest, it will be scarcely possible to avoid
t h e conclusion t h a t a formal agreement of t h e W e s t e r n P o w e r s has b e e n m a d e
to t h e effect t h a t in order to satisfy t h e military point of h o n o r of Russia,
Kalafat is to be sacrificed without the T u r k s being allowed to defend it by
t h e only w a y it c a n be effectually defendedby an offensive m o v e m e n t lower 20
d o w n the D a n u b e . O u r L o n d o n c o r r e s p o n d e n t i n a n o t h e r column intimates
his unwillingness to believe in such t r e a c h e r y , b u t facts are s t u b b o r n things,
a n d t h e mind m u s t at last be affected by their f o r c e . After having g o n e the
d e s p e r a t e lengths t h e y h a v e a v o w e d l y d o n e to avoid w a r , it is h a r d to think
of anything t h e y w o u l d shrink from. 25

66
Karl Marx
Declaration of the Prussian CabinetNapoleon's Plans-
Prussia's Policy

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr.4022, 9. Mrz 1854
T h e following information, which, if t r u e , is of t h e highest i m p o r t a n c e , a n d
a p o r t i o n only of w h i c h h a s a p p e a r e d in t h e E u r o p e a n j o u r n a l s , a n d t h a t in
a partial and disguised form, we h a v e r e c e i v e d from a m o s t t r u s t w o r t h y
s o u r c e at L o n d o n :
5 I. On the 3d of F e b r u a r y the following declaration on the p a r t of t h e
Prussian Cabinet w a s dispatched t o Paris a n d L o n d o n :
" 1 . T h e explanations o f C o u n t Orloff leaving n o d o u b t w h a t e v e r a s t o t h e
u s e l e s s n e s s of a n y further a t t e m p t at mediation w i t h t h e St. P e t e r s b u r g
Cabinet, Prussia h e r e b y w i t h d r a w s h e r mediation, the opportunity for w h i c h
10 c a n no longer be said to exist.
2. C o u n t Orloff's p r o p o s a l s of a formal a n d binding treaty of neutrality,
h a v e met with an absolute refusal, c o m m u n i c a t e d to him in a n o t e , P r u s s i a
being decided u p o n observing e v e n w i t h o u t t h e c o n c u r r e n c e of Austria, t h e
m o s t strict neutrality on h e r part, w h i c h she is determined to enforce by
15 suitable armaments, as s o o n as t h e p r o p e r m o m e n t shall h a v e arrived.
3. W h e t h e r Prussia shall p r o p o s e , in c o m m o n w i t h Austria, a general
arming of t h e G e r m a n Confederation, will d e p e n d on t h e c o n d u c t of t h e
maritime p o w e r s t o w a r d G e r m a n y . "
II. L o u i s N a p o l e o n h a s sent a confidential agent (Mr. Brennier) to Turin,
20 with t h e following m e s s a g e for t h e K i n g of P i e d m o n t and Mr. C a v o u r : At
a given time insurrectionary m o v e m e n t s are to b r e a k o u t in P a r m a , P i a c e n z a ,
Guastalla, a n d M o d e n a . Sardinia m u s t t h e n o c c u p y t h o s e countries, from
w h i c h t h e n o w reigning princes are to be expelled. N a p o l e o n is to g u a r a n t e e
to the King the incorporation with Sardinia of t h e t h r e e f o r m e r principalities,
25 a n d p e r h a p s of M o d e n a , also, in c o m p e n s a t i o n for w h i c h territories t h e
C o u n t y o f Savoy i s t o b e c e d e d t o F r a n c e . This a r r a n g e m e n t E n g l a n d m a y
be said to h a v e as good as agreed t o , although reluctantly and with v e r y b a d
grace. Mr. Brennier t h e n p r o c e e d e d further on his t o u r t h r o u g h Italy till he
r e a c h e d N a p l e s , w h e r e his arrival e v o k e d t h e " m o s t painful sensation." H i s
30 mission is t h a t of preparing an Italian insurrection, as N a p o l e o n is seriously

67
Karl Marx

c o n v i n c e d that he is the m a n , n o t only to set Italy on fire, b u t also to d r a w


the e x a c t line which the flame shall be forbidden to cross. He p r o p o s e s to
c o n c e n t r a t e the following armies:
1 100,000 m e n on the frontier of S a v o y .
2 - 60,000 m e n at M e t z . 5
3 - 80,000 m e n at Strasburg.
III. Prussia d o e s not object to the assembling of a F r e n c h a r m y of
100,000 m e n on t h e frontier of S a v o y , b u t she considers t h e concentration
of an a r m y at M e t z , and of another at Strasburg, to be a direct m e n a c e against
herself. She already fancies B a d e n , H e s s e , W u r t e m b e r g , etc., in full in- io
surrection a n d s o m e 100,000 p e a s a n t s marching from t h e south of G e r m a n y
o n her o w n frontiers. She h a s , therefore, p r o t e s t e d against t h e s e t w o m e a s -
u r e s , and it is this eventuality w h i c h is alluded to in section 3 of the P r u s s i a n
declaration. At all e v e n t s , Prussia will put h e r a r m y on a w a r footing by, a n d
p e r h a p s before, the end of M a r c h . She intends calling o u t a force of 200,000 15
to 300,000 m e n , according to c i r c u m s t a n c e s . B u t if N a p o l e o n insists on
concentrating the two armies at M e t z and Strasburg, t h e Prussian G o v e r n -
m e n t has already resolved to augment its force to 500,000 men. In the Berlin
Cabinet, w h e r e the King, with the great majority of his Ministers, h a d c h o s e n
to side with Russia, and Manteuffel alone, b a c k e d by t h e Prince of Prussia, 20
carried the declaration of neutrality, (Manteuffel originally p r o p o s e d a for-
mal alliance with England,) fear and confusion are a s s e r t e d to reign s u p r e m e .
T h e r e exists already a formal resolution of t h e Cabinet (Cabinets-Beschluss)
according to which, u n d e r certain c i r c u m s t a n c e s , all t h e m o r e notorious
d e m o c r a t s of the m o n a r c h y , and, a b o v e all, of R h e n i s h Prussia, are to be 25
arrested o n t h e same night, and t o b e t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e e a s t e r n fortresses,
in o r d e r to p r e v e n t t h e m from favoring t h e subversive p l a n s of N a p o l e o n ,
(die Umsturzplne Napoleons!!) or from getting up p o p u l a r m o v e m e n t s
generally. This m e a s u r e , it is p r o p o s e d , shall be e x e c u t e d instantly in the c a s e
of Italian disorders breaking out, or if N a p o l e o n c o n c e n t r a t e s t h e t w o armies 30
at M e t z and Strasburg. This resolution, we are a s s u r e d , has b e e n t a k e n
unanimously, although all t h e eventualities are n o t p r o v i d e d for, u n d e r w h i c h
the Cabinet might think fit to p u t it into execution.

68
Karl Marx
Debates in Parliament

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr.4022, 9. Mrz 1854

Debates in Parliament.
From Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , T u e s d a y , F e b . 2 1 , 1854.

T h e military and naval estimates h a v e b e e n laid before Parliament. In t h e


5 a r m y , the total n u m b e r of m e n a s k e d for t h e c u r r e n t y e a r is 112,977, an
increase u p o n last year of 10,694. T h e total cost of t h e land forces for service
at h o m e and abroad, for t h e y e a r ending on t h e 31st of M a r c h , 1855, e x -
clusively of the Australian Colonies, and of the charge transferred to the E a s t
India C o m p a n y , is 3,923,288. T h e gross total a m o u n t is 4,877,925, w h i c h
10 will provide for 5,719 officers, 9,956 non-commissioned officers,
126,925 r a n k and file. T h e naval estimates for t h e y e a r ending M a r c h 31,1855,
show a total for the effective service, of 5,979,866, an increase u p o n last
y e a r of 1,172,446. T h e charge for t h e c o n v e y a n c e of t r o o p s and o r d n a n c e
stands 225,050, an increase of 72,100. T h e grand total for the y e a r a m o u n t s
15 to 7,487,948. T h e force will consist of 41,000 s e a m e n , 2,000 b o y s ,
15,500 m a r i n e s ; t h e total, including 116 m e n in t h e p a c k e t service, 58,616.
Mr. L a y a r d h a d given notice t h a t he should call attention to t h e E a s t e r n
question o n last F r i d a y evening, a n d h e seized u p o n t h e v e r y m o m e n t w h e n
t h e S p e a k e r w a s t o leave t h e Chair, i n o r d e r t h a t t h e H o u s e might consider
20 the n a v y e s t i m a t e s . Shortly after 4 o'clock all the galleries w e r e o v e r c r o w d e d ,
a n d at 5 o'clock t h e H o u s e w a s full. T w o long h o u r s , to the visible morti-
fication of t h e m e m b e r s a n d t h e public, w e r e killed w i t h indifferent con-
versation on minor topics. So intensely excited w a s the curiosity of t h e
honorables themselves t h a t they delayed dinner till 8 o'clock, to assist at t h e
25 opening of t h e great debatea r a r e o c c u r r e n c e this in t h e parliamentary Ufe
of the C o m m o n e r s .
Mr. L a y a r d , w h o s e s p e e c h w a s continually interrupted b y c h e e r s , began

69
Karl Marx

by stating that t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d placed t h e m in so extraordinary a position


t h a t t h e y w e r e at a loss to k n o w h o w they really stood. Before t h e y could
v o t e t h e d e m a n d e d a d v a n c e s , it w a s t h e duty of t h e g o v e r n m e n t to state what
their intentions were. B u t b e f o r e asking [the] g o v e r n m e n t w h a t t h e y w e r e
a b o u t to d o , he wished to k n o w n what they had already done. He h a d said 5
last year t h a t if the g o v e r n m e n t h a d a d o p t e d a t o n e m o r e w o r t h y of this
c o u n t r y , t h e y w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n plunged into w a r ; n o r , after a careful
p e r u s a l of the voluminous blue b o o k s lately issued, h a d he found c a u s e to
c h a n g e his opinions. Comparing t h e c o n t e n t s of v a r i o u s dispatches on var-
ious sides, he argued that the Ministry h a d overlooked the m o s t o b v i o u s 10
facts, h a d misunderstood t h e m o s t u n m i s t a k e a b l e t e n d e n c i e s , a n d t r u s t e d t o
t h e m o s t evidently fallacious a s s u r a n c e s . Declaring t h a t the tragedy of
S i n o p e i m p e a c h e d t h e h o n o r of England, a n d r e q u i r e d ample explanation,
he d r e w evidence from the published d o c u m e n t s to show that t h e Admirals
of the united fleets might h a v e p r e v e n t e d the c a t a s t r o p h e , or that t h e T u r k s 15
by t h e m selves h a v e averted it, if it had not b e e n for t h e timorous a n d vacillat-
ing instructions sent out by t h e British g o v e r n m e n t . He inferred from their
r e c e n t language t h a t t h e y w o u l d still treat on t h e basis of the status quo ante
bellum, w h i c h p r e s u m e d step he c o n d e m n e d . He called u p o n the g o v e r n m e n t
to do their d u t y , in the certainty t h a t the people of England would do theirs. 20
Sir J a m e s G r a h a m , with his notorious effrontery, a n s w e r e d him t h a t t h e y
m u s t either p u t their confidence in Ministers or t u r n t h e m out. B u t " m e a n -
while d o n ' t let us potter over blue b o o k s . " T h e y h a d b e e n deceived by Russia,
w h o w a s an old and faithful ally of G r e a t Britain, b u t " d a r k , malignant
suspicions did n o t easily t a k e r o o t in g e n e r o u s m i n d s . " This old fox, Sir 25
R o b e r t Peel's " d i r t y little b o y , " the m u r d e r e r of t h e B a n d i e r a s , w a s quite
c h a r m i n g with his " g e n e r o u s m i n d " and his " s l o w n e s s to s u s p e c t . "
T h e n c a m e L o r d Jocelyn a n d L o r d D u d l e y Stuart, w h o s e s p e e c h e s filled
t h e p a p e r s t h e n e x t day, b u t emptied the h o u s e o n this evening. Mr. R o e b u c k
n e x t c o m m e n c e d by defending t h e ministers for their c o n d u c t in a delicate 30
situation, b u t e n d e d by declaring t h a t it w a s n o w time for t h e ministry to
declare clearly what they intended to do. L o r d J o h n R u s s e l l , on t h e p l e a of
a n s w e r i n g this question, r o s e , gave an apologetic recapitulation of the
history of t h e late differences, and w h e n he h a d c o n v i n c e d himself t h a t
this w o u l d n o t d o , feigned to be willing to tell t h e m " w h a t t h e y intended 35
to d o ; " a thing he himself m a y n o t h a v e b e e n quite sure of. A c c o r d i n g to
his s t a t e m e n t t h e y h a d entered into s o m e vague sort of alliance w i t h F r a n c e ,
n o t by m e a n s of a t r e a t y concluded, b u t of n o t e s interchanged. E n g l a n d and
F r a n c e w e r e n o w proposing to T u r k e y also a sort of t r e a t y , by virtue of
w h i c h t h e P o r t e should n o t sue for p e a c e w i t h o u t their c o n s e n t . T h e y h a d 40
b e e n cruelly o v e r c o m e by the incredible perfidy of the C z a r . He (Russell)

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Debates in Parliament

despaired o f p e a c e being p r e s e r v e d . T h e y w e r e likely t o enter o n war. H e


c o n s e q u e n t l y w a n t e d s o m e 3,000,000 m o r e t h a n last year. S e c r e c y w a s
t h e condition of s u c c e s s in w a r a n d t h e r e f o r e he could n o t tell t h e m j u s t
n o w w h a t t h e y w e r e to do in t h a t w a r . As t h e latter, or theatrical p a r t of his
5 s p e e c h w a s p e r f o r m e d w i t h g r e a t f o r c e a n d w i t h m u c h m o r a l indignation at
t h e Czar " t h e b u t c h e r , " the applause w a s i m m e n s e , a n d t h e H o u s e , i n then-
enthusiasm, w e r e on t h e point of voting t h e estimates, w h e n Mr. Disraeli
interceded and s u c c e e d e d in adjourning t h e discussion to M o n d a y evening.
T h e d e b a t e s w e r e r e s u m e d y e s t e r d a y evening a n d only c o n c l u d e d a t
10 2 o'clock, A . M .
First r o s e M r . C o b d e n , promising to confine himself strictly to the practical
question i n hajid. H e t o o k great pains t o p r o v e from t h e blue b o o k s , w h a t
w a s denied b y n o b o d y , that t h e F r e n c h G o v e r n m e n t h a d originated "this
melancholy d i s p u t e , " by t h e mission of Mr. L a v a l e t t e respecting t h e H o l y
15 Places a n d the c o n c e s s i o n s it w r u n g from the P o r t e . T h e F r e n c h President,
w h o , at that time, h a d s o m e e x p e c t a t i o n of b e c o m i n g E m p e r o r , might h a v e
h a d some wish to m a k e a little political capital by m a k i n g t h e s e d e m a n d s u p o n
T u r k e y on behalf of t h e L a t i n Christians. T h e first m o v e m e n t of Russia,
t h e r e f o r e , w a s traceable to t h e proceedings of F r a n c e , in this matter. T h e
20 non-signature of t h e V i e n n a n o t e h a d b e e n t h e fault of t h e allies, n o t of t h e
T u r k i s h G o v e r n m e n t , b e c a u s e , if it h a d b e e n t h r e a t e n e d w i t h the w i t h d r a w a l
of t h e fleet from B e s i k a B a y , t h e P o r t e w o u l d immediately h a v e signed it.
W e w e r e going t o w a r b e c a u s e w e insisted u p o n T u r k e y refusing t o d o t h a t
by a n o t e to R u s s i a w h i c h we i n t e n d e d to a s k h e r to do for ourselves, viz.:
25 to give us a guarantee for the b e t t e r t r e a t m e n t of the Christians. T h e v a s t
majority of t h e population in t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e w a s looking with e a g e r n e s s
to the s u c c e s s of t h a t v e r y policy w h i c h R u s s i a w a s n o w prosecuting, (as
n o w exemplified i n Moldo-Wallachia). F r o m t h e blue b o o k s t h e m s e l v e s h e
could show t h a t the evils and o p p r e s s i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h a t Christian p o p u l a -
30 tion lived, could n o t be toleratedreferring principally to dispatches of L o r d
Clarendon, ostensibly w r i t t e n with t h e view to m a k e o u t a c a s e for the Czar.
In o n e of t h e s e dispatches L o r d C l a r e n d o n w r i t e s : " T h e P o r t e m u s t decide
b e t w e e n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of an e r r o n e o u s religious principle and t h e loss of
t h e s y m p a t h y a n d support of its allies." Mr. C o b d e n w a s t h e r e f o r e enabled
35 to a s k : " W h e t h e r the H o u s e did think it possible that a population like t h e
fanatical M u s s u l m a n population of T u r k e y w o u l d a b a n d o n its religion? A n d
w i t h o u t total a b a n d o n m e n t of the law of t h e Koran, it w a s absolutely
impossible to put t h e Christians of T u r k e y u p o n an equality with t h e T u r k s . "
W e m a y a s well a s k M r . C o b d e n , w h e t h e r w i t h t h e existing State C h u r c h a n d
40 laws of England, it is possible to p u t h e r w o r k i n g - m e n u p o n equality w i t h
the C o b d e n s and the Brights? M r . C o b d e n p r o c e e d e d t h e n with a view to

71
Karl Marx

s h o w from t h e letters of L o r d Stratford de Redcliff e a n d t h e British Consular


agents, t h a t t h e r e reigns a general dissatisfaction t h r o u g h the Christian
population in T u r k e y threatening to e n d in a general insurrection. N o w , let
us again a s k Mr. C o b d e n w h e t h e r t h e r e d o e s n o t exist a general dis-
satisfaction with their g o v e r n m e n t s and their ruling classes, a m o n g all p e o - 5
pies of E u r o p e , w h i c h discontent s o o n t h r e a t e n s to t e r m i n a t e with a general
revolution? If G e r m a n y , Italy, F r a n c e or e v e n G r e a t Britain h a d b e e n in-
v a d e d , like T u r k e y , by a foreign army, hostile to their G o v e r n m e n t s and
appealing to their insurrectionary p a s s i o n s , w o u l d a n y of t h e s e countries
h a v e as long r e m a i n e d quiet, as the Christian population of T u r k e y h a v e 10
done?
In entering u p o n a w a r in defense of T u r k e y , M r . C o b d e n c o n c l u d e s ,
E n g l a n d w o u l d be fighting for t h e domination of t h e O t t o m a n population of
T u r k e y and against t h e interest of the great b o d y of t h e people of that
c o u n t r y . This is merely a religious question b e t w e e n t h e R u s s i a n a r m y on 15
t h e o n e side and the T u r k i s h on t h e other. T h e British interests w e r e all on
t h e side of Russia. T h e extent pf their t r a d e with R u s s i a w a s e n o r m o u s . If
t h e e x p o r t trade to R u s s i a a m o u n t e d to only 2,000,000, this w a s b u t the
transitory result from Russia still laboring u n d e r t h e Protectionist delusion.
H o w e v e r their imports from R u s s i a a m o u n t e d to 13,000,000. With the 20
e x c e p t i o n of the U n i t e d States, t h e r e w a s no o n e foreign c o u n t r y with which
their t r a d e w a s so important as w i t h Russia. If E n g l a n d w a s going to w a r ,
w h y w e r e t h e y sending land forces to T u r k e y , i n s t e a d of exclusively using
their n a v y ? If the time had c o m e for the c o n t e s t b e t w e e n C o s s a c k i s m and
Republicanism, w h y w e r e Prussia, Austria, t h e rest of t h e G e r m a n S t a t e s , 25
Belgium, Holland, S w e d e n , and D e n m a r k remaining neutral, while F r a n c e
a n d England h a d to fight single h a n d e d ? If this w e r e a question of E u r o p e a n
i m p o r t a n c e , w a s i t n o t t o b e supposed that t h o s e w h o w e r e n e a r e s t t o t h e
danger w o u l d be t h e first to fight? Mr. C o b d e n c o n c l u d e d by declaring t h a t
" h e w a s o p p o s e d t o the w a r with R u s s i a . " H e t h o u g h t " t h e b e s t thing w a s 30
t o fall b a c k u p o n the V i e n n a n o t e . "
L o r d J o h n M a n n e r s considered t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t w e r e t o b l a m e for
their supineness a n d false security. T h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s originally m a d e by
L o r d C l a r e n d o n to t h e G o v e r n m e n t s of Russia, F r a n c e and T u r k e y , in which,
i n s t e a d of acting in a c c o r d a n c e with F r a n c e , L o r d C l a r e n d o n persisted in 35
refusing so to c o o p e r a t e , a n d m a d e k n o w n to the G o v e r n m e n t of R u s s i a that
E n g l a n d would not c o o p e r a t e with F r a n c e , h a d i n d u c e d t h e E m p e r o r of
R u s s i a to give Prince Menchikoff t h e o r d e r s w h i c h led to t h e w h o l e
c a t a s t r o p h e . I t w a s n o w o n d e r t h a t w h e n E n g l a n d a t last a n n o u n c e d her
intention to interfere actually at Constantinople, t h e G o v e r n m e n t of F r a n c e 40
should entertain s o m e d o u b t as to t h e sincerity of h e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t .

72
Debates in Parliament

It w a s n o t England t h a t advised t h e P o r t e to reject Prince Menchikoff's


ultimatum, but, on the c o n t r a r y , t h e Ministers of the Sultan acted u p o n their
o w n responsibility, and w i t h o u t any h o p e of the assistance of England. After
t h e occupation of the Principalities by t h e R u s s i a n s , t h e prolonged diplomatic
5 negotiations of the British G o v e r n m e n t h a d b e e n v e r y prejudicial to t h e
interests of T u r k e y , and v e r y serviceable to t h o s e of Russia. R u s s i a h a d t a k e n
possession of the Principalities without a declaration of w a r , in order to
p r e v e n t t h o s e treaties w h i c h w e r e h e r real i n s t r u m e n t s of oppression t o w a r d
T u r k e y from falling to t h e ground. C o n s e q u e n t l y , after T u r k e y h a d declared
10 war, it w a s n o t wise to insist u p o n t h e r e n e w a l of t h e s e treaties as a basis
o f negotiation. T h e m a i n question really i n h a n d n o w w a s , w h a t w e r e t h e
objects w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t c o n t e m p l a t e d in entering u p o n this t r e m e n -
d o u s struggle? It w a s generally a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e h o n o r and the i n d e -
p e n d e n c e of T u r k e y w e r e to be m a i n t a i n e d ; b u t it w a s essential t h a t t h e r e
15 should be some u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a far m o r e specific n a t u r e as to w h a t w a s
m e a n t b y this a n n o u n c e m e n t .
M r . H o r s m a n e n d e a v o r e d t o refute the fallacies p r o p o u n d e d b y
Mr. C o b d e n . T h e real question w a s n o t w h a t T u r k e y is, b u t w h a t R u s s i a
w o u l d b e c o m e w i t h T u r k e y a b s o r b e d in h e r dominionsa question w h e t h e r
20 t h e E m p e r o r w a s to be E m p e r o r also of T u r k e y ? With R u s s i a t h e r e w a s b u t
o n e object recognized, t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f t h e political p o w e r b y w a r . H e r
aim w a s territorial aggrandizement. F r o m t h e m o n s t r o u s mendacity of t h e
first step t a k e n in this m a t t e r by t h e R u s s i a n A u t o c r a t , d o w n to the atrocious
m a s s a c r e of Sinope, his c o u r s e h a d b e e n o n e of ferocity and fraud, of crimes
25 t h a t w o u l d be c o n s p i c u o u s e v e n in t h e annals of Russia, a c o u n t r y w h o s e
history w a s all crime, and w h i c h w e r e r e n d e r e d still m o r e fearful by t h a t
b l a s p h e m y w h i c h dared to i n v o k e t h e Christianity w h o s e laws it so flagrantly
violated. On the other h a n d , the c o n d u c t of the intended victim h a d b e e n
admirable. Mr. H o r s m a n t h e n t o o k great pains t o e x c u s e t h e oscillating
30 c o u r s e of the G o v e r n m e n t by t h e difficulties w h i c h t h e y found their position
s u r r o u n d e d with. H e n c e their diplomatic hesitation. If all the Cabinets of
E u r o p e , if t h e m o s t e x p e r i e n c e d diplomatists h a d b e e n engaged in opposition
to the A u t o c r a t , it w o u l d h a v e b e e n impossible to place him in a position
of greater difficulty a n d e m b a r r a s s m e n t a n d from which he could n o t ex-
35 trcate himself w i t h o u t difficulty a n d loss, t h a n t h a t in w h i c h either by t h e
blunders of our o w n Ministers or t h e adroitness of his o w n , he w a s n o w
placed. Six m o n t h s ago the E m p e r o r N i c h o l a s w a s t h e chief supporter of t h e
order a n d legitimacy o f E u r o p e ; n o w h e stood forward, u n m a s k e d a s t h e
greatest revolutionist. Foiled in his political intrigues, unsuccessful in the w a r
40 in Asia, a n d well t h r a s h e d by t h e T u r k s on t h e D a n u b e , t h e Czar h a d really
s h o w n an alacrity in sinking w h i c h w a s quite refreshing. It w a s n o w the d u t y

73
Karl Marx

of t h e G o v e r n m e n t , if hostilities should c o m m e n c e , to t a k e c a r e n o t to secure


p e a c e e x c e p t u p o n s u c h t e r m s as w o u l d involve ample and certain security
against a n y future repetition of similar aggression. He t r u s t e d t h a t o n e of
the conditions for t h e restoration of p e a c e w o u l d be t h a t R u s s i a should
indemnify T u r k e y for t h e e x p e n s e s to w h i c h she h a d b e e n put, a n d t h a t 5
T u r k e y should r e c e i v e , as a material g u a r a n t e e , t h e r e s t o r a t i o n of territories
of w h i c h she h a d b e e n deprived.
Mr. D r u m m o n d believed that we are going to engage in a religious w a r ,
a n d are a b o u t to enter into another c r u s a d e for t h e t o m b of Geoffrey de
Bouillon, w h i c h is already so b r o k e n t h a t it c a n n o t be sat u p o n . It a p p e a r s 10
t h a t t h e a u t h o r of t h e mischief from t h e v e r y beginning h a s b e e n t h e P o p e .
E n g l a n d h a d n o t the least interest in t h e T u r k i s h question, a n d a w a r b e t w e e n
this c o u n t r y a n d R u s s i a could n o t be b r o u g h t to a successful termination,
b e c a u s e t h e y will fight e a c h other for e v e r and n e v e r do e a c h other any h a r m .
"All t h a t y o u will gain in t h e p r e s e n t w a r will be h a r d k n o c k s . " Mr. C o b d e n 15
h a d s o m e time ago offered to c r u m p l e R u s s i a u p , a n d if he w o u l d do so n o w it
w o u l d s a v e t h e m a world of trouble. In fact, t h e p r e s e n t dispute w a s , w h e t h e r
t h e milliners should c o m e from Paris or from St. P e t e r s b u r g to dress t h e
idols of t h e H o l y Sepulchre. T h e y h a d n o w found o u t t h a t T u r k e y w a s their
ancient ally, a n d quite n e c e s s a r y to the b a l a n c e of p o w e r of E u r o p e . H o w 20
in t h e w o r l d did it h a p p e n t h a t t h e y n e v e r found t h a t out b e f o r e t h e y t o o k
t h e w h o l e kingdom of G r e e c e from her, and b e f o r e t h e y fought t h e battle
of N a v a r i n o , which he r e m e m b e r e d L o r d St. H e l e n s having described as a
capital battle, only t h a t t h e y k n o c k e d d o w n the w r o n g m e n . H o w c a m e t h e y
n o t to think of this w h e n the Russians p a s s e d t h e B a l k a n a n d w h e n t h e y might 25
h a v e given T u r k e y effectual aid by their fleet? B u t n o w , after t h e y h a d
r e d u c e d t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e to t h e last stage of d e c r e p i t u d e , t h e y thought
to be able to uphold this tottering p o w e r on the p r e t e n s e of t h e b a l a n c e of
p o w e r . After s o m e sarcastic r e m a r k s on t h e s u d d e n e n t h u s i a s m for Bona-
p a r t e , M r . D r u m m o n d asked w h o w a s to be Minister of W a r ? All of t h e m h a d 30
s e e n e n o u g h to show t h e m t h a t t h e r e w a s a feeble h a n d at t h e helm. He did
n o t believe t h a t the character of a n y general or of a n y admiral w a s safe in
t h e h a n d s of t h e p r e s e n t Administration. T h e y w e r e capable of sacrificing
either to please any faction in the H o u s e . If t h e y w e r e d e t e r m i n e d to go to
war, t h e y m u s t strike their blow at the h e a r t of Russia, a n d n o t go wasting 35
their shots in t h e Black Sea. T h e y m u s t begin by proclaiming the restablish-
m e n t of t h e kingdom of Poland. A b o v e all, he w a n t e d to be informed w h a t
the G o v e r n m e n t w a s about. " T h e h e a d o f the G o v e r n m e n t , " said M r . D r u m -
m o n d , " p r i d e s himself on his p o w e r s of c o n c e a l m e n t , a n d stated in another
p l a c e t h a t he should like to see any o n e e x t r a c t information from him w h i c h 40
he w a s n o t inclined to afford. T h a t s t a t e m e n t r e m i n d e d h i m of a s t o r y which

74
Debates in Parliament

he h e a r d o n c e in Scotlanda H i g h l a n d m a n h a d gone to India, a n d on his


r e t u r n to England b r o u g h t h o m e a p a r r o t as a p r e s e n t to his wife, w h i c h talked
r e m a r k a b l y well. A neighbor, n o t wishing to be o u t d o n e , w e n t to E d i n b u r g h
a n d b r o u g h t his wife h o m e a large owl. On its being r e m a r k e d to h i m t h a t
5 the owl could n e v e r be taught to s p e a k : ' V e r y t r u e , ' he replied; ' b u t consider
the p o w e r o' t h o c h t he has in him.' "
Mr. B u t t stated that this w a s the first time since the revolution t h a t a
Ministry h a d c o m e d o w n to t h e H o u s e a n d a s k e d for a w a r supply without
stating distinctly a n d fully t h e grounds for such a proposition. In the legal
10 sense of t h e w o r d , t h e y w e r e not y e t at w a r , a n d t h e H o u s e h a d a right to
k n o w , o n voting t h e s e supplies, w h a t w a s delaying t h e declaration o f w a r
against Russia? In w h a t an equivocal position w a s their fleet at t h e B l a c k
S e a p u t ! Admiral D u n d a s h a d o r d e r s to send b a c k R u s s i a n vessels to a
R u s s i a n port, and if, in t h e e x e c u t i o n of t h e s e o r d e r s , he d e s t r o y e d a
15 R u s s i a n ship, while being at p e a c e w i t h Russia, w e r e Ministers p r e p a r e d to
justify such a state of things? He h o p e d it w o u l d be explained w h e t h e r
assistance w a s t o b e given u p o n t h o s e humiliating termsthat T u r k e y w a s
to place herself in the h a n d s of E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e in making p e a c e w i t h
R u s s i a ? If that w a s to be t h e policy of E n g l a n d , t h e n Parliament w a s n o w
20 called u p o n to v o t e an additional force, n o t for t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e of T u r k e y ,
b u t for h e r subjugation. M r . B u t t b e t r a y e d s o m e d o u b t w h e t h e r Ministers
w e r e not merely making a p a r a d e of t h o s e military p r e p a r a t i o n s for t h e
p u r p o s e of arriving at a dishonorable p e a c e .
Mr. S. H e r b e r t , the Minister of W a r , m a d e t h e m o s t vulgar and silly s p e e c h
25 t h a t could possibly be e x p e c t e d e v e n f r o m a Coalition Minister at s u c h a
m o m e n t o u s crisis. T h e G o v e r n m e n t w a s p l a c e d b e t w e e n t w o fires, a n d t h e y
could not find any m e a n s of ascertaining w h a t opinion t h e H o u s e itself really
entertained u p o n the question. T h e h o n o r a b l e gentlemen opposite had t h e
advantage of coming to facts; t h e y w e r e criticising t h e p a s t ; b u t t h e G o v e r n -
30 m e n t h a d no facts to deal withthey h a d only to speculate as to t h e future.
T h e y w e r e inclined to e m b a r k in this w a r n o t so m u c h for t h e p u r p o s e of
defending T u r k e y as of opposing Russia. This w a s all the information t h e
H o u s e could get from p o o r Mr. H e r b e r t , " a s t o t h e f u t u r e . " B u t n o ; h e told
t h e m something v e r y n e w . " M r . C o b d e n i s , " according t o Mr. H e r b e r t , " t h e
35 representative of t h e feeling of t h e largest class of t h e people of this
c o u n t r y . " This assertion being d e n i e d in all p a r t s of t h e H o u s e , M r . H e r b e r t
p r o c e e d s to state: "If n o t t h e largest class, the honorable m e m b e r w a s a
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , at a n y r a t e , of a great portion of the working classes of this
c o u n t r y . " P o o r Mr. H e r b e r t . It w a s quite refreshing to see Mr. Disraeli rise
40 after him, and t h u s to h a v e t h e b a b b l e r supplanted by a real d e b a t e r .
Mr. Disraeli, alluding to the theatrical declamations with w h i c h L o r d J o h n

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Russell h a d terminated his speech on Friday evening, c o m m e n c e d with this


s t a t e m e n t : "I h a v e always b e e n of opinion t h a t any nation, and this o n e in
particular, would be m u c h m o r e p r e p a r e d and m u c h m o r e willing to b e a r the
b u r d e n s which a state of warfare m u s t induce a n d occasion, if t h e y really
k n e w for w h a t t h e y w e r e going to war, t h a n if t h e y should be h u r r i e d into 5
a c o n t e s t by inflammatory appeals to t h e p a s s i o n s , a n d be carried a w a y by
an e x c i t e m e n t w h i c h at t h e first m o m e n t might be c o n v e n i e n t to a Minister,
b u t w h i c h in a few m o n t h s after would be followed by the inevitable reaction
of ignorance, or p e r h a p s ignorance and disaster c o m b i n e d . " T h u s it h a d b e e n
with t h e w a r of 182829, w h e n t h e y t o o k p a r t on t h e side of R u s s i a a n d not 10
on t h a t of T u r k e y . T h e p r e s e n t perplexed position a n d the r e c e n t p r o s t r a t e
condition of T u r k e y , w e r e entirely to be ascribed to the e v e n t s of that w a r ,
i n w h i c h England and F r a n c e w e r e united against T u r k e y . A t that time t h e r e
w a s n o t a m e m b e r of the H o u s e w h o really h a d a n y idea w h y t h e y w e n t to
w a r , or w h a t w a s t h e object t h e y intended to accomplish, w h e n t h e y leveled 15
a blow at the p o w e r of T u r k e y . Therefore they m u s t clearly c o m p r e h e n d the
c a u s e and t h e object of t h e p r e s e n t war. This k n o w l e d g e w a s only to be
obtained from the blue b o o k s . W h a t had b e e n the origin of the p r e s e n t state
of affairs t h e y must learn from t h e w o r d s written in t h e s e v e r y dispatches
lying on the table. T h e policy t h e r e developed w a s preparing t h a t future 20
w h i c h , according t o Ministers, alone w a s t o a b s o r b their attention. H e
p r o t e s t e d , therefore against the doctrine of Sir J a m e s G r a h a m . M r . H e r b e r t
h a d j u s t p r o t e s t e d against t h e reading of isolated pages from t h o s e dis-
p a t c h e s . H e h o w e v e r could n o t p r o m i s e t o r e a d t h e s e blue b o o k s through
to t h e H o u s e ; yet if t h e y admitted the validity of the right h o n o r a b l e gentle- 25
m a n ' s objection, this would seem to be the only c o u r s e o p e n to him. It w a s
t h e received opinion of all t h a t w e r e well acquainted with t h e E a s t e r n q u e s -
tion, a n d his o w n opinion, that R u s s i a h a d no intention w h a t e v e r of forcibly
c o n q u e r i n g t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e ; b u t that, b y adroit policy a n d b y i m p r o v e d
m e a n s , she intended to obtain and to exercise s u c h an influence over the 30
Christian population of the T u r k i s h E m p i r e , t h a t she w o u l d obtain all that
authority which would h a v e b e e n the result of her possessing, p e r h a p s , t h e
seat of t h e Sultan's empire. At the outset of t h e s e negotiations C o u n t Nessel-
r o d e himself, in his dispatches dated J a n u a r y , 1853, a n d J u n e , 1853, distinctly
a n d explicitly described t h e policy of Russia. A s c e n d a n c y to be obtained over 35
t h e T u r k i s h E m p i r e by exercising a peculiar influence o v e r 12,000,000, w h o
c o m p o s e t h e large majority of t h e Sultan's subjects. By t h e R u s s i a n dis-
p a t c h e s a d d r e s s e d to t h e British G o v e r n m e n t , n o t merely is t h a t policy de-
fined, b u t the British G o v e r n m e n t is no less candidly informed of t h e m o d e by
w h i c h it is to be accomplishednot by c o n q u e s t , b u t by maintaining treaties 40
t h a t exist, a n d by extending t h e spirit of t h o s e treaties. T h u s , from t h e v e r y

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Debates in Parliament

beginning of this i m p o r t a n t c o n t r o v e r s y , t h e b a s e of the diplomatic c a m p a i g n


w a s found in a treatythe t r e a t y of Kainardji. By t h a t t r e a t y t h e Christian
subjects of the P o r t e are p l a c e d u n d e r t h e especial protection of t h e Sultan;
a n d Russia, in interpreting t h a t treaty, states t h a t t h e Christian subjects of
5 t h e Sultan are placed specially u n d e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n of t h e Czar. U n d e r t h e
s a m e t r e a t y representations m a y b e m a d e b y R u s s i a i n favor o f her n e w
churcha building in t h e street called B e y Ogluthe R u s s i a n interpretation
of t h a t article of t h e t r e a t y is, t h a t R u s s i a h a s the p o w e r of interfering in favor
of e v e r y c h u r c h of the G r e e k d e n o m i n a t i o n , a n d , of c o u r s e , in favor of all
10 the communities of t h a t faith in t h e Sultan's dominions, w h o h a p p e n to be
the large majority of his subjects. This w a s t h e a v o w e d Russian interpre-
tation of t h e treaty of Kainardji. On t h e other hand t h e y might s e e , from a
dispatch of the 8th of J a n u a r y , 1853, from Sir H a m i l t o n S e y m o u r , t h a t C o u n t
N e s s e l r o d e informed Sir Hamilton, w h o informed L o r d Clarendon, " t h a t it
15 w a s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e diplomacy of R u s s i a should be supported by a d e m o n -
stration of f o r c e . " According to this s a m e dispatch, C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e ' s
belief that this question w o u l d be b r o u g h t to a satisfactory conclusion, r e s t e d
u p o n the " e x e r t i o n s w h i c h w e r e t o b e m a d e b y H e r M a j e s t y ' s Ministers a t
Paris and C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . " Russia, t h e n , a t o n c e declared that t h e d e m o n -
20 stration of force w a s only a d e m o n s t r a t i o n ; b u t t h a t t h e object w a s to be
peaceably attained by t h e exertions of the English Ministers at Paris and
Constantinople. " N o w , Sir," continued Mr. Disraeli, " I w a n t t o k n o w , with
that object e x p r e s s e d , with those m e a n s detailed, and w i t h t h a t diplomacy
to deal with, h o w t h e Ministers e n c o u n t e r e d s u c h a c o m b i n a t i o n ? " It w a s
25 u n n e c e s s a r y to t o u c h on the question of t h e H o l y P l a c e s . T h a t w a s , in fact,
soon settled at Constantinople. E v e n C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e , at a v e r y early
period of t h e s e negotiations, e x p r e s s e d his surprise and satisfaction, and
stated his a c k n o w l e d g m e n t of t h e conciliatory spirit of F r a n c e . B u t all t h a t
time the forces of Russia w e r e accumulating on the T u r k i s h frontiers, a n d
30 all that time C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e w a s telling L o r d Clarendon t h a t his G o v e r n -
m e n t would ask an equivalent for the privileges w h i c h t h e G r e e k C h u r c h h a d
lost at Jerusalem, b u t in t h e settlement of which his G o v e r n m e n t h a d not b e e n
disturbed. E v e n the mission of Prince Menchikoff w a s mentioned at t h a t
time, as p r o v e d by various d i s p a t c h e s from Sir Hamilton S e y m o u r . L o r d
35 J o h n Russell had told t h e m t h e other night t h a t t h e c o n d u c t of C o u n t N e s s e l -
r o d e w a s fraudulent. O n t h e other h a n d L o r d J o h n Russell confessed himself
that C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e k e p t saying t h a t his Imperial m a s t e r w o u l d ask an
equivalent for t h e G r e e k C h u r c h ; b u t o n t h e other h e complained t h a t C o u n t
N e s s e l r o d e never told t h e m w h a t he w a n t e d . " W i c k e d C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e !
40 ( L a u g t h e r . ) F r a u d u l e n t duplicity of R u s s i a n s t a t e s m e n ! ( L a u g h t e r . ) W h y
could the noble L o r d n o t find the information he w a n t e d ? W h y is Sir Hamil-

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t o n S e y m o u r at St. Petersburg, if he is n o t to a s k for t h e information t h a t


is d e s i r e d ? " If C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e n e v e r told Mm w h a t he w a n t e d , it w a s
b e c a u s e t h e noble L o r d n e v e r dared to ask. At this stage of t h e proceedings
it w a s t h e d u t y of the Ministers to p u t categorical q u e s t i o n s to t h e Cabinet
of St. Petersburg. If t h e y could n o t define w h a t t h e y w a n t e d , t h e n it w a s time 5
to declare that the friendly offices of t h e British G o v e r n m e n t at Paris a n d
Constantinople w e r e t o cease. W h e n L o r d J o h n Russell h a d relinquished t h e
seals of office, and w a s followed by L o r d C l a r e n d o n , t h e r e w a s a different
c h a r a c t e r in t h e diplomatic proceedingsa bias in favor of Russia. W h e n
L o r d C l a r e n d o n w a s m a d e Minister of Foreign Affairs he h a d to d r a w up 10
instructions for L o r d Stratford d e Redcliffe, t h e Q u e e n ' s E m b a s s a d o r , r e -
pairing to the seat of action. N o w w h a t w e r e t h e s e instructions? At the
m o m e n t of her u t m o s t need and her u t m o s t exigency, T u r k e y is lectured
a b o u t internal reform and commercial reform. It is intimated to her t h a t the
c o n d u c t of t h e P o r t e must be distinguished by t h e u t m o s t m o d e r a t i o n a n d 15
p r u d e n c e , viz: that it m u s t comply with the d e m a n d s of Russia. M e a n w h i l e
t h e G o v e r n m e n t continued not to d e m a n d an explicit explanation of w h a t
w a s m e a n t on t h e p a r t of Russia. Prince Menchikoff arrived at C o n -
stantinople. After having received m o s t agitating missives from Col. R o s e ,
a n d w a r n i n g dispatches from Sir H a m i l t o n S e y m o u r , L o r d C l a r e n d o n 20
in a letter to L o r d Cowley, t h e British E m b a s s a d o r at P a r i s , d e n o u n c e d
Colonel R o s e ' s order in calling up t h e British fleet, regretted t h e order given
t o t h e F r e n c h Admiral t o sail t o t h e G r e e k w a t e r s , favoring F r a n c e with
c o n t e m p t u o u s d o g m a , " t h a t a policy of suspicion is neither wise nor s a f e , "
a n d declared he placed full reliance on t h e E m p e r o r of R u s s i a ' s solemn 25
a s s u r a n c e s t h a t h e w o u l d uphold t h e T u r k i s h E m p i r e . T h e n L o r d C l a r e n d o n
writes to his E m b a s s a d o r at Constantinople, t h a t he feels quite sure t h a t t h e
objects o f Prince Menchikoff's mission, " w h a t e v e r t h e y m a y b e , d o n o t
e x p o s e to danger t h e authority of t h e Sultan, or t h e integrity of his domin-
i o n s . " A y e ! L o r d Clarendon w e n t o u t of his w a y to a c c u s e their solitary ally 30
in E u r o p e , a n d stated t h a t their only g r o u n d s for n o w a p p r e h e n d i n g e m -
b a r r a s s m e n t i n t h e E a s t , w a s the position for s o m e time o c c u p i e d b y F r a n c e
with r e s p e c t t o t h e H o l y Places. Accordingly C o u n t N e s s e h o d e c o m -
plimented L o r d A b e r d e e n u p o n t h e b e a u rle (translated i n t h e blue b o o k
"important role, ") t h a t he h a d played, by h a v i n g left F r a n c e "isole. " On 35
t h e 1 st of April, Colonel R o s e informed this c o u n t r y of the secret convention
w h i c h R u s s i a d e m a n d e d from T u r k e y . Only t e n d a y s after L o r d Stratford
arrived at Constantinople and confirmed e v e r y thing that Colonel R o s e h a d
stated. After all this, on the 16th of May, L o r d C l a r e n d o n writes to Sir
H . S e y m o u r , " t h a t the explanations offered by t h e E m p e r o r of R u s s i a , " 40
explanations n o t contained i n t h e blue b o o k s , " h a d e n a b l e d t h e m t o disre-

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gard, instead of sharing in t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n s w h i c h t h e proceedings of Prince


Menchikoff coupled with t h e military p r e p a r a t i o n s in t h e s o u t h of R u s s i a h a d
n o t unnaturally p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e . " After this C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e
felt free to a n n o u n c e to L o r d C l a r e n d o n , on t h e 20th of J u n e , t h a t t h e y h a d
5 occupied the Principalities. In t h a t d o c u m e n t C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e states " t h a t
t h e E m p e r o r will o c c u p y t h e P r o v i n c e s as a deposit until satisfaction; t h a t
in acting as he h a s d o n e , he h a s r e m a i n e d faithful to his declarations to t h e
English G o v e r n m e n t ; t h a t in c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t h e Cabinet of L o n d o n as
to t h e military p r e p a r a t i o n s coincident w i t h the opening of negotiations, he
10 did n o t c o n c e a l from it t h a t t h e t i m e might y e t c o m e w h e n he should be
obliged to h a v e r e c o u r s e to t h e m , complimenting the English G o v e r n m e n t
on t h e friendly intentions it h a d s h o w n ; contrasting its c o n d u c t with t h a t of
F r a n c e , and laying all the b l a m e of P r i n c e Menchikoff's s u b s e q u e n t failures
on L o r d S t r a t f o r d . " After all this, on t h e 4th of July, L o r d C l a r e n d o n writes
15 a circular, in w h i c h he still h o p e s in t h e justice and m o d e r a t i o n of t h e
E m p e r o r , referring t o t h e E m p e r o r ' s r e p e a t e d declaration t h a t h e w o u l d
r e s p e c t the integrity of t h e T u r k i s h E m p i r e . On t h e 28th of July he writes
to L o r d Stratford, t h a t " F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d , if t h e y set to w o r k in earnest,
might certainly cripple Russia, b u t T u r k e y m e a n w h i l e might b e irretrievably
20 ruined, a n d peaceful negotiations are t h e only c o u r s e to p u r s u e . " W h y ? If
t h a t w a s a good a r g u m e n t t h e n , it is a good a r g u m e n t n o w . E i t h e r t h e
G o v e r n m e n t w e r e influenced by a degree of confidence w h i c h a s s u m e d a
morbid character of credulity, or t h e y w e r e influenced by c o n n i v a n c e . T h e
c a u s e of t h e w a r h a d b e e n t h e c o n d u c t of t h e negotiations during t h e last
25 seven m o n t h s u p o n the p a r t of h e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t . If t h e y h a d b e e n
influenced b y credulity, Russia, b y h e r perfidious c o n d u c t , m a y h a v e p r e -
cipitated a struggle which, p e r h a p s , will be inevitable, a n d a struggle w h i c h
might secure t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e of E u r o p e , t h e safety of England, and t h e
safety of civilization. If their c o n d u c t h a d b e e n suggested by c o n n i v a n c e ,
30 a t i m o r o u s war, a vacillating w a r , a w a r w i t h no results, or rather with t h e
e x a c t results w h i c h w e r e originally intended. On t h e 25th of April L o r d
C l a r e n d o n h a d m a d e t h e false s t a t e m e n t i n t h e H o u s e o f L o r d s t h a t t h e
Menchikoff mission w a s t o arrange d i s p u t e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e H o l y Places,
although h e k n e w t h e c o n t r a r y t o b e t r u e . Mr. Disraeli n e x t briefly t r a c e d
35 t h e history of the V i e n n a n o t e to show the u t t e r imbecility of the Ministry
o r their c o n n i v a n c e with t h e C o u r t o f St. P e t e r s b u r g . H e c a m e t h e n t o t h e
third period, t h e period of t h e interval t h a t t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e failure
of t h e V i e n n a n o t e a n d t h e battle of S i n o p e . At t h a t t i m e Mr. Gladstone, t h e
Chancellor of the E x c h e q u e r , s p o k e in a public a s s e m b l y in t h e m o s t d e p r e -
co ciating t o n e with r e s p e c t to T u r k e y . A n d so did t h e semi-official p a p e r s . W h a t
c h a n g e d t h e a s p e c t a n d fortunes of T u r k e y , a n d gave a n e w t o n e to the

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Karl Marx

Cabinet, w a s t h e energies of t h e T u r k s t h e m s e l v e s . B u t no sooner w a s t h e


battle of Oltenitza fought t h a n the policy of credulity, or the policy of
c o n n i v a n c e , w a s at its dirty w o r k again. H o w e v e r , t h e slaughter of Sinope
o p e r a t e d again in t h e favor of the T u r k s . T h e fleets w e r e o r d e r e d to enter
t h e B l a c k Sea. B u t w h a t did t h e y d o ? R e t u r n to t h e B o s p h o r u s ! As to the 5
future, L o r d J o h n Russell h a d b e e n v e r y v a g u e i n t h e description o f t h e
conditions of their alliance with F r a n c e . Mr. Disraeli disclaimed confounding
t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of the b a l a n c e of p o w e r with t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of the p r e s e n t
territorial distribution of E u r o p e . T h e future of Italy mainly d e p e n d e d u p o n
t h e appreciation of that truth. 10
After M r . Disraeli's splendid speech, of w h i c h I h a v e , of c o u r s e , only given
t h e outlines, L o r d Palmerston rose and m a d e a c o m p l e t e failure. He r e p e a t e d
p a r t of t h e s p e e c h he had m a d e at the close of the last session, defended in
a v e r y inconclusive m a n n e r the ministerial policy, and w a s anxiously cau-
tious n o t to d r o p o n e w o r d of n e w information. 15
On the motion of Sir J. G r a h a m certain v o t e s for the N a v y estimates w e r e
t h e n agreed to without discussion.
After all, the m o s t curious feature of t h e s e agitated d e b a t e s is, t h a t the
H o u s e completely failed in wresting from t h e Ministers either a formal
declaration of w a r with Russia, or a description of the objects for which t h e y 20
are t o plunge into war. T h e H o u s e and the public k n o w n o m o r e t h a n t h e y
k n e w already. T h e y h a v e got no n e w information at all.
Karl M a r x .

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Karl Marx
Parliamentary Debates of February 22
Pozzo di Borgo's Dispatch
The Policy of the Western Powers

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 4025, 13. Mrz 1854
L o n d o n , F r i d a y , F e b . 24, 1854.

A good deal of idle talk a b o u t K o s s u t h ' s "warlike p r e p a r a t i o n s " and p r o b a b l e


" m o v e m e n t s " has infested t h e public p r e s s . N o w I h a p p e n to k n o w from a
Polish officer, w h o is setting o u t for Constantinople, and consulted t h e
5 e x - G o v e r n o r about t h e c o u r s e he should t a k e , t h a t K o s s u t h dissuaded h i m
from leaving L o n d o n , and e x p r e s s e d himself by no m e a n s favorable to t h e
participation of Hungarian a n d Polish officers in t h e p r e s e n t T u r k i s h war,
b e c a u s e they m u s t either enlist t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r t h e b a n n e r of C z a r t o r y s k y
or abjure their Christian faith, the o n e step being contradictory to his policy
10 and the other to his principles.
S o d e e p w a s the impression p r o d u c e d b y M r . Disraeli's masterly e x p o s u r e
of the Ministerial policy t h a t t h e Cabinet of all t h e talents thought fit to m a k e
a p o s t h u m o u s attempt to b u r k e him in a little c o m e d y arranged b e t w e e n
t h e m s e l v e s a n d Mr. H u m e , a n d p e r f o r m e d in W e d n e s d a y morning's sitting
15 of the C o m m o n s . L o r d P a l m e r s t o n h a d c o n c l u d e d his l a m e reply to M r . D i s -
raeli's epigrammatic alternative of a morbid " c r e d u l i t y " or a t r e a c h e r o u s
" c o n n i v a n c e " by appealing from faction to the impartial j u d g m e n t of t h e
country, a n d Mr. H u m e w a s t h e m a n c h o s e n to a n s w e r in t h e n a m e of t h e
country, just as Snug, the joiner, w a s c h o s e n to play the lion's part in " T h e
20 most cruel d e a t h of P y r a m u s a n d T h i s b e . " Mr. H u m e ' s whole Parliamentary
life has b e e n spent in making opposition pleasant, moving a m e n d m e n t s , in
order to withdraw t h e m afterwardconstituting, in fact, t h e so-called inde-
p e n d e n t opposition, the rear-guard of e v e r y W h i g Ministry, sure of coming
forward to r e s c u e it from danger w h e n e v e r its o w n registered partisans m a y
25 show any signs of vacillation. He is t h e great P a r l i a m e n t a r y " e x t i n g u i s h e r "
p a r excellence. He is not only t h e oldest m e m b e r of Parliament, b u t an
i n d e p e n d e n t m e m b e r ; and n o t only an i n d e p e n d e n t , b u t a radical; and n o t
only a radical, b u t t h e pedantic a n d n o t o r i o u s C e r b e r u s of t h e public p u r s e ,
with the mission of making p o u n d s slip unnoticed by while picking quarrels
30 a b o u t t h e fractional part of a farthing. F o r t h e first time in his Parliamentary
life, as he himself emphatically stated, M r . H u m e r o s e n o t to c o n d e m n , b u t

81
1
Karl Marx

to e x p r e s s his approval of t h e " E s t i m a t e s . " This e x t r a o r d i n a r y e v e n t , as he


did n o t fail to r e m a r k himself, w a s t h e m o s t incontestable proof t h a t t h e Mi-
nistry h a d n o t in vain appealed to the s o u n d j u d g m e n t of the c o u n t r y from t h e
u n m e r i t e d slanders of faction, b u t h a d received a s o l e m n acquittal from the
c h a r g e of credulity a n d c o n n i v a n c e . His a r g u m e n t s w e r e characteristic. In 5
o r d e r to r e s c u e the Ministers from the alternative of credulity or c o n n i v a n c e ,
he p r o v e d t h e credulity of t h e Ministers in their t r a n s a c t i o n s with Russia.
H e h a d , t h e n , u n d e r s t o o d the t r u e sense o f L o r d P a l m e r s t o n ' s appeal. All
t h e Ministry a s k e d for w a s t h e discharge from intentional t r e a s o n . As to
credulity, h a d n o t that excellent Sir J a m e s G r a h a m already declared that "a 10
g e n e r o u s mind i s slow t o s u s p e c t ? " B e c a u s e t h e impending w a r w a s brought
a b o u t by the Ministry's o w n diplomatic m i s m a n a g e m e n t , certainly it w a s a
w a r of their o w n , a n d they, therefore, w e r e , of all m e n , as Mr. H u m e thought,
the v e r y m e n to c a r r y it curiningly. T h e relative littleness of t h e p r o p o s e d
w a r estimates w a s , in M r . H u m e ' s opinion, t h e m o s t convincing proof of t h e 15
greatness of t h e w a r intended. L o r d P a l m e r s t o n , of c o u r s e , t h a n k e d
Mr. H u m e for t h e sentence Mr. H u m e h a d p r o n o u n c e d i n t h e n a m e o f t h e
c o u n t r y , a n d , i n c o m p e n s a t i o n , f a v o r e d h i s a u d i e n c e w i t h his o w n doctrine
of state p a p e r s , which p a p e r s , according to him, m u s t n e v e r be laid before
t h e H o u s e a n d the c o u n t r y , until m a t t e r s are sufficiently embroiled to deprive 20
their publication of any u s e w h a t e v e r . S u c h w a s all t h e after-wit t h e coalition
h a d to dispose of after d u e deliberation. L o r d P a l m e r s t o n , their m a n a g e r ,
h a d n o t only to w e a k e n t h e impression of their antagonist's s p e e c h , b u t to
annihilate also his o w n theatrical appeal from the H o u s e to t h e c o u n t r y .
On T u e s d a y night, Mr. Horsfall, t h e M e m b e r for L i v e r p o o l , a s k e d t h e 25
q u e s t i o n : " W h e t h e r the treaties with foreign nations or the steps w h i c h h e r
Majesty's Government were prepared to take in the event of war were such
as w o u l d effectually p r e v e n t privateers being fitted o u t in neutral p o r t s to
interfere with British shipping?" T h e a n s w e r given b y L o r d P a l m e r s t o n w a s :
" T h a t the honorable gentleman and t h e H o u s e m u s t feel t h a t this w a s a 30
q u e s t i o n to which, in the p r e s e n t state of things, no e x p l a n a t o r y a n s w e r could
be g i v e n . " In quoting this a n s w e r of its m a s t e r , The Morning Post, P a l m e r -
s t o n ' s private Moniteur, r e m a r k s : " T h e noble lord could h a v e given no o t h e r
a n s w e r (whatever knowledge the G o v e r n m e n t m a y p o s s e s s o n t h e subject)
w i t h o u t entering u p o n t h e discussion of a m o s t delicate a n d difficult topic, 35
w h i c h m a y , at the p r e s e n t m o m e n t , form t h e subject of negotiations, a n d
w h i c h , to be b r o u g h t to a satisfactory issue, should be left to t h e s p o n t a n e o u s
sense of justice of t h o s e p o w e r s w h o h a v e no desire to r e v i v e in this civilized
age a s y s t e m of legalized p i r a c y . "
On the o n e h a n d , the P a l m e r s t o n o r g a n d e c l a r e s the "difficult t o p i c " to 40
form t h e subject of pending negotiations, a n d on t h e other, t h e necessity of

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Parliamentary Debates of February 22Pozzo di Borgo's Dispatch

leaving it to the " s p o n t a n e o u s sense of j u s t i c e " of t h e interested p o w e r s . If


t h e m u c h b o a s t e d t r e a t y of neutrality with D e n m a r k and S w e d e n w a s n o t
dictated by the St. P e t e r s b u r g Cabinet, it m u s t , of c o u r s e , h a v e forbidden
privateers being fitted out in their p o r t s ; but, in fact, t h e whole question c a n
5 only be u n d e r s t o o d to refer to t h e U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a , as the Baltic
is to be occupied by English line-of-battle ships, a n d Holland, Belgium,
Spain, Portugal, and t h e Italian p o r t s on t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n , are completely
in t h e h a n d s of England a n d F r a n c e . N o w , w h a t is in t h e opinion of t h e
St. P e t e r s b u r g Cabinet a s t o the p a r t t o b e p e r f o r m e d b y t h e U n i t e d States
10 in t h e case t h e T u r k i s h w a r should lead to a w a r b e t w e e n E n g l a n d a n d R u s s i a ?
We m a y answer this q u e s t i o n authentically from a dispatch a d d r e s s e d by
P o z z o di Borgo to C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e in t h e a u t u m n of 1825. At that time
R u s s i a had resolved u p o n invading T u r k e y . As n o w she p r o p o s e d to begin
by a pacific o c c u p a t i o n of t h e Principalities. " I n supposing t h e a d o p t i o n of
15 this p l a n , " says P o z z o di B o r g o , " i t w o u l d be requisite to enter into e x -
planations with t h e P o r t e in t h e m o s t m e a s u r e d t e r m s , and to a s s u r e it t h a t
if it did n o t wish to precipitate itself into a w a r , t h e E m p e r o r w a s willing to
t e r m i n a t e t h e s e differences by conciliation." After having e n u m e r a t e d all t h e
steps they would be obliged to t a k e , P o z z o di Borgo continues as follows:
20 "It would be advisable to communicate all these acts to the United States
of America as an evidence of the regard of the Imperial Cabinet, and of the
importance which it attaches to enlightening its opinion and even obtaining
its suffrage. " I n case of E n g l a n d ' s siding w i t h T u r k e y and undertaking a w a r
with Russia, P o z z o d i B o r g o r e m a r k s that, " i n blockading o u r p o r t s t h e y
25 (England) w o u l d e x e r c i s e their pretended maritime rights in respect to
neutrals. This the United States would not suffer! thence would arse bitter
dissensions and dangerous situations."
N o w , a s the R u s s i a n historian K a r a m s i n justly r e m a r k s that " n o t h i n g
changes in our (Russian) external p o l i c y , " we are justified in presuming t h a t ,
30 at the p r e s e n t m o m e n t , and p e r h a p s as long ago as F e b r u a r y , 1853, R u s s i a
h a s " c o m m u n i c a t e d all h e r a c t s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " a n d d o n e h e r b e s t t o
cajole the W a s h i n g t o n Cabinet into at least a n e u t r a l attitude. At the s a m e
time, in t h e c a s e of a w a r with E n g l a n d , she b a s e s her h o p e s u p o n e v e n t u a l
quarrels a b o u t the " m a r i t i m e rights of t h e n e u t r a l s " producing "bitter dis-
35 sensions a n d d a n g e r o u s situations," a n d involving t h e U n i t e d States in a
m o r e or less a v o w e d alliance w i t h St. P e t e r s b u r g .
As I am quoting t h e m o s t celebrated of P o z z o di B o r g o ' s d i s p a t c h e s , I m a y
as well cite t h e passage respecting Austria, t h e c o n t e n t s of which h a v e
certainly lost nothing of their actuality by t h e e v e n t s t h a t h a v e p a s s e d since
40 1825, in Galicia, Italy, a n d H u n g a r y .
" O u r p o l i c y , " says P o z z o , " c o m m a n d s t h a t w e shall show ourselves t o this

83
Karl Marx

State u n d e r a terrible aspect, a n d by our p r e p a r a t i o n s to p e r s u a d e it t h a t , if


it m a k e s m o v e m e n t s against u s , the fiercest of storms that it has yet to bear,
will burst upon its head. E i t h e r Prince M e t t e r n i c h will declare to t h e T u r k s
t h a t o u r e n t r y into the Principalities is a resolution that t h e y themselves h a v e
p r o v o k e d , or he will t h r o w himself on other provinces of the Ottoman Empire 5
m o r e to his c o n v e n i e n c e . In the first c a s e we will be agreed, in the second
we will become so. T h e only c h a n c e t h a t we h a v e to r u n is t h a t of an o p e n
declaration against u s . If Prince Metternich is wise he will avoid w a r ; if he
is violent, he will be punished. W i t h a ministry p l a c e d in a situation s u c h as
his, a cabinet such as o u r s , will find in e v e n t s a t h o u s a n d w a y s of terminating 10
differences."
L o r d J o h n ' s stump-oratory, the beating of big d r u m s a b o u t English honor,
t h e show of great moral indignation at R u s s i a n perfidy, t h e vision of Eng-
l a n d ' s floating batteries defiling along the walls of Sevastopol a n d C r o n s t a d t ,
t h e t u m u l t of a r m s and the ostentatious e m b a r k a t i o n of t r o o p s , all t h e s e 15
d r a m a t i c incidents quite bewilder the public u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a n d raise a mist
b e f o r e its e y e s , w h i c h allowed it to see nothing save its o w n delusions. C a n
t h e r e exist a greater delusion t h a n believing this Ministry, after t h e revela-
tions m a d e by the blue b o o k s , to h a v e b e e n all at o n c e t r a n s f o r m e d n o t only
into a warlike Ministry, b u t into a Ministry t h a t could u n d e r t a k e any w a r 20
against R u s s i a e x c e p t a simulated o n e , or o n e carried on in the v e r y interest
of t h e e n e m y against w h o m it is ostensibly directed? L e t us look at the
c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n d e r which the warlike p r e p a r a t i o n s are m a d e .
No formal declaration of w a r is m a d e against Russia. T h e v e r y object of
t h e w a r t h e Ministry is n o t able to a v o w . T r o o p s a r e e m b a r k e d without t h e 25
place of their destination being distinctly described. T h e estimates asked for
are t o o small for a great w a r and too great for a small o n e . T h e coalition,
w h o h a v e g r o w n notorious for ingenuity displayed in hatching p r e t e x t s for
not keeping their most solemn promises a n d r e a s o n s for delaying t h e m o s t
urgent r e f o r m s , all at o n c e feel t h e m s e l v e s b o u n d by o v e r s c r u p u l o u s adher- 30
e n e e to pledges rashly given to complicate this m o m e n t o u s crisis by surpris-
ing the c o u n t r y with a n e w reform bill, d e e m e d i n o p p o r t u n e by the m o s t
a r d e n t r e f o r m e r s , imposed by no p r e s s u r e from without, and received on all
sides w i t h the u t m o s t indifference and suspicion. W h a t t h e n can be their plan
b u t to divert public attention from their external policy by getting up a subject 35
of overwhelming domestic interest?
T r a n s p a r e n t efforts are n o w m a d e to misguide the public as to t h e situation
of E n g l a n d in r e s p e c t to foreign States. No binding t r e a t y h a s y e t b e e n
c o n c l u d e d with F r a n c e , b u t a substitute has b e e n p r o v i d e d by " n o t e s ex-
c h a n g e d . " N o w , such n o t e s w e r e e x c h a n g e d in 1839, with t h e cabinet of 40
L o u i s Philippe, by virtue of w h i c h the allied fleets w e r e to enter the D a r d a -

84
Parliamentary Debates of February 22Pozzo di Borgo's Dispatch

nelles, and to arrest t h e intervention of R u s s i a in t h e affairs of t h e E a s t , either


singly or collectively w i t h o t h e r p o w e r s , a n d we all k n o w w h a t c a m e o u t of
the n o t e s e x c h a n g e d thena H o l y Alliance against F r a n c e and t h e T r e a t y
of the Dardanelles. T h e sincerity a n d the e a r n e s t n e s s of the A n g l o - F r e n c h
5 alliance may be inferred from a Parliamentary incident in y e s t e r d a y ' s sitting
of the C o m m o n s . B o n a p a r t e , as y o u h a v e s e e n in t h e Moniteur, t h r e a t e n s
the G r e e k insurrectionists, a n d h a s sent a similar r e m o n s t r a n c e to t h e
G o v e r n m e n t of King O t h o . Sir J. W a l s h having interrogated the Ministry on
this point, L o r d J o h n Russell declared t h a t " h e w a s a w a r e of no u n d e r s t a n d -
10 ing b e t w e e n the F r e n c h and English G o v e r n m e n t s in t h e matter alluded t o ,
and h a d n o t b e e n able to see t h e Minister of Foreign Affairs on t h e subject.
His impression w a s , h o w e v e r , t h a t n o such r e m o n s t r a n c e had b e e n sent b y
t h e G o v e r n m e n t of F r a n c e , a n d certainly n o t with t h e c o n s e n t of, or in
c o n c e r t with, the G o v e r n m e n t of this c o u n t r y . "
15 If t h e British G o v e r n m e n t intend a real w a r with R u s s i a w h y do t h e y
anxiously e s c h e w the international f o r m s of declaring w a r ? If t h e y intend
a real alliance with F r a n c e , w h y do t h e y studiously s h u n the legalized f o r m s
of international alliances? As to t h e G e r m a n p o w e r s , Sir J a m e s G r a h a m
declares t h a t t h e y h a v e entered an alliance w i t h E n g l a n d , and L o r d J o h n
20 Russell on t h e same evening contradicts him, stating that t h e relations with
t h o s e p o w e r s are in fact t h e same as at t h e beginning of the E a s t e r n c o m -
plication. According to t h e v e r y s t a t e m e n t of the ministers, t h e y are just n o w
a b o u t coming to t e r m s with T u r k e y and proposing a t r e a t y w i t h her. T h e y are
embarking t r o o p s , with a view to occupying Constantinople, without having
25 b e f o r e h a n d concluded a t r e a t y w i t h T u r k e y . We a r e , t h e n , n o t to be surprised
at learning from a Constantinople letter t h a t a secret agent of t h e Porte h a s
b e e n sent from V i e n n a to St. P e t e r s b u r g to p r o p o s e to the Czar a private
settlement. " I t would b e rational," says t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n t , " t h a t t h e T u r k s ,
after discovering t h e t r e a c h e r y a n d folly of their p r e t e n d e d friends should
30 seek to avenge t h e m s e l v e s by contracting an alliance with a wise e n e m y . T h e
t e r m s of settlement, t h e former are e n d e a v o r i n g to settle on T u r k e y , are t e n
times m o r e ruinous t h a n t h e Menchikoff c l a i m s . "
T h e p r o s p e c t of w h a t the e m b a r k e d t r o o p s a r e intended to d o , at least in
t h e opinion of t h e English Ministry, m a y be justly inferred from w h a t t h e
35 united s q u a d r o n s h a v e d o n e and are doing at the p r e s e n t m o m e n t . T w e n t y
d a y s after having e n t e r e d t h e B l a c k S e a t h e y r e t u r n to t h e B o s p h o r u s . A f e w
d a y s previous, we are informed, " t h e Ministers of the P o r t e , o u t of deference
for t h e r e m o n s t r a n c e s of t h e British E m b a s s a d o r , h a d to put in prison t h e
editor of the G r e e k j o u r n a l , The Telegraph of the Bosphorus, for having said
40 in his paper that b o t h t h e English a n d F r e n c h fleets w o u l d shortly r e t u r n from
t h e E u x i n e to t h e B o s p h o r u s . T h e E d i t o r of t h e Journal of Constantinople

85
Karl Marx

w a s authorized t o declare t h a t b o t h f l e e t s w e r e t o c o n t i n u e their stay i n t h e


E u x i n e . " In order to show his deference for t h e intimation received from
t h e British a n d F r e n c h Admirals, t h e R u s s i a n Admiral, on t h e 19th ult., sent
o u t t w o steamers t o b o m b a r d the T u r k s a t Shefketil, and R u s s i a n s t e a m e r s
cruise in sight of Trebizond, while no vessels belonging to t h e united squad- 5
r o n s are in the Black Sea, e x c e p t an English a n d a F r e n c h steamer, off
S e v a s t o p o l ; Sinope, t h e n , and t h e b o m b a r d m e n t of Shefketil by R u s s i a n
s t e a m e r s , are the only feats the united s q u a d r o n s h a v e to b o a s t of. T h e
q u a r r e l b e t w e e n t h e E m b a s s a d o r s a n d t h e Admirals all relations b e t w e e n
w h o m h a v e c o m e to a dead standLord Stratford de Redcliffe refusing to 10
r e c e i v e Admiral D u n d a s and Baraguay d'Hilliers excluding from a state ball
t h e F r e n c h Admiral and his officersthis quarrel is of minor i m p o r t a n c e , as
t h e diplomatic triflers being c o m p r o m i s e d by t h e publication of their dis-
p a t c h e s at L o n d o n and Paris, m a y strive to r e s c u e , at a n y risk of ships and
c r e w s , their lost reputation. 15
B u t t h e serious side of the question is, t h a t t h e public instructions given
to t h e E m b a s s a d o r s w e r e c o u n t e r m a n d e d by a set of secret instructions
f o r w a r d e d to the Admirals, and t h a t the latter are really incapable of execut-
ing instructions which are self-contradictoryand h o w could t h e y be other-
w i s e , no declaration of w a r having p r e c e d e d t h e m ? On t h e o n e h a n d t h e y 20
are o r d e r e d to attack Russian ships in order to enforce their withdrawal from
the E u x i n e t o Sevastopol, and o n the other, n o t t o s w e r v e from t h e m e r e
defensive. Lastly, if a serious w a r be intended, h o w could t h e British
E m b a s s a d o r at Constantinople h a v e regarded it as an important t r i u m p h to
h a v e got t h e leader of t h e w a r p a r t y in t h e T u r k i s h ministryMehemed Ali 25
Pashaturned o u t of his office as W a r Minister, having him replaced by t h e
peace-mongering R i z a P a s h a , while he intrusted M e h e m e t P a s h a , a c r e a t u r e
of Reshid P a s h a , with the office of G r a n d A d m i r a l ?
N o w look a t another m o s t important point. T h e e m b a r k a t i o n o f the British
a n d F r e n c h t r o o p s is only p r o c e e d e d with after t h e n e w s of a G r e e k in- 30
surrection having b r o k e n out in Albania, and being spread over T h e s s a l y and
M a c e d o n i a , h a s r e a c h e d L o n d o n and Paris. This insurrection w a s from the
first anxiously waited for on the p a r t of the English Cabinet, as is p r o v e d
by t h e dispatches of Russell, Clarendon and L o r d Stratford de Redcliffe. It
gives t h e m the b e s t occasion to interfere b e t w e e n the Sultan a n d his o w n 35
Christian subjects on t h e plea of interfering b e t w e e n t h e Russians a n d the
T u r k s . F r o m the m o m e n t that the Latins interfere w i t h the G r e e k s (I u s e this
w o r d h e r e only in t h e religious sense) y o u m a y be sure of a c o n c e r t b e c o m i n g
established b e t w e e n 11,000,000 inhabitants of E u r o p e a n T u r k e y and the
Czar, w h o will t h e n really a p p e a r as their religious protector. T h e r e exists 40
no polemical schism b e t w e e n the M u s u l m a n s and their G r e e k subjects, b u t

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Parliamentary Debates of February 22Pozzo di Borgo's Dispatch

t h e religious animosity against t h e Latins m a y be said to form t h e only


c o m m o n b o n d b e t w e e n the different r a c e s inhabiting T u r k e y a n d professing
t h e G r e e k creed. I n this r e s p e c t things h a v e n o t c h a n g e d since t h e period
w h e n M o h a m e d II. laid siege t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , w h e n t h e G r e e k A d m i r a l
5 L u c a s N o t a r a s , t h e m o s t influential m a n in t h e Byzantine E m p i r e , publicly
declared that he w o u l d prefer seeing t h e T u r k i s h t u r b a n t r i u m p h a n t in t h e
capital r a t h e r t h a n t h e L a t i n h a t , while on t h e other h a n d t h e r e w a s a H u n g a r -
ian p r o p h e c y afloat t h a t t h e Christians w o u l d n e v e r be f o r t u n a t e till t h e
d a m n e d heretical G r e e k s should b e extirpated and Constantinople d e s t r o y e d
10 by t h e T u r k s . A n y interference, t h e n , on t h e p a r t of t h e W e s t e r n P o w e r s ,
b e t w e e n t h e Sultan and his G r e e k subjects, m u s t f a v o r the plans of the C z a r .
A similar result will be b r o u g h t a b o u t should Austria, as she did in 1791,
u n d e r t a k e t o o c c u p y Servia o n t h e p r e t e x t o f thwarting t h e t r e a s o n a b l e
designs of t h e R u s s i a n p a r t y in t h a t Principality. L e t me add t h a t it is r u m o r e d
15 at L o n d o n that t h e insurged E p i r a t e s w e r e s u p p o r t e d a n d joined by G r e e k s
from t h e Ionian Islands, w h o h a d n o t b e e n c h e c k e d b y t h e English author-
ities, a n d that the n e w s of t h e G r e e k insurrection w a s a n n o u n c e d by The
Times, t h e coalition organ, in S a t u r d a y ' s n u m b e r , as a m o s t o p p o r t u n e
event.
20 I, for my part, h a v e no d o u b t at all that t r e a c h e r y lurks b e h i n d t h e clamor-
o u s w a r preparations of t h e coalition. B o n a p a r t e is of c o u r s e in good e a r n e s t
in embarking in t h e w a r . He has no alternative left b u t revolution at h o m e
o r w a r abroad. H e c a n n o t a n y longer c o n t i n u e , a s h e d o e s , t o couple t h e cruel
despotism of N a p o l e o n I w i t h t h e c o r r u p t p e a c e policy of L o u i s Philippe.
25 He m u s t stop sending n e w b a t c h e s of prisoners to C a y e n n e if he dare n o t
simultaneously send F r e n c h armies b e y o n d t h e frontiers. B u t t h e conflict
b e t w e e n t h e a v o w e d intentions of B o n a p a r t e a n d t h e secret plans of t h e
coalition c a n only c o n t r i b u t e to further embroil m a t t e r s . W h a t I c o n c l u d e
from all this is, n o t t h a t t h e r e will be no w a r , b u t , on t h e contrary, t h a t it will
30 a s s u m e such terrible and revolutionary dimensions as are n o t e v e n suspected
by t h e little m e n of t h e coalition. Their v e r y perfidy is t h e m e a n s of t r a n s -
forming a local conflict into an E u r o p e a n conflagration.
E v e n if the British Ministry w e r e as sincere as t h e y are false, their inter-
v e n t i o n could not b u t accelerate t h e downfall of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e . T h e y
35 c a n n o t interfere w i t h o u t d e m a n d i n g pledges for the Christian subjects of t h e
P o r t e , a n d t h e s e pledges t h e y c a n n o t w r e s t from it without dooming it to ruin.
E v e n t h e Constantinople c o r r e s p o n d e n t I q u o t e d b e f o r e , a n d w h o is an
a v o w e d Turkophile, c a n n o t b u t o w n t h a t " t h e p r o p o s a l o f t h e W e s t e r n
P o w e r s to p u t all t h e subjects of t h e P o r t e on a perfect footing of civil a n d
40 religious equality, will lead at o n c e to a n a r c h y , intestine w a r f a r e , a n d a final
a n d s p e e d y o v e r t h r o w of t h e e m p i r e . "
Karl Marx.

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Karl Marx
English and French War Plans-
Greek InsurrectionSpainChina

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 4030, 18. Mrz 1854
From Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , F r i d a y , M a r c h 3, 1854.

In my last letter I mentioned that Sir Charles N a p i e r o w e d his a p p o i n t m e n t


as Commander-in-Chief of the Baltic fleet to his public expression of mistrust
in the F r e n c h alliance; to his accusing F r a n c e of having b e t r a y e d England 5
in 1840, while in fact t h e English G o v e r n m e n t at t h a t time conspired with
N i c h o l a s against Louis Philippe. I ought to h a v e a d d e d that the second
Adrniral in t h e Black Sea, Sir E d m u n d L y o n s , during his stay in G r e e c e as
English Minister, s h o w e d himself the a v o w e d e n e m y of F r a n c e , a n d w a s
r e m o v e d from t h a t office on the representations of L o r d Stratford de R e d - 10
cliff e. T h u s in t h e ministerial appointments t h e greatest possible c a r e is t a k e n
to i n s u r e a c r o p of misintelligence, not only b e t w e e n t h e F r e n c h a n d English
c o m m a n d e r s , b u t also b e t w e e n the Admirals a n d the English E m b a s s a d o r a t
Constantinople.
T h e s e facts are n o t denied and certainly n o t refuted by B o n a p a r t e ' s con- 15
gratulating himself, in t h e opening s p e e c h he a d d r e s s e d to his o w n repre-
s e n t a t i v e s , u p o n his close alliance w i t h E n g l a n d . T h e entente cordiale is
certainly s o m e w h a t older t h a n the restoration of t h e Imperial etiquette. T h e
m o s t r e m a r k a b l e passage in B o n a p a r t e ' s speech is neither this reminiscence
from L o u i s Philippe's h a r a n g u e s , nor his denunciation of t h e C z a r ' s ambi- 20
tious p l a n s , b u t rather his proclaiming liimself the p r o t e c t o r of G e r m a n y , and
especially of Austria, against t h e foe from without a n d the e n e m y from
within.
T h e ratifications of the treaty entered into by the Porte with the W e s t e r n
P o w e r s , containing t h e clause that it w a s n o t to c o n c l u d e p e a c e with Russia 25
w i t h o u t their c o n c u r r e n c e , had hardly b e e n e x c h a n g e d at Constantinople on
t h e 5th inst., w h e n negotiations relative to t h e future position of t h e Chris-
tians in T u r k e y w e r e also o p e n e d b e t w e e n the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the four
P o w e r s a n d t h e P o r t e . T h e real e n d aimed at in t h e s e negotiations is b e t r a y e d
in the following passage from W e d n e s d a y ' s Times : 30

88
F""

English and French War PlansGreek InsurrectionSpainChina

" T h e condition of several p a r t s of t h e T u r k i s h E m p i r e w h i c h h a v e already


obtained by firmans and treaties t h e c o m p l e t e internal administration of their
affairs, while t h e y continue to recognize t h e sovereignty of the P o r t e , is a
p r e c e d e n t w h i c h m a y b e e x t e n d e d w i t h o u t prejudice t o either side, a n d w h i c h
5 w o u l d p e r h a p s afford the b e s t m e a n s of providing for the P r o v i n c e s in their
present state."
In other w o r d s t h e Coalition Cabinet i n t e n d s securing t h e integrity of t h e
T u r k i s h E m p i r e i n E u r o p e b y t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f Bosnia, Croatia, H e r z e -
gowina, Bulgaria, Albania, R u m e l i a a n d T h e s s a l y into so m a n y D a n u b i a n
10 Principalities. T h e a c c e p t a n c e on t h e p a r t of t h e P o r t e of t h e s e conditions
m u s t infallibly lead, if the T u r k i s h armies p r o v e victorious, to a civil w a r
a m o n g the T u r k s t h e m s e l v e s .
It is n o w ascertained t h a t the d i s c o v e r y of t h e conspiracy at Widdin only
h a s t e n e d t h e G r e e k explosion, w h i c h a t B u c h a r e s t w a s considered a s a n
15 accomplished fact before it h a d b r o k e n out. T h e P a s h a of Scutari is con-
centrating all his t r o o p s with a v i e w to p r e v e n t t h e Montenegrins from joining
the insurgent G r e e k s .
T h e A n g l o - F r e n c h expedition m a y be set d o w n , as far as t h e present
intentions of the British G o v e r n m e n t go, as a n o t h e r piece of h u m b u g . T h e
20 landing places are fixed for the F r e n c h , at R o d o s t o , for the British at E n o s .
T h i s latter t o w n lies on a small peninsula at t h e e n t r a n c e of a m a r s h y b a y ,
at the rear of which the extensive m a r s h e s of the valley of the Maritza, will
no doubt greatly contribute to t h e salubrity of t h e c a m p . It lies outside n o t
only of the B o s p h o r u s , b u t of the Dardanelles also, and the t r o o p s , in o r d e r
25 to get to t h e Black Sea, would h a v e either to r e m b a r k a n d enjoy 250 miles
r o u n d - a b o u t sail against the c u r r e n t s of the Straits, or to m a r c h t h r o u g h a
r o a d l e s s c o u n t r y for t h e distance of 160 miles, a m a r c h which no d o u b t could
be completed in a fortnight. T h e F r e n c h are at R o d o s t o , at least on the sea
of M a r m o r a , a n d only a w e e k ' s m a r c h from Constantinople.
30 B u t w h a t are the t r o o p s to do in this inexplicable position? W h y , t h e y are
either t o m a r c h u p o n Adrianople, t h e r e t o c o v e r t h e capital, o r i n t h e w o r s t
c a s e , to unite at the n e c k of the T h r a c i a n C h e r s o n e s u s , to defend the D a r d a -
nelles. So says The Times, " b y a u t h o r i t y , " a n d e v e n q u o t e s Marshal Mar-
m o n t ' s strategic o b s e r v a t i o n s in s u p p o r t of t h e w i s d o m of the plan.
35 O n e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d F r e n c h a n d English t r o o p s to defend a capital
w h i c h is n o t m e n a c e d , which c a n n o t possibly be m e n a c e d for the n e x t
t w e l v e m o n t h ! W h y , t h e y might a s well h a v e s t o p p e d a t h o m e .
This plan, if it is to be carried out, is decidedly the w o r s t t h a t can be
devised. It is b a s e d u p o n t h e v e r y w o r s t sort of defensive warfare, viz: t h a t
40 w h i c h seeks strength in absolute inactivity. Supposing the expedition w a s
to be of a mainly defensive character, it is evident t h a t this object w o u l d be

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Karl Marx

b e s t obtained by enabling the T u r k s , b a s e d u p o n s u c h a r e s e r v e , to p a s s into


t h e offensive, or else, by taking up a position in w h i c h a casual a n d partial
offensive, w h e r e opportunities offer, could b e t a k e n . B u t a t E n o s a n d
R o d o s t o t h e F r e n c h a n d British t r o o p s are entirely u s e l e s s .
T h e w o r s t of it is, t h a t an a r m y of 100,000 m e n , with plenty of steam 5
t r a n s p o r t s , a n d supported by a fleet of t w e n t y sail of t h e line, is in itself a
force c o m p e t e n t to take the m o s t decided offensive action in any p a r t of the
B l a c k Sea. S u c h a force must either t a k e t h e C r i m e a a n d S e v a s t o p o l , O d e s s a
a n d C h e r s o n , close the S e a of Azof, d e s t r o y t h e R u s s i a n forts on the C a u c a -
sian c o a s t s , and bring the R u s s i a n fleet safe into t h e B o s p h o r u s , or it h a s 10
no idea of its strength and its d u t y as an active a r m y . It is affirmed on t h e
p a r t of t h e Ministerial partisans, t h a t w h e n t h e 100,000 m e n are o n c e con-
c e n t r a t e d in T u r k e y , such operations m a y be u n d e r t a k e n , a n d that t h e landing
of t h e first divisions at E n o s and R o d o s t o is merely c o n t r i v e d to deceive the
e n e m y . B u t e v e n in this c a s e it is an u n n e c e s s a r y loss of time and e x p e n s e 15
n o t t o land t h e t r o o p s a t o n c e o n s o m e point o n t h e Black Sea. T h e e n e m y
c a n n o t be misled. As s o o n as the E m p e r o r N i c h o l a s h e a r s of this p o m p o u s l y
a n n o u n c e d expedition of 100,000 m e n , he is b o u n d to send every soldier he
c a n s p a r e to Sevastopol, Kaffa, P e r e k o p and Y e n i k a l e . Y o u c a n n o t first
frighten y o u r e n e m y by e n o r m o u s a r m a m e n t s , a n d t h e n t r y to m a k e h i m 20
believe t h a t t h e y are n o t intended t o d o a n y h a r m . T h e trick w o u l d b e too
shallow; and if it is e x p e c t e d to mislead t h e R u s s i a n s by s u c h paltry p r e t e x t s ,
British diplomacy h a s m a d e another egregious blunder.
I, t h e r e f o r e , believe that those w h o h a v e p l a n n e d the expedition intend
betraying t h e Sultan directly, and, on t h e plea of frightening R u s s i a as m u c h 25
as possible, will take good care to do her by all m e a n s t h e least possible
harm.
E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e occupying Constantinople a n d p a r t of Rumelia;
A u s t r i a occupying Servia, and p e r h a p s B o s n i a and M o n t e n e g r o , and R u s s i a
being allowed to renforce herself in Moldo-Wallachia,this looks like an 30
e v e n t u a l partition of T u r k e y in E u r o p e rather t h a n anything else. T u r k e y is
placed in w o r s e circumstances t h a n in 1772, w h e n t h e K i n g of Prussia, in
o r d e r t o i n d u c e t h e E m p r e s s Catherine t o retire from t h e D a n u b i a n Princi-
palities, the o c c u p a t i o n of w h i c h t h r e a t e n e d to lead to a E u r o p e a n conflict,
p r o p o s e d t h e first partition of Poland, w h i c h w a s to defray t h e e x p e n s e s of 35
t h e R u s s o - T u r k i s h war. Be it r e m e m b e r e d that, at t h a t time, the Porte origi-
nally r u s h e d into t h e w a r with Catherine with t h e v i e w of defending Poland
from Prussian aggression, and that, at the e n d , Poland w a s sacrificed at the
shrine of t h e " i n d e p e n d e n c e and integrity" of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e .
T h e t r e a c h e r o u s policy of procrastination p u r s u e d by the Coalition Cabi- 40
net, h a s given t h e Muscovite emissaries t h e o p p o r t u n i t y for planning and

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English and French War PlansGreek InsurrectionSpainChina

maturing t h e G r e e k insurrection, s o anxiously e x p e c t e d b y L o r d C l a r e n d o n .


T h e insurrection h a d c o m m e n c e d o n t h e 28th J a n u a r y and according t o t h e
last dispatches from V i e n n a a s s u m e d m o r e threatening dimensions o n t h e
13th inst. T h e districts of A c a r n a n i a a n d Aetolia, and circles of Ilussa a n d
5 Delonia are said to be in a state of revolt. An insurrection is stated to h a v e
b r o k e n out at Egrippo the capital of E u b a , equal in gravity to that in Albania.
T h e fact of the t o w n s of A r t a and J a n i n a being quitted by t h e T u r k s a n d
occupied by the G r e e k s is of smaller i m p o r t a n c e , as the domineering citadels
remain in the h a n d s of O t t o m a n t r o o p s and as we k n o w , from the n u m e r o u s
1o w a r s carried on b e t w e e n t h e Christians a n d t h e T u r k s in Albania t h a t t h e final
possession of t h e s e t o w n s d e p e n d e d always on t h e p o s s e s s i o n of the citadels.
T h e Gulfs of C o n t e s s a and Salnica a n d t h e c o a s t s of Albania will be declared
in a state of siege. I stated in my last letter that o n e of the results of the G r e e k
insurrection t h e m o s t t o b e a p p r e h e n d e d o n t h e p a r t o f t h e P o r t e , would b e
15 the opportunity it afforded t h e W e s t e r n P o w e r s for interfering b e t w e e n t h e
Sultan and his subjects, instead of fighting t h e R u s s i a n s , a n d t h u s driving
t h e G r e e k Christians into alliance with the C z a r . H o w eager t h e s e P o w e r s
are to grasp at this opportunity m a y be inferred from t h e fact of t h e s a m e
p o s t bringing the n e w s of the P o r t e having a c c e p t e d the convention p r o p o s e d
20 by England and F r a n c e , a n d of t h e F r e n c h a n d English E m b a s s a d o r s
having sent t w o s t e a m e r s to the assistance of t h e T u r k s , while t h e British
minister at A t h e n s h a d informed t h e Cabinet of King O t t o t h a t E n g l a n d w o u l d
interfere in the insurged districts. T h e immediate result of t h e insurrection,
from a military point of view, is clearly described by t h e V i e n n a cor-
25 r e s p o n d e n t of to-day's Times, as follows:
" D u r i n g the last few d a y s a certain d i s c o u r a g e m e n t h a s b e e n observable
i n h e a d q u a r t e r s a t Widdin, t h e renf o r c e m e n t s which h a d b e e n a n n o u n c e d
having received c o u n t e r o r d e r s and being o n their w a y t o the south-western
districts of T u r k e y . T h e n e w s of t h e insurrection of t h e Christians in E p i r u s
30 h a d p r o d u c e d an alarming effect on t h e A r n a u t s and Albanians on t h e
D a n u b e , w h o loudly d e m a n d e d permission t o r e t u r n h o m e . T h e Generals o f
Brigade, H u s s e i n B e y a n d Soliman P a s h a , h a d lost all their influence o v e r
their wild t r o o p s , a n d it w a s feared t h a t if an a t t e m p t w a s m a d e to detain
t h e m by force there w o u l d be an o p e n m u t i n y ; while if they w e r e permitted
35 to r e t u r n , t h e y would ravage t h e Christian districts on their w a y h o m e . If
t h e hostile m o v e m e n t of the Christian population in t h e W e s t should a s s u m e
m o r e formidable dimensions, the w e s t wing of t h e T u r k i s h a r m y would be
obliged to m a k e a retrograde m o v e m e n t , w h i c h w o u l d m o r e t h a n counter-
b a l a n c e t h e c h e c k which t h e R u s s i a n s h a d r e c e i v e d by t h e e n t r y of t h e allied
40 fleets into the Black S e a . "
T h e s e are some of the first results of t h a t policy of procrastination so

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Karl Marx

rhetorically praised by G r a h a m , Russell, C l a r e n d o n a n d P a l m e r s t o n in vindi-


cation of the ministerial m a n a g e m e n t of E a s t e r n affairs. As t h e y w e r e in-
f o r m e d , late on last Friday night, t h a t t h e Czar, w i t h o u t having waited for
the recall of Sir H a m i l t o n S e y m o u r , from England, h a d o r d e r e d him off, in
t h e m o s t a b r u p t a n d u n c e r e m o n i o u s m a n n e r , t h e y held t w o Cabinet Councils, 5
o n e on S a t u r d a y and the other on S u n d a y afternoonthe result of their
consultations being to allow t h e Czar o n c e m o r e a delay of t h r e e or four
w e e k s , w h i c h delay is to be granted u n d e r t h e form of a s u m m o n s , "calling
u p o n t h e Czar to give within six d a y s from t h e receipt of t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n
a solemn pledge a n d engagement that he will c a u s e his t r o o p s to e v a c u a t e 10
t h e Principalities of the D a n u b e on or b e f o r e t h e 30th of April."
B u t m a r k t h a t this s u m m o n s is n o i followed w i t h t h e m e n a c e of a declara-
tion of war in c a s e of a refusal on t h e part of t h e Czar. It may be said, and
it is said, by The Times, t h a t notwithstanding this n e w delay granted, w a r
p r e p a r a t i o n s are actively p u r s u e d ; b u t y o u will o b s e r v e t h a t on t h e o n e h a n d 15
all decisive action of the Porte on the D a n u b e is p r e v e n t e d by t h e p r o s p e c t
held o u t of t h e W e s t e r n P o w e r s being resolved u p o n directly participating
in t h e warand e v e r y d a y of delay in t h a t q u a r t e r p u t s the T u r k s in a w o r s e
position, as it allows t h e Russians to renforce t h e m s e l v e s in t h e front, and
t h e G r e e k rebels to grow m o r e d a n g e r o u s in t h e rear of the D a n u b i a n a r m y ; 20
while, on t h e other hand, t h e e m b a r k a t i o n of t r o o p s for E n o s and R o d o s t o
m a y e m b a r r a s s the Sultan b u t will certainly n o t stop t h e R u s s i a n s .
It h a s b e e n settled that t h e British expeditionary force shall consist of
a b o u t 30,000 and t h e F r e n c h of a b o u t 80,000 men. Should it h a p p e n to a p p e a r ,
in t h e c o u r s e of .events, that Austria, while apparently joining t h e W e s t e r n 25
P o w e r s , only p r o p o s e d t o m a s k h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g with Russia, B o n a p a r t e
w o u l d h a v e m u c h to regret this m o s t injudicious dispersion of his t r o o p s .
T h e r e is another insurrection which m a y be c o n s i d e r e d as a diversion m a d e
in favor of Russiathe insurrection in Spain. A n y m o v e m e n t in Spain is sure
to p r o d u c e dissension b e t w e e n F r a n c e and England. In 1823, the F r e n c h 30
intervention in Spain w a s , as we know from C h a t e a u b r i a n d ' s " C o n g r e s s of
V e r o n a , " instigated by Russia. T h a t t h e A n g l o - F r e n c h intervention in 1834,
w h i c h finally b r o k e up t h e entente cordiale b e t w e e n t h e t w o s t a t e s , p r o c e e d -
ed from t h e s a m e source, we m a y infer from P a l m e r s t o n having b e e n its
a u t h o r . T h e " S p a n i s h m a r r i a g e s " p r e p a r e d the w a y for the downfall of t h e 35
Orleans dynasty. At t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t , a d e t h r o n e m e n t of t h e " i n n o c e n t "
Isabella would allow a son of Louis Philippe, t h e D u k e of Montpensier, to
bring f o r w a r d his claims on t h e t h r o n e of Spain; while, on t h e other h a n d ,
B o n a p a r t e w o u l d be r e m i n d e d of o n e of his u n c l e s having o n c e resided at
M a d r i d . T h e Orleans w o u l d be supported by t h e C o b u r g s , and resisted by 40
t h e B o n a p a r t e s . A Spanish insurrection, t h e n , w h i c h is far from meaning

92
English and French War PlansGreek InsurrectionSpainChina

a popular revolution, m u s t p r o v e a m o s t powerful agency in dissolving so


superficial a combination as w h a t is t e r m e d t h e A n g l o - F r e n c h alliance.
A t r e a t y of alliance is said to h a v e b e e n c o n c l u d e d b e t w e e n Russia, K h i v a ,
B o k h a r a a n d Cabul.
5 As to D o s t M a h o m e d , the A m e e r of Cabul, it w o u l d be quite natural t h a t
after having p r o p o s e d in 1838 to E n g l a n d to place forever a feud of blood
b e t w e e n himself a n d Russia, if t h e English G o v e r n m e n t required it, by
causing t h e agent dispatched t o h i m b y t h e C z a r t o b e killed, a n d being
r e n e w e d in 1839 on the p a r t of England by t h e Affghan expedition, by his
10 expulsion from t h e t h r o n e a n d by t h e most cruel and u n s c r u p u l o u s devasta-
tion of his countrythat D o s t M a h o m e d should n o w e n d e a v o r to avenge
himself u p o n his faithless ally. H o w e v e r , as t h e population of K h i v a , B o -
k h a r a and Cabul, belong to t h e o r t h o d o x M u s u l m a n faith of the Sunni, while
t h e Persians a d h e r e to t h e schismatic t e n e t s of t h e Schii, it is n o t to be
15 supposed t h a t t h e y will ally t h e m s e l v e s w i t h Russia, being t h e ally of t h e
Persians, w h o m t h e y detest and h a t e , against England, the ostensible ally of
the P a d i s h a h , w h o m t h e y regard as the s u p r e m e c o m m a n d e r of the faithful.
T h e r e is s o m e probability of R u s s i a having an ally in T h i b e t and t h e T a r t a r
E m p e r o r of China, if t h e latter be forced to retire into M a n c h o u r i a and to
20 resign the sceptre of C h i n a proper. T h e C h i n e s e rebels, as y o u k n o w , h a v e
u n d e r t a k e n a regular c r u s a d e against B u d d h i s m , destroying its temples and
slaying its B o n z e s . B u t t h e religion of t h e T a r t a r s is B u d d h i s m a n d Thibet,
the seat of the great L a m a , a n d recognizing the suzeranit of China, is the
sanctuary of t h e B u d d h i s t faith. Tae-ping-wang, if he s u c c e e d in driving t h e
25 M a n d s h u d y n a s t y o u t of China, will, t h e r e f o r e , h a v e to enter a religious w a r
with t h e B u d d h i s t p o w e r s of T a r t a r y . N o w , as on b o t h sides of the H i m a l a y a s
B u d d h i s m is confessed and as England c a n n o t b u t support t h e n e w Chinese
dynasty, t h e Czar is sure to side w i t h t h e T a r t a r tribes, p u t t h e m in motion
against England and a w a k e religious revolts in N e p a u l itself. By the last
30 Oriental mails we are informed that " t h e E m p e r o r of China, in anticipation
of t h e loss of Pekin, h a d directed t h e G o v e r n o r s of t h e various p r o v i n c e s
to send t h e Imperial r e v e n u e to Getol, their old family seat and p r e s e n t
s u m m e r residence in M a n c h o u r i a , a b o u t 80 miles north-east of the G r e a t
Wall." T h e great religious war b e t w e e n t h e C h i n e s e a n d the T a r t a r s , which
35 will spread over t h e Indian frontiers, m a y c o n s e q u e n t l y be regarded as n e a r
at h a n d .
Karl M a r x .

93
Karl Marx
Austrian Bankruptcy

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr.4033, 22. Mrz 1854

Austrian Bankruptcy.
N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the imminence of w a r and their pressing n e e d s , t h e F r e n c h
a n d t h e Austrian G o v e r n m e n t s h a v e not y e t s u c c e e d e d i n strengthening t h e
nervus belli, n a m e l y , t h e m o n e y - p o w e r . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e Lucullian
magnificence displayed in t h e dinners given by t h e F r e n c h Minister of Fi- 5
n a n c e to t h e R e c e i v e r s - G e n e r a l , t h e Crdit Mobilier, and t h e principal b a n k -
e r s of Paris, t h o s e capitalists p r o v e s t u b b o r n a n d cling to t h a t discreet sort
of patriotism, which, by exacting t h e greatest possible interest from the State,
is w o n t to indemnify its private interests with t h e public o n e s . T h u s t h e t e r m s
of the p r o p o s e d F r e n c h loan of t w o h u n d r e d million francs r e m a i n s still 10
unsettled.
As to Austria t h e r e c a n exist no d o u b t t h a t o n e of [the] principal m o t i v e s
w h i c h i n d u c e h e r t o profess friendly feelings t o w a r d t h e W e s t e r n P o w e r s
is the h o p e of t h u s reviving the confidence of m o n e y e d m e n a n d getting o u t
of h e r financial difficulties. Indeed, the official gazette at V i e n n a h a d hardly 15
u t t e r e d a few w o r d s a b o u t Austrian neutrality a n d good u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h
F r a n c e , w h e n it surprised the public with t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t of an intended
sale of a considerable portion of t h e six million a c r e s of C r o w n L a n d s , and
with a financial rescript, dated F e b . 2 3 , 1854, to t h e effect t h a t t h e whole of
t h e State p a p e r m o n e y , 150,000,000 florins, n o w in circulation, a n d of c o m - 20
pulsory c u r r e n c y , w a s t o b e transferred t o t h e N a t i o n a l B a n k , a n d suc-
cessively c o n v e r t e d into b a n k n o t e s , at the expiration of w h i c h change all
t h e p a p e r issued b y t h e t r e a s u r y will b e w i t h d r a w n f r o m circulation, a n d n o
m o r e State p a p e r m o n e y of a forced c u r r e n c y be issued. In m a k i n g this
c h a n g e t h e Imperial G o v e r n m e n t is g u a r a n t e e to t h e B a n k for t h e p a p e r 25
m o n e y transferred to it, a n d pledges itself to indemnify it for t h e e x p e n s e s
c o n n e c t e d with t h a t c o n v e r s i o n ; to pay, in extinction of t h e d e b t t h u s created,
a yearly installment of at least 10,000,000 florins; to mortgage t h e c u s t o m s '
r e v e n u e as security for t h e regular p a y m e n t of t h e s e installments, a n d to p a y

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Austrian Bankruptcy

the b a n k in specie in p r o p o r t i o n as t h o s e duties are received. At the s a m e


time t h e G o v e r n m e n t is b o u n d to do its b e s t to enable t h e B a n k to fulfill its
obligations and r e s u m e specie p a y m e n t s . M e a n w h i l e , in order to give t h e
holders of b a n k n o t e s t h e m e a n s of changing their n o t e s at pleasure into a
5 d e b t bearing interest, p a y a b l e in specie, t h e B a n k u n d e r t a k e s to issue b o n d s
bearing interest, to be in all r e s p e c t s on t h e s a m e footing as State b o n d s or
obligations. T h e G o v e r n m e n t will also call in w h a t are k n o w n as R e d e m p t i o n
n o t e s and Anticipation n o t e s , a n d p u t t h e m entirely o u t of circulation.
T h e conversion of State p a p e r of a forced c o u r s e into inconvertible b a n k
10 n o t e s will n o t r e d u c e t h e a m o u n t n o r ameliorate t h e quality, b u t only simplify
t h e denominations of t h e p a p e r m o n e y issued. As t h e State is in the p o s s e s -
sion of t h e same m e a n s w h i c h it grants t h e B a n k for t h e r e d e m p t i o n of t h e
p a p e r m o n e y , it would itself h a v e m a d e u s e of them if not fully a w a r e t h a t
t h e w a n t of confidence in itself w a s s u c h as n o t to allow credit to be r e s t o r e d
15 save by the help of a B a n k , w h i c h is n o t the p r o p e r t y of t h e State. T h u s t h e
dependence of the Emperor on the Jews of the Vienna Bank grows at the
s a m e p a c e as the military c h a r a c t e r of his G o v e r n m e n t . In J a n u a r y 1852, he
mortgaged t o t h e m t h e salt-works o f G m u n d e n , A u s s e e a n d Hallein. I n
F e b r u a r y 1854, t h e y obtain a lien on the c u s t o m s ' r e v e n u e of t h e w h o l e
20 m o n a r c h y . S t e p by step t h e B a n k b e c o m e s t h e real a n d t h e G o v e r n m e n t
m e r e l y the nominal o w n e r o f the E m p i r e . T h e m o r e A u s t r i a h a s resisted t h e
d e m a n d s of participation in political p o w e r on t h e p a r t of t h e middle classes,
t h e m o r e she is forced to u n d e r g o t h e unmitigated d e s p o t i s m of o n e fraction
of t h o s e classesthe m o n e y l e n d e r s .
25 T h e d e c r e e , of w h i c h we h a v e a b o v e given t h e s u b s t a n c e , disguises an
a t t e m p t at a n e w loan u n d e r t h e f o r m of aid t e n d e r e d to t h e holders of
b a n k n o t e s , in changing t h e m into a d e b t bearing interest; t h e latter to be p a i d
in specie. In 1852 t h e G o v e r n m e n t also pledged itself to m e e t in specie various
m i n o r p a y m e n t s and obligations, b u t as it received t h e t a x e s only in S t a t e
30 p a p e r m o n e y or in b a n k n o t e s t h e Administration w a s forced to c o n t r a c t a
l o a n of thirty-five million florins at L o n d o n a n d F r a n k f o r t . T h e n e w l o a n s ,
of c o u r s e , a u g m e n t t h e old deficits a n d t h e a u g m e n t e d deficits lead to n e w
issues of p a p e r m o n e y , t h e s u p e r a b u n d a n c e a n d c o n s e q u e n t depreciation of
w h i c h t h e y w e r e i n t e n d e d t o p r e v e n t . T h e b r o a d distinction d r a w n o n t h e
35 p a r t of the G o v e r n m e n t b e t w e e n p a y m e n t s in specie a n d p a y m e n t s in b a n k
n o t e s is as good a m e a n s of rescuing t h e n o t e s from their discredit as t h e
augmentation of t h e circulating m e d i u m of t h e b a n k by 150 millions is a
m e a n s of enabling it to fulfill its e n g a g e m e n t s a n d r e s u m e c a s h p a y m e n t s .
T h e G o v e r n m e n t will p a y t h e b a n k in specie in p r o p o r t i o n as the c u s t o m s
40 duties are paid in t h e s a m e , b u t it is well k n o w n t h a t n o t only t h e Austrian
p e a s a n t s b u t e v e n t h e citizens in t h e larger t o w n s are as fond of hoarding

95
Karl Marx

as t h e Chinese a n d t h e I n d i a n s ; that in 1850 s u m s w e r e h o a r d e d e v e n in


c o p p e r , and t h a t in 1854 t h e y are paying all t a x e s in p a p e r , although it is only
a c c e p t e d with a discount of full s e v e n t e e n per cent.
T h o s e c o n v e r s a n t with the p a s t history of t h e Austrian E x c h e q u e r will fail
in discovering any novelty either in r e s p e c t to t h e p r o m i s e s held out in t h e 5
n e w d e c r e e , or the financial devices resorted t o . T h e first issue of Austrian
p a p e r m o n e y t o o k place u n d e r the E m p r e s s Maria T h e r e s a , t o w a r d t h e end
of the S e v e n Y e a r s ' War. It consists originally of B a n k bills exchangeable
by t h e State authorities for silver. In 1797, in c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e pecuniary
difficulties of the G o v e r n m e n t in the w a r s against F r a n c e , the convertibility 10
into silver w a s abolished. T h e first issue u n d e r t h e E m p r e s s Maria T h e r e s a
having a m o u n t e d to twelve million florins, t h e total sum of B a n k bills issued
in 1809, a m o u n t e d to 1,060,793,653 florins, their r e d u c t i o n in value having at
t h e s a m e time r e a c h e d its m a x i m u m . On t h e 20th of F e b r u a r y , 1811, the
G o v e r n m e n t published a p a t e n t by which t h e B a n k bills w e r e altogether 15
w i t h d r a w n from circulation a n d r e d e e m e d , (hence t h e n a m e R e d e m p t i o n
notes) at t h e r a t e of 20 for 100 for a n e w p a p e r called Wiener Whrung. T h e
G o v e r n m e n t declared this to be t h e real m o n e y of t h e c o u n t r y , a n d promised
t h a t this n e w p a p e r should n e v e r b e increased b e y o n d the a m o u n t n e c e s s a r y
for exchanging t h e B a n k bills. In M a y 1811 t h e Wiener Whrung w a s already 20
at a discount of 8 per cent., and Anticipation n o t e s w e r e issued, so called
b e c a u s e the p r o c e e d s of a p a r t of the taxes for twelve years w e r e anticipated
by t h e m . T h e first issue of Anticipation n o t e s really a m o u n t e d to only forty-
five million florins, and for their redemption within t w e l v e y e a r s an annual
s u m of 3,750,000 florins w a s destined to be t a k e n from t h e land t a x e s . 25
B u t in c o n s e q u e n c e of the war, new issues of Anticipation n o t e s quietly
followed e a c h other, e a c h n e w issue being a t t e n d e d by a r e d u c t i o n of their
value. In 1815 t h e premium for silver r e a c h e d the hight of 400 per cent, against
t h e Wiener Whrung. On t h e first of J u n e , 1816, an imperial p a t e n t a p p e a r e d
declaring that t h e State w o u l d in future n e v e r again h a v e r e c o u r s e to an 30
inconvertible p a p e r c u r r e n c y ; that the paper m o n e y in circulation should be
gradually w i t h d r a w n and specie be restored as t h e standard medium of
circulation. In order to fulfill t h e s e p r o m i s e s , t h e privileged National B a n k
w a s constituted definitively, J a n u a r y 18th, 1818, t h e State having m a d e an
a r r a n g e m e n t with the B a n k by which it pledged itself to r e d e e m the incon- 35
vertible p a p e r m o n e y . As late as J u n e , 1852, h o w e v e r , we find again the
F i n a n c e Minister announcing in the official g a z e t t e that, in future, c o m -
pulsory loans, extraordinary taxation, depreciation of the value of m o n e y ,
w o u l d be absolutely excluded; if not exactly at p r e s e n t , y e t in future, A u s -
trian p a p e r would be converted into coin w i t h o u t l o s s , a n d t h a t t h e loan n o w 40
c o n t e m p l a t e d would be applied to w i t h d r a w t h e state p a p e r m o n e y a n d for

96
Austrian Bankruptcy

the p a y m e n t of the state d e b t s to t h e B a n k . T h e r e c a n be no b e t t e r proof


of the hollowness of s u c h promises t h a n their periodical o c c u r r e n c e .
At the time of M a r i a T h e r e s a the A u s t r i a n G o v e r n m e n t w a s powerful
e n o u g h to issue its o w n b a n k bills, e x c h a n g e a b l e for specie, and e v e n at a
5 p r e m i u m o v e r silver. In 1818 t h e S t a t e , in o r d e r to r e d e e m its p a p e r m o n e y ,
w a s obliged to recur to t h e establishment of a privileged b a n k , t h e p r o p e r t y
of private capitalists, w h o received a d v a n t a g e s v e r y b u r d e n s o m e to t h e S t a t e ,
b u t w h o w e r e pledged to t h e issue of convertible n o t e s . In 1854 t h e G o v e r n -
m e n t appeals to the help of a b a n k , w h o s e o w n p a p e r has b e c o m e as d e p r e -
10 ciated and inconvertible as t h a t of t h e S t a t e itself.
Although from 1815 to 1846 A u s t r i a enjoyed a period of almost u n -
interrupted p e a c e and internal tranquility, t h e first s h o c k after t h a t long
period found her altogether u n p r e p a r e d . T h e insurrection at C r a c o w , and t h e
disturbances in Galicia, at t h e e n d of F e b r u a r y , 1846, a u g m e n t e d t h e public
15 e x p e n d i t u r e s by m o r e t h a n 10,000,000 c o m p a r e d with 1845. T h e a r m y e x -
p e n s e s w e r e t h e principal c a u s e of this i n c r e a s e d outlay. T h e y a m o u n t e d to
50,624,120 florins, in 1845, b u t in 1846 r o s e 7,000,000 m o r e , while the ad-
ministrative e x p e n s e s of the P r o v i n c e s r o s e 2,000,000. In 1847 t h e c o m -
mercial crisis and the b a d h a r v e s t p r o d u c e d a great diminution in t h e excise
20 r e v e n u e , while the a r m y r o s e to 64,000,000, chiefly in c o n s e q u e n c e of t r o u b -
les in Italy. T h e deficit of t h a t y e a r w a s 7,000,000. In 1848-49 t h e r e v e n u e of
whole provinces w a s lost, besides t h e w a r e x p e n s e s in Italy and H u n g a r y .
In 1848 the deficit w a s 45,000,000florins and in 1849,121,000,000. State p a p e r
of c o m p u l s o r y c u r r e n c y , to t h e s u m of 76,000,000, Three-per-Cents, w a s
25 issued in 1849. L o n g before this, the B a n k had stopped specie p a y m e n t s , a n d
its issues w e r e declared by t h e G o v e r n m e n t to be inconvertible. In 1850 t h e r e
w a s a deficit of 54,000,000, and the c h a n c e s of a w a r w i t h P r u s s i a b r o u g h t
d o w n t h e p a p e r m o n e y to a discount of 60 p e r cent. T h e total a m o u n t of State
p a p e r m o n e y issued in the years 1849, '50, a n d '51 w a s 219,000,000. In 1852
30 t h e deficit w a s 8,000,000 m o r e t h a n in '48, a n d 46,000,000 m o r e t h a n in '47.
In 1851 the w a r b u d g e t w a s 126,000,000, fully d o u b l e w h a t it w a s in '47. In
'52 t h e police e x p e n s e s w e r e 9,000,000, fourfold greater t h a n t h o s e of '48.
B o t h police and w a r e x p e n s e s also increased in 1853.
T h e real question, h o w e v e r , is n o t h o w A u s t r i a got into her financial
35 cul-de-sac, b u t h o w , w h e n t h u s i m m e r s e d in b a n k p a p e r a n d d e b t she has
avoided o p e n b a n k r u p t c y . In 1850 h e r r e v e n u e a m o u n t e d to one h u n d r e d
arid ninety-six millions [, s e v e n t y - f o u r m i l l i o n s ] m o r e t h a n in 1848; and to
forty-two millions m o r e t h a n in 1849. In 1851 t h e receipts w e r e t w o hun-
dred a n d nineteen millions[, t w e n t y - t h r e e millions] over t h o s e of 1850. In
40 1852 t h e y r e a c h e d t w o h u n d r e d and twenty-six millions, an increase of six
millions over t h o s e of 1851. T h u s t h e r e h a s b e e n a continual increase of

97
Karl Marx

r e v e n u e although n o t in the same p r o p o r t i o n in 1852 as in 1851, a n d in 1851


n o t in t h e s a m e proportion as in 1850.
W h e n c e this increase of r e v e n u e ? Putting aside t h e extraordinary receipts
from t h e Sardinian w a r indemnity a n d t h e L o m b a r d o - V e n e t i a n con-
fiscations, the transformation of the Austrian p e a s a n t into a landholder h a s 5
of c o u r s e increased the tax-paying p o w e r of t h e c o u n t r y a n d t h e r e v e n u e
derived from the land t a x . At the same time the abolition of the patrimonial
c o u r t s brought the income, which the aristocracy h a d formerly enjoyed from
their private administration of justice, into t h e coffers of the State, a n d this
b r a n c h of r e v e n u e has b e e n constantly increasing since 1849. T h e n a con- 10
siderable increase a r o s e from the income-tax, introduced by the p a t e n t of
O c t o b e r 29, 1849. This t a x has p r o v e d particularly p r o d u c t i v e in t h e Italian
p r o v i n c e s of Austria. In 1852, for instance, t h e increase of the income-tax
in t h e G e r m a n a n d Slavonic provinces, together a m o u n t e d to six h u n d r e d
and o n e t h o u s a n d florins, while in the Italian p r o v i n c e s alone it w a s six 15
h u n d r e d and thirty-nine. T h e principal c a u s e , h o w e v e r , which h a s saved the
Austrian E m p i r e from a formal b a n k r u p t c y , is the subjugation of H u n g a r y
a n d h e r assimilation with t h e other provinces in r e s p e c t to taxation.
T h e basis of t h e w h o l e Austrian system of taxation m a y be said to be the
land-tax. On the 1st April 1812, a p p e a r e d an imperial p a t e n t , in w h i c h the 20
E m p e r o r F r a n c i s a n n o u n c e d his resolution to establish uniformity in the
land-tax s y s t e m all over his G e r m a n , Slavonic a n d Italian provinces. In o n e
p a r a g r a p h of this patent it is ordered t h a t no e x e m p t i o n s from the land-tax
should in future " b e m a d e according to t h e p e r s o n a l quality of t h e p o s s e s s o r s
of e s t a t e s or h o u s e s , " and as a w h o l e this view w a s acted u p o n . In t h e 25
A r c h d u c h y of Austria, the n e w survey w a s introduced in 1834, a n d this w a s
the first hereditary domain in w h i c h the n e w system w a s b r o u g h t into o p e r a -
tion. A u s t r i a n - L o m b a r d y p o s s e s s e d an excellent s u r v e y from t h e t i m e of
C h a r l e s V I , t h e Censimento Milanese. H u n g a r y a n d T r a n s y l v a n i a , h o w e v e r ,
by no m e a n s contributed to the land-tax and other t a x e s , in t h e s a m e degree 30
with the other provinces of the E m p i r e . A c c o r d i n g to t h e Hungarian Con-
stitution, t h e Hungarian p o s s e s s o r s of by far the greatest p a r t of all t h e land,
w e r e subject to no kind of direct tax, and e v e n several of t h e indirect t a x e s
i m p o s e d u p o n t h e other provinces, p r e s s e d neither u p o n H u n g a r y nor u p o n
Transylvania. T h e population of H u n g a r y , T r a n s y l v a n i a and the Military 35
Frontier, together a m o u n t e d , in 1846, to 14,541,958; t h o s e of t h e other
p r o v i n c e s of the M o n a r c h y , to 22,901,675, so that t h e former should h a v e
c o n t r i b u t e d seven-eighteenths of t h e whole r e v e n u e . B u t H u n g a r y and
T r a n s y l v a n i a in 1846 only contributed t w e n t y - t h r e e millions, w h i c h , as the
w h o l e r e v e n u e in t h a t y e a r a m o u n t e d to o n e h u n d r e d and sixty-f our millions 40
w a s only s o m e w h a t less t h a n o n e - s e v e n t h of the r e v e n u e . T h e Hungarian

98
Austrian Bankruptcy

provinces o c c u p y 5,855 of the 12,123 G e r m a n s q u a r e miles, w h i c h form t h e


a r e a of the Austrian M o n a r c h y , c o n s e q u e n t l y one-half of its superficial
extent.
T h e E m p e r o r J o s e p h II, w h o s e great aim w a s the centralization a n d c o m -
5 plete Germanization of t h e Austrian M o n a r c h y , h a d arbitrarily introduced
innovations in H u n g a r y intended to place her on the same footing with t h e
other Provinces. B u t this p r o d u c e d s u c h an effect on t h e public mind in t h a t
c o u n t r y that J o s e p h II, at t h e close of his life feared that the H u n g a r i a n s
w o u l d rebel a s t h e N e t h e r l a n d s h a d d o n e . T h e E m p e r o r s L e o p o l d I I , F r a n -
10 eis I, and F e r d i n a n d I, did n o t d a r e to r e p e a t t h e h a z a r d o u s experiment. This
causethe impediments to an equalization of t a x e s existing in t h e H u n g a r i a n
Constitutionceased to w o r k after the H u n g a r i a n revolution w a s quelled by
R u s s i a n assistance. T h e E m p e r o r F r a n c i s J o s e p h having never s w o r n t o t h e
Hungarian Constitution, and being m a d e E m p e r o r in t h e place of F e r d i n a n d
15 b e c a u s e he h a d never s w o r n to it, at o n c e i n t r o d u c e d t h e land-tax on t h e s a m e
footing with the o t h e r crown-lands. B e s i d e s , by the abolition of the frontier
of H u n g a r y on t h e 1st of O c t o b e r , 1850, the Austrian M o n a r c h y c a m e to form
o n e single territory with r e s p e c t to c u s t o m s as well as t a x e s . T h e E x c i s e a n d
t h e t o b a c c o monopoly w e r e also i n t r o d u c e d t h e r e on M a r c h 1, 1851. T h e
20 increase of the direct t a x e s alone in the H u n g a r i a n P r o v i n c e s a m o u n t e d to
11,500,000 florins in 1851, and to a b o u t 8,000,000 florins in 1852.
We arrive then at the irrefragable conclusion, t h a t on the possession of
H u n g a r y and L o m b a r d y d e p e n d s n o t only t h e political b u t t h e e c o n o m i c a l
existence of the Austrian E m p i r e , and t h a t with their loss t h e long-delayed
25 b a n k r u p t c y of t h a t State b e c o m e s inevitable.

99
Karl Marx
Opening of the Labour Parliament-
English War Budget

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 4035, 24. Mrz 1854
F r o m Our Own C o r r e s p o n d e n t .

L o n d o n , T u e s d a y , M a r c h 7, 1854.

T h e delegates t o the L a b o r Parliament m e t y e s t e r d a y a t the P e o p l e ' s In-


stitution, M a n c h e s t e r , at 10 o'clock in t h e f o r e n o o n . T h e first sitting w a s ,
of c o u r s e , applied to preliminary business. It w a s m o v e d by J a m e s Williams 5
of S t o c k p o r t , s e c o n d e d by J a m e s Bligh of L o n d o n , a n d s u p p o r t e d by E r n e s t
J o n e s , t h a t Dr. M a r x be invited to sit as h o n o r a r y delegate at the L a b o r
Parliament, which motion w a s carried unanimously. Similar resolutions w e r e
p a s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o M e s s r s . Blanc a n d N a d a u d . W h a t e v e r m a y b e its
immediate results, t h e m e r e assembling of such a Parliament m a r k s a n e w 10
e p o c h in the history of labor. T h e meeting at t h e Palais du L u x e m b o u r g at
P a r i s , after the revolution of F e b r u a r y , might p e r h a p s be considered a p r e -
c e d e n t in a similar direction, but at first sight t h e r e a p p e a r s this great dif-
f e r e n c e , t h a t t h e L u x e m b o u r g w a s initiated b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t , while t h e
L a b o r Parliament is initiated by the people t h e m s e l v e s ; t h a t the L u x e m b o u r g 15
w a s i n v e n t e d with a view to removing t h e Socialist m e m b e r s of the Provi-
sional G o v e r n m e n t from the center of action and a n y serious participation
in t h e real business of t h e c o u n t r y ; and lastly, t h a t the delegates to t h e
L u x e m b o u r g only consisted of m e m b e r s of t h e various so-called corps
d'tats, corporations m o r e or less corresponding to t h e medieval guilds and 20
the p r e s e n t trades-unions, while the L a b o r Parliament is a true r e p r e s e n t a t i o n
of all b r a n c h e s and divisions of labor on a national scale. T h e s u c c e s s of t h e
L a b o r Parliament will principally, if n o t exclusively, d e p e n d on its acting
u p o n t h e principle t h a t it is not t h e so-called organization of labor, b u t the
organization of the laboring classes t h e y h a v e at p r e s e n t to deal with. 25
T h e privileges of the n o w governing classes, a n d t h e slavery of the working
classes, are equally b a s e d on t h e existing organization of labor, which, of
c o u r s e , will be defended and maintained on t h e p a r t of the f o r m e r by all
m e a n s in their h a n d s , one of t h e s e m e a n s being t h e p r e s e n t State machinery.
To alter then, the existing organization of labor, a n d to supplant it by a n e w 30

100
Wscher
UhllmLiHi,
""WW

Opening of the Labour ParliamentEnglish War Budget

o n e , y o u w a n t powersocial and political powerpower not only of resisting,


b u t also of attacking; and to acquire that p o w e r y o u w a n t to organize your-
selves as an a r m y p o s s e s s e d of t h a t m o r a l a n d physical strength w h i c h will
enable it to m e e t t h e fiendly h o s t s . If t h e L a b o r Parliament allows its time
5 to be absorbed by mere theoretical propositions, instead of preparing t h e w a y
for the actual formation of a national p a r t y , it will p r o v e a failure as the
L u x e m b o u r g did.
A new election of the Chartist E x e c u t i v e having t a k e n place, according
to the statutes of the National Charter Association, E r n e s t J o n e s , J a m e s
10 Finlen, ( L o n d o n ) , and J o h n S h a w , ( L e e d s ) , w e r e declared duly elected to
serve on t h e E x e c u t i v e of the N . C . A . for t h e n e x t six m o n t h s .
A s B o n a p a r t e ' s intention o f contracting a l o a n a t t h e B o u r s e w a s frustrated
by t h e passive resistance of t h e Paris capitalists, his Minister of F i n a n c e h a s
p r e s e n t e d to the Senate a B u d g e t containing the following article: " T h e
15 Minister of F i n a n c e is authorized to c r e a t e , for t h e service of t h e T r e a s u r y
and the negotiations with t h e B a n k of F r a n c e , T r e a s u r y b o n d s , bearing
interest a n d payable at fixed periods. T h e T r e a s u r y b o n d s circulation shall
n o t e x c e e d 250,000,000 francs, (10,000,000;) b u t the b o n d s delivered to the
sinking fund are n o t included within this limit, by virtue of t h e law of J u n e 10,
20 1833, nor are the b o n d s deposited as a g u a r a n t e e at the B a n k of F r a n c e and
t h e discount e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . " In an additional clause it is provided t h a t " t h e
E m p e r o r r e s e r v e s to himself the right of issuing supplementary emissions
by virtue of m e r e d e c r e e s , " to be registered afterward by t h e Senate. I am
informed by a Paris letter that this p r o p o s a l has struck with horror the whole
25 of t h e middle classes, as on t h e o n e h a n d t h e t r e a s u r y b o n d s shall n o t e x c e e d
the sum of 250,000,000 and on the o t h e r e x c e e d that identical sum by w h a t -
e v e r a m o u n t t h e E m p e r o r m a y t h i n k f i t t o d e c r e e , the b o n d s t h u s issued being
n o t e v e n to be d e p o s e d as a g u a r a n t e e at the B a n k of F r a n c e and the other
discount establishments. Y o u k n o w t h a t o n t h e like a m o u n t t a k e n from t h e
30 Caisses des dpts et consignations 60,000,000 h a v e b e e n already a d v a n c e d
b y t h e b a n k o n t r e a s u r y b o n d s . T h e m e r e a p p e a r a n c e o f war i s eagerly
grasped a t b y the D e c e m b r i s t s t o r e m o v e t h e last w e a k barriers yet standing
b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s and t h e national t r e a s u r y . While this p r o s p e c t of an
imminent disorganization of the public credit, already m u c h shaken, per-
35 plexes t h e middle classes, t h e bulk of t h e p e o p l e will be e x a s p e r a t e d at t h e
p r o p o s e d increase of the salt t a x a n d similar m o s t u n p o p u l a r imposts. T h u s ,
this w a r which is sure to gain for B o n a p a r t e a sort of popularity in foreign
countries, m a y , n e v e r t h e l e s s , accelerate his downfall in F r a n c e .
T h a t I w a s right in p r e s u m i n g t h e p r e s e n t Spanish troubles as likely to
40 afford t h e occasion for serious misunderstandings b e t w e e n F r a n c e a n d
England, o n e m a y infer from the following intelligence of a L o n d o n p a p e r :

101
Karl Marx

" T h e F r e n c h E m p e r o r has m a d e inquiries o f L o r d Clarendon, t h r o u g h


M r . W a l e w s k i , w h e t h e r the British G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d be disposed to aid him
in placing t h e Carlist Pretender to t h e C r o w n of Spain u p o n t h e t h r o n e , in
the e v e n t of Q u e e n Isabella being d e t h r o n e d . L o r d C l a r e n d o n is said to h a v e
declared that, happily, Q u e e n Isabella w a s firmly seated on her t h r o n e , a n d 5
t h a t a revolution w a s b u t a r e m o t e contingency in a c o u n t r y so d e v o t e d to
monarchial institutions; but that e v e n if a revolution should b r e a k out in
Spain a n d the Q u e e n be d e t h r o n e d , the British C a b i n e t m u s t decline to enter
into a n y engagements.
T h e E m p e r o r ' s p r o p o s a l to place t h e C o m t e de M o n t e m o n u p o n t h e 10
t h r o n e is inspired by his v e r y natural desire to p r e v e n t the D u c h e s s of
M o n t p e n s i e r from inheriting her sister's d i a d e m ; for he thinks it would be
inconvenient that he should h a v e for a neighbor a son of L o u i s Philippe as
h u s b a n d of t h e Q u e e n of S p a i n . "
In F r i d a y ' s sitting of the C o m m o n s L o r d J o h n Russell stated that he w a s 15
forced to w i t h d r a w his R e f o r m bill for t h e m o m e n t , w h i c h , h o w e v e r , would
be p r o c e e d e d with on the 27th of April if, in the m e a n t i m e , in c o n s e q u e n c e
of t h e n e w proposal m a d e to t h e E m p e r o r of R u s s i a being a c c e p t e d , t h e
E a s t e r n Q u e s t i o n w a s settled. It is true that after t h e publication of the C z a r ' s
manifesto to his subjects and his letter a d d r e s s e d to B o n a p a r t e , s u c h a 20
settlement has b e c o m e m o r e improbable t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , b u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s ,
t h e ministerial declaration p r o v e s the R e f o r m bill to h a v e b e e n brought
f o r w a r d only w i t h a view to a b s o r b and a p p e a s e public opinion in c a s e
t h e coalition diplomacy should succeed in reestablishing t h e Russian status
quo ante bellum. T h e e m i n e n t p a r t t a k e n by L o r d P a l m e r s t o n in his 25
ministerial intrigue is t h u s described by The Morning Advertiser, o n e of
his m o s t a r d e n t p a r t i s a n s :
" L o r d A b e r d e e n i s t h e nominal, b u t not t h e real P r i m e Minister. L o r d
P a l m e r s t o n is practically the first Minister of the C r o w n . He is the m a s t e r -
spirit of the Cabinet. E v e r since his return to office, his colleagues h a v e b e e n 30
in c o n s t a n t fear of his again flying off from t h e m at a tangent, and are
c o n s e q u e n t l y afraid to t h w a r t any of those views to w h i c h he is k n o w n to
a t t a c h i m p o r t a n c e . He has consequently everything his o w n w a y . A striking
instance of his L o r d s h i p ' s a s c e n d e n c y in her M a j e s t y ' s Councils w a s af-
forded last w e e k . T h e n e w R e f o r m bill w a s t h e n b r o u g h t formally u n d e r t h e 35
consideration of the Cabinet, and the question c a m e to be w h e t h e r it should
be p r o c e e d e d with this session or a b a n d o n e d . L o r d A b e r d e e n , L o r d J o h n
Russell, Sir J a m e s G r a h a m , and Sir William M o l e s w o r t h , w e r e for proceeding
with t h e m e a s u r e . L o r d Palmerston p r o p o s e d t h a t i t should b e a b a n d o n e d ,
and intimated, in plain termsas we stated some d a y s ago, t h a t he would vote 40
for its a b a n d o n m e n t in t h e H o u s e should he be defeated in t h e Cabinet. T h e

102
Opening of the Labour ParliamentEnglish War Budget

result of the discussion or conversation, w h i c h t o o k p l a c e , w a s , t h a t L o r d


P a l m e r s t o n carried his point. T h o s e o p p o s e d to himamong w h o m w e r e t h e
ministerial leader in the L o r d s and t h e ministerial leader in the Commons
eventually s u c c u m b e d . A n o t h e r triumph of L o r d P a l m e r s t o n , within t h e last
5 eight d a y s , has b e e n the a p p o i n t m e n t of Sir Charles N a p i e r to the c o m m a n d
of t h e Baltic fleet. It is no secret t h a t b o t h L o r d J o h n Russell and Sir J a m e s
G r a h a m w e r e o p p o s e d t o that a p p o i n t m e n t ; b u t L o r d P a l m e r s t o n w a s for
it a n d therefore it t o o k place. N o t h i n g , t h e r e f o r e , could be m o r e appropriate
t h a n that the noble L o r d should this evening o c c u p y t h e chair at t h e b a n q u e t
10 to be given in the R e f o r m Club to t h e gallant A d m i r a l . "
Mr. Gladstone p r e s e n t e d last night to t h e H o u s e a novelty u n k n o w n to the
present generationa w a r budget. It w a s evident from his s p e e c h that the
r e a s o n w h y t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o o k this early opportunity of submitting his
financial m e a s u r e s to the H o u s e w a s t h a t of giving a preliminary r e c o r d of
15 the m o s t disagreeable effects p r o d u c e d by w a r on private p u r s e s , t h u s to cool
d o w n the warlike energies of t h e c o u n t r y . A n o t h e r main feature of his s p e e c h
w a s his only asking for the sum w h i c h w o u l d be required to bring back t h e
25,000 m e n about to leave t h e British s h o r e s , should t h e w a r n o w be brought
to a close.
20 He c o m m e n c e d by explaining t h e actual state of the income and ex-
penditure of the last financial year. This not having y e t closed, he o b s e r v e d
that o n e m o n t h of the a m o u n t of the r e v e n u e could be only an estimate. T h e
total estimate of t h e i n c o m e of t h e y e a r on t h e 18th of April last h a d b e e n
52,990,000, while the actual receipts of t h e y e a r had r e a c h e d to no less a
25 sum t h a n 54,025,000; t h u s showing an increase in t h e actual i n c o m e over
the p r e s u m e d expenditure of 1,035,000. On t h e other h a n d there h a d b e e n
a saving in t h e expenditure b e y o n d t h e estimate of 1,012,000. He t h e r e f o r e
calculated, that b u t for t h e peculiar c i r c u m s t a n c e s in w h i c h the c o u n t r y w a s
at p r e s e n t placed, t h e r e w o u l d this y e a r be a surplus over t h e e x p e n d i t u r e
30 amounting to 2,854,000.
M r . G l a d s t o n e t h e n a d v e r t e d to t h e results of the reductions of duty in-
t r o d u c e d by him. T h e receipts of t h e C u s t o m duties, notwithstanding t h e s e
r e d u c t i o n s , h a d b e e n 20,600,000 in 1853-'54, while in 1852-'53 they h a d only
realized 20,396,000, showing an increase in t h e C u s t o m duties of 204,000.
35 T h e reduction m a d e in the d u t y u p o n t e a h a d p r o d u c e d a loss of only
375,000. T h e reduction of t h e S t a m p duties from t h r e e p e n c e up to t e n
shillings to o n e uniform d u t y of o n e p e n c e , h a d increased their i n c o m e ,
instead of the anticipated loss taking place, to t h e a m o u n t of 36,000.
Mr. Gladstone p r o c e e d e d , t h e n showing the result of the m e a s u r e s of last
40 Session for t h e augmentation of the taxes. T h e collection of t h e I n c o m e t a x
in Ireland h a d b e e n delayed by v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b u t it w o u l d yield

103
irr'

Karl Marx

20,000 m o r e t h a n calculated u p o n . T h e e x t e n s i o n of the t a x u p o n i n c o m e s ,


from 150 to 100, in G r e a t Britain would p r o d u c e 100,000 b e y o n d this
estimate, viz., 250,000. T h e r e v e n u e from t h e additional duty of o n e shilling
a gallon on spirits in Scotland had p r o d u c e d an increase of only 209,000,
he having estimated it at 278,000. On t h e other h a n d , t h e Spirit duty in 5
Ireland h a d realized an increase of 213,000, while he h a d calculated u p o n
an increase of 198,000 only. T h e operation of t h e S u c c e s s i o n duty on t h e
financial y e a r would p r o d u c e only half a million. So far the s t a t e m e n t of
Mr. G l a d s t o n e on t h e finances of Great Britain during t h e last twelve m o n t h s ,
expiring on the 5th April. 10
T h e p r o b a b l e estimate of the r e v e n u e for the y e a r 1854-'55 will b e :

Income.
Customs 20,175,000
Excise 14,595,000
Stamps 7,090,000 15
Taxes 3,015,000
Income-tax 6,275,000
Post-tax 1,200,000
C r o w n lands 259,000
Old stores 420,000 20
Miscellaneous 320,000
Total income 53,349,000

T h e probable estimate of e x p e n d i t u r e on the other h a n d is given as

F u n d e d debt 27,000,000
Unfunded debt 546,000 25
Consolidated fund 2,460,000
Army 6,857,000
Navy 7,488,000
Ordnance 3,846,000
Commissariat 645,000 30
Miscellaneous estimates 4,775,000
Militia 530,000
P a c k e t service 792,000
E a s t e r n service 1,250,000
Total expenditure 56,189,000 35
Causing a deficit of 2,840,000

Before adverting t o the m e a n s b y w h i c h this deficiency w a s t o b e m a d e


u p , M r . G l a d s t o n e e n u m e r a t e d the m e a s u r e s w h i c h G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d n o t
r e c o m m e n d t h e H o u s e t o adopt. H e should n o t r e t u r n t o t h e re'imposition o f

104
Opening of the Labour ParliamentEnglish War Budget

any of t h o s e reductions of duties he h a d p r o p o s e d last year, which h a d


already acquired t h e force of law. He w o u l d n o t assent to t h e re'imposition
of t h e s e t a x e s unnecessarily w h i c h f o r m e r G o v e r n m e n t s h a d released. If
h o w e v e r , t h e struggle t h e y w e r e n o w entering u p o n should b e prolonged for
5 a year, it w o u l d hardly be in their p o w e r to maintain a p e r m a n e n t c o n t i n u a n c e
of t h o s e r e d u c t i o n s . In general, he w o u l d n o t p r o p o s e a n y addition to indirect
taxation. H e should n o t r e s o r t t o state-loans, t h e r e being n o c o u n t r y w h o s e
m e a n s w e r e already so heavily mortgaged as t h o s e of England. At length,
after all t h e s e p r e a m b l e s , Mr. G l a d s t o n e c a m e to t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t w h a t t h e
10 G o v e r n m e n t intended to p r o p o s e . This w a s to double t h e I n c o m e - t a x for six
m o n t h s , and to abolish altogether t h e existing distinction b e t w e e n h o m e -
d r a w n and foreign-drawn bills. T h e average r a t e of duty on p r e s e n t bills of
e x c h a n g e , although unequally distributed, w a s I s . 6d. p e r cent.; h e p r o p o s e d
to equalize it to I s . per cent. This c h a n g e , he calculated, w o u l d p r o d u c e an
15 increase of r e v e n u e of 60,000. With regard to t h e income-tax, t h e i n c r e a s e
would be from 7 to 107 d. in t h e p o u n d on i n c o m e s of 150 and u p w a r d , a n d
2

from 5 to 7V2d. on i n c o m e s b e t w e e n 100 a n d 150. Simultaneously he


p r o p o s e d that t h e H o u s e should m a k e a proposition to enable him, before
t h e t a x w a s levied, to issue 1,750,000 e x c h e q u e r bills to be paid o u t of t h e
20 accruing p r o d u c e of t h e income-tax. In conclusion, M r . G l a d s t o n e e n d e a v -
ored, not v e r y successfully, to vindicate his late m e a s u r e s for t h e reduction
of t h e public debt, m e a s u r e s w h i c h resulted, as y o u k n o w , in a lamentable
failure.
In the discussion following u p o n this s t a t e m e n t several m e m b e r s p a r t o o k ,
25 b u t t h e only s p e e c h w o r t h mentioning w a s t h a t of Mr. Disraeli. He declared
t h a t h e should m a k e n o opposition t o a n y v o t e w h i c h G o v e r n m e n t , o n their
o w n responsibility, t h o u g h t n e c e s s a r y t o submit t o t h e H o u s e for t h e p u r p o s e
of conducting the impending w a r w i t h vigor, a n d he h o p e d w i t h success. B u t
he protested, in c a s e of t h e w a r being prolonged, against direct taxation being
30 exclusively h a d r e c o u r s e to for carrying on t h e w a r . As to t h e second p a r t
of Mr. G l a d s t o n e ' s statement, t h a t w h i c h related to t h e actual state of t h e
finances of t h e c o u n t r y , and as to t h e m o n e y in h a n d , it s e e m e d to him
involved in an obscurity which did n o t b e c o m e a financial statement, and
certainly n o t o n e delivered u n d e r such c i r c u m s t a n c e s a s t h e p r e s e n t o n e . T h e
35 p r e s e n t state of t h e b a l a n c e in t h e E x c h e q u e r w a s n o t sufficient or satis-
factory. W h e n the p r e s e n t G o v e r n m e n t t o o k office, t h e r e had b e e n , o n t h e
3d J a n u a r y , 1853, b a l a n c e s in t h e E x c h e q u e r amounting to 9,000,000, b u t
a y e a r after, in J a n u a r y , 1854, t h e y w e r e r e d u c e d by one-half. He estimated
t h a t t h e b a l a n c e s in t h e E x c h e q u e r on April 5th n e x t would be 3,000,000,
40 while the e x p e n d i t u r e , consisting of t h e dividends for t h e p a y m e n t of t h e
public creditors a n d t h e e x e c u t i o n of his c o n v e r s i o n s c h e m e would altogether

105
Karl Marx

require from 9,000,000 to 10,000,000. T h e right honorable gentlemen said


t h e r e w a s no u s e of meeting this with b a l a n c e s in t h e E x c h e q u e r , but that
h e would m a k e u p the sum w a n t e d b y deficiency bills. H e maintained that
it w a s of great importance t h e y should h a v e had at this m o m e n t an ample
b a l a n c e b u t instead of its being a question w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e to h a v e a 5
b a l a n c e , or an excess of b a l a n c e s , it w a s n o w a question w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e
to h a v e a balance at all, or a large deficiency, and in fact, instead of having
any balance, t h e y had an e n o r m o u s deficiency, which h a d b e e n c a u s e d in
t w o w a y s by the Chancellor of the E x c h e q u e r . First, by having r e d u c e d the
interest on E x c h e q u e r bills to IV2 per cent, w h e n t h e value of m o n e y w a s 10
rising, a n d secondly by his ill-devised c o n v e r s i o n of t h e S o u t h S e a stocks,
a m e a s u r e which h a d not only e a t e n up his balances b u t left him in a p r e s e n t
deficiency of 2,000,000.
S o m e further r e m a r k s of an indifferent c h a r a c t e r having b e e n m a d e by
other m e m b e r s , the R e p o r t on Supply w a s brought up and t h e resolution 15
agreed t o .
Karl M a r x .

106
Karl Marx
Letter to the Labour Parliament

The People's Paper.


Nr. 98, 18. Mrz 1854

28, D e a n Street, S o h o , L o n d o n .
9th M a r c h , 1854.

I regret deeply to be unable, for the m o m e n t at least, to leave L o n d o n , a n d


t h u s to be p r e v e n t e d from expressing verbally my feelings of pride a n d
5 gratitude on receiving the invitation to sit as H o n o r a r y Delegate at t h e L a b o u r
Parliament. T h e m e r e assembling of such a Parliament m a r k s a n e w e p o c h
in the history of the world. T h e n e w s of this great fact will arouse the h o p e s
of t h e working classes t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e and America.
G r e a t Britain, of all other countries, has s e e n developed on the greatest
10 scale, the d e s p o t i s m of Capital a n d t h e slavery of L a b o u r . In no other c o u n t r y
h a v e the intermediate stations b e t w e e n t h e millionaire c o m m a n d i n g w h o l e
industrial armies and t h e wages-slave living only from h a n d to m o u t h so
gradually b e e n s w e p t a w a y from t h e soil. T h e r e exist h e r e no longer, as in
continental countries, large classes of p e a s a n t s a n d artisans almost equally
15 d e p e n d e n t on their o w n p r o p e r t y a n d their o w n labour. A complete divorce
of p r o p e r t y from labour has b e e n effected in G r e a t Britain. In no other
c o u n t r y , therefore, the w a r b e t w e e n t h e t w o classes t h a t constitute m o d e r n
society h a s a s s u m e d so colossal dimensions a n d features so distinct a n d
palpable.
20 B u t it is precisely from t h e s e facts t h a t the w o r k i n g classes of G r e a t
Britain, before all o t h e r s , are c o m p e t e n t a n d called for to act as leaders in
the great m o v e m e n t that m u s t finally result in t h e absolute emancipation of
L a b o u r . S u c h t h e y are from t h e c o n s c i o u s clearness of their position, t h e
v a s t superiority of their n u m b e r s , t h e disastrous struggles of their past, and
25 t h e moral strength of their present.
It is t h e working millions of G r e a t Britain w h o first h a v e laid d o w n t h e
real basis of a n e w societymodern industry, w h i c h transformed t h e
destructive agencies of n a t u r e into t h e p r o d u c t i v e p o w e r of m a n . T h e English
working classes, with invincible energies, by t h e s w e a t of their b r o w s a n d
30 b r a i n s , h a v e called into life the material m e a n s of ennobling labour itself,
a n d of multiplying its fruits to such a degree as to m a k e general a b u n d a n c e
possible.

107
Karl Marx

By creating the inexhaustible productive p o w e r s of m o d e r n industry t h e y


h a v e fulfilled t h e first condition of t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n of labour. T h e y h a v e
n o w to realise its other condition. T h e y h a v e to free t h o s e wealth-producing
p o w e r s from the infamous shackles of m o n o p o l y , a n d subject t h e m to the
joint control of the p r o d u c e r s , w h o , till n o w , allowed t h e v e r y p r o d u c t s of 5
their h a n d s t o t u r n against t h e m and b e t r a n s f o r m e d into a s m a n y i n s t r u m e n t s
of their o w n subjugation.
T h e labouring classes h a v e c o n q u e r e d n a t u r e ; t h e y h a v e n o w t o c o n q u e r
m e n . T o s u c c e e d i n this a t t e m p t t h e y d o n o t w a n t strength, b u t t h e organisa-
tion of their c o m m o n strength, organisation of the labouring classes on a 10
national scalesuch, I suppose, is t h e great and glorious e n d aimed at by the
L a b o u r Parliament.
If the L a b o u r Parliament p r o v e s true to the idea t h a t called it into life, s o m e
future historian will h a v e to r e c o r d t h a t t h e r e existed in t h e y e a r 1854 t w o
Parliaments in E n g l a n d , a Parliament at L o n d o n , and a Parliament at M a n - 15
Chestera Parliament of the rich, a n d a Parliament of t h e poorbut that m e n
sat only in the Parliament of the m e n and n o t in t h e Parliament of the
masters.
Y o u r s truly,
Karl Marx. 20

108
T h e P e o p l e ' s Paper. London. N r . 9 8 , 1 8 . M r z 1854.
Titelseite (Ausschnitt) mit Marx' L e t t e r to t h e Labour P a r l i a m e n t "
Karl Marx
The Labour Parliament

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr.4039, 29. Mrz 1854

The Labor Parliament.


F r o m Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , F r i d a y , M a r c h 10, 1854.

Of all countries G r e a t Britain has seen d e v e l o p e d on the grandest scale the


5 d e s p o t i s m of capital a n d t h e slavery of labor. In no other c o u n t r y h a v e t h e
intermediate degrees b e t w e e n the millionaire, c o m m a n d i n g whole industrial
armies, and t h e wages-slave living only from h a n d to m o u t h , so radically b e e n
s w e p t a w a y from t h e soil. T h e r e exist no longer, as in continental countries,
large classes of p e a s a n t s a n d artizans almost equally d e p e n d e n t on their o w n
10 p r o p e r t y and their o w n labor. A c o m p l e t e divorce of p r o p e r t y from labor
h a s b e e n effected in Great Britain. In no other c o u n t r y , therefore, has t h e
w a r b e t w e e n the t w o classes t h a t constitute m o d e r n society, assumed s o
colossal dimensions and features so distinct and palpable.
B u t it is precisely from t h e s e facts t h a t the w o r k i n g classes of Britain,
15 b e f o r e all o t h e r s , are c o m p e t e n t a n d called u p o n to act as leaders in t h e great
m o v e m e n t t h a t m u s t finally result in the absolute emancipation of labor.
S u c h they are from the c o n s c i o u s clearness of their position, the v a s t superi-
ority of their n u m b e r s , the disastrous struggles of their p a s t and the moral
strength of their present.
20 T h e L o n d o n daily p a p e r s o b s e r v e the "policy of a b s t e n t i o n " with r e s p e c t
to t h e proceedings of t h e L a b o r Parliament. T h e y h o p e to kill it by a v a s t
"conspiration de silence. " H a v i n g for w h o l e m o n t h s fatigued t h e public with
interminable articles on t h e probable c h a n c e s of realization for the s c h e m e
of s u c h a Parliament, n o w they purposely avoid e v e r mentioning that it h a s
25 actually sprung into life and already b e g u n to work. This w i s d o m of t h e
ostrich, that imagines it avoids dangers by feigning n o t to see t h e m , will n o t
do now-a-days. T h e y will be forced to notice t h e L a b o r Parliament, and,
notwithstanding their simulated indifference, s o m e future historian will

111
Karl Marx

r e c o r d t h a t t h e r e existed in the y e a r 1854 t w o Parliaments in England, a


Parliament in L o n d o n and a Parliament in M a n c h e s t e r , a Parliament of t h e
rich a n d a Parliament of the poor, but that m e n sat only in the Parliament
of the m e n , a n d n o t in the Parliament of the m a s t e r s . T h e following is the
r e p o r t of t h e C o m m i t t e e appointed to d r a w up a plan of action for t h e L a b o r 5
Parliament:
" Y o u r C o m m i t t e e believe the duty of this P a r l i a m e n t to be the r e n d e r -
ing of t h e existing turn-outs a n d lockouts victorious for the operatives, a n d
t h e adoption of m e a n s w h e r e b y b o t h should be p r e v e n t e d for the f u t u r e ; t h e
securing for t h e working classes fair t r e a t m e n t during w o r k ; t h e rescuing of 10
w o m e n and children from the factory; the m e a n s of education, a n d the
abolition of stoppages and u n d e r h a n d a b a t e m e n t s of w a g e s . Believing further
t h a t it is their d u t y to e n d e a v o r to secure to t h o s e w h o labor a fair participa-
tion in t h e profits of their w o r k ; and a b o v e all this, to obtain for t h e m t h e
m e a n s of i n d e p e n d e n t self-employment, w i t h a view to their, emancipation 15
from wages slavery altogether; and, being c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e final step
t h e r e t o is the obtaining the pecuniary leverage for action, r e c o m m e n d for
y o u r consideration:
1. T h e organization of a system for the collection of a national r e v e n u e
for labor. 20
2. A plan for t h e security of the funds t h u s raised.
3. T h e application of t h e same and the securing of t h e rights of t h e w o r k i n g
classes.
4. T h e constitution of the M a s s M o v e m e n t .
I. The Raising of a National Labor Revenue. 25
a. A w e e k l y levy on the w a g e s , graduated according to the price of labor,
as follows:
i
Up to 4 s . p e r w e e k l d. 2

3
Up to 8s. per w e e k U.
U p t o 12s. per w e e k I d .
l
Up to 15s. per w e e k l h<i.
Up to 20s. per w e e k 2 d.
Up to 30s. per w e e k 3 d.
Up to 40s. per w e e k 4 d.

b. That t h e officers of the several bodies of w o r k i n g m e n , w h o act in con- 35


j u n c t i o n with the M a s s M o v e m e n t , f o r w a r d t h e m o n e y s t h u s raised t o its
directing head.
II. Security of the Funds,
a. T h a t the local officers f o r w a r d weekly all m o n e y s t h e y receive on behalf
of t h e M a s s M o v e m e n t to t h e directing h e a d of t h e s a m e as shall be further 40

112
r

The Labour Parliament

specified below. T h e duly appointed officers for the reception thereof to


r e t u r n receipts immediately for t h e m o n e y s t h u s received.
b. T h a t the directing h e a d s shall invest all m o n e y s t h e y receive on behalf
of t h e Mass M o v e m e n t (having p o w e r s to retain in h a n d a sum n o t exceeding
5 50) in a b a n k , in their collective n a m e s ; no such sum or s u m s , nor a n y p a r t
of the same, to be d r a w n out of t h e b a n k e x c e p t on presentation of t h e
minute-books of t h e said directing b o d y , containing an order for t h e same
to be d r a w n , signed by s u c h a majority of the m e m b e r s of t h a t b o d y as shall
hereafter be determined.
10 c. T h a t the m o n e y t h u s d r a w n shall be p a p e r m o n e y , (unless u n d e r 5;)
t h a t t h e n u m b e r s of s u c h n o t e s shall be e n t e r e d in a b o o k , o p e n to inspection
and published in t h e p a p e r s ; that t h e n o t e s t h u s received shall be c u t into
p a r t s , and e a c h p a r t intrusted to a s e p a r a t e m e m b e r of t h e directing b o d y ;
and w h e r e large s u m s are d r a w n , t h a t t h e y b e held i n equal portions b y e a c h
15 member.
d. T h a t e a c h m e m b e r , t h u s intrusted with a p o r t i o n of the said m o n e y , shall
give a promissory n o t e a m o u n t i n g to his p r o p o r t i o n a t e share of the m o n e y
d r a w n , supposing t h e same divided into equal p a r t s , according to the n u m b e r
of the directing b o d y ; a n d that, should he refuse to apply for t h e p u r p o s e s
20 for w h i c h the m o n e y w a s d r a w n , s u c h p a r t of n o t e held by him, the d o c u m e n t
t h u s held against h i m shall at o n c e be put in force, b u t be cancelled on his
paying over said p a r t of n o t e ; t h a t the p r o m i s s o r y n o t e s t h u s given shall be
deposited in a chest or safe, w h i c h shall be placed in t h e c u s t o d y of an
i n d e p e n d e n t and responsible p a r t y (not a m e m b e r of the directing b o d y ) , w h o
25 shall not allow any d o c u m e n t to be t a k e n t h e r e f r o m e x c e p t in p r e s e n c e of
all the directing b o d y .
e . T h a t t h e m o n e y t h u s d r a w n for any p a y m e n t o r p u r c h a s e b e paid b y
t h e directors only in t h e mutual p r e s e n c e of e a c h m e m b e r of their b o d y .
III. Application of the Funds.
30 a. T h e funds collected shall be applied as follows: To support all t o w n s
a n d places n o w on strike, a n d for liquidating all d e b t s c o n t r a c t e d during the
late and p r e s e n t strikes and l o c k o u t s . T h a t equal s u p p o r t shall be afforded
to t o w n s in proportion to the n u m b e r o u t of employ. T h a t on the same
principle as w h e n provisions r u n short on b o a r d of ship, e a c h receives alike;
35 t h u s t h e s a m e relief shall be given without distinction of high or low paid
trader. T h a t , although all existing strikes and lockouts shall be supported,
no future assistance will be given to any b o d y of m e n w h o do not recognize
a n d support the M a s s M o v e m e n t .
b. T h a t t h e d e p a r t m e n t be o p e n e d to regulate t h e price of labor. T h a t for
40 this p u r p o s e a monthly s t a t e m e n t be issued for t h e price of t h e r a w material
employed in all t h e t r a d e s in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the M a s s M o v e m e n t ; the price

113
Karl Marx

of labor in the s a m e , and t h e selling price of t h e articles p r o d u c e d , and the


other w o r k i n g charges. T h a t o n t h e e v i d e n c e thus furnished, t h e directing
b o d y shall issue a statement of t h e profits of t h e e m p l o y e r ; being o p e n to
r e c e i v e from the latter a statement of a n y peculiar and additional charges
w h i c h t h e e m p l o y e r s m a y h a v e to meet. T h a t on t h e basis t h u s laid t h e price 5
of labor shall be regulated, and the tariff of w a g e s be fixed in a c c o r d a n c e
w i t h t h e same. T h a t a similar plan be applied to t h e agricultural interests of
the country.
c. T h a t , while w o r k i n g m e n h a v e an u n d o u b t e d right to participate in the
profits of the employer, he has a right higher stillthat of employing himself ; io
a n d t h a t , for the p u r p o s e of the self-employment, as also for the p u r p o s e of
m o r e effectually regulating wages, by removing t h e p o w e r of surplus labor
from the e m p l o y e r ' s h a n d s , the funds of the M a s s M o v e m e n t be further
e m p l o y e d in t h e p u r c h a s e of land. T h a t t h e estates be p u r c h a s e d in t h e n a m e s
of individuals n o t being m e m b e r s of the directing b o d y . T h a t t h e estates be 15
divided into f a r m s , varying in size according to t h e n a t u r e of t h e soil a n d
t h e p u r p o s e s to which t h e y are to be applied, viz: w h e t h e r as individual
t e n a n c i e s or large cooperative undertakings. T h a t t h e said lands be retained
b y a n d n e v e r alienated from the M a s s M o v e m e n t . T h a t the land b e let t o
t e n a n t s on short leases a n d at a fair a n d m o d e r a t e rental. T h a t t h e clause be 20
inserted in the lease w h e r e b y any t e n a n t making the fault in p a y m e n t of r e n t
shall immediately lose his right of t e n a n c y . T h a t a f o u r t h clause be inserted
w h e r e b y the t e n a n t binds himself to p a y t h e rental to t h e parties appointed
b y t h e d e e d o f assignment hereafter n a m e d . T h a t t h e parties i n w h o s e n a m e s
t h e estates are b o u g h t e x e c u t e a deed of assignment, w h e r e b y t h e t e n a n t shall 25
p a y t h e rent, not to t h e m , but to t h e individuals t h e n being directors of the
M a s s M o v e m e n t . T h a t t h e directors of the time being shall e x e c u t e a d e e d ,
binding t h e m s e l v e s in a penalty of 5,000 e a c h , to t w o individuals, n o t being
p u r c h a s e r s of any estate ; s u c h penalty to be enforced should t h e y , on leaving
office, not e x e c u t e a deed of assignment of the said rental to their s u c c e s s o r s 30
i n office; t h o s e s u c c e s s o r s t o b e b o u n d i n t h e s a m e w a y .
d. T h a t i n d e p e n d e n c e of self-employment a n d relief of the labor m a r k e t
from its surplus be still m o r e s e c u r e , y o u r C o m m i t t e e r e c o m m e n d a further
application of the available funds for the establishment of cooperative facto-
ries, w o r k s h o p s a n d stores, s u c h to be t h e p r o p e r t y of t h e M a s s M o v e m e n t . 35
T h o s e employed therein to receive that a m o u n t of w a g e s regulated by t h e
tariff for t h e price of labor previously n a m e d , a n d one-half of t h e net profits
realized on t h e articles p r o d u c e d and sold, t h e o t h e r half of t h e profits to
go to t h e r e v e n u e of t h e Mass M o v e m e n t . T h a t t h e chief manager of e a c h
c o o p e r a t i v e undertaking be elected by the o p e r a t i v e s engaged therein, sub- 40
j e c t to t h e approbation of t h e directing b o d y . T h a t t h e said manager of e a c h

114
The Labour Parliament

respective undertaking regulate t h e p u r c h a s e s a n d sales c o n n e c t e d t h e r e -


with, and r e t u r n monthly to t h e directing b o d y a s t a t e m e n t of t h e p u r c h a s e s ,
sales, p a y m e n t s , and loss or profit c o n n e c t e d with the s a m e . That, in c a s e
g r o u n d s of complaint at difference arise b e t w e e n t h e operatives a n d m a n -
5 ager, the operatives shall h a v e the p o w e r of dismissing the m a n a g e r a n d
electing another by t h e majority of not less t h a n three-fourths of their
n u m b e r . T h a t o n e half of the n e t profits of e a c h cooperative undertaking be
sent b y e a c h respective m a n a g e r t o t h e directing b o d y . T h a t t h e p r o p e r t y for
cooperation p u r p o s e s p u r c h a s e d by t h e M a s s M o v e m e n t be placed u n d e r a
10 s y s t e m of security similar to t h a t applied to t h e landed e s t a t e s . "
After a long discussion, the r e p o r t of the C o m m i t t e e up to e n d of t h e
portion marked " I I " w a s a d o p t e d o n W e d n e s d a y ' s sitting o f t h e L a b o r
Parliament. T h e C o m m i t t e e appointed for drawing up this p r o g r a m m e of
action for t h e M a s s M o v e m e n t consisted of M e s s r s . E r n e s t J o n e s , J a m e s
15 Finlen, J a m e s Williams, A b r a h a m R o b i n s o n and J a m e s Bligh.
Karl M a r x .

115
Friedrich Engels
Retreat of the Russians from Kalafat

The People's Paper.


Nr. 98, 18. Mrz 1854

Retreat of the Russians from Kalafat.


T h e R u s s i a n s h a v e retreated from Kalafat, a n d h a v e , it is stated, entirely
remodelled their plan of campaign. This is t h e glorious e n d of t h e efforts and
risks of a t h r e e m o n t h s ' campaign, during w h i c h t h e last r e s o u r c e s of
Wallachia h a v e b e e n completely e x h a u s t e d . This is t h e fruit of that incon- 5
ceivable m a r c h into Little Wallachia, w h i c h a p p e a r e d to h a v e b e e n u n d e r -
t a k e n in utter c o n t e m p t of t h e first rules of strategy. In order to t a k e Kalafat,
t h a t only bridgehead held by t h e T u r k s on t h e left b a n k of the D a n u b e , t h e
m a s s of t h e a r m y w a s c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e e x t r e m e right, in a position w h e r e
the w e a k e n e d centre and left a p p e a r e d completely a b a n d o n e d to a n y a t t a c k 10
t h a t t h e e n e m y might c h a n c e t o u n d e r t a k e , and w h e r e a n indifference w a s
s h o w n to the lines of communications and r e t r e a t w h i c h is w i t h o u t parallel
in t h e history of w a r f a r e . T h a t O m e r P a s h a h a s n o t profited by this blunder
is only to be explained by the interference of o u r A m b a s s a d o r at C o n -
stantinople. H o w it is that, after all, the Russians h a v e to retreat disgracefully 15
w i t h o u t having affected their p u r p o s e , we shall h a v e to show presently.
W e say t h e y h a v e t o retreat disgracefully, b e c a u s e a n a d v a n c e p r e c e d e d
by blustering, c r o w n e d by taking up a merely threatening position, a n d ending
in a quiet and m o d e s t retreat, w i t h o u t e v e n an a t t e m p t at serious fighting
b e c a u s e a m o v e c o m p o s e d of an uninterrupted series of mistakes a n d e r r o r s , 20
resulting in nothing b u t t h e G e n e r a l ' s conviction t h a t he h a s m a d e a c o m p l e t e
fool of himselfis the v e r y height of disgrace.
N o w to t h e state of the c a s e .
T h e R u s s i a n s h a d , by t h e end of 1853, t h e following t r o o p s in Wallachia,
Moldavia, and Bessarabia: 25
1. 4th corps of t h e a r m y (Dannenberg) t h r e e divisions infantry, o n e division
cavalry, four brigades artillerytotal, after deducting l o s s e s , say
45,000 m e n .
2. Of t h e 5th c o r p s (Lders) o n e division infantry, o n e division cavalry,
t w o brigades artillerysay 15,000 m e n . 30

116
Retreat of the Russians from Kalafat

3. 3rd corps (Osten-Sacken) t h r e e divisions infantry, o n e division cavalry,


four brigades artillerysay 55,000 m e n .
Total a b o u t 115,000 m e n , besides n o n - c o m b a t a n t s and o n e division of
L d e r s ' corps in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d of O d e s s a , w h i c h being w a n t e d for
5 garrison d u t y , c a n n o t be t a k e n into a c c o u n t .
T h e t r o o p s u n d e r D a n n e n b e r g a n d L d e r s w e r e t h e only o n e s t h a t h a d b e e n
in the Principalities up to the beginning of D e c e m b e r . T h e a p p r o a c h of
O s t e n - S a c k e n ' s c o r p s w a s t o b e t h e signal for t h e grand c o n c e n t r a t i o n for
t h e a t t a c k o n Kalafat. H i s place, o n t h e B u g a n d t h e Pruth, w a s t o b e filled
10 up by the 6th corps (Tsheodayeff), t h e n on the r o a d from M o s c o w . After
t h e junction of this latter c o r p s , t h e D a n u b i a n a r m y w o u l d h a v e c o n s i s t e d
of a b o u t 170,000 m e n , b u t might h a v e t u r n e d o u t to be stronger, if the n e w
levies of recruits from t h e South W e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s w e r e at o n c e directed
to t h e t h e a t r e of w a r .
15 H o w e v e r , 115,000 to 120,000 m e n a p p e a r e d to the Russian C o m m a n d e r
a sufficient force to defend t h e w h o l e line of t h e D a n u b e from Brailow to
Nicopolis, and spare a sufficient n u m b e r to be c o n c e n t r a t e d , from the e x -
t r e m e right, for an a t t a c k on Kalafat.
W h e n this m o v e m e n t w a s c o m m e n c e d , t o w a r d s t h e end o f D e c e m b e r ,
20 Kalafat could hardly h a r b o u r m o r e t h a n 10,000 to 12,000 defenders, with
8,000 m o r e at Widdin, w h o s e support might be considered d u b i o u s , as t h e y
h a d to c r o s s an unruly river in a b a d season. T h e slowness of t h e R u s s i a n
m o v e m e n t s , h o w e v e r , the indecision of Prince Gortschakoff, and a b o v e all
t h e activity a n d b o l d n e s s of Ismail P a s h a , t h e c o m m a n d e r at Kalafat, per-
25 mitted the T u r k s to c o n c e n t r a t e s o m e 40,000 m e n on t h e m e n a c e d point, and
to change Kalafat from a simple b r i d g e h e a d stormable by a force double t h a t
of its defenders, into a fortification w h i c h could shelter at least 30,000 m e n ,
a n d withstand any b u t a regular siege attack. It h a s b e e n justly said, that t h e
highest t r i u m p h for the c o n s t r u c t o r of a field fortification is the necessity
30 for t h e e n e m y to o p e n his t r e n c h e s against it; if t h e Russians did n o t actually
o p e n the t r e n c h e s , it is merely b e c a u s e , e v e n w i t h t h a t e x t r e m e m e a n s , t h e y
did see no w a y of taking Kalafat in t h e time t h e y might set apart for t h e
operation. Kalafat will henceforth r a n k with F r e d e r i c k II. 's c a m p at Bunzel-
witz, with the lines of T o r r e s V e d r a s , with t h e A r c h d u k e Charles' en-
35 t r e n c h m e n t s behind V e r o n a , as o n e of t h o s e efforts of field fortification t h a t
are n a m e d as classical applications of t h e art in warlike history.
N o w let us look to the R u s s i a n m e a n s of attack. T h a t t h e y m e a n t in good
e a r n e s t to t a k e Kalafat, is s h o w n by their p a r k s of siege artillery having b e e n
b r o u g h t forward a s far a s K r a j o v a . T h a t O m e r P a s h a , w e m a y state b y t h e
40 w a y , allowed t h e s e guns to go a n d r e t u r n freely, is o n e of t h e m a n y military
inconceivabilities of this w a r , to be explained m e r e l y through diplomatic

117
Friedrich Engels

influences. T h e only thing, t h e n , for t h e R u s s i a n s , w a s a sufficient m a s s of


t r o o p s t o drive i n t h e T u r k s , a n d t o p r o t e c t the t r e n c h e s a n d b a t t e r i e s , and t o
s t o r m t h e b r e a c h e s a s s o o n a s t h e y should h a v e b e e n o p e n e d . H e r e , again,
Ismail P a s h a acted like an energetic and clever c o m m a n d e r . H i s sally t o w a r d s
Citate on t h e 6th of Januaryhis vigorous a t t a c k ending in t h e defeat of a 5
superior Russian force, and the continued a t t a c k s of a similar n a t u r e he
e x e c u t e d , while t h e Russian concentration w a s still going on, and, until he
w a s fairly b l o c k a d e d on his small D a n u b i a n Peninsula by a superior forcein
short, his system of defending himself by c o n c e n t r a t e d offensive blows
against single points of the Russian line, a n d t h e r e b y destroying his e n e m y , 10
as far as he could, in detail, w a s exactly w h a t a c o m m a n d e r u n d e r his circum-
s t a n c e s should h a v e d o n e , and forms a cheering c o n t r a s t with O m e r P a s h a ' s
p a s s i v e defence at Oltenitza, or his lazy passivity, all this while, on the lower
D a n u b e . F o r the p e t t y attacks carried o n b y him h e r e a n d t h e r e , w h i c h a p p e a r
n e v e r to h a v e b r o k e n off at t h e p r o p e r m o m e n t , b u t carried on for d a y s and 15
d a y s o n the s a m e point with blind obstinacy, e v e n w h e n n o result could b e
e x p e c t e d from t h e m , t h e s e petty attacks do n o t c o u n t , w h e n a m o v e m e n t
a c r o s s the D a n u b e with 40,000 to 60,000 m e n w a s w a n t e d .
After all, the Russians completed, by the e n d of J a n u a r y , their con-
c e n t r a t i o n a r o u n d Kalafat. T h e y w e r e evidently superior in t h e o p e n field; 20
t h e y m u s t therefore h a v e had some 30,000 or 40,000 m e n . N o w d e d u c t t h e s e
from 115,000, d e d u c t t h e n , say 20,000 or 25,000 m e n m o r e for the defence
of t h e line from Brailow to t h e sea, and t h e r e r e m a i n e d for t h e w h o l e of
G r e a t e r Wallachia, inclusive of garrisons, from 50,000 to 65,000 menan
a r m y far from sufficient to defend s u c h a long line of attack, a n d a line of 25
c o m m u n i c a t i o n running parallel with the line of attack, at a s h o r t d i s t a n c e
b e h i n d it. A vigorous a t t a c k on any point, e v e n with a force inferior to t h e
w h o l e of t h e s e 65,000 m e n , could n o t b u t h a v e e n d e d in t h e u t t e r defeat, in
detail, of all t h e s e dispersed Russian t r o o p s , a n d with t h e c a p t u r e of all t h e
R u s s i a n magazines. O m e r P a s h a will h a v e to explain, s o m e time or other, 30
his motives for neglecting such an opportunity.
W i t h all their efforts, t h e n , the Russians could m e r e l y c o n c e n t r a t e before
Kalafat a force barely sufficient to drive in t h e o u t p o s t s , b u t not to attack
t h e stronghold itself. T h e y t o o k nearly five w e e k s to effect e v e n this m o m e n -
t a r y a n d illusory success. General Schilder, of t h e E n g i n e e r s , w a s sent with 35
positive orders t o take Kalafat. H e c a m e , h e saw, and h e resolved t o d o
nothing until the arrival of Tsheodayeff should allow fresh t r o o p s to c o m e
up from t h e centre and left.
F i v e w e e k s the R u s s i a n s stood in this d a n g e r o u s position, r e a r and flank
e x p o s e d , as if provoking t h a t attack which t h e y could n o t h a v e resisted a 40
m o m e n t ; and five w e e k s O m e r P a s h a stood m e n a c i n g their flank and rear,

118
Retreat of the Russians from Kalafat

in a position w h e r e he could see their w e a k n e s s without spectacles or tele-


scopesand he did nothing. Verily, this system of m o d e r n w a r f a r e , u n d e r
the p a t r o n a g e of the Allied C o u r t s , is a b o v e c o m p r e h e n s i o n !
All at o n c e n e w s r e a c h e s London"The Russians are in full r e t r e a t from
5 K a l a f a t . " " O h , " says t h e " T i m e s , " " t h a t is t h e effect of our allies, t h e
A u s t r i a n s , having c o n c e n t r a t e d an a r m y in Transylvania, in the r e a r of t h e
R u s s i a n s ; t h a t is t h e effect of t h e glorious Austrian alliance, which is again
the effect of our glorious A b e r d e e n policy. T h r e e c h e e r s for A b e r d e e n ! " B u t
n e x t d a y A u s t r i a n authentic m a n i f e s t o e s show that n o A u s t r i a n Alliance
10 exists, and that the Austrians as y e t h a v e n o t said, and do n o t a p p e a r to k n o w
t h e m s e l v e s , for w h a t p u r p o s e t h e y h a v e sent t h a t a r m y w h e r e it is,and,
consequently, great uncertainty reigns as to t h e c a u s e of t h e Russian r e -
treat.
We are n o w told t h a t the R u s s i a n s will t r y to c r o s s the D a n u b e at t h e
15 opposite point, b e t w e e n Brailow a n d Galatz, a n d t h u s p r o c e e d on t h e direct
r o a d to Adrianople, as in 1828-29. If t h e r e d o e s n o t exist a perfect u n d e r s t a n d -
ing b e t w e e n t h e Russians o n t h e o n e side, and t h e A n g l o - F r e n c h s q u a d r o n
on the other, this m a r c h is strategically impossible. We h a v e another c a u s e
to a c c o u n t for this retreat. Tsheodayeff is said to h a v e b e e n stopped in this
20 m a r c h , in order to form a c a m p of 30,000 or 40,000 m e n a b o v e O d e s s a . If
this b e t r u e , h e c a n n o t relieve a n y t r o o p s o n t h e P r u t h a n d Sereth, n o r
reinforce Gortschakoff before Kalafat. C o n s e q u e n t l y , Prince Gortschakoff
h a s t o retreat i n a s good o r d e r a s h e c a m e , a n d t h u s w o u l d end t h e grand
tragi-comedy of t h e Russian m a r c h against Kalafat.

119
Karl Marx
The Greek Insurrection

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr.4039, 29. Mrz 1854

The Greek Insurrection.


T h e insurrection a m o n g the G r e e k subjects of t h e Sultan, w h i c h c a u s e d such
alarm at Paris a n d L o n d o n , h a s n o w b e e n s u p p r e s s e d , but its revival is
t h o u g h t not impossible. With regard to this possibility we are able to say that
after a careful investigation of the d o c u m e n t s relating to t h e whole affair so 5
far, w e are c o n v i n c e d that the insurgents w e r e f o u n d exclusively a m o n g the
m o u n t a i n e e r s inhabiting t h e southern slope of t h e P i n d u s , a n d t h a t t h e y m e t
with no s y m p a t h y on the p a r t of t h e other Christian r a c e s of T u r k e y , save
t h e pious freebooters of M o n t e n e g r o ; and that t h e o c c u p a n t s of the plains
of T h e s s a l y , w h o form t h e only c o m p a c t G r e e k c o m m u n i t y still living u n d e r 10
T u r k i s h s u p r e m a c y , are more afraid of their c o m p a t r i o t s t h a n of t h e T u r k s
t h e m s e l v e s . It is n o t to be forgotten t h a t this spiritless a n d c o w a r d l y b o d y
of population did n o t dare to rise e v e n at t h e t i m e of t h e G r e e k w a r of
i n d e p e n d e n c e . As to the remainder of the G r e e k r a c e , n u m b e r i n g p e r h a p s
300,000 souls, distributed throughout the cities of t h e E m p i r e , t h e y are so 15
thoroughly d e t e s t e d by the other Christian tribes that, w h e n e v e r a popular
m o v e m e n t h a s b e e n successful, as in Servia a n d Wallachia, it h a s resulted
in driving a w a y all t h e priests of G r e e k origin, a n d in supplying their places
b y native p a s t o r s .
B u t although the p r e s e n t G r e e k insurrection, considered w i t h reference 20
to its o w n merits, is altogether insignificant, it still derives i m p o r t a n c e from
the o c c a s i o n it affords to the w e s t e r n P o w e r s for interfering b e t w e e n the
P o r t e and t h e great majority of its subjects in E u r o p e , a m o n g w h o m t h e
G r e e k s c o u n t only o n e million against ten millions of t h e other r a c e s profess-
ing t h e G r e e k religion. T h e G r e e k inhabitants of t h e so-called kingdom as 25
well as t h o s e living in the Ionian Isles u n d e r British rule consider it, of c o u r s e ,
to be their national mission to expel t h e T u r k s from w h e r e v e r t h e G r e e k
language is spoken, and to a n n e x Thessaly and E p i r u s to a State of their o w n .
T h e y m a y e v e n d r e a m of a Byzantine restoration, although, on t h e whole,

120
The Greek Insurrection

t h e y are too astute a p e o p l e to believe in s u c h a fancy. B u t t h e s e plans of


national aggrandizement and i n d e p e n d e n c e on t h e p a r t of t h e G r e e k s , p r o -
claimed at this m o m e n t in c o n s e q u e n c e of R u s s i a n intrigues, as is p r o v e d
by the lately detected c o n s p i r a c y of the priest A t h a n a s i u s , a n d proclaimed
5 t o o by t h e r o b b e r s of t h e m o u n t a i n s w i t h o u t being r e e c h o e d by t h e agricul-
tural population of t h e plainall h a v e nothing to do with t h e religious rights
of the subjects of T u r k e y w i t h w h i c h an a t t e m p t is m a d e to mix t h e m u p .
As we learn from t h e English journals and from notice given in t h e H o u s e
o f L o r d s b y L o r d Shaftesbury, a n d i n t h e C o m m o n s b y M r . M o n c k t o n
10 Milnes, the British G o v e r n m e n t is to be called u p o n in connection, partly
a t least, with t h e s e G r e e k m o v e m e n t s t o t a k e m e a s u r e s t o meliorate t h e
condition of t h e Christian subjects of t h e P o r t e . I n d e e d , we are told explicitly
t h a t t h e great e n d aimed at by t h e w e s t e r n P o w e r s is to p u t the Christian
religion on a footing of equal rights with t h e M a h o m e t a n in T u r k e y . N o w ,
15 either this m e a n s nothing at all, or it m e a n s the granting political and civil
rights, b o t h to M u s s u l m a n s a n d Christians, without any reference to either
religion, a n d without considering religion at all. In other w o r d s , it m e a n s t h e
c o m p l e t e separation of S t a t e a n d C h u r c h , of Religion a n d Politics. B u t t h e
T u r k i s h S t a t e , like all Oriental S t a t e s , is f o u n d e d u p o n the m o s t intimate
20 connection, we might almost say, t h e identity of State a n d C h u r c h , of Politics
and Religion. T h e K o r a n is the d o u b l e s o u r c e of faith a n d law, for t h a t E m p i r e
a n d its rulers. But h o w is it possible to equalize t h e faithful and t h e Giaour,
the M u s s u l m a n and the Rajah b e f o r e t h e K o r a n ? To do t h a t it is n e c e s s a r y
in fact, to supplant t h e K o r a n by a n e w civil c o d e , in other w o r d s to b r e a k
25 d o w n t h e f r a m e w o r k of T u r k i s h society a n d c r e a t e a n e w order of things o u t
of its ruins.
O n the other h a n d , t h e m a i n feature that distinguishes the G r e e k con-
fession from all other b r a n c h e s of t h e Christian faith, is the same identi-
fication of State a n d C h u r c h , of civil a n d ecclesiastical life. So intimately
30 i n t e r w o v e n w e r e State and C h u r c h in t h e B y z a n t i n e E m p i r e , that it is im-
possible to write the history of t h e o n e w i t h o u t writing t h e history of the
other. In R u s s i a t h e s a m e identity prevails, although t h e r e , in contradis-
tinction to the Byzantine E m p i r e , the C h u r c h h a s b e e n transformed into the
mere tool of the State, t h e i n s t r u m e n t of subjugation at h o m e a n d of ag-
35 gression abroad. In the O t t o m a n E m p i r e in conformity with t h e oriental
notions o f t h e T u r k s , t h e Byzantine t h e o c r a c y h a s b e e n allowed t o develop
itself to such a degree, that the p a r s o n of a parish is at t h e same time the
judge, the mayor, t h e t e a c h e r , t h e e x e c u t o r of t e s t a m e n t s , t h e a s s e s s o r of
t a x e s , the ubiquitous f a c t o t u m of civil life, n o t the servant, but the m a s t e r
40 of all w o r k . T h e main r e p r o a c h to be c a s t u p o n t h e T u r k s in this regard is
n o t t h a t t h e y h a v e crippled t h e privileges of the Christian priesthood, b u t ,

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on t h e contrary, t h a t u n d e r their rule this all-embracing oppressive tutelage,


control, and interference of the C h u r c h h a s b e e n p e r m i t t e d to a b s o r b t h e
w h o l e sphere of social existence. Mr. Fallmerayer v e r y amusingly tells u s ,
in his Orientalische Briefe, h o w a G r e e k Priest w a s quite astonished w h e n
he informed him t h a t t h e L a t i n Clergy enjoyed no civil authority at all, a n d 5
h a d t o perform n o profane b u s i n e s s . " H o w , " exclaimed t h e Priest, " d o o u r
L a t i n B r e t h r e n contrive to kill t i m e ? "
It is plain t h e n that to introduce a n e w civil c o d e in T u r k e y , a c o d e alto-
g e t h e r abstracted from religion, and b a s e d on a c o m p l e t e separation of State
a n d C h u r c h , would be not only to abolish M a h o m e t a n i s m , b u t also to b r e a k 10
d o w n t h e G r e e k C h u r c h a s n o w established i n t h a t E m p i r e . C a n any o n e b e
c r e d u l o u s e n o u g h to believe in good e a r n e s t t h a t the timid and reactionary
valetudinarians of t h e p r e s e n t British G o v e r n m e n t h a v e e v e r c o n c e i v e d t h e
idea of undertaking s u c h a gigantic task, involving a perfect social revolution,
in a c o u n t r y like T u r k e y ? T h e notion is absurd. T h e y c a n only entertain it 15
for the p u r p o s e of throwing d u s t in the e y e s of t h e English people a n d of
Europe.

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Karl Marx
The Documents on the Partition of Turkey

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr.4045, 5. April 1854

The Documents on the Partition of Turkey.


From Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , T u e s d a y , M a r c h 2 1 , 1854.

A m o s t important e v e n t is the c o m p u l s o r y publication by Ministers of their


5 secret c o r r e s p o n d e n c e with t h e E m p e r o r of R u s s i a during t h e first t h r e e
m o n t h s of their administration, as also of t h e m e m o r a n d u m of the interview
b e t w e e n t h e Czar a n d L o r d A b e r d e e n in 1844, which t h e Journal de St. P-
tersbourg challenged t h e latter to p r o d u c e .
I begin with an analysis of the " m e m o r a n d u m " by C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e ,
10 delivered to her M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t , a n d f o u n d e d on c o m m u n i c a t i o n s
from the E m p e r o r of Russia, s u b s e q u e n t to bis visit to England in J u n e , 1844.
T h e p r e s e n t status quo of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e is " t h e m o s t compatible with
t h e general interest of t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of p e a c e . " England and R u s s i a agree
on this principle, a n d t h e r e f o r e unite their efforts to k e e p up t h a t status quo.
15 " W i t h this object, the essential point is to suffer the P o r t e to live in r e p o s e ,
without needlessly disturbing it by diplomatic bickerings, a n d without inter-
fering, w i t h o u t absolute necessity, in its internal affairs." N o w , h o w is this
" s y s t e m of f o r b e a r a n c e " to be successfully carried o u t ? Firstly, by G r e a t
Britain n o t interfering with the interpretation R u s s i a m a y think fit to p u t u p o n
20 h e r treaties with t h e P o r t e , b u t forcing it, on the c o n t r a r y , to act in conformity
with t h o s e treaties as interpreted by R u s s i a ; a n d , in t h e second place, by
allowing R u s s i a " c o n s t a n t l y " to meddle b e t w e e n t h e Sultan a n d his Christian
subjects. In a w o r d , the system of f o r b e a r a n c e t o w a r d the Porte m e a n s a
s y s t e m of complicity w i t h Russia. This strange proposition is, h o w e v e r , far
25 from being e x p r e s s e d in r u d e t e r m s .
T h e m e m o r a n d u m affects to speak of "all the great P o w e r s , " b u t at t h e
s a m e time plainly intimates t h a t t h e r e exist no g r e a t P o w e r s at all besides
R u s s i a and England. F r a n c e , it is said, will "find herself obliged to act in

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conformity with t h e c o u r s e agreed u p o n b e t w e e n St. P e t e r s b u r g a n d L o n -


d o n . " A u s t r i a is r e p r e s e n t e d as a m e r e a p p e n d a g e to Russia, enjoying no
life of h e r o w n , following no distinct policy, b u t o n e "closely united by the
principle of perfect identity" with t h a t of R u s s i a . P r u s s i a is t r e a t e d as a
nonentity, n o t w o r t h mentioning, a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y is n o t so m u c h as men- 5
tioned. All the great P o w e r s , t h e n , is only a rhetorical figure for t h e t w o
Cabinets of St. P e t e r s b u r g a n d L o n d o n ; a n d t h e line of c o n d u c t to be agreed
u p o n by all t h e great P o w e r s m e a n s the line of c o n d u c t d r a w n up at St. P e t e r s -
b u r g a n d t o b e acted u p o n a t L o n d o n . T h e m e m o r a n d u m s a y s :
" T h e P o r t e has a c o n s t a n t t e n d e n c y to extricate itself from the en- 10
g a g e m e n t s i m p o s e d u p o n it by t h e treaties which it h a s c o n c l u d e d with other
p o w e r s . It h o p e s to do so with impunity, b e c a u s e it r e c k o n s on the m u t u a l
j e a l o u s y of t h e Cabinets. It thinks t h a t if it fails in its engagements t o w a r d
o n e of t h e m , the r e s t will e s p o u s e its quarrel, a n d will s c r e e n it from all
responsibility. 15
It is essential n o t to confirm the P o r t e in this delusion. E v e r y time t h a t
it fails in its obligations t o w a r d one of t h e great P o w e r s , it is t h e interest of
all t h e r e s t to m a k e it sensible of its error, and seriously to e x h o r t it to act
rightly t o w a r d t h e Cabinet which d e m a n d s j u s t reparation.
As soon as the Porte shall perceive that it is not supported by the other 20
Cabinets, it will give way, and t h e differences w h i c h h a v e a r i s e n will be
arranged in a conciliatory m a n n e r , w i t h o u t a n y conflict resulting from
them."
This is the formula by w h i c h England is called u p o n to assist R u s s i a in
h e r policy of extorting n e w concessions from T u r k e y , on t h e g r o u n d of her 25
ancient treaties.
" I n t h e p r e s e n t state of feeling in E u r o p e , t h e C a b i n e t s c a n n o t see w i t h
indifference the Christian populations in T u r k e y e x p o s e d to flagrant acts of
o p p r e s s i o n or religious intolerance. It is n e c e s s a r y c o n s t a n t l y to m a k e the
O t t o m a n Ministers sensible of this truth, a n d to p e r s u a d e t h e m t h a t t h e y c a n 30
only r e c k o n o n the friendship and o n t h e support o f the great P o w e r s o n the
condition t h a t t h e y t r e a t t h e Christian subjects of t h e P o r t e with toleration
and w i t h mildness.
It will be t h e d u t y of the foreign r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , guided by t h e s e principles,
to act a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s in a perfect spirit of a g r e e m e n t . If t h e y a d d r e s s 35
r e m o n s t r a n c e s to t h e P o r t e , t h o s e r e m o n s t r a n c e s m u s t b e a r a real c h a r a c t e r
of unanimity, t h o u g h divested of one of exclusive dictation."
In this mild w a y England is taught h o w to b a c k R u s s i a ' s p r e t e n s i o n s to
a religious Protectorate over t h e Christians of T u r k e y .
H a v i n g t h u s laid d o w n the premises of her "policy of f o r b e a r a n c e , " R u s s i a 40
c a n n o t conceal from her confidante t h a t this v e r y f o r b e a r a n c e m a y p r o v e

124
New-York W e e k l y T r i b u n e . Nr. 656, 8. April 1854.
Titelseite (Ausschnitt) mit M a r x ' Artikel
T h e D o c u m e n t s o n t h e Partition o f T u r k e y "
The Documents on the Partition of Turkey

m o r e fatal t h a n any policy of aggression, a n d fearfully contribute to develop


all the " e l e m e n t s of dissolution" the O t t o m a n Empire c o n t a i n s : so t h a t s o m e
fine m o r n i n g "unforeseen circumstances m a y h a s t e n its fall, w i t h o u t its
being in t h e p o w e r of t h e friendly C a b i n e t s to p r e v e n t it." T h e question is
5 t h e n raised w h a t would h a v e to be d o n e in the e v e n t of such u n f o r e s e e n
c i r c u m s t a n c e s producing a final c a t a s t r o p h e in T u r k e y .
T h e only thing w a n t e d , it is said, in the e v e n t of T u r k e y ' s fall becoming
imminent, is England and Russia's "coming to a previous understanding
before having recourse to action. " " T h i s n o t i o n , " we are a s s u r e d by t h e
10 m e m o r a n d u m , " w a s in principle agreed u p o n during the E m p e r o r ' s last
residence in L o n d o n , (in the long c o n f e r e n c e s held b e t w e e n t h e A u t o c r a t on
t h e o n e hand, and t h e D u k e of Wellington, Sir R o b e r t Peel, and t h e Earl of
A b e r d e e n on t h e o t h e r hand). T h e result w a s t h e eventual engagementthat,
if anything unforeseen o c c u r r e d in T u r k e y , Russia and England should
15 previously concert together as to the course which they should pursue in
common."
N o w , w h a t m e a n s this eventual engagement? Firstly, t h a t R u s s i a a n d
England should previously c o m e to a c o m m o n understanding as to t h e
partition of Turkey; and secondly, t h a t in s u c h a c a s e , England w a s to bind
20 herself to f o r m a Holy Alliance w i t h R u s s i a a n d Austria, described as
R u s s i a ' s alter ego against F r a n c e , w h o w o u l d be "obliged, " i.e., forced to
act in conformity with their views. T h e natural result of s u c h a c o m m o n
understanding would be to involve England in a deadly w a r with F r a n c e , a n d
t h u s to give Russia full sway to c a r r y out h e r o w n policy on T u r k e y .
25 G r e a t stress is again a n d again laid u p o n t h e " u n f o r e s e e n c i r c u m s t a n c e s "
t h a t m a y accelerate the downfall of T u r k e y . At t h e conclusion of the m e m o -
r a n d u m t h e mysterious p h r a s e , h o w e v e r , d i s a p p e a r s , t o b e replaced b y t h e
m o r e distinct formulation: "If w e foresee t h a t t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e m u s t
crumble to pieces, England a n d Russia h a v e to e n t e r into a previous c o n c e r t ,
30 e t c . . . . " T h e only u n f o r e s e e n c i r c u m s t a n c e , then, w a s t h e u n f o r e s e e n decla-
ration on the p a r t of Russia t h a t the O t t o m a n E m p i r e m u s t n o w crumble to
pieces. T h e main point gained by t h e e v e n t u a l engagement is the liberty
granted to Russia to foresee, at a given m o m e n t , t h e s u d d e n downfall of
T u r k e y , and to oblige England to enter into negotiations, on the c o m m o n
35 understanding of s u c h a c a t a s t r o p h e being at hand.
Accordingly, a b o u t t e n years after t h e m e m o r a n d u m h a d b e e n d r a w n u p ,
d u e notice is given to England t h a t t h e vitality of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e is gone,
a n d t h a t t h e y had now to e n t e r u p o n their previously arranged c o n c e r t to
t h e exclusion of F r a n c e , i.e. to conspire b e h i n d t h e b a c k s of T u r k e y a n d
40 F r a n c e . This o v e r t u r e o p e n s t h e series of secret and confidential p a p e r s
e x c h a n g e d b e t w e e n St. P e t e r s b u r g a n d t h e Coalition Cabinet.

127

L
Karl Marx

Sir G. H. S e y m o u r , the British E m b a s s a d o r at St. P e t e r s b u r g , sends his first


secret a n d confidential dispatch t o L o r d J . Russell, t h e t h e n Foreign Minis-
ter, o n J a n u a r y 11,1853. O n t h e evening o f the 9th J a n u a r y h e h a d t h e " h o n o r "
t o see t h e E m p e r o r a t t h e Palace o f t h e G r a n d D u c h e s s H e l e n , w h o h a d
c o n d e s c e n d e d to invite L a d y S e y m o u r and himself to m e e t the Imperial 5
family. T h e E m p e r o r c a m e up to him in his m o s t gracious m a n n e r , expressing
his great pleasure at t h e n e w s of the formation of t h e Coalition Cabinet, to
which he wished long life, desiring t h e E m b a s s a d o r to c o n v e y to old Aber-
d e e n his congratulation on his part, a n d to b e a t into L o r d J o h n Russell's
brains " t h a t it w a s v e r y essential t h a t t h e t w o Governmentsthe English io
G o v e r n m e n t and I, and I and t h e English Governmentshould be on the b e s t
t e r m s ; a n d t h a t t h e necessity w a s n e v e r greater t h a n a t p r e s e n t . "
M a r k t h a t t h e s e w o r d s w e r e s p o k e n i n J a n u a r y , 1853, a t the v e r y time
w h e n Austria, " b e t w e e n w h o m and Russia"according t o t h e m e m o r -
andum"there exists an entire conformity of principles in regard to the 15
affairs of T u r k e y , " w a s openly engaged in troubling t h e w a t e r s at M o n t e -
negro.
" W h e n we are a g r e e d , " said the C z a r , " i t is immaterial w h a t the o t h e r s
m a y t h i n k or do. T u r k e y , " he continued, in a hypocritical m a n n e r of con-
d o l e n c e , "is in a v e r y critical state, and m a y give us all a great deal of t r o u b l e . " 20
H a v i n g said so m u c h , the Czar p r o c e e d e d to s h a k e h a n d s with Sir
H. S e y m o u r , v e r y graciously, as if about to t a k e l e a v e of h i m ; b u t Sir Hamil-
ton, t o w h o m i t "instantly o c c u r r e d t h a t t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n w a s i n c o m p l e t e , "
t o o k " t h e great l i b e r t y " h u m b l y to p r a y t h e A u t o c r a t to " s p e a k a little m o r e
explicitly with regard to t h e affairs of T u r k e y . " " T h e E m p e r o r ' s w o r d s a n d 25
m a n n e r , " r e m a r k s this o b s e r v e r , " a l t h o u g h still v e r y kind, s h o w e d t h a t his
Majesty h a d no intention of speaking to me of t h e demonstration which he
is about to make in the South."
Be it r e m a r k e d that already in his dispatch of J a n . 7, 1853, Sir H a m i l t o n
h a d informed t h e British G o v e r n m e n t t h a t " o r d e r s h a d b e e n dispatched to 30
t h e 5th corps d'arme to a d v a n c e to t h e frontiers of t h e D a n u b i a n p r o v i n c e s ,
a n d t h a t t h e 4th c o r p s would be o r d e r e d to hold itself in readiness to m a r c h
if n e c e s s a r y ; " and in a dispatch dated J a n . 8, 1853, t h a t N e s s e l r o d e h a d
e x p r e s s e d to him his opinion of t h e " n e c e s s i t y t h a t t h e diplomacy of R u s s i a
should be supported by a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of f o r c e . " 35
" T h e E m p e r o r , " Sir H a m i l t o n continues his dispatch, "said, at first w i t h
a little hesitation, but, as he p r o c e e d e d , in an o p e n a n d unhesitating man-
ner:
' T h e affairs of T u r k e y are in a v e r y disorganized condition; the c o u n t r y
itself s e e m s to be falling to pieces (menace ruine); t h e fall will be a great 40
misfortune, and it is v e r y important t h a t E n g l a n d and R u s s i a should c o m e

128
The Documents on the Partition of Turkey

to a perfectly good understanding u p o n t h e s e affairs, and that neither should


t a k e any decisive step of w h i c h the o t h e r is n o t apprised.'
'Stay,' he exclaimed, ' w e h a v e on our h a n d s a sick m a n , a v e r y sick m a n :
it will b e , I tell y o u frankly, a great misfortune if, o n e of t h e s e d a y s , he should
5 slip a w a y from u s , especially b e f o r e all n e c e s s a r y arrangements w e r e m a d e .
But, h o w e v e r , this i s n o t the t i m e t o s p e a k t o y o u o n t h a t m a t t e r . ' "
T h e patient, in this b e a r ' s e y e s , is so w e a k t h a t he must eat him. Sir
Hamilton, s o m e w h a t frightened at this " u n f o r e s e e n " diagnostic of t h e
M u s c o v i t e physician, a n s w e r s in the t r u e spirit of courtesy:
10 " Y o u r Majesty is so gracious that y o u will allow me o n e further o b s e r v a -
tion. Y o u r Majesty says t h e m a n is sick; it is v e r y t r u e ; b u t y o u r Majesty
will deign to e x c u s e me if I r e m a r k , that it is t h e p a r t of the g e n e r o u s and
strong to t r e a t with gentleness t h e sick a n d feeble m a n . "
T h e British E m b a s s a d o r c o m f o r t s himself by t h e consideration, t h a t this
15 c o n c u r r e n c e on his part in t h e C z a r ' s view of T u r k e y a n d sickness and his
appeal to forbearance with the sick m a n did " a t least n o t give o f f e n s e . " T h u s
e n d s Sir H. S e y m o u r ' s r e p o r t on his first confidential conversation with t h e
C z a r ; but, although appearing a perfect courtier in this vis--vis, he h a s
sufficient good sense to w a r n his cabinet a n d to tell t h e m w h a t follows:
20 " A n y o v e r t u r e of this kind only t e n d s to establish a dilemma. T h e dilemma
seems to be this: If her Majesty's G o v e r n m e n t do n o t c o m e to an u n d e r s t a n d -
ing with R u s s i a as to w h a t is to h a p p e n in t h e e v e n t of the sudden downfall
of T u r k e y , t h e y will h a v e t h e less r e a s o n for complaining if results displeasing
to England should be p r e p a r e d . If, on the c o n t r a r y , her Majesty's G o v e r n -
25 m e n t should enter into t h e consideration of s u c h eventualities, t h e y m a k e
themselves in some degree consenting parties to a c a t a s t r o p h e w h i c h t h e y
h a v e so m u c h interest in warding off as long as p o s s i b l e . "
Sir H a m i l t o n w i n d s up his d i s p a t c h w i t h the following epigrammatic sen-
tence:
30 " T h e sum is probably this, t h a t England h a s to desire a close c o n c e r t w i t h
Russia, with a view to preventing t h e downfall of Turkeywhile Russia
would be well pleased t h a t t h e c o n c e r t should apply to the e v e n t s by w h i c h
this downfall is to be followed."
On the 14th of J a n u a r y , as Sir G . H . S e y m o u r informs L o r d J . R u s s e l l , in
35 his dispatch dated 22d J a n u a r y , 1853, he h a d another confidential interview
with the Czar, w h o m " h e found a l o n e . " T h e A u t o c r a t c o n d e s c e n d e d t o give
t h e English E m b a s s a d o r a lesson in E a s t e r n affairs. T h e d r e a m s and plans
of the E m p r e s s Catherine II w e r e k n o w n , b u t he did n o t indulge in t h e m .
On t h e contrary, in his opinion t h e r e existed, p e r h a p s , only o n e danger for
40 Russia, that of a further extension of his already too v a s t dominions. (Your
r e a d e r s will recollect t h a t I alluded to this in extracting a passage from t h e

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Karl Marx

d i s p a t c h e s of C o u n t P o z z o di Borgo.) T h e status quo of T u r k e y , w a s the m o s t


c o n s o n a n t with Russian interests. O n t h e o n e h a n d , t h e T u r k s h a d lost their
spirit of military enterprise, a n d on t h e other, "this c o u n t r y w a s strong
e n o u g h , or had hitherto been strong enough, to p r e s e r v e its i n d e p e n d e n c e
a n d to e n s u r e respectful t r e a t m e n t from other c o u n t r i e s . " B u t in t h a t e m p i r e 5
t h e r e h a p p e n e d to be several millions of Christians he m u s t t a k e c a r e of, h a r d
and " i n c o n v e n i e n t " a s the task might b e . T o d o this h e w a s b o u n d a t o n c e
by his right, his duty and his religion. T h e n , all of a sudden, t h e Czar r e t u r n e d
to his p a r a b l e of t h e sick m a n , the v e r y sick m a n , w h o m they m u s t by no
m e a n s allow " t o suddenly die on their h a n d s , " (de leur chapper.) " C h a o s , 10
confusion, a n d the certainty of a E u r o p e a n w a r , m u s t a t t e n d the c a t a s t r o p h e ,
if it should o c c u r u n e x p e c t e d l y , a n d before some ulterior system had been
sketched."
H a v i n g , t h u s , again given notice of t h e impending d e a t h of the O t t o m a n
E m p i r e , t h e s u m m o n s to England followed in conformity with t h e " e v e n t u a l 15
e n g a g e m e n t " to discount the heritage in c o m m o n with Russia. "Still, he
avoids sketching his o w n ulterior s y s t e m , " contenting himself by establish-
ing, in a parliamentary w a y , the m a i n point to be k e p t in view in t h e e v e n t
of a partition.
"I desire to speak to y o u as a friend a n d a gentleman. If England and I 20
arrive at an understanding of this matter, as regards t h e rest, it m a t t e r s little
to m e ; it is indifferent to me w h a t others do or think. F r a n k l y , t h e n , I tell
y o u plainly, t h a t if England thinks of establishing herself o n e of t h e s e days
at Constantinople, I will not allow it. I do n o t attribute this intention to you,
b u t it is b e t t e r on t h e s e occasions to s p e a k plainly; for my part, I am equally 25
disposed to take the engagement n o t to establish myself t h e r e , as proprietor
t h a t is to say, for as occupier I do not say; it might h a p p e n t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,
if no previous provision w e r e m a d e , if everything should be left to c h a n c e ,
might place me in the position of occupying C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . "
E n g l a n d , therefore, will be forbidden to establish herself at Con- 30
stantinople. T h e Czar will do so, if n o t as proprietor, at least in t h e quality
of a t e m p o r a r y occupier. T h e British E m b a s s a d o r t h a n k e d his Majesty for
t h e frankness of this declaration. Nicholas t h e n alluded to his past con-
v e r s a t i o n w i t h the D u k e of Wellington, of w h i c h t h e m e m o r a n d u m of 1844
is t h e r e c o r d , and, as it w e r e , t h e rsum. Passing to t h e question of the 35
dayto his claims to the H o l y Placesthe British E m b a s s a d o r e x p r e s s e d his
fears:
" T w o c o n s e q u e n c e s that might be anticipated from t h e a p p e a r a n c e of a
R u s s i a n armythe o n e being the c o u n t e r - d e m o n s t r a t i o n w h i c h might be
p r o v o k e d on the p a r t of F r a n c e ; the other, and the m o r e serious, the rising, 40
on t h e p a r t of t h e Christian population, against t h e Sultan's authority, already

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so m u c h w e a k e n e d by revolts, a n d by a severe financial crisis. T h e E m p e r o r


a s s u r e d me t h a t no m o v e m e n t of his forces h a d y e t t a k e n place (n'ont p a s
boug), and e x p r e s s e d his h o p e t h a t no a d v a n c e w o u l d be required. With
regard to a French Expedition to the Sultan's dominions, his Majesty in-
5 timated t h a t such a step w o u l d bring affairs to an immediate crisis; t h a t a
sense of h o n o r w o u l d c o m p e l him to send his forces into T u r k e y without
delay or hesitation: t h a t if t h e result of such an a d v a n c e should p r o v e to be
t h e o v e r t h r o w of t h e Grear Turk (le Grand Ture,) he should regret t h e e v e n t ,
b u t should feel t h a t h e had acted a s h e w a s compelled t o d o . "
10 T h e Czar h a s n o w given England t h e t h e m e she h a s to w o r k out, viz: to
sketch a n "ulterior s y s t e m " for superseding t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e , a n d " t o
enter into a previous c o n c e r t as to everything relating to the establishment
of a n e w order of things, i n t e n d e d to replace t h a t which n o w e x i s t s . " He
e n c o u r a g e d his pupil by holding forth the prize he might gain from a success-
15 ful solution of this problem, dismissing h i m with t h e paternal advice:
"A noble triumph w o u l d be obtained by the civilization of the N i n e t e e n t h
century, if the void left by t h e extinction of M a h o m m e d a n rule in E u r o p e
could be filled up without an interruption of t h e general p e a c e , in con-
s e q u e n c e of t h e p r e c a u t i o n s a d o p t e d by t h e t w o principal G o v e r n m e n t s t h e
20 m o s t interested in the destinies of T u r k e y . "
England being t h u s s u m m o n e d , L o r d J. Russell a p p e a r s and sends in his
a n s w e r in a secret and confidential dispatch d a t e d F e b . 9,1853. If L o r d J o h n
had b e e n fully a w a r e of the C z a r ' s perfidious plan to p r e s s England into a
false position by t h e m e r e fact of her entering into secret c o m m u n i c a t i o n s
25 w i t h him, as to the future partition of an allied S t a t e , he w o u l d h a v e acted
like t h e Czar, a n d h a v e c o n t e n t e d himself with making a verbal reply to B a r o n
B r u n n o w , instead of dispatching an official S t a t e p a p e r to St. P e t e r s b u r g .
Before t h e secret p a p e r s w e r e laid b e f o r e t h e H o u s e , The Times h a d de-
scribed L o r d J o h n ' s dispatch as a m o s t powerful a n d "indignant r e f u s a l " of
30 the C z a r ' s p r o p o s a l s . In its y e s t e r d a y ' s n u m b e r it w i t h d r a w s its o w n eulogy
of L o r d John, declaring t h a t " t h e d o c u m e n t d o e s not d e s e r v e the praise it
h a d b e e n led, o n imperfect information, t o apply t o i t . " L o r d J o h n incurred
the w r a t h of The Times in c o n s e q u e n c e of his declaration, in F r i d a y ' s sitting
of the C o m m o n s , t h a t he certainly w a s n o t in t h e habit of making c o m -
35 munications to that p a p e r , and that he h a d n o t e v e n r e a d the article alluding
to his a n s w e r to Sir G.H. S e y m o u r until t h r e e d a y s after its publication.
A n y o n e acquainted with the h u m b l e a n d abject t o n e a s s u m e d b y e v e r y
English Minister since 1814, Canning not e v e n e x c e p t e d , in their c o m -
munications with Russia, will b e forced t o o w n t h a t L o r d J o h n ' s dispatch
40 is to be regarded as a heroic p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e p a r t of t h a t little e a r t h m a n .
T h e d o c u m e n t having t h e c h a r a c t e r of an i m p o r t a n t contribution to history,

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Karl Marx

a n d being p r o p e r to illustrate the d e v e l o p m e n t of negotiations, y o u r r e a d e r s


will be glad to be acquainted with it in extenso.
" L o r d J o h n Russell to Sir G . H . S e y m o u r .
(Secret and Confidential)
Foreign Office, F e b r u a r y 9, 1853. 5
Sir: I h a v e received, and laid before t h e Q u e e n , y o u r secret and confidential
d i s p a t c h of the 22d of J a n u a r y . H e r Majesty, u p o n this as u p o n former
o c c a s i o n s , i s h a p p y t o acknowledge t h e m o d e r a t i o n , t h e f r a n k n e s s , and t h e
friendly disposition of his Imperial Majesty. H e r M a j e s t y has directed me
to reply in t h e same spirit of t e m p e r a t e , candid, a n d amicable discussion. T h e 10
q u e s t i o n raised by his Imperial Majesty is a v e r y serious o n e . It is, supposing
t h e contingency of the dissolution of t h e T u r k i s h E m p i r e to be probable, or
e v e n imminent, w h e t h e r it is not better to be p r o v i d e d b e f o r e h a n d for a
contingency, t h a n to incur the c h a o s , confusion, a n d t h e certainty of an
E u r o p e a n w a r , all of w h i c h m u s t attend the c a t a s t r o p h e if it should o c c u r 15
u n e x p e c t e d l y , and before some ulterior s y s t e m h a s b e e n s k e t c h e d ; this is
t h e point, said his Imperial Majesty, to w h i c h I am desirous t h a t y o u should
call t h e attention of your G o v e r n m e n t . In considering this grave question,
the first reflection that o c c u r s to her Majesty's G o v e r n m e n t is that no actual
crisis h a s o c c u r r e d which r e n d e r s n e c e s s a r y a solution of this v a s t E u r o p e a n 20
p r o b l e m . Disputes h a v e arisen respecting t h e H o l y P l a c e s , b u t t h e s e are
without t h e sphere of the internal g o v e r n m e n t of T u r k e y , a n d c o n c e r n R u s s i a
and F r a n c e r a t h e r t h a n the Sublime P o r t e . S o m e d i s t u r b a n c e of t h e relations
b e t w e e n Austria a n d t h e Porte has b e e n c a u s e d b y the T u r k i s h a t t a c k o n
M o n t e n e g r o ; b u t this again relates r a t h e r to dangers affecting the frontier 25
of Austria, t h a n t h e authority a n d safety of t h e Sultan; so that t h e r e is no
sufficient c a u s e for intimating to the Sultan t h a t he c a n n o t k e e p p e a c e at
h o m e , or p r e s e r v e friendly relations with his neighbors. It o c c u r s further to
her M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t to r e m a r k that the e v e n t w h i c h is contemplated
is n o t definitely fixed in point of time. W h e n William III. a n d L o u i s X I V . 30
disposed, by treaty, of the succession of Charles II. of Spain, t h e y w e r e
providing for an e v e n t which could n o t be far off. T h e infirmities of the
sovereign of Spain, and the certain e n d of any h u m a n life, m a d e the con-
tingency in p r o s p e c t b o t h sure and near. T h e d e a t h of t h e Spanish king w a s
in no w a y h a s t e n e d by the treaty of partition. T h e same thing m a y be said 35
of t h e provision m a d e in the last c e n t u r y for t h e disposal of T u s c a n y , u p o n
the d e c e a s e of the last prince of t h e h o u s e of Medici. B u t the contingency
of t h e dissolution of t h e O t t o m a n empire is of a n o t h e r kind. It m a y h a p p e n
t w e n t y , fifty, or a h u n d r e d y e a r s h e n c e . In these circumstances it would
hardly be consistent with the friendly feelings toward the Sultan which 40
animate the Emperor of Russia, no less than the Queen of Great Britain, to

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dispose beforehand of the provinces under his dominion. B e s i d e s this c o n -


sideration, h o w e v e r , it m u s t be o b s e r v e d , t h a t an a g r e e m e n t m a d e in such
a case t e n d s v e r y surely to h a s t e n t h e contingency for which it is intended
to provide. Austria and F r a n c e could not, in fairness, be k e p t in ignorance
5 of the transaction, nor would s u c h c o n c e a l m e n t be consistent with the e n d
of preventing an E u r o p e a n w a r . I n d e e d , s u c h c o n c e a l m e n t c a n n o t be in-
t e n d e d by his Imperial Majesty. It is to be inferred that, as soon as G r e a t
Britain and R u s s i a should h a v e agreed on t h e c o u r s e to be p u r s u e d , and h a v e
determined to enforce it, t h e y should c o m m u n i c a t e their intentions to t h e
10 G r e a t P o w e r s of E u r o p e . An a g r e e m e n t t h u s m a d e a n d t h u s c o m m u n i c a t e d
w o u l d not be v e r y long a secret; a n d while it w o u l d alarm a n d alienate the
Sultan, the knowledge of its existence w o u l d stimulate all his enemies to
increased violence a n d m o r e obstinate conflict. T h e y w o u l d fight with t h e
conviction that t h e y m u s t ultimately t r i u m p h ; while the Sultan's generals and
15 t r o o p s would feel t h a t no immediate s u c c e s s could save their c a u s e from final
o v e r t h r o w . T h u s would b e p r o d u c e d and strengthened t h a t v e r y a n a r c h y
w h i c h is n o w feared, and t h e foresight of t h e friends of t h e patient would
p r o v e the c a u s e of his d e a t h . H e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t n e e d scarcely
enlarge on the dangers a t t e n d a n t on t h e e x e c u t i o n of a n y similar convention.
20 T h e e x a m p l e of t h e succession w a r is e n o u g h to show how little such agree-
m e n t s are r e s p e c t e d w h e n a pressing t e m p t a t i o n urges their violation. T h e
position of the E m p e r o r of R u s s i a as depositary, b u t n o t proprietor, of C o n -
stantinople, would b e e x p o s e d t o n u m b e r l e s s h a z a r d s , b o t h from the long
cherished ambition of his o w n nation and the jealousies of E u r o p e . T h e
25 ultimate proprietor, w h o e v e r he might b e , would hardly be satisfied with the
inert, supine attitude of the heirs of M a h o m e t II. A great influence on the
affairs of E u r o p e s e e m s naturally to belong to t h e Sovereign of Con-
stantinople, holding the gates of the M e d i t e r r a n e a n and the Black Sea. T h a t
influence might be used in favor of Russia; it might be used to control a n d
30 c u r b her power. H i s Imperial M a j e s t y has justly and wisely said: My c o u n t r y
is so v a s t , so happily c i r c u m s t a n c e d in e v e r y w a y , that it would be un-
reasonable in me to desire m o r e territory or m o r e p o w e r t h a n I p o s s e s s . On
the contrary, he observed, our great, p e r h a p s our only danger, is that w h i c h
w o u l d arise from an extension given to an E m p i r e already too large. A
35 vigorous a n d ambitious State, replacing t h e Sublime P o r t e , might, h o w e v e r ,
r e n d e r w a r on t h e p a r t of R u s s i a a necessity for t h e E m p e r o r or his suc-
c e s s o r s . T h u s E u r o p e a n conflict w o u l d arise from t h e v e r y m e a n s t a k e n t o
p r e v e n t it; for neither England n o r F r a n c e , n o r p r o b a b l y Austria, w o u l d be
content to see Constantinople p e r m a n e n t l y in t h e h a n d s of Russia. On t h e
40 p a r t of G r e a t Britain, H e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t at o n c e declare that they
r e n o u n c e all intention or wish to hold Constantinople. His Imperial Majesty

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Karl Marx

m a y b e quite secure u p o n this h e a d . T h e y are likewise r e a d y t o give a n


a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e y will enter into no a g r e e m e n t to provide for t h e con-
tingency of t h e fall of T u r k e y without previous c o m m u n i c a t i o n with t h e
E m p e r o r o f Russia. U p o n t h e whole, t h e n , H e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t are
p e r s u a d e d that no c o u r s e of policy c a n be a d o p t e d m o r e w i s e , m o r e disinter- 5
e s t e d , m o r e beneficial t o E u r o p e , t h a n t h a t w h i c h H i s Imperial Majesty has
so long followed, a n d w h i c h will r e n d e r his n a m e m o r e illustrious t h a n t h a t
of t h e m o s t f a m o u s sovereigns w h o h a v e sought immortality by u n p r o v o k e d
c o n q u e s t and e p h e m e r a l glory. W i t h a view to t h e s u c c e s s of this policy, it
is desirable t h a t t h e u t m o s t forbearance should be manifested t o w a r d Tur- 10
k e y ; t h a t a n y d e m a n d s w h i c h the great P o w e r s o f E u r o p e m a y h a v e t o m a k e
should be m a d e matter of friendly negotiation r a t h e r t h a n of p e r e m p t o r y
d e m a n d ; t h a t military and naval d e m o n s t r a t i o n s to c o e r c e t h e Sultan should
as m u c h as possible be avoided; t h a t differences with r e s p e c t to matters
affecting T u r k e y , within the c o m p e t e n c e of the Sublime P o r t e , should be 15
decided after mutual c o n c e r t b e t w e e n t h e G r e a t P o w e r s , and n o t b e forced
u p o n the w e a k n e s s of the T u r k i s h G o v e r n m e n t . To t h e s e cautions her
M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t wish to add that, in their view, it is essential t h a t t h e
Sultan should be advised to t r e a t his Christian subjects in conformity with
t h e principles of equity a n d religious freedom w h i c h prevail generally a m o n g 20
t h e enlightened nations o f E u r o p e . T h e m o r e t h e T u r k i s h G o v e r n m e n t a d o p t s
t h e rules of impartial law a n d equal administration, t h e less will t h e E m p e r o r
of R u s s i a find it n e c e s s a r y to apply t h a t exceptional p r o t e c t i o n w h i c h his
Imperial Majesty h a s found so b u r t h e n s o m e a n d inconvenient, t h o u g h no
d o u b t prescribed by d u t y and sanctioned by treaty. Y o u m a y r e a d this dis- 25
p a t c h to C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e , a n d if it is desired y o u m a y yourself place a c o p y
of it in t h e h a n d s of the E m p e r o r . In t h a t c a s e y o u will a c c o m p a n y its presen-
t a t i o n with t h o s e a s s u r a n c e s of friendship a n d confidence on t h e part of her
M a j e s t y the Q u e e n , w h i c h the c o n d u c t of his Imperial M a j e s t y w a s so sure
to inspire. I am e t c , J . R u s s e l l . " 30
I am obliged to p o s t p o n e t h e conclusion of this analysis to my n e x t letter.
Before concluding, h o w e v e r , I will give y o u , in addition to previous c o m -
m u n i c a t i o n s , t h e m o s t r e c e n t n e w s I h a v e obtained, from a source n o t other-
wise accessible to t h e public, regarding t h e attitude a n d plans of Prussia.
W h e n the conflict b e t w e e n R u s s i a on the o n e h a n d , a n d the A n g l o - F r e n c h 35
Alliance on t h e other, already r e a c h e d a certain climax, t h e E m p e r o r N i c h o -
las dispatched an autograph letter to his brother-in-law at Berlin, in w h i c h
he stated that t h o u g h England and F r a n c e might do him s o m e d a m a g e at sea
he feared nothing from t h e m on land, having 600,000 soldiers r e a d y to t a k e
t h e field at t h e e n d of April. Of t h e s e he w o u l d place 200,000 at t h e disposition 40
of F r e d e r i c William, if the letter engaged himself to m a r c h on Paris a n d

134
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d e t h r o n e Louis N a p o l e o n . T h e imbecile king w a s s o m u c h t a k e n i n b y this


proposition that Manteuffel required t h r e e d a y s ' discussion to dissuade him
from taking t h e pledge. So m u c h for t h e King.
As to Herr von Manteuffel himself, t h e " g r e a t c h a r a c t e r " of w h o m t h e
5 Prussian middle classes are so p r o u d , t h e w h o l e m a n lies open, as in a
nutshell, in his secret instructions sent to Mr. B u n s e n , his E m b a s s a d o r at
L o n d o n , a t t h e same period a s t h e a b o v e R u s s i a n letter w a s received, a n d
w h i c h c a m e into my p o s s e s s i o n t h r o u g h certainly a different m a n n e r t h a n
t h a t by which Mr. B u n s e n p o s s e s s e d himself of my private letters. T h e
10 c o n t e n t s of t h e s e instructions, betraying in the arrogant ambiguity of their
style at o n c e the schoolmaster and t h e drill-sergeant, are nearly as follows:
" L o o k sharp w h e n c e the w i n d b l o w s . If y o u o b s e r v e that England is in
e a r n e s t alliance with F r a n c e , a n d d e t e r m i n e d t o p u s h o n t h e war, t a k e y o u r
stand on t h e 'integrity and i n d e p e n d e n c e ' of T u r k e y . If y o u o b s e r v e her
15 wavering in policy and disinclined to war, out with y o u r lance a n d b r e a k it
cheerfully for the h o n o r and c h a r a c t e r of t h e king, my m a s t e r and y o u r s . "
Is t h e autocrat w r o n g t h e n in treating P r u s s i a as a nonentity?
Karl Marx.

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Karl Marx
The Secret Diplomatic Correspondence

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 4050, 11. April 1854

The Secret Diplomatic Correspondence.


From Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , F r i d a y , M a r c h 24, 1854.

Although L o r d J. Russell's dispatch m a y , u p o n t h e w h o l e , be described as a


polite refusal of the C z a r ' s proposition to enter into a previous c o n c e r t on 5
t h e eventual partition of T u r k e y , t h e r e occur s o m e v e r y strange p a s s a g e s ,
to which I call t h e attention of y o u r r e a d e r s . L o r d J o h n s a y s :
"There is no sufficient reason for intimating to the Sultan t h a t he c a n n o t
k e e p p e a c e at h o m e , or p r e s e r v e friendly relations with his n e i g h b o r s . "
N o w , n o w h e r e in the confidential c o m m u n i c a t i o n s of Sir H. S e y m o u r do 10
w e meet a n allusion t o the Czar having p r o p o s e d t o intimate t o t h e Sultan
anything of the sort. We must, therefore, c o n c l u d e either that L o r d Russell,
while stimulating opposition to such a step, m e a n t to insinuate it himself, or
t h a t s o m e of Sir H a m i l t o n ' s confidential c o m m u n i c a t i o n s are s u p p r e s s e d in
t h e p a p e r s laid before t h e H o u s e . T h e m a t t e r l o o k s t h e m o r e suspicious as, 15
only 16 days later, on F e b . 25,1853, L o r d C l a r e n d o n , on his accession to the
Foreign Office, gave the following instructions to L o r d Stratford de Red-
cliffe:
" Y o u r Excellency will, with all the frankness a n d u n r e s e r v e that m a y be
c o n s i s t e n t with p r u d e n c e , and t h e dignity of t h e Sultan, explain t h e r e a s o n s 20
w h i c h lead H e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t t o fear t h a t t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e i s
n o w in a position of peculiar danger. T h e accumulated grievances of foreign
nations w h i c h t h e P o r t e is u n a b l e or unwilling to r e d r e s s , t h e mal-administra-
tion of its own affairs, and the increasing weakness of executive power in
Turkey, h a v e c a u s e d the allies of the Porte latterly to a s s u m e a t o n e alike 25
novel a n d alarming, and which, if p e r s e v e r e d in, m a y lead to a general revolt
of the Christian subjects of the P o r t e , and p r o v e fatal to the i n d e p e n d e n c e
and integrity of t h e E m p i r e , a c a t a s t r o p h e t h a t w o u l d be deeply deplored by

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H e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t , b u t w h i c h it is their d u t y to r e p r e s e n t to the P o r t e


as considered probable and impending by some of t h e Great E u r o p e a n
P o w e r s . " (See the Blue B o o k s on t h e Rights and Privileges of the L a t i n a n d
G r e e k C h u r c h e s . Vol. 1, pages 81 and 82.)
5 W a s this n o t "intimating" to the Sultan, on t h e p a r t of England, in plain
w o r d s : " t h a t h e c a n n o t k e e p p e a c e a t h o m e o r p r e s e r v e friendly relations
with his n e i g h b o r s " ? T h e C z a r h a d told Sir H a m i l t o n in a v e r y off-hand w a y
t h a t he would not allow England to establish herself at Constantinople, b u t
that he on his part, intended to establish himself t h e r e , if n o t as proprietor,
10 at least as depositary. H o w d o e s L o r d J o h n reply to this impertinent an-
n o u n c e m e n t ? In the n a m e of G r e a t Britain he r e n o u n c e s "all intention or w i s h
t o hold C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . " H e e x a c t s n o similar pledge from t h e Czar. " T h e
position of the E m p e r o r of R u s s i a , " he says " a s depositary, b u t n o t proprie-
tor, of Constantinople, w o u l d be e x p o s e d to n u m b e r l e s s h a z a r d s , b o t h from
15 the long-cherished ambition of his o w n nation a n d the jealousies of E u r o p e . "
T h e jealousies of E u r o p e , b u t n o t t h e opposition of E n g l a n d ! As to E n g l a n d ,
she w o u l d n o t allownoLord J o h n Russell d a r e s not speak to R u s s i a in the
same t o n e in which R u s s i a speaks to Englandshe would "not be content
to see Constantinople permanently in the h a n d s of R u s s i a . " She will, t h e n ,
20 be c o n t e n t to see it temporarily so. In other w o r d s she fully c o n c u r s in t h e
C z a r ' s o w n p r o p o s a l . S h e will n o t allow w h a t he himself r e n o u n c e s , b u t is
p r e p a r e d to suffer w h a t he intends doing.
N o t " c o n t e n t " with installing the Czar as t h e eventual depositary of
Constantinople, L o r d J o h n Russell declares in the n a m e of t h e English
25 G o v e r n m e n t that " t h e y will enter into no a g r e e m e n t to provide for t h e
contingency of t h e fall of T u r k e y without previous c o m m u n i c a t i o n to R u s -
sia." T h a t is to say, although the Czar told Sir H. S e y m o u r that he had entered
into an agreement with Austria b e f o r e making a n y previous c o m m u n i c a t i o n
to England, she on her p a r t pledges herself to c o m m u n i c a t e with R u s s i a
30 previously to entering into an a g r e e m e n t with F r a n c e .
" U p o n t h e w h o l e , " says L o r d J o h n , " n o c o u r s e o f policy c a n b e a d o p t e d
m o r e wise, m o r e disinterested, m o r e beneficial t o E u r o p e t h a n t h a t which his
Imperial Majesty has so long followed."
H i s C o s s a c k M a j e s t y h a p p e n s to h a v e followed, without ever swerving
35 from it, the policy inaugurated at his a c c e s s i o n to the t h r o n e , and which t h e '
liberal L o r d J o h n declares to h a v e b e e n so disinterested a n d so beneficial
to Europe.
T h e ostensible and m a i n point of dispute in t h e p r e s e n t E a s t e r n c o m -
plication is R u s s i a ' s claim to a religious p r o t e c t o r a t e over t h e G r e e k Chris-
40 tians in the O t t o m a n E m p i r e . T h e Czar, far from disguising his p r e t e n t i o n s ,
told Sir Hamilton plainly that " b y t r e a t y he h a s a right to w a t c h over t h o s e

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Karl Marx

several millions," t h a t he " m a d e a m o d e r a t e a n d sparing u s e of his right,"


a n d t h a t it w a s " a t t e n d e d with obligations occasionally v e r y i n c o n v e n i e n t . "
D o e s L o r d J o h n Russell give him to u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e r e exists no such
t r e a t y , a n d t h a t t h e Czar h a d n o s u c h right? T h a t h e h a d n o m o r e right t o
m e d d l e with the G r e e k subjects of T u r k e y t h a n E n g l a n d with t h e P r o t e s t a n t 5
subjects of Russia, or F r a n c e with t h e I r i s h m e n of G r e a t Britain? L e t him
a n s w e r for himself.
" H e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t w i s h to add, t h a t in their view, it is essential
t h a t t h e Sultan should be advised to t r e a t his Christian subjects in conformity
with t h e principles of equity and religious fredom. *** T h e m o r e the T u r k i s h 10
G o v e r n m e n t a d o p t s the rules of equal law a n d impartial administration, t h e
less will the E m p e r o r of Russia find it n e c e s s a r y to apply that exceptional
protection which h i s Imperial Majesty h a s found so b u r d e n s o m e t h o u g h no
doubt prescribed by duty and sanctioned by treaty."
R u s s i a ' s exceptional protectorate o v e r the s u b j e c t s of t h e P o r t e sanctioned 15
by treaty! No doubt about that, says L o r d J o h n , and L o r d J o h n is an h o n e s t
m a n , a n d L o r d J o h n speaks in the n a m e of H e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t , and
L o r d J o h n a d d r e s s e s the A u t o c r a t himself. W h a t , t h e n , is E n g l a n d quarelling
a b o u t w i t h Russia, and w h y doubling t h e I n c o m e t a x , and troubling the world
with warlike preparation? W h a t w a s L o r d J o h n ' s business w h e n , s o m e w e e k s 20
ago, he arose in Parliament, with the a s p e c t s , a n d in t h e t o n e of a C a s s a n d r a ,
screaming a n d bouncing and gesticulating b o m b a s t i c imprecations against
t h e faithlessness a n d perfidy of t h e C z a r ? H a d [he] n o t himself declared to
Caesar t h a t Caesar's claims to t h e exclusive protectorate w e r e " p r e s c r i b e d
by d u t y a n d sanctioned by t r e a t y ? " 25
W h a t the coalition had to complain of, w a s certainly no dissimulation or
r e s e r v e of t h e C z a r ' s but, on t h e contrary, t h e i m p u d e n t familiarity with
w h i c h h e dared t o u n b o s o m himself before t h e m a n d m a k e t h e m the vessels
of his most secret designs, thus transforming t h e cabinet of Downing-st. into
a p r i v a t e cabinet in the Alexander N e w s k i . A m a n confides to y o u his in- 30
t e n t i o n to m u r d e r your friend. He e n t r e a t s y o u to enter with him u p o n a
p r e v i o u s c o n c e r t a b o u t t h e b o o t y . If t h e m a n be E m p e r o r of R u s s i a and y o u
an English Minister, y o u will n o t call h i m to t h e b a r , b u t t h a n k h i m in h u m b l e
t e r m s for the great confidence placed in y o u , a n d feel h a p p y " t o acknowledge
his m o d e r a t i o n , frankness and friendly disposition," as L o r d J o h n Russell 35
did.
L e t u s r e t u r n t o St. Petersburg.
On t h e night of the 20th Feb.only eight d a y s b e f o r e P r i n c e Menchikoff's
arrival at Constantinoplethe A u t o c r a t c a m e up to Sir H a m i l t o n S e y m o u r
at t h e soire of t h e G r a n d D u c h e s s H e r e d i t a r y ' s , w h e n t h e following con- 40
v e r s a t i o n t a k e s place b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o " g e n t l e m e n : "

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The Secret Diplomatic Correspondence

The Czar:
"Well, so y o u h a v e got y o u r a n s w e r , and y o u are to bring it to me to-mor-
row."
Sir H a m i l t o n :
5 "I am to h a v e that honor, Sire, b u t y o u r M a j e s t y is a w a r e that the n a t u r e
of t h e reply is very exactly w h a t I h a d led y o u to e x p e c t . "
T h e Czar:
" S o I w a s sorry to h e a r ; b u t I think y o u r G o v e r n m e n t d o e s n o t well
u n d e r s t a n d my o b j e c t s . I am n o t so e a g e r about what shall be done when
10 the sick man dies, as I am to d e t e r m i n e w i t h E n g l a n d what shall not be done
u p o n t h a t e v e n t taking p l a c e . "
Sir H a m i l t o n :
" B u t , Sire, allow me to o b s e r v e that we h a v e no r e a s o n to think t h a t the
sick m a n is dying; countries do n o t die in s u c h a h u r r y . T u r k e y will r e m a i n
15 for m a n y a year, unless s o m e u n f o r e s e e n crisis should o c c u r . It is precisely,
Sire, for t h e avoidance of all c i r c u m s t a n c e s likely to p r o d u c e such a crisis
that Her Majesty's Government reckons upon your generous assistance."
T h e Czar:
"I will tell y o u t h a t if y o u r G o v e r n m e n t h a s b e e n led to believe that Turkey
20 retains any elements of existence y o u r G o v e r n m e n t m u s t h a v e r e c e i v e d
i n c o r r e c t information. I repeat to you that the sick man is dying; and we can
n e v e r allow s u c h a n e v e n t t o t a k e u s b y surprise. W e m u s t c o m e t o some
understanding. A n d r e m e m b e r , I do n o t a s k for a t r e a t y or a p r o t o c o l ; a
general understanding is all I requirethat between gentlemen is sufficient.
25 So no m o r e for the p r e s e n t ; y o u will c o m e to me t o - m o r r o w . "
Sir H a m i l t o n " t h a n k e d His M a j e s t y v e r y cordially," b u t having hardly left
t h e Imperial saloon and r e t u r n e d h o m e , suspicion o v e r c o m e s him, he sits
d o w n a t his desk, r e p o r t s t o L o r d J o h n o n t h e conversation, and s u m s u p
his letter with t h e s e striking marginal n o t e s :
30 " I t c a n hardly be o t h e r w i s e b u t t h a t t h e Sovereign w h o insists with such
pertinacity upon the impending fall of a neighboring State, m u s t h a v e settled
in his o w n mind that the h o u r , if n o t of its dissolution, at all e v e n t s for its
dissolution m u s t be at h a n d . * * This a s s u m p t i o n w o u l d hardly be v e n t u r e d
u p o n unless some, perhaps general, but at all events intimate understanding,
35 existed between Russia and Austria.
Supposing my suspicion to be well f o u n d e d , the Emperor's object is to
engage Her Majesty's Government, in conjunction with his own Cabinet and
that of Vienna, in some scheme for the ultimate partition of Turkey, and for
the exclusion of France from the arrangement."
40 This dispatch arrived at L o n d o n on the 6th of M a r c h , w h e n L o r d Russell
w a s already supplanted i n t h e Foreign Office b y L o r d Clarendon. T h e im-

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Karl Marx

p r e s s i o n p r o d u c e d on the mind of this whining lover of T u r k e y by the


E m b a s s a d o r ' s anxious warnings is quite surprising. Being fully a w a r e of the
C z a r ' s t r e a c h e r o u s design to partition T u r k e y to the exclusion of F r a n c e , he
tells C o u n t Walewski, the F r e n c h E m b a s s a d o r a t L o n d o n , that " t h e y , " i n
contradistinction to F r a n c e , " w e r e disposed to place reliance in t h e E m p e r o r 5
of Russia" t h a t "a policy of suspicion w a s neither wise n o r safe"and t h a t
"although he h o p e d the G o v e r n m e n t s of England and F r a n c e w o u l d always
act together, when their policy and their interests w e r e identical, yet he m u s t
frankly s a y t h a t the recent proceedings of the French Government were not
the best calculated to secure that desirable result." (See Blue B o o k s , vol. 1, 10
p p . 9 3 and 98.)
Be it also r e m a r k e d , en passant, that at the s a m e time w h e n t h e Czar
indoctrinated t h e British E m b a s s a d o r at St. P e t e r s b u r g , The Times w a s
repeating at L o n d o n , day after day, t h a t the state of T u r k e y w a s d e s p e r a t e ,
t h a t t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e w a s crumbling to pieces a n d t h a t t h e r e r e m a i n e d 15
nothing of it e x c e p t the p h a n t o m of "a T u r k ' s head d r e s s e d up in a t u r b a n . "
T h e morning after t h e interview at t h e Imperial soire Sir G.H. S e y m o u r ,
according to the invitation received, waits u p o n the Czar and a "dialogue
lasting one h o u r and t w e l v e m i n u t e s " t a k e s place b e t w e e n t h e m , o n w h i c h
he r e p o r t s again in his dispatch to L o r d J . R u s s e l l , d a t e d F e b . 2 2 , 1853. 20
T h e E m p e r o r began by desiring Sir H a m i l t o n to r e a d to him aloud L o r d
J o h n ' s secret and confidential dispatch of the 9th of F e b r u a r y . T h e declara-
tions c o n t a i n e d in this dispatch he declared, of c o u r s e to be v e r y satis-
f a c t o r y ; he " c o u l d only desire t h a t t h e y should be a little amplified." He
r e p e a t e d t h a t a T u r k i s h c a t a s t r o p h e w a s constantly impending, and 25
" t h a t it might be brought about at any m o m e n t , either by an external w a r ,
or by a feud b e t w e e n t h e old T u r k i s h party and t h a t of t h e ' n e w superficial
F r e n c h r e f o r m s , ' or again, by a rising of the Christians, already k n o w n to
be v e r y impatient of shaking off t h e M u s s u l m a n y o k e . "
He d o e s n o t allow the opportunity to slip w i t h o u t bringing forth his 30
w o r n - o u t b r a v a d o , that "if he h a d n o t stopped t h e victorious progress of
G e n . Diebitch, in 1829, the Sultan's authority w o u l d h a v e b e e n at an
end"while it is a notorious fact, t h a t of the 200,000 m e n he h a d t h e n m a r c h e d
into T u r k e y 50,000 only r e t u r n e d to their h o m e s , a n d the r e s t of Diebitch's
a r m y would h a v e b e e n annihilated on the plains of Adrianople b u t for the 35
c o m b i n e d t r e a s o n of T u r k i s h P a s h a s and foreign E m b a s s a d o r s .
He insists on his not requiring a system altogether arranged b e t w e e n
E n g l a n d and Russia, as to t h e previous disposal of t h e p r o v i n c e s ruled by
t h e Sultan, and still less a formal agreement to be c o n c l u d e d b e t w e e n the
t w o C a b i n e t s , b u t only some general u n d e r s t a n d i n g or e x c h a n g e of opinions, 40
e a c h p a r t y confidentially stating w h a t it did n o t w i s h ,

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The Secret Diplomatic Correspondence

" w h a t would be c o n t r a r y to English interests, w h a t w o u l d be contrary to


Russian interests, in order that, t h e c a s e occurring, t h e y might avoid acting
in opposition to e a c h o t h e r . "
By such a negative understanding the C z a r would obtain all he cares for:
5 1st, t h e breaking up of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e settled b e t w e e n E n g l a n d and
R u s s i a as a fait accompli, although in a negative and conditional form, while
it w o u l d rest with h i m so to embroil m a t t e r s as to be able to declare to
E n g l a n d , with some show of r e a s o n , that t h e contingency f o r e s e e n had
arrived. Secondly, a secret plan of action b e t w e e n E n g l a n d and Russia, h o w -
10 e v e r vague and negative, b r o u g h t about b e h i n d the b a c k and to the exclusion
of F r a n c e , and thus necessarily setting E n g l a n d and F r a n c e by the ears.
Thirdly, England being restrained by her negative pledges as to w h a t she
w o u l d not d o , he would h a v e liberty to elaborate v e r y tranquilly his o w n plan
of positive action. B e s i d e s , it is evident t h a t t w o parties agreeing as to w h a t
15 they will nor allow e a c h other to d o , in a given c a s e , are only settling in an
e v a s i v e w a y w h a t t h e y will. T h i s negative sort of understanding gives only
t h e greater facilites to t h e m o r e cunning of t h e t w o parties.
" P e r h a p s your M a j e s t y , " perplexed Sir H a m i l t o n m u t t e r e d , " w o u l d be
good enough to explain your o w n ideas u p o n this negative policy." T h e Czar,
20 after some show of c o y r e s i s t a n c e , feigns to yield u n d e r the gentle p r e s s u r e
and m a d e the following highly r e m a r k a b l e declaration:
"I will not tolerate the permanent o c c u p a t i o n of Constantinople by the
R u s s i a n s ; having said this, I will say t h a t it n e v e r shall be held by the English,
or F r e n c h , or any other great nation. Again, I never will permit an a t t e m p t
25 at t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a Byzantine e m p i r e , or s u c h an extension of G r e e c e
as w o u l d r e n d e r her a powerful S t a t e ; still less will I p e r m i t the breaking up
of T u r k e y into little republics, asylums for t h e K o s s u t h s and Mazzinis and
other revolutionists of E u r o p e ; r a t h e r t h a n submit to a n y of t h e s e arrange-
ments I would go to war, a n d as long as I h a v e a m a n a n d a m u s k e t left would
30 c a r r y it o n . "
N o B y z a n t i n e empire, n o powerful e x t e n s i o n o f G r e e c e , n o confederation
of little republicsnothing of t h e sort. W h a t , t h e n , d o e s he w a n t ? T h e r e w a s
no n e e d for t h e British E m b a s s a d o r to g u e s s . T h e E m p e r o r himself, in the
c o u r s e of t h e dialogue, b u r s t s u p o n his interlocutor with t h e following p r o p o -
35 sition:
" T h e Principalities are in fact an i n d e p e n d e n t S t a t e u n d e r my p r o t e c t i o n ;
this might so continue. Servia might receive t h e s a m e form of g o v e r n m e n t .
So again w i t h Bulgaria. T h e r e seems to be no r e a s o n w h y this province should
n o t form an i n d e p e n d e n t state. As to E g y p t , I quite u n d e r s t a n d t h e im-
40 p o r t a n c e to England of t h a t territory. I can t h e n only say, that if, in the e v e n t
of a distribution of t h e O t t o m a n succession u p o n t h e fall of t h e Empire, y o u

141
Karl Marx

should t a k e p o s s e s s i o n of Egypt, I shall h a v e no objections to offer. I w o u l d


say t h e same thing of Canda; t h a t island might suit y o u , a n d I do n o t k n o w
w h y it should n o t b e c o m e an English p o s s e s s i o n . "
T h u s he p r o v e s t h a t " i n the e v e n t of t h e dissolution of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e ,
it might be less difficult to arrive at a satisfactory territorial a r r a n g e m e n t t h a n 5
w a s c o m m o n l y b e l i e v e d . " He declares frankly w h a t he wantsthe partition
of Turkeyand he gives t h e clearest possible outlines of t h a t partition; clear
as well from w h a t he reveals as from w h a t his silence c o n c e a l s . E g y p t and
C a n d i a for England. T h e Principalities, Servia a n d Bulgaria to exist as vassal
states of Russia. Turkish Croatia, Bosnia and H e r z e g o v i n a he intentionally 10
abstains from mentioning, t o b e i n c o r p o r a t e d with Austria. G r e e c e t o b e
e x t e n d e d in a " n o t powerful way"say lower T h e s s a l y a n d p a r t of Albania.
Constantinople t o b e temporarily occupied b y t h e C z a r , a n d t h e n t o b e c o m e
t h e capital of a State comprising M a c e d o n i a , T h r a c i a , a n d w h a t remains of
T u r k e y in E u r o p e . B u t w h o is to be t h e definitive p o s s e s s o r of t h a t little 15
e m p i r e , p e r h a p s t o b e aggrandized b y some portions o f Anatolia? H e k e e p s
close u p o n t h a t point, b u t it is no secret that he h a s s o m e o n e in r e s e r v e for
t h a t p o s t , viz: his younger son, w h o longs for an e m p i r e of his o w n . A n d
Franceis she to receive nothing at all? P e r h a p s so. B u t n o : she is to be put
off withwho will believe it?with Tunis. " O n e of her o b j e c t s , " he tells Sir 20
H a m i l t o n , "is t h e possession of T u n i s , " and p e r h a p s , in t h e e v e n t of a par-
tition of the O t t o m a n E m p i r e , he might be so m a g n a n i m o u s as to indulge
h e r appetite for Tunis.
T h e C z a r speaks throughout in an affected t o n e of the m o s t h a u g h t y
disdain of F r a n c e . " I t looks v e r y m u c h , " he s a y s , " a s if t h e F r e n c h Govern- 25
m e n t w e r e endeavoring to embroil us all in the E a s t . " As for himself, he
c a r e s n o t a straw a b o u t it:
" F o r his o w n part, he cared v e r y little w h a t line t h e F r e n c h might think
p r o p e r to t a k e in E a s t e r n affairs, and t h a t little m o r e t h a n a m o n t h ago he
h a d apprised the Sultan t h a t if his assistance w a s required for resisting t h e 30
m e n a c e s of t h e F r e n c h , it w a s entirely at t h e service of the Sultan!
In a w o r d , the E m p e r o r w e n t on to o b s e r v e , ' A s I before told you, all I
w a n t is a good understanding with England, and this n o t as to w h a t shall,
b u t as to w h a t shall not be done ; this point arrived at t h e English G o v e r n m e n t
and I, I and t h e English G o v e r n m e n t having entire confidence in o n e anoth- 35
e r ' s v i e w s , I care nothing a b o u t the r e s t . ' "
" B u t y o u r Majesty h a s forgotten A u s t r i a ! " exclaims Sir Hamilton.
" O h ! " replied the E m p e r o r , greatly t o his surprise, " b u t y o u m u s t u n d e r -
stand t h a t when I speak of Russia I speak of Austria as well; what suits
the one suits the other; our interests as r e g a r d s T u r k e y a r e perfectly 40
identical."

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The Secret Diplomatic Correspondence

W h e n h e says Russia, h e says Austria. A s t o M o n t e n e g r o , h e states e x -


plicitly " t h a t h e a p p r o v e d the attitude t a k e n b y t h e Austrian C a b i n e t . "
H a v i n g treated in a former c o n v e r s a t i o n t h e Sultan as the " G r a n d T u r k "
of t h e Vaudeville, he designs h i m n o w , after t h e f a s h i o n of Paul de Kock,
5 as "Ce monsieur. " A n d h o w forbearing did he n o t b e h a v e t o w a r d ce mon-
sieur?He has only dispatched a Menchikoff to Constantinople. "If he c h o s e ,
he certainly could send an a r m y therethere is nothing to stop t h e m , " as he
p r o v e d afterward at Oltenitza a n d T s h e t a t e , and by bis o w n a r m y ' s glorious
r e t i r e m e n t from Kalafat.
10 His C o s s a c k Majesty dismissed Sir H a m i l t o n w i t h the w o r d s : "Well,
induce your G o v e r n m e n t to write again on t h e s e subjectsto write m o r e
fully, and to do so without hesitation."
On t h e 7th of M a r c h , shortly after this curious dialogue, or, rather, m o n o -
logue, t h e British E m b a s s a d o r is s u m m o n e d to a p p e a r before C o u n t Nessel-
15 r o d e , w h o places in his h a n d s "a v e r y confidential m e m o r a n d u m w h i c h his
Imperial Majesty h a d c a u s e d t o b e d r a w n u p , a n d w h i c h w a s intended a s a n
a n s w e r to, or a c o m m e n t u p o n , the c o m m u n i c a t i o n of L o r d J o h n R u s s e l l . "
C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e invites him t o r e a d t h e p a p e r , " w h i c h , i n fact, w a s intended
for his u s e . " Sir Hamilton, accordingly, p e r u s e s the d o c u m e n t , and he w h o
20 h a d not found a single w o r d of p r o t e s t against t h e M u s c o v i t e ' s elaborate
insults against F r a n c e , all of a s u d d e n t r e m b l e s at discovering t h a t " t h e
impression u n d e r w h i c h it h a s b e e n f r a m e d is an incorrect o n e ; t h a t im-
pression being evidently that, in the disputes carried on b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d
F r a n c e , her M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t h a d leant partially t o t h e latter p o w e r . "
25 T h e v e r y n e x t morning he hastily sends a billet-doux to C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e ,
asserting t h a t , " f a r from having inclined, as h a s b e e n stated, to F r a n c e , in
the c o u r s e of the late critical t r a n s a c t i o n s , it h a s b e e n the desire of t h e
Q u e e n ' s a d v i s e r s , to the full extent permitted (!) to a G o v e r n m e n t compelled
(!!) to o b s e r v e a neutral attitude, t h a t ample satisfaction shall be given to t h e
30 d e m a n d s which his Imperial M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t w e r e justified in mak-
ing."
In c o n s e q u e n c e of this begging letter, Sir H a m i l t o n h a s , of c o u r s e , another
" v e r y amicable and satisfactory c o n v e r s a t i o n with t h e Chancellor," w h o
c o m f o r t s the British E m b a s s a d o r with the a s s u r a n c e t h a t h e h a d misunder-
35 stood o n e passage of the E m p e r o r ' s m e m o r a n d u m which did not intend
reproaching E n g l a n d with a n y partiality for F r a n c e . " A l l , " said C o u n t
N e s s e l r o d e , " t h a t w a s desired h e r e w a s t h a t , while appealing to the Em-
peror's magnanimity and feelings of justice, t h e British G o v e r n m e n t should
employ some efforts t o w a r d opening t h e e y e s of t h e F r e n c h Minister." T h e r e
40 is nothing w a n t e d "here " b u t E n g l a n d ' s creeping and cringing before t h e
K a l m u k , a n d assuming a t o n e of dictatory severity against the F r e n c h m a n .

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Karl Marx

To convince the Chancellor of the conscientious m a n n e r in w h i c h t h e British


G o v e r n m e n t h a d e x e c u t e d t h e latter part of their service, Sir H a m i l t o n r e a d s
him an extract from one of L o r d J o h n Russell's d i s p a t c h e s , " a s a specimen
of t h e language held by an English Minister against t h e F r e n c h G o v e r n m e n t . "
C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e finds his boldest e x p e c t a t i o n s s u r p a s s e d . He only " r e - 5
g r e t t e d that he h a d not long ago b e e n put in p o s s e s s i o n of evidence so
conclusive."
T h e R u s s i a n m e m o r a n d u m in answer to L o r d J o h n ' s dispatch is described
by Sir H a m i l t o n as " o n e of the m o s t r e m a r k a b l e p a p e r s w h i c h h a v e b e e n
issued, not from the Russian Chancellery, b u t from the E m p e r o r ' s secret 10
C a b i n e t . " So it is. But it is superfluous to dwell on it, as it merely r e s u m e s
the views of the Czar as developed in his d i a l o g u e . " It i m p r e s s e s u p o n the
British G o v e r n m e n t t h a t " t h e result, w h a t e v e r it might b e , of t h e s e c o m -
m u n i c a t i o n s , should r e m a i n a secret b e t w e e n t h e t w o S o v e r e i g n s . " T h e
C z a r ' s system, it o b s e r v e s , h a s , " a s admittedby t h e English Cabinet itself, 15
b e e n always o n e of f o r b e a r a n c e " against the P o r t e . F r a n c e had adopted
a n o t h e r line of c o n d u c t , t h u s compelling R u s s i a a n d A u s t r i a to act in their
turn by intimidation. In the whole m e m o r a n d u m R u s s i a and Austria are
identified. O n e of t h e c a u s e s which might lead to the immediate downfall
of T u r k e y , is expressly stated to be t h e Question of the Holy Shrines, and 20
" t h e religious sentiments of t h e o r t h o d o x G r e e k s offended by the con-
cessions m a d e to the L a t i n s . " At the close of t h e m e m o r a n d u m " n o less
p r e c i o u s " t h a n t h e a s s u r a n c e s contained in Russell's dispatch, are declared
to be " t h e proofs of friendship and personal confidence on the part of Her
Majesty the Queen, which Sir H a m i l t o n S e y m o u r h a d b e e n directed on this 25
o c c a s i o n to impart to the E m p e r o r . " T h e s e "proofs" o Q u e e n Victoria's
allegiance to the Czar h a v e b e e n wisely withheld from the British public, but
m a y p e r h a p s , o n e of these d a y s , appear in the Journal de St. Ptersbourg.
In c o m m e n t i n g u p o n his dialogue with the E m p e r o r a n d on t h e M u s c o v i t e
m e m o r a n d u m , Sir H a m i l t o n again d r a w s the attention of his Cabinet to the 30
position of Austria:
" A s s u m i n g , as a certain, and n o w a c k n o w l e d g e d fact, the existence of an
u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r c o m p a c t b e t w e e n the t w o E m p e r o r s a s t o T u r k i s h affairs,
it b e c o m e s of the d e e p e s t importance to k n o w t h e e x t e n t of the engagements
e n t e r e d into b e t w e e n t h e m . As to the m a n n e r in w h i c h it h a s b e e n concluded, 35
I conjecture t h a t little d o u b t is to be entertained.
Its basis w a s , no doubt, laid at s o m e of the meetings b e t w e e n the Sover-
eigns which t o o k place in t h e a u t u m n ; a n d the s c h e m e h a s probably b e e n
w o r k e d o u t since under the m a n a g e m e n t of B a r o n Meyendorff, the R u s s i a n
E n v o y at t h e Austrian Court, w h o has b e e n passing t h e winter at St. P e t e r s - 40
burg, and is still h e r e . "

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D o e s the British G o v e r n m e n t on receiving t h e s e revelations, call Austria


to a c c o u n t ? N o , it finds fault with F r a n c e only. After t h e Russian invasion
of the Principalities, it appoints A u s t r i a as mediator, c h o o s e s Vienna, of all
other t o w n s , for t h e seat of t h e c o n f e r e n c e , h a n d s over to C o u n t Buoi t h e
5 direction of the negotiations, and to this v e r y m o m e n t continues to stultify
F r a n c e into the belief that A u s t r i a is likely to be a sincere ally in a w a r against
the Muscovite a n d for the integrity a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e of the O t t o m a n
E m p i r e , although it k n e w for longer t h a n a t w e l v e m o n t h t h a t Austria h a d
agreed to the d i s m e m b e r m e n t of that E m p i r e .
10 On M a r c h 19, Sir H a m i l t o n ' s r e p o r t on his dialogue with the C z a r
arrived at L o n d o n . L o r d C l a r e n d o n n o w fills t h e place of L o r d J o h n , and
continues to improve u p o n his p r e d e c e s s o r . F o u r d a y s after the receipt of
that startling communication, in which t h e C z a r no longer deigns to dis-
simulate, b u t frankly reveals his c o n s p i r a c y against T u r k e y and F r a n c e , t h e
15 noble Earl sends to Sir Hamilton t h e following dispatch:
" H e r Majesty's G o v e r n m e n t regret t h a t t h e alarm and irritation w h i c h
prevail at Paris should h a v e i n d u c e d t h e F r e n c h G o v e r n m e n t to order their
fleet to sail for the w a t e r s of G r e e c e ; b u t t h e position in which the F r e n c h
G o v e r n m e n t stands in m a n y r e s p e c t s is different from t h a t of H e r M a j e s t y ' s
20 G o v e r n m e n t . T h e y h a v e not, to the knowledge of H e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n -
m e n t , a s s u r a n c e s from t h e E m p e r o r as to t h e policy he w a s determined to
follow t o w a r d T u r k e y . " (See Blue B o o k s , vol. 1, page 95.)
If the Czar had c o m m u n i c a t e d to F r a n c e also that " t h e sick m a n w a s
dying," and a complete plan for sharing his succession, F r a n c e , of c o u r s e ,
25 would h a v e felt neither alarm n o r hesitation as to the fate of T u r k e y , the real
objects of Prince Menchikoff's mission, a n d t h e E m p e r o r of R u s s i a ' s im-
m o v a b l e determination to maintain the integrity and i n d e p e n d e n c e of t h e
E m p i r e , which h e averred c o n t a i n e d " n o e l e m e n t s o f e x i s t e n c e . "
On the same 23d of M a r c h , the E a r l of C l a r e n d o n s e n d s another dispatch
30 to Sir Hamilton S e y m o u r , o n e not " c o o k e d " for t h e Blue B o o k s , but t h e
secret a n s w e r to the secret c o m m u n i c a t i o n from St. Petersburg. Sir Hamilton
h a d closed his report of t h e dialogue with t h e v e r y judicious suggestion:
"I might v e n t u r e to suggest t h a t some expression might be used in the
dispatch to be addressed to me which might have the effect of putting an
35 end to the further consideration, o r , at all e v e n t s , discussion of points w h i c h
it is highly desirable should n o t be r e g a r d e d as offering subject for debate. "
T h e E a r l of Clarendon, w h o feels himself the true m a n to handle hot coals,
acts in strict compliance with the C z a r ' s invitation, and in direct contra-
vention to his o w n E m b a s s a d o r ' s warning. He c o m m e n c e s his dispatch by
40 declaring t h a t " H e r Majesty's G o v e r n m e n t gladly comply with t h e E m -
p e r o r ' s wish that the subject should be further a n d frankly d i s c u s s e d . " T h e

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Karl Marx

E m p e r o r is "entitled" to " t h e m o s t cordial declaration of o p i n i o n " on their


part, b e c a u s e of the "generous c o n f i d e n c e " placed in t h e m that t h e y will help
h i m dismembering T u r k e y , betraying F r a n c e , a n d in t h e contingency of t h e
o v e r t h r o w of the O t t o m a n rule, suppressing all possible efforts on the p a r t
of t h e Christian populations to form free a n d i n d e p e n d e n t States. " H e r 5
M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t , " continues the freeborn Briton, " a r e fully a w a r e
that, in t h e e v e n t of any understanding with r e f e r e n c e to future contingencies
being expedient, or indeed possible, the word of His ImperialMajesiy would
be preferable to a n y Convention t h a t could be f r a m e d . "
At all e v e n t s , his w o r d m u s t be as good as any C o n v e n t i o n t h a t could be 10
f r a m e d w i t h him, the law advisers of the British Crown having long ago
declared all treaties with Russia at an end, through violations on her part.
" H e r Majesty's G o v e r n m e n t p e r s e v e r e in t h e belief, that T u r k e y still
p r e s e r v e s the elements of e x i s t e n c e . " To p r o v e the sincerity of t h a t belief,
t h e Earl gently a d d s : 15
"If t h e opinion of the E m p e r o r , t h a t the d a y s of t h e Turkish E m p i r e w e r e
n u m b e r e d , b e c a m e notorious its downfall m u s t o c c u r e v e n sooner t h a n H i s
Imperial Majesty n o w appears to e x p e c t . "
T h e Calmuk, then, has only to divulge his opinion t h a t the sick m a n is
dying, a n d t h e m a n is dead. An enviable sort of vitality this! T h e r e is w a n t e d 20
no blast of the t r u m p e t s of Jericho. O n e b r e a t h from the E m p e r o r ' s august
m o u t h , and t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e falls to pieces.
" H e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t entirely share t h e opinion of the E m p e r o r ,
t h a t t h e occupation of Constantinople by either of t h e great P o w e r s would
be incompatible with the p r e s e n t balance of p o w e r a n d the m a i n t e n a n c e of 25
p e a c e i n E u r o p e , a n d m u s t a t o n c e b e regarded a s impossible; t h a t t h e r e are
no elements for t h e reconstruction of a B y z a n t i n e E m p i r e ; t h a t t h e system-
atic m i s g o v e r n m e n t of G r e e c e offers no e n c o u r a g e m e n t to e x t e n d its territo-
rial d o m i n i o n ; a n d that, as rnere are no materials for provincial or communal
government, a n a r c h y would be t h e result of leaving t h e p r o v i n c e s of T u r k e y 30
to t h e m s e l v e s , or permitting them to form separate r e p u b l i c s . "
O b s e r v e t h a t the British Minister, p r o s t r a t e at t h e feet of his Tartar m a s t e r
a n d servilely reechoing his w o r d s , is n o t a s h a m e d e v e n to r e p e a t t h e mon-
strous lie t h a t in T u r k e y there are " n o elements for provincial or c o m m u n a l
g o v e r n m e n t , " while it is precisely the great d e v e l o p m e n t of c o m m u n a l and 35
provincial life t h a t has enabled T u r k e y to w i t h s t a n d till n o w t h e heaviest
s h o c k s b o t h from without a n d from within. By indorsing all t h e C z a r ' s
p r e m i s e s the British Ministry justifies all the conclusions he intends to draw
therefrom.
In t h e contingency of a dissolution of the T u r k i s h E m p i r e , says the gallant 40
Earl, " t h e only m o d e by which a pacific solution could be a t t e m p t e d would

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The Secret Diplomatic Correspondence

be t h a t of a E u r o p e a n C o n g r e s s . " B u t he is afraid of the c o n s e q u e n c e s of


s u c h a Congressnot b e c a u s e of R u s s i a n trickery, which c h e a t e d England
at t h e Congress of V i e n n a to such a d e g r e e , that N a p o l e o n at St. H e l e n a
exclaimed: " H a d h e b e e n victorious a t W a t e r l o o , h e could not h a v e i m p o s e d
5 m o r e humiliating conditions u p o n England"but from fear of F r a n c e . " T h e
treaties of 1815 m u s t t h e n be o p e n to revision, w h e n F r a n c e might be p r e -
p a r e d to risk the c h a n c e s of a E u r o p e a n W a r to get rid of the obligations
w h i c h she considers injurious to h e r national h o n o r , a n d which, having b e e n
i m p o s e d by victorious e n e m i e s , are a c o n s t a n t source of irritation to h e r . "
10 H e r M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t " d e s i r e to uphold the T u r k i s h E m p i r e " n o t as
a b u l w a r k against Russia, a n d b e c a u s e its downfall w o u l d force E n g l a n d to
fight o u t w i t h R u s s i a her diametrically opposed interests in t h e E a s t . O h , n o ,
s a y s t h e E a r l : "The interests of Russia and England in the East are com-
pletely identical. "
15 T h e y desire to uphold the T u r k i s h E m p i r e n o t from a n y E a s t e r n con-
sideration at all, b u t " f r o m their conviction t h a t no great question can be
agitated in t h e E a s t without becoming a source of discord in the West." An
E a s t e r n question, t h e r e f o r e , will n o t bring a b o u t a war of the Western Powers
against Russia, b u t a w a r of the W e s t e r n P o w e r s a m o n g themselvesa war
20 of England against France. A n d t h e s a m e Minister w h o w r o t e , a n d his
colleagues w h o sanctioned t h e s e lines, w o u l d stultify us into the belief t h a t
t h e y are a b o u t to carry on a serious w a r with F r a n c e against Russia, and this
" o n a question agitated in t h e E a s t , " a n d although " t h e interests of England
a n d R u s s i a in the E a s t are completely identical!"
25 T h e b r a v e Earl goes further. W h y d o e s he fear a war with France w h i c h
he declares must be t h e " n e c e s s a r y r e s u l t " of the dissolution and dis-
m e m b e r m e n t of t h e T u r k i s h E m p i r e ? A w a r w i t h F r a n c e considered in itself
w o u l d be a v e r y pleasant thing. B u t t h e r e is this delicate c i r c u m s t a n c e
c o n n e c t e d w i t h it,"that e v e r y great question in the W e s t will a s s u m e a
30 revolutionary character, and e m b r a c e a revision of t h e entire social system,
for w h i c h t h e Continental G o v e r n m e n t s are certainly in no state of p r e p a r a -
tion.
T h e E m p e r o r is fully cognizant of the materials t h a t are in c o n s t a n t fer-
mentation b e n e a t h t h e surface of society, and their readiness to b u r s t forth
35 e v e n in times of p e a c e ; and His Imperial M a j e s t y will probably, t h e r e f o r e ,
n o t dissent from t h e opinion t h a t t h e first c a n n o n shot m a y be t h e signal for
a - s t a t e of things m o r e disastrous e v e n t h a n t h o s e calamities w h i c h w a r
inevitably brings in its train."
H e n c e , exclaims t h e sincere p e a c e m o n g e r , " h e n c e the anxiety of H e r
40 M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t to avert the catastrophe." If t h e r e lurked no w a r w i t h
F r a n c e b e h i n d t h e partition of T u r k e y , a n d no revolution b e h i n d t h e w a r with

147
Karl Marx

F r a n c e , H e r Majesty's G o v e r n m e n t would be as r e a d y to swallow the Grand


Turc as his C o s s a c k Majesty.
According to the instructions received from the R u s s i a n Chancellery,
t h r o u g h t h e m e a n s of Sir H. Seymour, the gallant C l a r e n d o n winds up his
dispatch with "appealing to the E m p e r o r ' s magnanimity and feelings of 5
justice."
In a second dispatch of our Earl, dated April 5,. 1853, Sir H a m i l t o n is
directed to instruct the Russian Chancellor that"Viscount Stratford de
Redcliffe w a s directed to r e t u r n to his post, a n d a special character w a s given
to his mission by an autograph letterfrom H e r Majesty, u n d e r the impression 10
t h a t t h e P o r t e would be better disposed to listen to moderate councils w h e n
offered by o n e of Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe's high position and great
k n o w l e d g e and experience of Turkish affairs, to advise t h e P o r t e to t r e a t the
Christian subjects with the u t m o s t leniency."
T h e s a m e C l a r e n d o n w h o gave his particular instructions had written in 15
his secret dispatch dated 23d March, 1853:
" T h e t r e a t m e n t of Christians is n o t h a r s h , a n d t h e toleration exhibited by
t h e P o r t e t o w a r d this portion of its subjects might serve as an e x a m p l e to
s o m e G o v e r n m e n t s w h o look with c o n t e m p t u p o n T u r k e y as a b a r b a r o u s
power." 20
In this secret dispatch it is a v o w e d that L o r d Stratford w a s sent to C o n -
stantinople as t h e most able and willing tool for intimidating t h e Sultan. In
t h e Ministerial p a p e r s , at the time, his errand w a s r e p r e s e n t e d as a strong
d e m o n s t r a t i o n against the C z a r , t h a t n o b l e m a n having long since played the
p a r t of R u s s i a ' s personal antagonist. 25
T h e series of secret d o c u m e n t s laid before the H o u s e concludes w i t h the
R u s s i a n m e m o r a n d u m wherein Nicholas congratulates himself on perceiving
t h a t his views and those of the English Cabinet entirely coincide on the
subject of t h e political combinations which it w o u l d be chiefly n e c e s s a r y to
avoid in the e x t r e m e case of the contingency occurring in the East. 30
T h e m e m o r a n d u m is d a t e d t h e 15th April, 1853. It asserts " t h a t t h e b e s t
m e a n s of upholding t h e duration of the Turkish G o v e r n m e n t is not to harass
it by overwhelming demands supported in a manner humiliating to its inde-
pendence and its dignity." This w a s exactly t h e time of action of t h e Men-
chikoff c o m e d y , w h o , on the 19th of April, sent in his i m p u d e n t " v e r b a l 35
n o t e , " a n d u s e d "language fortunately v e r y r a r e in diplomacy"as declared
by the Earl of Clarendon in t h e H o u s e of L o r d s . T h e m o r e firmly w a s his
lordship convinced of the C z a r ' s determination to gently manage t h e sick
m a n . H i s conviction grows yet stronger w h e n t h e Principalities are invaded
by t h e Cossack. 40
T h e Coalition Cabinet have discovered b u t o n e hole to slip t h r o u g h from

148
The Secret Diplomatic Correspondence

t h e s e branding d o c u m e n t s . T h e ostensible object of Prince Menchikoff's


mission, t h e y say, w a s the question of t h e H o l y Shrines, while the c o m -
munications about the partition of T u r k e y only related to an u n c e r t a i n a n d
distant e p o c h . B u t the Czar h a d plainly told t h e m in his first m e m o r a n d u m
5 that t h e question of T u r k e y ' s downfall w a s " b y no m e a n s an idle a n d imagi-
n a r y question, a contingency too r e m o t e ; " t h a t the English Ministry w e r e
w r o n g " i n perceiving in the t w o q u e s t i o n s of M o n t e n e g r o and t h e H o l y
Shrines m e r e disputes w h i c h w o u l d n o t differ in their bearing from dif-
ficulties w h i c h form the ordinary b u s i n e s s of d i p l o m a c y , " and that the
10 question of the H o l y Shrines might " t a k e a m o s t serious t u r n , " and lead to
t h e " c a t a s t r o p h e . " T h e y h a d admitted t h e m s e l v e s , n o t only t h a t h e w a s
w r o n g e d in the affair of t h e H o l y Shrines, b u t t h a t he h a d "a right, sanctioned
by treaty, to the exceptional p r o t e c t i o n " of eleven millions of t h e Sultan's
subjects. W h e n , t h e r e f o r e , t h e y failed in pressing t h e P o r t e into the ac-
15 c e p t a n c e of the Menchikoff d e m a n d s , t h e Czar acted according to t h e spirit
of the m e m o r a n d u m of 1844, to their o w n a g r e e m e n t with him, a n d to his
verbal declaration to Sir G. H a m i l t o n S e y m o u r , t h a t " h e would not be trifled
w i t h , " w h e n he p r e p a r e d to p u t ce monsieur to d e a t h . T h e r e is no question
as to w h e t h e r he is in t h e right against t h e m ; t h e only question is, w h e t h e r
20 t h e y be not, e v e n at this m o m e n t , "all r i g h t " w i t h him. So m u c h m u s t be clear
to w h o e v e r closely p e r u s e s t h o s e d o c u m e n t s , t h a t , if this scandalous Ministry
r e m a i n in office, the English p e o p l e m a y be driven, by the m e r e influence
of external complications, into a terrible revolution, sweeping a w a y , at o n c e ,
T h r o n e , Parliament and the governing classes, w h o h a v e lost the faculty and
25 t h e will to maintain E n g l a n d ' s position in t h e world.
In challenging, by t h e Sr. Petersburg Gazette, t h e Coalition to p r o d u c e t h e
secret proofs of their o w n infamy N i c h o l a s p r o v e d t r u e to his k n o w n dic-
tum:
" J e hais c e u x qui m e rsistent: j e mprise c e u x qui m e s e r v e n t . "
30 Karl Marx.

149
Karl Marx
Declaration of W a r -
On the History of the Eastern Question

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 4054, 15. April, 1854
F r o m Our O w n C o r r e s p o n d e n t .

L o n d o n , T u e s d a y , M a r c h 28, 1854.

W a r has at length b e e n declared. T h e Royal M e s s a g e w a s read y e s t e r d a y in


b o t h H o u s e s o f Parliament; b y L o r d A b e r d e e n i n t h e L o r d s , a n d b y L o r d
J. Russell in the C o m m o n s . It describes the m e a s u r e s a b o u t to be t a k e n as
" a c t i v e steps to o p p o s e t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t s of Russia u p o n T u r k e y . " T o - m o r -
r o w The London Gazette will publish the official notification of w a r , and
on Friday the address in reply to t h e message will b e c o m e the subject of t h e
Parliamentary d e b a t e s .
Simultaneously with the English declaration, L o u i s N a p o l e o n has c o m -
m u n i c a t e d a similar message to his S e n a t e a n d Corps Lgislatif.
T h e declaration of war against Russia could no longer be delayed, after
Captain Blackwood, the bearer of t h e Anglo-French ultimatissimum to t h e
C z a r , had returned, on Saturday last, with the a n s w e r t h a t Russia would give
to that p a p e r no a n s w e r all. T h e mission of Capt. B l a c k w o o d , h o w e v e r , has
n o t b e e n altogether a gratuitous o n e . It has afforded to Russia the m o n t h of
M a r c h , t h a t most dangerous e p o c h of the year, to Russian arms.
T h e publication of the secret c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e Czar and the
English G o v e r n m e n t , instead of provoking a b u r s t of public indignation
against t h e latter, hasincredibile dictubeen t h e signal for the p r e s s , b o t h
weekly a n d daily, for congratulating England on t h e p o s s e s s i o n of so truly
national a Ministry. I understand, h o w e v e r , t h a t a meeting will be called
together for t h e p u r p o s e of opening the e y e s of a blinded British public on
the real c o n d u c t of the G o v e r n m e n t . It is to be held on T h u r s d a y n e x t in the
Music Hall, Store-st.; and L o r d P o n s o n b y , Mr. L a y a r d , Mr. U r q u h a r t , etc.,
are e x p e c t e d to take p a r t in the proceedings.
T h e Hamburger Correspondent h a s t h e following:
" A c c o r d i n g to advices from St. Petersburg, w h i c h arrived h e r e on the 16th
inst., t h e Russian G o v e r n m e n t p r o p o s e s to publish various other d o c u m e n t s

150
Declaration of WarOn the History of the Eastern Question

on the E a s t e r n question. A m o n g the d o c u m e n t s destined for publication are


some letters written by Prince A l b e r t . "
It is a curious fact that the same evening on w h i c h the royal m e s s a g e w a s
delivered in t h e C o m m o n s , t h e G o v e r n m e n t suffered their first defeat in t h e
5 p r e s e n t session; t h e second reading of the P o o r Settlement and R e m o v a l bill
having, notwithstanding t h e efforts of t h e G o v e r n m e n t , b e e n adjourned to
the 28th of April, by a division of 209 to 183. T h e p e r s o n to w h o m t h e
G o v e r n m e n t is indebted for this defeat, is no other t h a n my L o r d Palmerston.
" H i s l o r d s h i p , " says The Times of this d a y , " h a s managed to p u t himself
10 a n d his colleagues b e t w e e n t w o fires (the Tories and t h e Irish party) without
m u c h p r o s p e c t of leaving t h e m to settle it b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s . "
We are informed t h a t on t h e 12th i n s t , a t r e a t y of triple-alliance w a s
signed b e t w e e n F r a n c e , E n g l a n d a n d T u r k e y , b u t that, notwithstanding t h e
personal application of the Sultan to the G r a n d Mufti, the latter supported
15 by t h e corps of t h e U l e m a s , refused to issue his ferva sanctioning the stipula-
tion a b o u t t h e changes in the situation of t h e Christians in T u r k e y , as being
in contradiction with the p r e c e p t s of t h e K o r a n . This intelligence must be
l o o k e d u p o n a s being the m o r e important, a s i t c a u s e d L o r d D e r b y t o m a k e
t h e following observation:
20 "I will only e x p r e s s my e a r n e s t anxiety t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t will state
w h e t h e r t h e r e is any t r u t h in t h e r e p o r t t h a t h a s b e e n circulated during t h e
last few d a y s , that in this c o n v e n t i o n e n t e r e d into b e t w e e n England, F r a n c e
a n d T u r k e y , t h e r e are articles w h i c h will be of a n a t u r e to establish a p r o t e c -
t o r a t e on our p a r t as objectionable at least, as t h a t w h i c h , on the p a r t of
25 Russia, we h a v e p r o t e s t e d against."
The Times of to-day, while declaring t h a t t h e policy of the G o v e r n m e n t
is directly o p p o s e d to t h a t of L o r d D e r b y a d d s : " W e should deeply regret
if the bigotry of the Mufti or the U l e m a s s u c c e e d e d in opposing any serious
resistance to this p o l i c y . "
30 In order to u n d e r s t a n d b o t h t h e n a t u r e of the relations b e t w e e n t h e T u r k i s h
G o v e r n m e n t and t h e spiritual authorities of T u r k e y , a n d t h e difficulties in
w h i c h the former is at p r e s e n t involved, w i t h r e s p e c t to the question of a
p r o t e c t o r a t e over the Christian subjects of the P o r t e , t h a t question w h i c h
ostensibly lies at t h e b o t t o m of all t h e actual complications in the E a s t , it
35 is n e c e s s a r y to cast a r e t r o s p e c t i v e glance at its p a s t history a n d de-
velopment.
T h e K o r a n and the M u s s u l m a n legislation e m a n a t i n g from it r e d u c e t h e
geography a n d e t h n o g r a p h y of t h e v a r i o u s people to t h e simple a n d con-
venient distinction of t w o nations a n d of t w o c o u n t r i e s ; t h o s e of the Faithful
40 a n d of the Infidels. T h e Infidel is "harby, " i.e. t h e e n e m y . Islamism p r o -
scribes the nation of the Infidels, constituting a state of p e r m a n e n t hostility

151
Karl Marx

b e t w e e n t h e M u s s u l m a n and t h e unbeliever. I n t h a t sense t h e corsair-ships


of the Berber States w e r e the holy fleet of the Islam. H o w , then, is the
e x i s t e n c e of Christian subjects of t h e P o r t e to be reconciled with the
Koran?
"If a t o w n , " says the M u s s u l m a n legislation, " s u r r e n d e r s by capitulation, 5
a n d its habitants c o n s e n t to b e c o m e rayahs, t h a t is, subjects of a M u s s u l m a n
prince w i t h o u t abandoning their creed, t h e y h a v e to p a y the kharatch (capita-
tion t a x ) , w h e n t h e y obtain a truce with t h e faithful, a n d it is n o t permitted
any m o r e t o confiscate their estates t h a n t o t a k e a w a y their h o u s e s . . . . I n
this c a s e their old c h u r c h e s form p a r t of their p r o p e r t y , with permission to 10
w o r s h i p therein. B u t they are n o t allowed t o e r e c t n e w o n e s . T h e y h a v e only
authority for repairing t h e m , a n d to r e c o n s t r u c t their d e c a y e d portions. At
certain e p o c h s commissaries delegated by the provincial g o v e r n o r s are to
visit t h e c h u r c h e s a n d sanctuaries of t h e Christians, in order to ascertain t h a t
no n e w buildings have b e e n a d d e d u n d e r p r e t e x t of repairs. If a t o w n is 15
c o n q u e r e d by force, t h e inhabitants retain their c h u r c h e s , b u t only as places
of a b o d e or refuge, without permission to w o r s h i p . "
Constantinople having surrendered by capitulation, as in like m a n n e r has
t h e greater portion of E u r o p e a n T u r k e y , the Christians t h e r e enjoy t h e
privilege of living as rayahs, u n d e r the T u r k i s h G o v e r n m e n t . This privilege 20
t h e y h a v e exclusively by virtue of their agreeing to a c c e p t t h e M u s s u l m a n
protection. It is, therefore, owing to this c i r c u m s t a n c e alone, t h a t t h e Chris-
tians submit to be g o v e r n e d by the M u s s u l m a n s according to M u s s u l m a n law,
t h a t the patriarch of Constantinople, their spiritual chief, is at t h e same time
their political representative and their Chief Justice. W h e r e v e r , in t h e O t t o - 25
m a n E m p i r e , we find an agglomeration of G r e e k rayahs, the A r c h b i s h o p s
a n d B i s h o p s are by law m e m b e r s of t h e Municipal Councils, and, u n d e r the
direction of the patriarch, [watch] over the repartition of the t a x e s imposed
u p o n t h e G r e e k s . T h e patriarch i s responsible t o t h e P o r t e a s t o the c o n d u c t
of his co-religionists. I n v e s t e d with t h e right of judging the r a y a h s of his 30
C h u r c h , he delegates this right to the metropolitans and b i s h o p s , in t h e limits
of their d i o c e s e s , their sentences being obligatory for the executive officers,
k a d i s , etc., of t h e Porte to c a r r y out. T h e p u n i s h m e n t s which t h e y h a v e t h e
right to p r o n o u n c e are fines, imprisonment, t h e b a s t i n a d e , and exile. B e -
sides, their o w n c h u r c h gives t h e m t h e p o w e r of e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n d e - 35
p e n d e n t of the p r o d u c e of the fines, t h e y receive variable t a x e s on the civil
and commercial law-suits. E v e r y hierarchic scale a m o n g the clergy h a s its
m o n e y e d price. T h e patriarch p a y s to the Divan a h e a v y tribute in order to
obtain his investiture, b u t he sells, in his t u r n , t h e archbishoprics a n d b i s h o p -
rics to the clergy of his w o r s h i p . T h e latter indemnify t h e m s e l v e s by the sale 40
of subaltern dignities and the tribute e x a c t e d from t h e p o p e s . T h e s e , again,

152
Declaration of WarOn the History of the Eastern Question

sell by retail the p o w e r t h e y h a v e b o u g h t from their superiors, and traffic


in all acts of their ministry, s u c h as b a p t i s m s , marriages, divorces, and testa-
ments.
It is evident from this expos that this fabric of t h e o c r a c y over t h e G r e e k
5 Christians of T u r k e y , a n d the whole structure of their society, has its k e y -
stone in the subjection of the r a y a h u n d e r the K o r a n , w h i c h , in its turn, by
treating t h e m as infidelsi.e., as a nation only in areligious sensesanctioned
the combined spiritual and temporal p o w e r of their priests. Then, if you
abolish their subjection u n d e r t h e K o r a n by a civil emancipation, y o u cancel
10 at t h e same time their subjection to t h e clergy, and p r o v o k e a revolution in
their social, political a n d religious relations, which, in the first instance, must
inevitably h a n d t h e m over to Russia, If y o u supplant the K o r a n by a code
civil, you m u s t occidentalize t h e entire structure of B y z a n t i n e society.
Having described t h e relations b e t w e e n t h e M u s s u l m a n a n d his Christian
15 subject, the question arises, w h a t a r e t h e relations b e t w e e n the M u s s u l m a n
a n d t h e unbelieving foreigner?
As the K o r a n treats all foreigners as f o e s , n o b o d y will d a r e to p r e s e n t him-
self in a M u s s u l m a n c o u n t r y without having t a k e n his precautions. T h e first
E u r o p e a n m e r c h a n t s , therefore, w h o risked the c h a n c e s o f c o m m e r c e w i t h
20 s u c h a people, contrived to secure t h e m s e l v e s an exceptional t r e a t m e n t a n d
privileges originally p e r s o n a l , b u t afterward e x t e n d e d to their w h o l e nation.
H e n c e the origin of capitulations. Capitulations are imperial diplomas, letters
of privilege, o c t r o y e d by the P o r t e to different E u r o p e a n nations, and author-
izing their subjects to freely e n t e r M o h a m m e d a n countries, and t h e r e to pur-
25 sue in tranquillity their affairs, a n d to practice their w o r s h i p . T h e y differ from
treaties in this essential point t h a t t h e y are not reciprocal acts contradictorily
d e b a t e d b e t w e e n the contracting p a r t i e s , a n d a c c e p t e d b y t h e m o n the
condition of mutual a d v a n t a g e s a n d c o n c e s s i o n s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e capitu-
lations are one-sided c o n c e s s i o n s on the p a r t of the G o v e r n m e n t granting
30 t h e m , in c o n s e q u e n c e of which t h e y m a y be r e v o k e d at its pleasure. T h e Porte
h a s , indeed, at several times nullified the privileges granted to o n e nation,
by extending t h e m to o t h e r s ; or repealed t h e m altogether by refusing to
continue their application. This p r e c a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r of the capitulations
m a d e t h e m an eternal source of d i s p u t e s , of complaints on t h e part of
35 E m b a s s a d o r s , and of a prodigious e x c h a n g e of contradictory n o t e s and
firmans revived at the c o m m e n c e m e n t of e v e r y n e w reign.
It w a s from t h e s e capitulations t h a t a r o s e t h e right of a protectorate of
foreign p o w e r s , not over the Christian subjects of t h e Portethe rayahsbut
over their co-religionists visiting T u r k e y or residing t h e r e as foreigners. T h e
40 first p o w e r that obtained s u c h a P r o t e c t o r a t e w a s F r a n c e . T h e capitulations
b e t w e e n F r a n c e and the O t t o m a n P o r t e m a d e in 1535, u n d e r Soliman the

153
Karl Marx

G r e a t a n d F r a n c i s I; in 1604 u n d e r A h m e t I, and H e n r i I V ; and in 1673 u n d e r


M o h a m m e d I V and Louis X I V , w e r e r e n e w e d , confirmed, recapitulated, a n d
a u g m e n t e d in the compilation of 1740, called " a n c i e n t a n d r e c e n t capitula-
tions a n d treaties b e t w e e n the C o u r t of F r a n c e a n d t h e O t t o m a n P o r t e ,
r e n e w e d and a u g m e n t e d in the y e a r 1740, A . D . , a n d 1153 of the Hedgra, 5
translated (the first official translation sanctioned by t h e Porte) at Con-
stantinople by M . D e v a l , Secretary I n t e r p r e t e r of t h e King, a n d his first
D r a g o m a n at the O t t o m a n P o r t e . " Art. 32 of this a g r e e m e n t constitutes t h e
right of F r a n c e to a p r o t e c t o r a t e over all m o n a s t e r i e s professing t h e F r a n k
religion to w h a t e v e r nation t h e y m a y belong, and of the F r a n k visitors of 10
t h e H o l y Places.
R u s s i a w a s the first p o w e r that, in 1774, inserted the capitulation, imitated
after t h e e x a m p l e of F r a n c e , into a treatythe t r e a t y of Kainardji. T h u s , in
1802, N a p o l e o n thought fit to m a k e the existence a n d m a i n t e n a n c e of the
capitulation t h e subject of an article of treaty, and to give it the c h a r a c t e r 15
of synallagmatic contract.
In w h a t relation t h e n d o e s the question of the H o l y Places stand with the
Protectorate?
T h e q u e s t i o n of t h e H o l y Shrines is the question of a p r o t e c t o r a t e over
t h e religious G r e e k Christian communities settled at J e r u s a l e m , and over t h e 20
buildings p o s s e s s e d by t h e m on the holy ground, a n d especially over the
C h u r c h of t h e H o l y Sepulcher. It is to be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t possession h e r e
d o e s n o t m e a n proprietorship, w h i c h is denied to the Christians by the K o r a n ,
b u t only t h e right of usufruct. This right of usufruct e x c l u d e s by no m e a n s
t h e other communities from worshipping in t h e same p l a c e ; t h e p o s s e s s o r s 25
having no other privilege besides that of keeping t h e keys, of repairing and
entering t h e edifices, of kindling the holy l a m p , of cleaning t h e r o o m s w i t h
t h e b r o o m , a n d of spreading t h e c a r p e t s , which is an Oriental symbol of
p o s s e s s i o n . In the same m a n n e r n o w , in w h i c h Christianity culminates at the
H o l y P l a c e , the question of the p r o t e c t o r a t e is t h e r e found to h a v e its highest 30
ascension.
P a r t s of the H o l y Places and of the C h u r c h of t h e H o l y Sepulcher are
p o s s e s s e d b y t h e L a t i n s , t h e G r e e k s , the A r m e n i a n s , t h e Abyssinians, the
Syrians, a n d t h e C o p t s . B e t w e e n all t h e s e diverse p r e t e n d e n t e there originat-
ed a conflict. T h e sovereigns of E u r o p e w h o saw, in this religious quarrel, 35
a question of their respective influences in t h e Orient, a d d r e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s
in t h e first instance to the masters of t h e soil, to fanatic and greedy P a s h a s ,
w h o abused their position. T h e O t t o m a n P o r t e a n d its agents adopting a m o s t
t r o u b l e s o m e systme de bascule gave j u d g m e n t in t u r n s f a v o r a b l e to t h e
L a t i n s , G r e e k s , and A r m e n i a n s , asking and receiving gold from all h a n d s , 40
a n d laughing at e a c h of them. H a r d l y had t h e T u r k s g r a n t e d a firman, ac-

154
Declaration of WarOn the History of the Eastern Question

knowledging the right of the L a t i n s to the p o s s e s s i o n of a c o n t e s t e d p l a c e ,


w h e n t h e A r m e n i a n s p r e s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s with a heavier p u r s e , a n d in-
stantly obtained a contradictory firman. S a m e tactics with r e s p e c t to t h e
G r e e k s , w h o k n e w , b e s i d e s , as officially r e c o r d e d in different firmans of t h e
5 P o r t e and "hudjets " (judgments) of its agents, h o w to p r o c u r e false a n d
a p o c r y p h titles. On other occasions t h e decisions of t h e Sultan's G o v e r n m e n t
w e r e frustrated by the cupidity and ill-will of the P a s h a s and subaltern agents
in Syria. T h e n it b e c a m e n e c e s s a r y to r e s u m e negotiations, to appoint fresh
commissaries, and to m a k e n e w sacrifices of m o n e y . W h a t the P o r t e formerly
10 did from pecuniary considerations, in our d a y s it has d o n e from fear, with
a view to obtain p r o t e c t i o n a n d favor. H a v i n g d o n e justice to the r e c l a m a -
tions of F r a n c e and t h e L a t i n s , it h a s t e n e d to m a k e t h e same conditions to
R u s s i a and the G r e e k s , thus attempting to e s c a p e from a storm which it felt
p o w e r l e s s to encounter. T h e r e is no s a n c t u a r y , no chapel, no stone of t h e
15 C h u r c h of t h e H o l y Sepulcher, that h a d b e e n left u n t u r n e d for t h e pur-
p o s e of constituting a quarrel b e t w e e n t h e different Christian c o m m u n i -
ties.
A r o u n d t h e H o l y Sepulcher we find an a s s e m b l a g e of all the various sects
of Christianity, behind the religious pretensions of w h o m are concealed as
20 m a n y political and national rivalries.
Jerusalem and the H o l y Places are inhabited b y nations professing r e -
ligions: t h e Latins, the G r e e k s , A r m e n i a n s , C o p t s , Abyssinians, and Syrians.
T h e r e are 2,000 G r e e k s , 1,000 L a t i n s , 350 A r m e n i a n s , 100 C o p t s , 20 Syrians,
a n d 20 Abyssinians3,490. In the O t t o m a n E m p i r e we find
25 13,730,000 G r e e k s , 2,400,000 A r m e n i a n s , a n d 900,000 L a t i n s . E a c h of t h e s e
is again subdivided. T h e G r e e k C h u r c h , of w h i c h I t r e a t e d a b o v e , t h e o n e
acknowledging the Patriarch of Constantinople, essentially differs from the
Greco-Russian, w h o s e chief spiritual authority is the C z a r ; and from the
H e l l e n s , of w h o m the K i n g and the S y n o d of A t h e n s are t h e chief authorities.
30 Similarly, t h e Latins are subdivided into t h e R o m a n Catholics, U n i t e d
G r e e k s , and Maronites ; and the A r m e n i a n s into Gregorian and L a t i n A r m e n i -
ansthe same distinctions holding g o o d with t h e C o p t s a n d Abyssinians. T h e
t h r e e prevailing religious nationalities at the H o l y Places are the G r e e k s , t h e
L a t i n s , a n d t h e A r m e n i a n s . T h e L a t i n C h u r c h m a y b e said t o r e p r e s e n t
35 principally L a t i n r a c e s , t h e G r e e k C h u r c h , Slave, T u r k o - S l a v e , and Hellenic
r a c e s ; and t h e other c h u r c h e s , Asiatic a n d African r a c e s .
Imagine all t h e s e conflicting p e o p l e s beleaguering the H o l y Sepulcher, the
battle c o n d u c t e d by t h e m o n k s , and t h e ostensible object of their rivalry
being a star from t h e grotto of B e t h l e h e m , a tapestry, a key of a sanctuary,
40 an altar, a shrine, a chair, a cushionany ridiculous p r e c e d e n c e !
In order to u n d e r s t a n d such a monastical c r u s a d e it is indispensable to

155
Karl Marx

c o n s i d e r firstly the m a n n e r of their living, and secondly, the m o d e of then-


habitation.
"All the religious rubbish of the different n a t i o n s , " says a r e c e n t traveler,
"live at Jerusalem separated from e a c h other, hostile a n d j e a l o u s , a n o m a d
population, incessantly recruited by pilgrimage or d e c i m a t e d by the plague 5
a n d o p p r e s s i o n s . T h e E u r o p e a n dies o r returns t o E u r o p e after s o m e y e a r s ;
t h e p a s h a s a n d their guards go to D a m a s c u s or C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ; a n d the A r a b s
fly to t h e desert. J e r u s a l e m is b u t a place w h e r e e v e r y o n e arrives to pitch
his tent and w h e r e n o b o d y r e m a i n s . E v e r y b o d y in t h e holy city gets his
livelihood from his religionthe G r e e k s or A r m e n i a n s from t h e 12,000 or 10
13,000 pilgrims w h o yearly visit Jerusalem, and the L a t i n s from the subsidies
a n d alms of their co-religionists of F r a n c e , Italy, e t c . "
B e s i d e s their monasteries a n d sanctuaries, the Christian nations p o s s e s s
at J e r u s a l e m small habitations or cells, a n n e x e d to t h e C h u r c h of t h e H o l y
Sepulcher, a n d occupied by the m o n k s , w h o h a v e to w a t c h d a y a n d night t h a t 15
holy a b o d e . At certain periods t h e s e m o n k s are relieved in their duty by their
b r e t h r e n . T h e s e cells h a v e b u t one d o o r , opening into t h e interior of t h e
T e m p l e , while t h e m o n k guardians receive their food from without, t h r o u g h
s o m e wicket. T h e d o o r s of the C h u r c h are closed, and g u a r d e d by T u r k s ,
w h o d o n ' t o p e n t h e m e x c e p t for m o n e y , a n d close it according to their caprice 20
or cupidity.
T h e quarrels b e t w e e n c h u r c h m e n are the m o s t v e n o m o u s , said M a z a r i n .
N o w fancy t h e s e c h u r c h m e n , w h o not only h a v e to live u p o n , b u t live in,
t h e s e sanctuaries together!
To finish the picture, be it r e m e m b e r e d that the fathers of the L a t i n 25
C h u r c h , almost exclusively c o m p o s e d of R o m a n s , Sardinians, N e a p o l i t a n s ,
Spaniards a n d A u s t r i a n s , are all of t h e m jealous of t h e F r e n c h p r o t e c t o r a t e ,
a n d w o u l d like to substitute t h a t of Austria, Sardinia or N a p l e s , t h e Kings
of t h e t w o latter countries b o t h assuming t h e title of K i n g of J e r u s a l e m ; a n d
t h a t t h e s e d e n t a r y population of Jerusalem n u m b e r s a b o u t 15,500 souls, of 30
w h o m 4,000 are M u s s u l m a n s and 8,000 J e w s . T h e M u s s u l m a n s , forming
a b o u t a f o u r t h p a r t of the whole, and consisting of T u r k s , A r a b s a n d M o o r s ,
a r e , of c o u r s e , the m a s t e r s in e v e r y r e s p e c t , as t h e y are in no w a y affected
with t h e w e a k n e s s of their G o v e r n m e n t at Constantinople. N o t h i n g equals
t h e m i s e r y and the sufferings of the J e w s at J e r u s a l e m , inhabiting t h e m o s t 35
filthy q u a r t e r of the t o w n , called hareth-el-yahoud, in t h e q u a r t e r of dirt,
b e t w e e n t h e Zion and the Moriah, w h e r e their synagogues are situatedthe
c o n s t a n t objects of M u s s u l m a n o p p r e s s i o n and intolerance, insulted by the
G r e e k s , p e r s e c u t e d by the L a t i n s , and living only u p o n the scanty alms
t r a n s m i t t e d by their E u r o p e a n brethren. T h e J e w s , h o w e v e r , are not natives, 40
b u t from different and distant countries, and are only attracted to Jerusalem

156
Declaration of WarOn the History of the Eastern Question

by the desire of inhabiting the Valley of J e h o s a p h a t , a n d to die in the v e r y


places w h e r e the r e d e m p t o r is to be e x p e c t e d . " A t t e n d i n g their d e a t h , " says
a F r e n c h author, " t h e y suffer a n d p r a y . Their regards t u r n e d to t h a t m o u n t a i n
of Moriah, w h e r e o n c e r o s e the t e m p l e of S a l o m o n , and w h i c h t h e y d a r e n o t
5 a p p r o a c h , t h e y shed t e a r s on t h e misfortunes of Zion, and their dispersion
o v e r the w o r l d . " T o m a k e t h e s e J e w s m o r e miserable, E n g l a n d and P r u s s i a
appointed, in 1840, an Anglican b i s h o p at J e r u s a l e m , w h o s e a v o w e d object
is their conversion. He w a s dreadfully t h r a s h e d in 1845, and sneered at alike
b y J e w s , Christians a n d T u r k s . H e m a y , i n fact, b e stated t o h a v e b e e n t h e
10 first and only c a u s e of a union b e t w e e n all t h e religions at Jerusalem.
It will n o w be u n d e r s t o o d w h y t h e c o m m o n w o r s h i p of the Christians at
' t h e H o l y Places resolves itself into a c o n t i n u a n c e of d e s p e r a t e Irish r o w s
b e t w e e n the diverse sections of the faithful; b u t that, on the other hand, t h e s e
sacred r o w s merely c o n c e a l a p r o f a n e battle, n o t only of nations b u t of r a c e s ;
15 and t h a t the P r o t e c t o r a t e of the H o l y Places w h i c h a p p e a r s ridiculous to t h e
Occident b u t all important to t h e Orientals is o n e of t h e p h a s e s of the Oriental
question incessantly r e p r o d u c e d , c o n s t a n t l y stifled, b u t n e v e r solved.
Karl M a r x .

157
Friedrich Engels: T h e Fortress of Kronstadt. Seite 1
Friedrich Engels
The Fortress of Kronstadt

| i | The Fortress of Kronstadt.


E v e r since Sir C h a r l e s N a p i e r set sail for t h e Baltic, w i t h t h e F i r s t L o r d of
t h e A d m i r a l t y ' s "full p e r m i s s i o n t o d e c l a r e w a r " , t h e m o r e sanguine p o r t i o n
of t h e British public e x p e c t shortly to h e a r of K r o n s t a d t b o m b a r d e d , t h e
a p p r o a c h e s t o St. P e t e r s b u r g forced, a n d w h o k n o w s ? p e r h a p s e v e n t h e 5
U n i o n J a c k hoisted o n t h e glittering spire o f t h e R u s s i a n A d m i r a l t y P a l a c e .
T h e r e is a v e r y c o r r e c t idea at t h e b o t t o m of t h e s e a n t i c i p a t i o n s ; it is this,
t h a t K r o n s t a d t is t h e decisive point for a n y naval a t t a c k against Russia in
t h e Baltic. T a k e K r o n s t a d t , and St. P e t e r s b u r g i s a t y o u r feet, t h e R u s s i a n
N a v y exists no longer, a n d Russia is r e d u c e d to w h a t s h e w a s before P e t e r 10
t h e G r e a t . If E n g l a n d has t h e forces in t h e Baltic r e q u i r e d for s u c h a feat,
a n d if t h e s e forces should fritter a w a y their s t r e n g t h in a t t a c k s against m i n o r
p o i n t s , m o r e t h a n might b e absolutely n e c e s s a r y , t h e y w o u l d c o m m i t a
b l u n d e r of t h e first m a g n i t u d e , decisive in its effects p e r h a p s for t w o or t h r e e
c a m p a i g n s to c o m e . B u t if we k n o w t h e vital i m p o r t a n c e of K r o n s t a d t , t h e 15
R u s s i a n s k n o w it also, a n d h a v e a c t e d up to their k n o w l e d g e . T h a t k e y of
R u s s i a h a s b e e n s u r r o u n d e d b y double i d triple a r m o u r , bristling w i t h
s o m e t h i n g like a t h o u s a n d guns.
It is well k n o w n t h a t K r o n s t a d t t a k e s up t h e S o u t h E a s t e r n angle of a small
island, a b o u t five miles in length, w h i c h closes up t h e n a r r o w i n g p o r t i o n of 20
t h e Gulf of F i n l a n d , a b o u t 16 miles from t h e m o u t h of t h e N e v a . T h e w a t e r
on b o t h sides of t h e island is generally v e r y shallow, leaving only t w o c h a n
nels navigable for sea-going vessels. T h e o n e p a s s i n g t o t h e n o r t h o f t h e island
h a s a d e p t h of n o t less t h a n four f a t h o m s a b o u t t w o or t h r e e miles distant
from its n o r t h e r n s h o r e , b e n d s r o u n d at four miles from its e a s t e r n e x t r e m i t y , 25
a p p r o a c h i n g this latter to within 1400 y a r d s , b u t losing a b o u t a f a t h o m in its
d e p t h of w a t e r . T h u s t h e w h o l e of t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n c o a s t of t h e island is
o u t of c a n n o n r a n g e for a n y men-of-war c o m i n g r o u n d by this c h a n n e l ,
e x c e p t e d t h e w e s t e r n and e a s t e r n extremities only. T h e s e alone are t h e r e f o r e

158
The Fortress of Kronstadt

fortified, t h e first by t h e F o r t s Katharine, Alexanderand Michael, t h e s e c o n d


by the walls of the t o w n itself a n d by t w o batteries erected on the s a n d s ,
a b o u t 1000 y a r d s in a d v a n c e ; t h e larger o n e of t h e s e batteries, h o w e v e r , is
r e p o r t e d to be in ruins. A b r e a s t of the n o r t h s h o r e of the island, b e t w e e n
5 its eastern a n d w e s t e r n defences, a n d fully a mile from t h e j|2| shore, a n o t h e r
b a t t e r y is c o n s t r u c t e d on the s a n d s , w h i c h h o w e v e r is still out of gun shot
range from t h e four f a t h o m channel.
This n o r t h e r n p a s s a g e , t h e n , from its general distance from the d e f e n c e s ,
from the v e r y intricate navigation it offers, a n d from t h e considerable shal-
10 lowing of its south e a s t e r n e x t r e m i t y , m a y be considered useless for a serious
a t t a c k u p o n K r o n s t a d t . U n d e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h e r e a dispersion of forces
is to a certain e x t e n t n o t likely to bring on disastrous r e s u l t s , it m a y serve
for sending a n u m b e r of t h e lighter ships r o u n d t h e island, w h e r e , after
silencing the not v e r y formidable fire of t h e E a s t B a t t e r y , t h e y might t a k e
15 up a very c o n v e n i e n t station for b o m b a r d i n g the t o w n . K r o n s t a d t , containing
n o t only the chief naval magazines and d o c k y a r d s of R u s s i a in the Baltic,
b u t also plenty of timber in private h a n d s , is full of combustible materials,
and a few lucky hits w i t h shell-guns might c r e a t e a conflagration destroying
in one night the naval stores a m a s s e d during y e a r s . W h e t h e r the taking up
20 of s u c h a position by a sufficient n u m b e r of light men-of-war is actually
possible, a close survey of t h e state of m a t t e r s on t h e spot, c o m b i n e d with
r e n e w e d soundings, m u s t s h o w ; w h e t h e r it is advisable, will d e p e n d u p o n t h e
b a l a n c e of f o r c e s ; h e r e we c a n only state w h a t m a y , e v e n at a distance,
a p p e a r feasible from a c o m p a r i s o n of t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e t h a t c a n be col-
25 lected.
T h e main line of attack, t h e n , r e m a i n s t h e S o u t h Channel, leading to the
G r e a t and Little R o a d s , otherwise called t h e N a r r o w s . H e r e t h e four-fathom
channel, several miles wide off the n o r t h - w e s t e r n point of the island, sud-
denly c o n t r a c t s to a b o u t a mile in width at t w o miles distance from t h e inner
30 h a r b o u r , and t h e n c e f o r m s an e x t r e m e l y a c u t e angle the a p e x of w h i c h is
situated in front of t h e man-of-war h a r b o u r . H e r e a n a r r o w b a r , passing from
the great sand b a n k of O r a n i e n b a u m to t h e island, cuts the channel off and
r e d u c e s its e x t r e m e d e p t h to 3V2 f a t h o m s . T h e R u s s i a n s h a v e t a k e n good
care to p r e s e r v e this natural fortification for their men-of-war h a r b o u r ,
35 although a little dredging w o u l d r e m o v e it. This four-fathom channel, t h e n ,
the central passage of which is n o w h e r e less t h a n 4V2 fathoms d e e p , and
admits the largest men-of-war, is t h e line of a p p r o a c h to K r o n s t a d t , and t h e
decisive struggle m u s t t a k e place in its a p e x w h i c h , for a mile and a half, is
n o w h e r e m o r e t h a n 400 y a r d s wide. |]3| T h e fortifications which defend this
40 channel are of all sorts, from the antediluvian buildings of Peter t h e G r e a t ,
to t h e most m o d e r n and formidable c o n s t r u c t i o n s with t w o or t h r e e tiers of

161
Kartenskizze von Engels a u s s e i n e m Artikel T h e Fortress of Kronstadt". Seite 6
Friedrich Engels

guns o n e a b o v e the other. It is r e m a r k a b l e that the m o s t important points


a r e d e f e n d e d by fortifications of old and faulty c o n s t r u c t i o n : this is the weak
side of Kronstadt. T h e old fortifications are small b a s t i o n e d w o r k s , with guns
firing from behind an o p e n parapet, a n d with few or no c a s e m a t e d guns at
all; w i t h exceedingly small and n a r r o w b a s t i o n s , and therefore carrying a 5
n u m b e r of g u n s exceedingly small in proportion to their e x t e n t of frontage.
It m u s t , besides, be stated, that o n e half of their guns is generally directed
t o w a r d s shallow water from w h i c h at t h e v e r y u t m o s t a gun-boat a t t a c k could
b e e x p e c t e d . B u t t o such fortifications e v e n gun-boats w e r e formidableThe
m o d e r n constructions, on t h e c o n t r a r y , are p l a n n e d u p o n t h e system which 10
Montalembert first introduced a n d w h i c h since, w i t h m o r e or less modi-
fication, has b e e n generally adopted^ especially for c o a s t and h a r b o u r de-
f e n c e s . Besides K r o n s t a d t , C h e r b o u r g and S e v a s t o p o l m a y b e q u o t e d a s
e x a m p l e s of its extensive application for this latter p u r p o s e . T h e s e con-
structions are distinguished by their t w o or t h r e e tiers of guns ranging o n e 15
a b o v e t h e other, t h e lower tiers of guns standing in c a s e m a t e s , small vaulted
r o o m s , a s i t w e r e , and w h e r e b o t h guns and m e n are a s m u c h p r o t e c t e d from
t h e e n e m y ' s fire as it c a n be d o n e . T h e u p p e r tier of g u n s alone stands b e h i n d
a p a r a p e t n o t c o v e r e d in, but from their elevated station w h i c h c o m m a n d s
t h e u p p e r decks of t h e largest t h r e e - d e c k e r s , are well p r o t e c t e d against t h e 20
effects of shot. T h e trial of an attack will s h o w , w h e t h e r these forts h a v e
actually b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d solidly e n o u g h to b e a r t h e c o n c u s s i o n of their o w n
a n d the effect of t h e e n e m y ' s fire; b u t if they a r e , t h e y will p r o v e the h a r d e s t
nuts to crack.
We m a y distinguish t h r e e lines of fortifications a r o u n d the K r o n s t a d t 25
channel.
T h e first, or o u t e r line, e m b r a c e s in a semi-circle t h e m o u t h of the Great
r o a d , or t h a t part of t h e four-fathom c h a n n e l w h i c h is from o n e mile to half
a mile in width. T h e right, or n o r t h e r n , wing of the position is formed by the
Peter Fort, an insignificant lunette on t h e island, a b o u t 1400 y a r d s from t h e 30
d e e p w a t e r c h a n n e l ; a mortar battery, also on t h e island, half a mile to t h e
east, and which m a y be considered as almost useless, a n d the Fort Con-
stantine, a strong lunette closed to the rear, built on t h e s a n d s , ||4| within
1000 y a r d s from t h e edge of d e e p w a t e r , exactly in front of the m o r t a r battery.
This f o r t is of m o d e r n construction and carries 50 g u n s in t w o tiers. It serves 35
t o defend t h e outer a p p r o a c h e s , a n d m a y b e c o m e t r o u b l e s o m e t o a f l e e t while
forming; b u t if o n c e p a s s e d , o n e half of its guns b e c o m e useless. T h e centre
of t h e first line is m a d e up by t h e Fort Alexander (not t h e o n e on t h e n o r t h
e n d of t h e island, mentioned before); a semi-circular building e r e c t e d in t h r e e
f a t h o m s w a t e r within four h u n d r e d y a r d s of the d e e p channel w h e r e it nar- 40
r o w s to half a mile. This fort therefore s w e e p s t h e c h a n n e l from side to side,

162
The Fortress of Kronstadt

a n d small as it looks on plans and c h a r t s , it carries no less t h a n seventy-two


guns in t h r e e tiers. If it be of sufficiently solid construction, and w i t h well-
ventilated c a s e m a t e s so as to d r a w off t h e s m o k e , this tower-like fort will
give e n o u g h to do to a couple of t h r e e - d e c k e r s . Behind it lies the old Citadel,
5 a lunette the insignificance of w h i c h is p r o v e d by t h e v e r y existence of t h e
n e w fort, w h i c h intercepts the fire of o n e half of its guns.The left or south-
e r n wing, finally, is f o r m e d by t h e Risbank Fort and Battery, situated s o u t h
of the e n t r a n c e to the G r e a t R o a d . This fort, c o n s t r u c t e d in the last c e n t u r y ,
h a s u n d e r g o n e a modernizing p r o c e s s , in c o n s e q u e n c e of which part of its
10 guns are disposed in t w o tiers a n d their total n u m b e r is increased to fifty.
B u t for all that it occupies a far larger a r e a t h a n the m o d e r n forts, offering
a frontage t o w a r d s the r o a d s of s o m e 300 y a r d s , w h i c h frontage, b e s i d e s ,
is enfiladed, partially from t h e d e e p w a t e r c h a n n e l , and entirely by a position
w h i c h vessels of lighter draft m a y t a k e up in 3V2 to 3 f a t h o m s w a t e r within
15 half a mile w e s t w a r d s . To obviate this, t h e Risbank Battery has b e e n built
600 y a r d s to the rear, b u t in a position little a d a p t e d for that p u r p o s e . T h e
R i s b a n k F o r t lies exactly a mile s o u t h from Fort Alexander, a n d b o t h s w e e p
t h e e n t r a n c e to the G r e a t R o a d w i t h a crossing fire.
This first line of defences w o u l d n o t in itself p r o v e v e r y formidable, if it
20 w e r e not materially supported by t h e m o r e distant fire of the second line.
T h e second line p r o t e c t s the w h o l e of the G r e a t R o a d along with the e n t r a n c e
to t h e Little Road. It consists of t h e t w o flanking w o r k s of Fort Peter the
First (old, badly c o n s t r u c t e d , a sort of c r o w n - w o r k situated half a mile E a s t
of t h e Alexander Fort, and carrying on a frontage of 250 y a r d s only 24 guns),
25 Kronslot (bastioned old-fashioned w o r k of five fronts, two of w h i c h look
t o w a r d s t h e shallow w a t e r a n d are t h e r e f o r e useless, carrying, although 400
y a r d s in its longest diagonal, no m o r e t h a n 36 guns), a n d lastly, the fortified
w e s t e r n wall of t h e Merchant\\S\ Harbour'm t h e c e n t r e . This wall, projecting
from the island of K r o n s t a d t itself, c o m e s d o w n to the v e r y edge of the d e e p
30 c h a n n e l with w h i c h it forms a right angle, a n d w h i c h is h e r e b u t 300 y a r d s
w i d e . It carries 70 guns and 12 m o r t a r s , p a r t of w h i c h h o w e v e r a p p e a r so
placed as to h a v e little effect u p o n t h e shipping and offers, in conjunction
w i t h b o t h t h e main fronts of Peter I F o r t a n d t w o fronts of Kronslot, a m o s t
effective c r o s s fire over the inner half of t h e G r e a t R o a d , w h e r e from t h e
35 obstacles created by t h e fire of the first line, a n d t h e n a r r o w n e s s of t h e
channel, it must be extremely difficult for a n y ships b u t screw-steamers to
t a k e up a good position in sufficient f o r c e .
T h e third line, the direct d e f e n c e of the Little or inner R o a d , is f o r m e d ,
on t h e south side of t h e channel, by a third (the N o r t h E a s t ) front of Kronslot,
40 and on the n o r t h a n d e a s t side by the fortified walls of the M e r c h a n t , Middle,
a n d Man-of-war's h a r b o u r s . T h e latter, projecting at an o b t u s e angle at t h e

165
Friedrich Engels

e a s t e r n e n d of t h e Middle H a r b o u r , r a k e s t h e w h o l e of t h e Little R o a d , while


t h e S o u t h Wall of t h e M e r c h a n t and Middle H a r b o u r s p r o t e c t it by a front fire.
B o t h walls are flanked by several bastions, fortified gates and o t h e r p r o -
j e c t i o n s . T h e width of t h e d e e p w a t e r channel, h e r e , being n o w h e r e greater
t h a n 250 y a r d s , t h e fighting would be v e r y m u r d e r o u s , b u t it is hardly to be 5
d o u b t e d t h a t before ships could p e n e t r a t e so far, K r o n s t a d t would h a v e to
capitulate. T h e central w o r k of this third line, a n d t h e only o n e w h i c h m a y
e v e r h a v e a n y practical utility, is Fort Menchikoff, t h e first bastion, from
t h e w e s t , o n the M e r c h a n t H a r b o u r S o u t h wall. This b a s t i o n h a s b e e n
r e - c o n s t r u c t e d into a t o w e r of imposing p r o p o r t i o n s , carrying 44 guns in four 10
tiers a b o v e o n e another one half of w h i c h enfilades t h e greater p a r t of
t h e Little a n d G r e a t r o a d s , the other half appearing, from t h e direction of
their e m b r a s u r e s , almost useless. W h e t h e r the four tiers of g u n s will not
p r o v e too h e a v y for t h e n a r r o w foundation of t h e building, r e m a i n s to be
seen. 15
We m a y a d d , t h a t on the land-side K r o n s t a d t is fortified by regularly
b a s t i o n e d fronts, requiring a siege in d u e form to be f o r c e d ; a n d s u c h a siege
in the s w a m p y ground of the little island, with o n l y a fleet for b a s e of
o p e r a t i o n s , offers v e r y great difficulties. If K r o n s t a d t is to be t a k e n , it m u s t
be d o n e from the sea. 20
It is u n d e r s t o o d that we could only describe t h e p e r m a n e n t fortifications
s u c h a s t h e y existed according t o t h e latest s u r v e y s a n d military r e p o r t s .
T h e r e m a y h a v e b e e n some alterations during the last few y e a r s , b u t it is n o t
p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n v e r y important.
To recapitulate. T h e fate of any attack against K r o n s t a d t m u s t be d e - 25
cided ||6| in t h e G r e a t R o a d , and h e r e t h e only fortifications t h a t c a n effectu-
ally play against t h e attacking fleet, are F o r t s A l e x a n d e r , P e t e r I, Risbank,
t w o fronts of Kronslot, the w e s t e r n H a r b o u r Wall, a n d F o r t Menchikoff.
Altogether t h e y m a y bring 350 guns at o n c e to b e a r u p o n t h e attack, m o s t
of t h e m well p r o t e c t e d by walls and vaults, and firing t h r o u g h n a r r o w 30
e m b r a s u r e s . T h e other batteries are either directed t o w a r d s other points of
attack, or t h e y are insignificant, or t h e y are n o t within effective range. T h e
q u e s t i o n is: C a n a sufficient naval force be b r o u g h t up this n a r r o w and
intricate channel, to face b o t h t h e n o r t h e r n a n d s o u t h e r n fronts of defence
a n d to silence their fire, while that force is itself e x p o s e d to a raking fire 35
from t h e H a r b o u r Wall, F o r t Menchikoff a n d K r o n s l o t ? N a v a l m e n m a y
a n s w e r t h a t question, unless they prefer to w a i t till t h e actual trial h a s b e e n
m a d e . F r o m w h a t little w e h a v e h a d occasion t o l e a r n o f naval t a c t i c s , w e
should say t h a t h e r e , if a n y w h e r e , is the point w h e r e t h e superiority of
Screw-Ships of t h e line c a n p r o d u c e results w h i c h to sailing ships and 40,
p a d d l e - s t e a m e r s w o u l d appear equally inattainable.

166
The Fortress of Kronstadt

T h e great w e a k n e s s of K r o n s t a d t , we r e p e a t it, are the forts of old con-


struction. T h e y o c c u p y t h e b e s t positions a n d t h e largest portion of available
space with t h e least possible effect of fire. If R i s b a n k has b e e n i m p r o v e d ,
Peter I and K r o n s l o t r e m a i n inefficient. T h e y might be silenced with c o m -
parative e a s e , p e r h a p s e v e n occupied, and i n t h a t c a s e might b e used t o
b o m b a r d t h e t o w n . B u t from the m o m e n t ships h a v e p e n e t r a t e d as far as
b e t w e e n A l e x a n d e r and Risbank, t h e y h a v e the t o w n within shell-range, a n d
c a n do i m m e n s e mischief, unless sufficiently o c c u p i e d by the forts. |

167
Karl Marx
British FinancesThe Troubles at Preston

New-York Semi-Weekly Tribune.


Nr.929, 21. April 1854

British Finances
The Troubles at Preston.
From Our Own Correspondent.

L o n d o n , F r i d a y , M a r c h 3 1 , 1854.

T h e I n c o m e T a x bill has b e e n passed. Sir G. Pakington s p o k e against it plainly 5


a n d justly, although in a dull m a n n e r , observing t h a t t h e r e c e n t publications
of the Blue B o o k s and of the secret and confidential c o r r e s p o n d e n c e had
t h r o w n quite a n e w light on the p a s t financial policy of t h e Chancellor of
t h e E x c h e q u e r . M r . Gladstone brought in a p e a c e b u d g e t on the 18th April,
1853, w h e n he [must] h a v e b e e n quite sure of w a r being imminent. T h r e e d a y s 10
before he m a d e his s t a t e m e n t the Coalition h a d r e c e i v e d from Colonel R o s e
t h e information t h a t " P r i n c e Menchikoff h a d tried to e x a c t a p r o m i s e from
t h e G r a n d Vizier, before he m a d e k n o w n to him t h e n a t u r e of his mission
a n d of his d e m a n d s , t h a t he should m a k e a formal p r o m i s e t h a t he w o u l d not
r e v e a l t h e m to t h e British and F r e n c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . " T h e y w e r e also 15
a w a r e , by t h e secret c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , of t h e E m p e r o r ' s intention to kill t h e
dying m a n lest he should slip t h r o u g h his fingers. W i t h this information in
his h a n d s t h e u n c t u o u s Puseyite c o m e s f o r w a r d and a d d r e s s e s t h e H o u s e :
"If y o u will a d o p t the income t a x for seven y e a r s , I will only a s k y o u for
7d. in t h e p o u n d for t h e first t w o y e a r s ; I will a s k 6d. in t h e p o u n d for t h e 20
n e x t t w o y e a r s ; and for t h e last t h r e e y e a r s I will only a s k 5d. in t h e p o u n d ,
a n d t h e n t h e i n c o m e t a x will e x p i r e . " T h e i n c o m e t a x , a s y o u r r e a d e r s will
r e m e m b e r , M r . G l a d s t o n e described as a mighty engine of w a r t h a t m u s t be
got rid of in t h e s e times of p e a c e . This he said with t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t w a r
w a s almost inevitable, and that it would be n e c e s s a r y to double the t a x of 25
7d. in t h e p o u n d b e f o r e t w e l v e m o n t h s h a d elapsed. It is n o w I s . 2d. in the

168
r
British FinancesThe Troubles at Preston

p o u n d . If a n y b o d y should tell me t h a t t h e o v e r s c r u p u l o u s Chancellor of


t h e E x c h e q u e r deluded himself as to t h e position of affairs, I reply t h a t only
last M o n d a y w e e k a fall in the funds o c c u r r e d , b e c a u s e the stock j o b b e r s
said t h a t t h e publication of t h e secret p a p e r s p r o v e d to d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t
5 the C z a r h a d determined to p u r s u e his s c h e m e s , a n d t h a t no trust could be
p l a c e d in his m o s t positive assertions. T h e m e m b e r s of t h e " C a b i n e t of all
the T a l e n t s " m u s t b e s u p p o s e d t o p o s s e s s a t least equal perspicacity w i t h
t h e m e m b e r s of t h e S t o c k E x c h a n g e .
At the s a m e time that the Duns Scotus of the [Coalition,] the D o c t o r
10 Subtilissimus, p r o p o s e d his financial s c h e m e s for t h e c o n v e r s i o n of t h e
funds, and thus p r e p a r e d , notwithstanding the warnings he received, an
e m p t i n e s s of the T r e a s u r y at t h e v e r y m o m e n t of t h e " c a t a s t r o p h e " . T h e
balances in the E x c h e q u e r w e r e as follows, in the y e a r s n a m e d :
1844 6,254,113
T5 1845 8,452,090
1846 9,131,282
1847 8,457,691
1848 8,105,561
1849 9,748,539
20 1850 9,[245 676]
f

1851 8,[381,637]
1852 8,[841,822]
By t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t of 1853 Mr. G l a d s t o n e h a d contrived to r e d u c e it to
4,485,230, a n d s o o n t h e r e will be no b a l a n c e at all, as this ingenious financier
25 h a s to t a k e b a c k the r e m a i n d e r of the S o u t h S e a stock at 100, w h e n it c a n
hardly be sold on 'change at 85.
This financial policy of the Coalition perfectly [takes up] with their diplo-
matic policy, which " t h a n k s " t h e Czar for confiding to t h e m his plans of
partition; w i t h their parliamentary policy, w h i c h always told the H o u s e t h e
30 [news] c o n t r a r y of their information in h a n d ; a n d with their military policy,
w h i c h forced O m e r P a s h a to inaction till t h e Czar h a d completed his p r e p a r a -
tions for invasion, w h i c h dispatches t h e t r o o p s b y s t e a m e r s and the h o r s e s
by sail vessels, retains the officers at L o n d o n , and disembarks soldiers at
Constantinople, a n d thinks fit to o c c u p y neither O d e s s a nor the Crimea, n o r
35 Finland, n o r the m o u t h s of t h e D a n u b e , n o r a n y point threatening the R u s -
sians, b u t Constantinople, of all other p l a c e s , in order not to c r u s h t h e
C o s s a c k , b u t t o t e a c h a t this m o m e n t o u s crisis b o t h t h e M u s s u l m a n and t h e
B y z a n t i n e priest t h e occidental law and civil equality.
N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e strong opposition o f t h e Irish m e m b e r s , t h e H o u s e
40 s e e m s resolved to p r o c e e d with M r . C h a m b e r s ' s motion, a n d to appoint a
C o m m i t t e e of Inquiry for t h e practices a n d h o u s e h o l d a r r a n g e m e n t s of t h e

169
Karl Marx

n u n n e r i e s . T h e principal plea o n which Mr. C h a m b e r s ' s motion intends t o


be b a s e d is t h e seclusion of girls forcibly held from their natural and legiti-
m a t e p r o t e c t o r s . T h e middle classes of England s h u d d e r at the probability
of girls being kidnapped for n u n n e r i e s , b u t their justice, s h o w n in a r e c e n t
c a s e , b e c o m e s impotent w h e n girls are k i d n a p p e d for satisfying t h e lust of 5
aristocrats or caprice of cotton lords. L a s t w e e k a girl of sixteen had b e e n
lured a w a y from her p a r e n t s , enticed into a L a n c a s h i r e factory, a n d k e p t
t h e r e night a n d day, m a d e to sleep t h e r e , and take her meals t h e r e , locked
up as in a prison. W h e n her father discovered w h a t h a d b e c o m e of his child,
he w a s n o t allowed to see her, but w a s driven a w a y from t h e factory by t h e 10
police. In this c a s e t h e F a c t o r y law w a s violated, t h e law of p e r s o n a l liberty,
t h e law that gives the father the c u s t o d y of his child u n d e r age, the v e r y right
of habeas corpus w a s set at nought. A gross and flagrant c a s e of abduction
h a d b e e n committed. B u t h o w did the Magistrates act in this c a s e , w h e n the
disconsolate father appealed to t h e m for r e d r e s s ? Their a n s w e r w a s : " T h e y 15
could do nothing in the m a t t e r . "
M r . T h o m . D u n c o m b e p r e s e n t e d a petition, signed within 24 h o u r s by
a b o v e 7,600 inhabitants of t h e b o r o u g h of P r e s t o n , complaining of the m a n -
n e r in which t h e laws for the maintenance of p e a c e a n d order w e r e ad-
ministered by the local authorities in that b o r o u g h . He g a v e notice t h a t he 20
should m o v e for a C o m m i t t e e of Inquiry into t h e subject immediately after
the Easter recess.
" T h e agitators of Preston, the great f o m e n t o r s of the strikethe m e n w h o
p r e t e n d e d to form a n e w estate of the realm, a n d to be t h e nursing fathers
of the L a b o r Parliament, h a v e at length received a c h e c k . S o m e d o z e n of 25
t h e m h a v e b e e n arrested and e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e local magistrates on a
c h a r g e of conspiracy, released on bail and sent b e f o r e the L i v e r p o o l as-
sizes."
S u c h are t h e w o r d s in w h i c h The Morning Post a n n o u n c e s an e v e n t w h i c h
I w a s p r e v e n t e d from writing about earlier by t h e p r e s s u r e of other matter. 30
T h e charge against the leaders rests u p o n t h e fact t h a t t h e m a s t e r s had sent
t o M a n c h e s t e r and induced m e n t o c o m e d o w n t o P r e s t o n . T h e y w e r e mostly
Irishmen. T h e [Preston] people m e t t h e m at the railway station, w h e r e they
p r e s e n t e d a scene of misery a n d w r e t c h e d n e s s . A b o u t fifty-four of t h e m w e r e
p e r s u a d e d to go to t h e F a r m e r ' s A r m s w h e r e t h e y w e r e regaled all day, and, 35
having c o n s e n t e d to return, were escorted in the evening to the railway
station amidst the exclamations of 15,000 p e r s o n s . T h e e m p l o y e r s got hold
of s e v e n of t h e s e people a n d brought t h e m b a c k to P r e s t o n to convict
M r . Cowell and his colleagues of conspiracy. N o w , if we consider the [real
facts] of the c a s e , t h e r e remains no d o u b t on t h e question w h o are t h e real 40
conspirators.

170
British FinancesThe Troubles at Preston

In 1847 the P r e s t o n c o t t o n lords r e d u c e d w a g e s on a solemn promise to


r e s t o r e t h e m as soon as t r a d e should h a v e b e c o m e brisk. In 1853, t h e y e a r
of prosperity, t h e y refused to k e e p their w o r d . T h e w o r k i n g m e n of four mills
struck, and w e r e supported by t h e contributions of the remaining at work.
5 T h e m a s t e r s n o w conspired together t h a t t h e y w o u l d lock their mills, a n d
entered e a c h into a 5,000 b o n d to enforce their conspiracy. T h e operatives
t h e n appealed for support to the o t h e r t o w n s of L a n c a s h i r e , and that support
w a s given. T h e employers h a d sent emissaries t o p e r s u a d e and incite t h e
cotton lords of other t o w n s to l o c k o u t their h a n d s , and succeeded in their
10 e n d e a v o r . N o t c o n t e n t w i t h this, a v a s t s u b s c r i p t i o n w a s ] o p e n e d a m o n g
t h e m to counterbalance the [subscriptions] of t h e operatives. W h e n t h e y
found t h a t all t h e s e efforts w e r e of no avail, t h e y sent their agents far a n d
near to induce laborers and their families, n e e d l e w o m e n , and p a u p e r s from
t h e w o r k h o u s e s of England a n d Ir[eland to c o m e ] to P r e s t o n . Finding t h e
15 surplus did n o t flow in fast e n o u g h for their w i s h e s , t h e y tried to p r o v o k e
t h e people to a b r e a c h of t h e p e a c e . T h e y aggravated t h e m by their insolence.
T h e y forbade meetings in the M a r s h , [but] t h e people held meetings in
Blackstone Edge a n d other interdicted localities. T h e y introduced o n e hun-
dred n e w police, t h e y s w o r e in special c o n s t a b l e s , they t u r n e d out t h e fire-
20 brigade, t h e y k e p t troops u n d e r a r m s , and w e n t so far as to r e a d the riot
act in order to p r o v o k e a riot. S u c h w a s t h e conspiracy of the m a s t e r s b u t
t h e y w e r e defeated in e a c h of their a t t e m p t s . Notwithstanding t h e s e facts,
an indictment of conspiracy is charged, n o t against t h e m a s t e r s , b u t against
t h e men. B e s i d e s , t h e r e is a special c a s e bringing t h e m a s t e r s u n d e r t h e law
25 of conspiracy. T h e m e n of a certain factory r e s u m e d the w o r k . T h e m a s t e r s '
c o m m i t t e e a n d t h e m e n ' s c o m m i t t e e alike called for explanations. T h e m e n
published a placard to the effect t h a t t h e y h a d gone to w o r k on condition
of p a y m e n t at a certain rate. T h e m a s t e r s ' c o m m i t t e e t h r e a t e n e d proceedings
against the m a s t e r of t h a t mill to r e c o v e r 5,000 as penalty on a b o n d given
30 to support t h e m a s t e r s ' strike. T h e mill-owner t h e r e u p o n said something
w h i c h , being a flat contradiction of m e n ' s s t a t e m e n t , occasioned t h e m all to
w i t h d r a w . If [ t h e m a k i n g ] of this b o n d of 5,000 w a s a conspiracy in t h e
t e r m s of t h e law, t h e m e n a c e to enforce it w a s still m o r e so. B u t this is n o t
all. T h e v e r y indictment of the m e n ' s leaders w a s b r o u g h t a b o u t by a
35 conspiracy c o m m i t t e d by t h e magisterial b e n c h e s at P r e s t o n . A c c o r d i n g
to The Times itself, t h e magistrates got up e v i d e n c e , sought for it, b r o u g h t
up their surplus slaves in c a b s to their council c h a m b e r , dreading t h e
publicity of the t o w n hall, t h e r e to arrange their e v i d e n c e , a n d t h e r e , in t h e
d e a d of night to p o u n c e on their i n t e n d e d victims.
40 T h e expectations of these little N a p o l e o n s of L a n c a s h i r e [ w e r e , ] h o w e v e r ,
set at naught by t h e good sense of t h e working p e o p l e , w h o neither allowed

171
Karl Marx

t h e m s e l v e s to be p r o v o k e d into a b r e a c h of p e a c e , n o r to be frightened into


[submission] to t h e dictates of t h e P r e s t o n parvenus.
A public meeting w a s held in L o n d o n on W e d n e s d a y night in St. M a r t i n ' s
Hall, L o n g A c r e , for t h e p u r p o s e of affording t h e w o r k i n g classes of t h e
metropolis an o p p o r t u n i t y of expressing their opinion on t h e c o n d u c t of the 5
P r e s t o n m a s t e r s . T h e following t w o resolutions w e r e u n a n i m o u s l y ac-
cepted:
" T h a t the p r e s e n t L o r d Chancellor of England, w h e n B a r o n Rolfe, [and]
in his capacity of judge, laid d o w n t h e law t h u s : T h a t if t h e r e w e r e no other
object t h a n to p e r s u a d e people that it w a s their i n t e r e s t n o t to w o r k e x c e p t 10
for certain wages, and not to w o r k u n d e r certain regulations, complied with
in a peaceful m a n n e r , it w a s n o t illegal. T h a t the o p e r a t i v e s of P r e s t o n h a v e
for a period of thirty w e e k s b e e n engaged in a c o n t e s t with their e m p l o y e r s ,
a n d during the whole of that time h a v e c o n d u c t e d t h e m s e l v e s in the m o s t
p e a c e a b l e a n d orderly manner. That, notwithstanding t h e s e facts, four 15
m e m b e r s of the O p e r a t i v e s ' C o m m i t t e e h a v e b e e n c o m m i t t e d to t a k e their
trial at t h e p r e s e n t Liverpool Assizes on a c h a r g e of c o n s p i r a c y , although
neither violence nor intimidation has b e e n p r o v e d or e v e n charged against
t h e m . This meeting is therefore of opinion t h a t t h e c o n d u c t of t h e manufac-
t u r e r s a n d magistrates of P r e s t o n is reprehensible ; that t h e y h a v e b e e n guilty 20
of an u n w a r r a n t a b l e a s s u m p t i o n of p o w e r ; t h a t t h e y h a v e d e s t r o y e d at o n c e
t h e equality of the law and personal f r e e d o m ; and t h a t such proceedings
ought to be c o n d e m n e d by the u n a n i m o u s [voice] of t h e p e o p l e .
T h a t the s y m p a t h y a n d help of the entire of t h e w o r k i n g classes of the
U n i t e d K i n g d o m should be devoted to t h e vindication of justice and t h e 25
m a i n t e n a n c e of right. This meeting, therefore, pledges itself to an e x -
t r a o r d i n a r y and c o n t i n u o u s support of t h e P r e s t o n o p e r a t i v e s in their p r e s e n t
trying position, and earnestly e x h o r t s all w h o h a v e an interest in the elevation
of labor to join with t h e m in supporting its b e s t i n t e r e s t s . "
[The] L o n d o n p r e s s generally c o n d e m n the p r o c e e d i n g s [of the] P r e s t o n 30
m a s t e r s , not from a n y sense of justice b u t [from f e a r ] of t h e p r o b a b l e results.
T h e y a p p r e h e n d that [the] working classes will n o w u n d e r s t a n d that the
i n d i v i d u a l ] capitalist w h o o p p r e s s e s t h e m i s b a c k e d b y t h e w h o l e machinery
[of t h e s t a t e , ] and that in order to hit t h e former t h e y [ m u s t ] deal w i t h the
latter. 35
Karl Marx.

172

Friedrich Engels
The Russian Army

The Russian Army.


T o t h e E d i t o r o f t h e Daily N e w s .

Sir,It is getting high time t h a t we should l o o k o u r e n e m y straight in t h e f a c e ,


t o see w h a t sort o f a n o p p o n e n t h e m a y t u r n o u t t o b e . T h e most c o n t r a d i c t o r y
5 opinions are afloat as to t h e real military s t r e n g t h a n d capabilities of Russia.
O v e r r a t e d b y s o m e , u n d e r r a t e d b y o t h e r s , t h e reality a p p e a r s still t o b e
h i d d e n by a veil, r e m o v a b l e , n o t by a n y " R e v e l a t i o n s of R u s s i a , " b u t by t h e
a c t u a l e v e n t s of w a r only.
Yet t h e r e exists a good deal of valuable m a t t e r in o u r w e s t e r n literatures
10 w h i c h r e q u i r e s nothing b u t sifting a n d combining. R u s s i a herself h a s c o n
tributed plenty of such m a t t e r . F o r R u s s i a n military literature m a k e s as
m u c h , if n o t m o r e , u s e of t h e F r e n c h a n d G e r m a n languages t h a n of its o w n .
Witness Major S m i t t ' s valuable w o r k on t h e Polish c a m p a i g n of 1831, a n d
Colonel Tolstoi's a c c o u n t of t h e i n v a s i o n of H u n g a r y . T h e military w o r k s
15 w r i t t e n in R u s s i a n are decidedly inferior to t h o s e w r i t t e n in foreign languages
by officers of t h e R u s s i a n a r m y . Michailowski-Danilewski's a n d B u t u r l i n ' s
C a m p a i g n s of 1812, L u k i a n o v i t c h ' s C a m p a i g n of 1828-29, a n d similar w o r k s ,
t o o m u c h r e s e m b l e t h e a c c o u n t s o f c a m p a i g n s w h i c h w e generally m e e t with
in second-rate F r e n c h historical w o r k s . T h e sobriety of facts is d r o w n e d in
20 floods of inflated b o m b a s t , e v e n t s a r e d i s t o r t e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e exigencies
of national vanity, t h e victories a c h i e v e d on t h e field of battle are p u t into
t h e s h a d e b y greater victories a c h i e v e d o n p a p e r b y t h e a u t h o r s , and de
t r a c t i o n from t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e e n e m y , w h o e v e r h e b e , p r e d o m i n a t e s from
beginning to end. T h e r e is little of t h a t soldierly feeling which k n o w s t h a t
25 t h e r e is m o r e merit in defeating a b r a v e t h a n a c o w a r d l y e n e m y , a n d w h i c h
m a k e s , for i n s t a n c e , Sir W. N a p i e r ' s P e n i n s u l a r W a r so pre-eminently t h e
p r o d u c t i o n , n o t only of an "officer," b u t of a " g e n t l e m a n " also. T h e necessity
of keeping up warlike a r d o u r a m o n g s t t h e R u s s i a n p o p u l a t i o n m a y explain
t h e e x i s t e n c e of s u c h a style of writing history. B u t as s o o n as a w e s t e r n

173
Friedrich Engels

language is c h o s e n , t h e thing is different. E u r o p e , t h e n , is to judge, a n d t h e


publicity of the w e s t w o u l d s o o n scatter to the w i n d s assertions w h i c h , in
Russia, pass off for gospel truth, b e c a u s e t h e r e t h e o p p o n e n t has not the right
of reply. T h e t e n d e n c y to glorify H o l y R u s s i a and her C z a r r e m a i n s the s a m e ,
b u t t h e choice of m e a n s b e c o m e s m o r e limited. A c c u r a c y of fact must be 5
m o r e strictly adhered t o ; a m o r e sedate a n d businesslike diction is a d o p t e d ;
a n d in spite of attempts at distortion which generally b e t r a y t h e m s e l v e s soon
enough, t h e r e r e m a i n s at least e n o u g h of positive information to m a k e s u c h
a b o o k in m a n y c a s e s an important historical d o c u m e n t . If, b e s i d e s , it should
h a p p e n to h a v e b e e n written by a m a n in a relatively i n d e p e n d e n t position, 10
it m a y e v e n be excellent as a military history, a n d this is actually t h e c a s e
w i t h Smitt's H i s t o r y of the Polish W a r .
T h e composition and organisation of t h e R u s s i a n a r m y is k n o w n well
e n o u g h to military m e n all over E u r o p e . T h e e x t r e m e simplicity of this
organisation, as far at least as the " a r m y of o p e r a t i o n " is c o n c e r n e d , m a k e s 15
it e a s y to u n d e r s t a n d it. T h e actual difficulty is merely to k n o w h o w far this
organisation h a s b e e n really carried out, h o w m u c h of this a r m y exists not
merely on p a p e r b u t c a n be b r o u g h t forward against a foreign foe. It is on
this point t h a t t h e s e Russian military writings in w e s t e r n languages are
principally important. National pride p r e v e n t s their a u t h o r s , w h e r e v e r t h e 20
e n e m y has b e e n partially successful and offered a lively r e s i s t a n c e , from
overrating t h e n u m b e r s of c o m b a t a n t s on t h e R u s s i a n side. In order to guard
t h e h o n o u r of the Russian a r m s , t h e y m u s t unveil t h e differences b e t w e e n
t h e real and nominal strength of Russian armies. Smitt's w o r k , w h i c h gives
the official muster-rolls, is particularly useful for this p u r p o s e . Tolstoi's 25
H u n g a r i a n campaign, on the contrary, quite in h a r m o n y with t h e proceedings
of t h e R u s s i a n s in that c o u n t r y , a p p e a r s to be i n t e n d e d to show off not so
m u c h t h e valour as t h e formidable and overwhelming n u m b e r s of t h e Russian
a r m i e s , r e a d y t o b e launched u p o n the revolutionary w e s t .
B u t if we c a n arrive at something like certainty regarding t h a t p a r t at least 30
of t h e R u s s i a n army w h i c h m o r e directly m e n a c e s t h e r e s t of E u r o p e , it is far
m o r e difficult to ascertain t h e real state of the fleet. We shall, later on,
collect w h a t e v e r information we h a v e m e t with, b u t m u s t wait for something
m o r e definite until " C h a r l e y " gives a better a c c o u n t of it, or s e n d s a few
specimens over for home-inspection. 35
T h e f ortif icatory system, the preliminary p r e p a r a t i o n of the theatre of w a r
for defence and attack, is of c o u r s e v e r y difficult of a c c e s s in a c o u n t r y like
Russia. T h e coast defences are to a certain degree delineated in c h a r t s a n d
p l a n s , a n d cannot, from their very n a t u r e , be k e p t entirely hidden. K r o n s t a d t
a n d S e b a s t o p o l , although m a n y details of military i m p o r t a n c e are n o t well 40
k n o w n , are yet n o t half as mysterious places as t h e y a p p e a r to s o m e parties.

174

The Russian Army

B u t of t h e fortifications of P o l a n d , of t h a t v e r y g r o u p of fortresses t h e v e r y
existence of w h i c h proclaims i n t e n t i o n s of offensive w a r a n d of c o n q u e s t ,
v e r y little i s k n o w n b e s i d e s t h e s p o t s u p o n w h i c h t h e y h a v e b e e n built. S o m e
E u r o p e a n w a r offices m a y h a v e obtained, by dint of gold, plans of t h e s e
5 fortresses from R u s s i a n employs ; if s o , t h e y h a v e k e p t t h e information for
t h e m s e l v e s . If t h e Polish E m i g r a t i o n could p r o c u r e s u c h p l a n s , w h i c h to t h e m
should not be impossible, t h e y might, by publishing t h e m , do to R u s s i a a great
deal m o r e h a r m t h a n e v e r t h e y did.
T h e R u s s i a n a r m y is m a d e up of four great divisions: t h e great a r m y of
10 operation, t h e r e s e r v e s for it, t h e special a n d local c o r p s , t h e C o s s a c k s
(amongst w h i c h are h e r e c o m p r i s e d all irregular t r o o p s , w h a t e v e r be their
origin.)
T h e peculiar c i r c u m s t a n c e s in w h i c h R u s s i a is placed require a military
organisation totally different from that of all o t h e r E u r o p e a n countries.
15 While on t h e south-east, from t h e Pacific to t h e C a s p i a n Sea, her frontiers,
g u a r d e d b y d e s e r t s a n d s t e p p e s , are e x p o s e d t o n o o t h e r irruptions b u t t h o s e
o f n o m a d i c r o b b e r tribes, w h o o n such g r o u n d a r e b e s t m e t b y t r o o p s s o m e -
w h a t similar to t h e m s e l v e s ; while on t h e C a u c a s u s she h a s to struggle against
a h a r d y r a c e of m o u n t a i n e e r s , b e s t c o m b a t e d by a judicious mixture of
20 regular and irregular f o r c e s ; h e r s o u t h - w e s t e r n a n d w e s t e r n f r o n t i e r s r e q u i r e
t h e immediate p r e s e n c e of a large a r m y organised u p o n t h e m o s t regular
E u r o p e a n footing a n d e q u i p p e d with a r m s e q u a l t o t h o s e o f t h e w e s t e r n
armies it m a y h a v e to fight. B u t as it is impossible to maintain p e r m a n e n t y
u p o n t h e w a r footing s u c h an a r m y in a c o u n t r y t h e r e s o u r c e s of w h i c h a r e
25 o n l y v e r y partially d e v e l o p e d , p a r t of the soldiers h a v e to be dismissed on
furlough, to f o r m a r e s e r v e for t h e w a r . T h u s arise t h e four great divisions
of t h e R u s s i a n a r m y .
This organisation of t h e R u s s i a n a r m y , t h e origin of w h i c h m a y be traced
b a c k as far as t h e first partition of P o l a n d , h a s b e e n successively d e v e l o p e d
30 by t h e succeeding partitions of t h a t c o u n t r y , t h e c o n q u e s t s on t h e B l a c k S e a ,
t h e great w a r s with F r a n c e ; it h a s b e e n b r o u g h t to its p r e s e n t state of per-
fection after the Polish revolution of 1830.
T h e G r e a t A r m y of O p e r a t i o n , w h i c h is almost exclusively stationed on
t h e E u r o p e a n frontier of Russia, is m o r e especially a p r o d u c t i o n of t h e
35 partition of Poland, t h e w a r s w i t h F r a n c e , a n d t h e Polish revolution. Its
object is twofoldto maintain in subjection t h e w e s t e r n , m o r e civilised, a n d
non-Russian portions of t h e e m p i r e , a n d to h a n g like a threatening cloud o v e r
t h e w e s t o f E u r o p e , r e a d y t o c o m e d o w n u p o n i t with t h u n d e r a n d lightning
at a m o m e n t ' s notice. H o w far this o b j e c t h a s b e e n , or r a t h e r h a s n o t b e e n ,
40 o b t a i n e d during t h e past, is a m a t t e r of notoriety. H o w far it m a y in t h e
p r e s e n t w a r b e carried out, w e shall h a v e t o consider b y and by.

175
Friedrich Engels

T h e grand a r m y of operations or active a r m y (deistvuyushtsheye voisko)


consists of eleven corps d ' a r m e , t h e corps of g u a r d s , t h e c o r p s of grenadiers,
six c o r p s of infantry, a n d t h r e e corps of cavalry of r e s e r v e .
This w h o l e organisation is imitated from the system i n t r o d u c e d by N a p o -
leon. T h e eight first n a m e d c o r p s c o r r e s p o n d exactly to t h e a r m y c o r p s of 5
t h e F r e n c h during the Great w a r . T h e guards and grenadiers a p p e a r specially
destined to f o r m t h e general r e s e r v e s of t h e a r m y , while t h e cavalry c o r p s
are e x p e c t e d to p r o d u c e those special decisive effects for w h i c h N a p o l e o n
always k e p t in r e s e r v e large m a s s e s of that a r m and of artillery. T h u s all the
first n a m e d eight c o r p s , although called infantry c o r p s , are provided by their 10
v e r y organisation with cavalry a n d a n u m e r o u s artillery. T h e y h a v e e a c h a
c o m p l e t e staff, engineers, p o n t o o n and a m m u n i t i o n trains, p a r k s of artillery,
a n d e v e r y other requisite of an a r m y destined to act independently. T h e
guards and grenadiers are rather w e a k e r in infantry t h a n t h e other c o r p s , then-
regiments having e a c h t h r e e battalions only instead of four. T h e guards are, 15
on the other h a n d , considerably stronger in cavalry and artillery; b u t it m a y
be e x p e c t e d that in order of battle t h e greater part of this will be joined to
the general cavalry and artillery r e s e r v e . T h e first a n d second cavalry corps
consist of h e a v y cavalry and h o r s e artillery exclusively (the light regular
cavalry is attached to the infantry c o r p s ) ; the third cavalry or dragoon corps 20
h a s an especial organisation, as t h e s e dragoons are intended, s a m e as w a s
the fashion formerly, to fight b o t h as infantry and cavalry, and t h u s to form
a c o r p s of r e s e r v e of all a r m s , having at the s a m e time t h e mobility a n d
rapidity of locomotion exclusively p o s s e s s e d by cavalry. W h e t h e r this will
h a v e b e e n attained remains to be seen; the e x p e r i e n c e of all other armies, 25
resulting in the almost complete and general c o n v e r s i o n of d r a g o o n s into
simple cavalry, is of no v e r y favourable augury. This idea h a s e v e n b e e n
carried to the extent of attaching b o t h to the d r a g o o n c o r p s and to the guards
battalions of m o u n t e d sappers, miners, a n d pontoniersan institution highly
lauded by the admirers of the Russian s y s t e m , b u t equally wanting, as yet, 30
t h e t e s t of actual experience.
It m a y be a d d e d that this organisation in eleven c o r p s , w i t h their divisions,
brigades, regiments composing each, d o e s not merely exist on p a p e r or for
m e r e administrative p u r p o s e s . On the c o n t r a r y , the last T u r k i s h war, the
Polish campaign, t h e Hungarian invasion, and t h e p r e s e n t T u r k i s h war h a v e 35
s h o w n the dispositions prevailing during p e a c e to be so entirely calculated
for w a r that no division, brigade, or regiment h a s to be s e p a r a t e d from its
c o r p s , and t o b e attached t o another w h e n e v e r the m o v e m e n t t o w a r d s the
frontiers begins. This is a great military advantage, resulting from t h e almost
c o n s t a n t state of impending w a r in w h i c h R u s s i a is a c c u s t o m e d to find 40
herself. O t h e r more peaceable states find, on a w a r approaching, e v e r y wheel

176
The Russian Army

and pulley of their w a r - m a c h i n e r y c o v e r e d w i t h r u s t , and the w h o l e gearing


out of trim; t h e organisation of a r m y c o r p s , divisions, brigades, c o m p l e t e as
it m a y appear, has to be revolutionised in o r d e r to bring t r o o p s quick e n o u g h
to the m e n a c e d frontiers; c o m m a n d e r s , generals, a n d staffs are appointed
5 afresh, regiments are shifted from brigade to brigade, from c o r p s to c o r p s ,
until, w h e n t h e a r m y is a s s e m b l e d for active o p e r a t i o n s , y o u h a v e a motley
r e u n i o n of c o m m a n d e r s m o r e or less u n k n o w n to e a c h o t h e r , to their superi-
o r s , and to their t r o o p s ; most of t h e m , p e r h a p s , big with a good deal of
w o u n d e d vanity; and yet you m u s t rely u p o n this brand-new m a c h i n e r y
10 working well together. T h e disadvantage is u n d e n i a b l e , although in an a r m y
like t h o s e of t h e W e s t it h a s far less i m p o r t a n c e t h a n in a R u s s i a n o n e . It is
a disadvantage n o t to be avoided e x c e p t in an a r m y on a p e r m a n e n t w a r
footing (such as t h e Austrian a r m y h a s b e e n since 1848, in c o n s e q u e n c e of
which its c o r p s are also p r e t t y firmly organised); b u t for all t h a t the higher
15 degree of industrial perfection existing in w e s t e r n countries m a k e s u p , e v e n
in a merely military point of view, for this a n d a n y other disadvantage which
the exigencies of their civilisation m a y i m p o s e u p o n t h e m .

177
Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels
The European War

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 4055, 17.April 1854

The European War.


T h e m o s t important feature of the n e w s from E u r o p e , b r o u g h t by t h e Arctic
w h i c h arrived y e s t e r d a y morning, is the certainty t h a t t h e Russians h a v e
c r o s s e d the L o w e r D a n u b e , some 50,000 strong, in t h r e e corps u n d e r the
immediate c o m m a n d of Prince Gorchakoff, Gen. L d e r s a n d Gen. Oushak- 5
off, a n d h a v e occupied a part of the T u r k i s h district of Dobrudja. This district
belongs to t h e province of Bulgaria, a n d is a n a r r o w plain inclosed on the
w e s t a n d n o r t h b y the D a n u b e w h i c h b e n d s n o r t h w a r d l y a t C h e r n a v o d a ,
a n d m a k e s a large detour before reaching its mouth,and on t h e e a s t by the
E u x i n e . A large p a r t of the district is m a r s h y a n d liable to be overflowed; 10
it contains several fortresses, such as t h o s e of B a b a d a g h , I s a k t s h a , Matchin
a n d Tultcha, which it is stated h a v e b e e n c a p t u r e d by t h e R u s s i a n s , b u t this
r e p o r t our well-informed L o n d o n c o r r e s p o n d e n t p r o n o u n c e s a m e r e stock-
jobbing invention. B e t w e e n the plain of the D o b r u d j a and the interior of
T u r k e y t h e Balkan stretches its protecting chain. T h e R u s s i a n s are no n e a r e r 15
Constantinople t h a n they w e r e previous to this m o v e m e n t , and h a v e gained
by it no n e w advantage over t h e T u r k s . In fact, it s e e m s perfectly clear t h a t
it is merely a defensive m o v e m e n t , indicating simply their intention to
w i t h d r a w from t h e m o s t w e s t e r n portions of Wallachia. Their entire force
in Wallachia m u s t e r e d seven divisions of infantry, o n e r e s e r v e division at 20
Ismail, a n d further b a c k t h e c o r p s of Tscheodajeff, n u m b e r i n g t h r e e divi-
sions, w h i c h is now supposed to h a v e r e a c h e d J a s s y . T h e eight divisions,
together with t h e cavalry, are hardly a b o v e 110,000 strong. Considering the
possibility of the landing of an A n g l o - F r e n c h c o r p s on the n o r t h - w e s t e r n
shores of t h e Black Sea, menacing t h e R u s s i a n rear, it is plain t h a t t h e object 25
[of the] o c c u p a t i o n of the Dobrudja is to secure t h e R u s s i a n flank w i t h the
smallest possible sacrifice of ground. T h e r e w e r e b u t t w o m e a n s of securing
a position w h i c h w o u l d guard them against the danger of being c u t of f,either
a direct r e t r e a t u p o n t h e Sereth, making t h e L o w e r D a n u b e their line of

178
The European War

defense, with F o k s h a n i , Galatch a n d Ismail as supporting p o i n t s ; or to d a s h


at t h e Dobrudja, with their front leaning u p o n K u s t e n d j e , Hirsova, Oltenitza
and B u c h a r e s t ; the wall of Trajan, t h e D a n u b e and the Argish to be the first,
B u s e o the s e c o n d a n d t h e Sereth t h e third line of defense. T h e latter plan
5 w a s decidedly the b e s t , as for t h e terrain a b a n d o n e d on the o n e side a n e w
o n e is gained on t h e opposite flank, w h i c h gives to t h e retreat the c h a r a c t e r
of an a d v a n c e , and saves t h e military point d'honneur o t h e R u s s i a n s . T h e
possession of t h e D o b r u d j a shortens t h e R u s s i a n front, allowing t h e m , in t h e
w o r s t c a s e , to retire u p o n Chotin on t h e Dniester, e v e n if a landing should
10 t a k e place at A k e r m a n or Odessa. F o r t h e details of t h e m a n e u v e r s by which
this change in the R u s s i a n position h a s b e e n effected, we h a v e yet to wait.
N e x t in interest is the moral certainty t h a t t h e G r e e k insurrection will be
supported by w h a t influence belongs to t h e m o n a r c h y of G r e e c e , the King
a n d Q u e e n b o t h having gone to t h e frontier to e n c o u r a g e t h e insurgents. In
15 this e m e r g e n c y , w a r b e t w e e n G r e e c e and T u r k e y , b a c k e d by the allies, is
nearly inevitable, adding to t h e complications if n o t seriously increasing t h e
dangers of the general conflict. On the other hand we h a v e the n e w s of
another proposal of p e a c e from t h e Czar himself, c o m m u n i c a t e d by w a y of
Prussia. Nicholas offers to settle the quarrel if the allies will obtain from
20 T u r k e y an act of complete emancipation for all her Christian subjects. In
t h a t case he will e v a c u a t e the Principalities w h e n the allied fleet p a s s e s the
Dardanelles. H a d t h e s e t e r m s b e e n openly proffered sooner they might h a v e
greatly diminished the c h a n c e s of t h e w a r , as t h e r e is no d o u b t that t h e allies
m e a n to p r o c u r e just such an emancipation, a n d refusal to admit at least a
25 p a r t of it h a s already led to the dismissal by the Sultan of two important
m e m b e r s of his g o v e r n m e n t . B u t t h e offer c a n n o t probably n o w p r e v e n t t h e
w a r ; for to the allied fleet a F r e n c h and English a r m y is n o w a d d e d , while
Sir Charles Napier will h a v e p r o b a b l y a t t a c k e d a n d t a k e n Aland before n e w
orders could be sent o u t and r e a c h him. Still this p r o p o s a l m a y h a v e a greater
30 i m p o r t a n c e t h a n we are inclined to attribute to it; on t h a t h e a d we shall
doubtless h a v e full information by t h e n e x t steamer.
Amid all this confusion and uncertainty, o n e thing alone seems clear, a n d
t h a t is t h e extinction of t h e M o s l e m p o w e r as a distinct polity in E u r o p e . T h e
emancipation of the Christians of T u r k e y , w h e t h e r effected by peaceful
35 c o n c e s s i o n or by violence, degrades Islamism from a political authority to
a religious sect, and utterly u p r o o t s the old foundations of the O t t o m a n
E m p i r e . It n o t only perfectly recognizes t h e t r u t h of the C z a r ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t
t h e O t t o m a n P o r t e is laboring u n d e r a d a n g e r o u s malady, b u t cuts the pa-
tient's t h r o a t by w a y of medication. After that operation t h e Sultan m a y
40 possibly be retained as a political fiction u p o n t h e t h r o n e of his fathers, b u t
t h e real rulers of the c o u n t r y must be l o o k e d for elsewhere. It is clear w h y

179
Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels

in s u c h a case the Russian autocrat should be willing to settle quietly w i t h


his w e s t e r n antagonists. T h e y will h a v e effected in T u r k e y t h e most c o m p l e t e
revolution conceivable, and effected it wholly in his interest. After such a
dissolution of t h e p r e s e n t ruling authority, his relations to t h e G r e e k C h u r c h
in t h e c o u n t r y , a n d to t h e Slavonians, will really e n d o w h i m with t h e su- 5
p r e m e p o w e r over it; he will t h e n h a v e the o y s t e r while t h e w e s t e r n govern-
m e n t s are obliged to content t h e m s e l v e s with the shells. S u c h a con-
s u m m a t i o n , t h o u g h n o w improbable, i s n o t impossible. B u t w e m a y b e sure
t h e r e are plenty of elements, n o t yet d e v e l o p e d , w h i c h will presently r u s h
in to exercise a powerful influence on t h e progress of this great struggle. 10
A m o n g t h e s e h o w far the long-slumbering E u r o p e a n Revolution is to play
a leading part is a question which the s t a t e s m e n of t h a t h e m i s p h e r e affect
to ignore, b u t of which t h e y m a y s o o n be unpleasantly r e m i n d e d .

180
Karl Marx
The War Debate in Parliament

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 4055, 17. April 1854

The War Debate in Parliament.


From Our O w n Correspondent.

L o n d o n , T u e s d a y , April 4, 1854.

A singularity of English tragedy, so repulsive to F r e n c h feelings t h a t Voltaire


5 u s e d to call S h a k s p e r e a d r u n k e n savage, is its peculiar mixture of t h e
sublime and the b a s e , t h e terrible a n d t h e ridiculous, the heroic and t h e
b u r l e s q u e . B u t n o w h e r e d o e s S h a k s p e r e d e v o l v e u p o n t h e Clown t h e t a s k
of speaking the prologue of a heroic d r a m a . This invention w a s r e s e r v e d for
t h e Coalition Ministry. Mylord A b e r d e e n h a s performed, if n o t t h e English
10 Clown, at least the Italian Pantaloon. All great historical m o v e m e n t s appear,
to t h e superficial o b s e r v e r , finally to subside into the farce, or at least t h e
c o m m o n - p l a c e . B u t to c o m m e n c e w i t h this is a feature peculiar alone to t h e
t r a g e d y entitled, War with Russia, t h e p r o l o g u e of w h i c h w a s recited on
F r i d a y evening in b o t h H o u s e s of Parliament, w h e r e the Ministry's a d d r e s s
15 in answer to her M a j e s t y ' s m e s s a g e w a s simultaneously discussed a n d
u n a n i m o u s l y adopted, t o b e h a n d e d over t o the Q u e e n y e s t e r d a y afternoon,
sitting u p o n her t h r o n e i n B u c k i n g h a m Palace. T h e proceedings i n t h e H o u s e
of L o r d s m a y be v e r y briefly delineated. L o r d C l a r e n d o n m a d e the Ministe-
rial, and L o r d D e r b y t h e Opposition s t a t e m e n t of the c a s e . T h e o n e s p o k e
20 as t h e m a n in office, and the other like t h e m a n o u t of it. L o r d A b e r d e e n ,
t h e noble E a r l at the h e a d of t h e G o v e r n m e n t , t h e " a c r i m o n i o u s " confident
of t h e Czar, the " d e a r , good, and e x c e l l e n t " A b e r d e e n of Louis Philippe, t h e
" e s t i m a b l e g e n t l e m a n " of Pio IX although concluding his s e r m o n with his
usual whinings for p e a c e , c a u s e d , during t h e principal p a r t of his per-
25 f o r m a n c e , their lordships to be c o n v u l s e d with laughter, by declaring w a r
n o t on Russia, b u t on The Press, a L o n d o n w e e k l y periodical. L o r d M a l m e s -
b u r y r e t o r t e d o n t h e noble E a r l ; L o r d B r o u g h a m , t h a t " o l d , foolish w o m a n , "
a s h e w a s styled b y William C o b b e t t , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e c o n t e s t o n w h i c h

181
Karl Marx

t h e y w e r e engaged w a s n o " e a s y " o n e ; Earl G r e y w h o , i n his Christian spirit,


h a d contrived to m a k e the British Colonies the m o s t miserable a b o d e s of t h e
world, r e m i n d e d the British people that t h e t o n e a n d t e m p e r in w h i c h t h e
w a r w a s referred t o , the feeling of animosity evinced against t h e Czar and
his C o s s a c k s , was not the spirit in which a Christian nation ought to e n t e r 5
u p o n w a r . T h e E a r l of H a r d w i c k e w a s of opinion t h a t E n g l a n d w a s w e a k in
t h e m e a n s she p o s s e s s e d for dealing with t h e Russian n a v y ; t h a t t h e y ought
n o t to h a v e a less force in the Baltic t h a n 20 sail of t h e line, well a r m e d and
well m a n n e d , with disciplined c r e w s , and not begin, as t h e y h a d d o n e , with
a m o b of newly raised m e n , a m o b in a line-of-battle ship during an action 10
being t h e w o r s t of all m o b s . T h e Marquis of L a n s d o w n e vindicated t h e
G o v e r n m e n t , and e x p r e s s e d a h o p e as to the s h o r t n e s s and ultimate success
of t h e war, b e c a u s e (and this is a characteristic m a r k of t h e noble lord's
p o w e r s of conception) "it w a s no dynastic w a r , s u c h a w a r involving the
largest c o n s e q u e n c e s , and which it w a s t h e m o s t difficult to p u t an end t o . " 15
After this agreeable conversazione in w h i c h e v e r y b o d y h a d given his
sentiment, t h e a d d r e s s w a s agreed to nemine contraddente.
All t h e new information to be gathered from this conversazione is limited
to s o m e official declarations on t h e part of L o r d C l a r e n d o n , a n d t h e history
of the secret m e m o r a n d u m of 1844. 20
L o r d C l a r e n d o n stated that " a t p r e s e n t t h e agreement with France consists
simply of an exchange of notes containing a r r a n g e m e n t s with r e s p e c t to
military o p e r a t i o n s . " C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e exists, at this m o m e n t , no treaty
b e t w e e n England-and F r a n c e . In reference to A u s t r i a and Prussia he stated
, t h a t the former would maintain an a r m e d neutrality, a n d the other a neutral 25
neutrality; b u t t h a t " w i t h such a w a r as is n o w a b o u t to be waged u p o n t h e
frontiers of both countries, it w o u l d be impossible for either p o w e r to p r e -
s e r v e a neutrality." Finally he declared t h a t t h e p e a c e to be b r o u g h t a b o u t
by t h e impending^ w a r , w o u l d only be a glorious p e a c e "if t h e y did secure
.equal rights a n d immunities for t h e Christian subjects of T u r k e y . " 30
N o w w e k n o w t h a t the Sheik-el-Islam h a s already b e e n d e p o s e d for having
refused to s a n c t i o n by a fetva t h e t r e a t y granting this equalization of rights;
t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t e x c i t e m e n t exists on the p a r t of t h e old T u r k i s h population
at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ; a n d by a telegraphic dispatch r e c e i v e d to-day we learn
t h a t t h e C z a r h a s declared to P r u s s i a t h a t he is willing to w i t h d r a w his t r o o p s 35
from t h e Principalities if t h e W e s t e r n P o w e r s should succeed in imposing
such a t r e a t y u p o n the P o r t e . All he w a n t s is to b r e a k the O s m a n rule. If the
W e s t e r n P o w e r s p r o p o s e to do it in his stead, he, of c o u r s e , is not the m a d m a n
to w a g e war with t h e m .
N o w to t h e history of the secret m e m o r a n d u m , w h i c h I collect from the 40
s p e e c h e s of D e r b y , A b e r d e e n , M a l m e s b u r y and Granville. T h e m e m o r a n d u m

182
The War Debate in Parliament

w a s "intended to be a provisional, conditional and secret a r r a n g e m e n t b e -


t w e e n Russia, Austria and England, to m a k e certain arrangements with
respect t o T u r k e y , which F r a n c e , without any c o n s e n t o n her part, w a s t o
be obliged to c o n c u r i n . " This m e m o r a n d u m , t h u s described in the w o r d s
5 of L o r d M a l m e s b u r y , w a s the result of private conferences b e t w e e n the
Czar, the Earl of A b e r d e e n , t h e D u k e of Wellington and Sir R o b e r t Peel. It
w a s by the advice of A b e r d e e n t h a t the C z a r a d d r e s s e d himself to the D u k e
and to Sir R o b e r t Peel. It r e m a i n s a matter of c o n t r o v e r s y b e t w e e n L o r d
A b e r d e e n and his o p p o n e n t s , w h e t h e r the m e m o r a n d u m w a s d r a w n u p b y
10 C o u n t N e s s e l r o d e , on the r e t u r n of t h e Czar to St. P e t e r s b u r g subsequently
to his visit to England in 1844, or w h e t h e r it w a s d r a w n up by the English
Ministers themselves as a r e c o r d of the c o m m u n i c a t i o n s m a d e by t h e
Emperor.
T h e connection of the Earl of A b e r d e e n with this d o c u m e n t w a s dis-
15 tinguished from t h a t of a m e r e Minister with an official d o c u m e n t as proved,
according to t h e s t a t e m e n t of M a l m e s b u r y , by another paper not laid before
the House. T h e d o c u m e n t w a s considered of t h e greatest i m p o r t a n c e , a n d
such as might not be c o m m u n i c a t e d to the o t h e r p o w e r s , notwithstanding
A b e r d e e n ' s a s s u r a n c e that h e had c o m m u n i c a t e d the " s u b s t a n c e " t o F r a n c e .
20 T h e Czar, at all e v e n t s , w a s not a w a r e of s u c h a c o m m u n i c a t i o n having b e e n
m a d e . T h e d o c u m e n t w a s sanctioned a n d a p p r o v e d b y t h e D u k e o f Wel-
lington a n d Sir R o b e r t Peel. It w a s n o t b r o u g h t u n d e r the cognizance and
consideration of t h e Peel Cabinet, of which L o r d D e r b y w a s at t h a t time a
m e m b e r . It remained not with t h e ordinary p a p e r s of t h e Foreign Office, b u t
25 in t h e private c u s t o d y of e a c h successive S e c r e t a r y of State, with no c o p y
of it w h a t e v e r in the Foreign Office. W h e n L o r d D e r b y acceded to office,
he k n e w nothing of it, although himself a m e m b e r of t h e Peel Cabinet in 1844.
W h e n the E a r l of A b e r d e e n left office, he h a n d e d it over in a b o x to L o r d
P a l m e r s t o n , w h o h a n d e d t h e b o x o f P a n d o r a over t o his successor, E a r l
30 Granville, w h o , as he states himself, at the r e q u e s t of B a r o n B r u n n o w , the
Russian E m b a s s a d o r , h a n d e d it over to t h e E a r l of M a l m e s b u r y on his
accession to the Foreign Office. But, in the m e a n t i m e , t h e r e a p p e a r s to h a v e
b e e n an alteration, or rather a falsification in t h e original i n d o r s e m e n t of t h e
d o c u m e n t , since the Earl of Granville sent it to t h e E a r l of M a l m e s b u r y w i t h
35 a n o t e stating t h a t it w a s a m e m o r a n d u m d r a w n up by Baron Brunnow, as
the result of the conferences b e t w e e n the E m p e r o r of Russia, Sir R o b e r t Peel
a n d L o r d A b e r d e e n , t h e n a m e of t h e D u k e of Wellington not being mentioned
at all. No o t h e r motive can be supposed for this false allegation but the
anxiety to conceal the importance of the m e m o r a n d u m by describing it as
40 a m e r e annotation of the E m b a s s a d o r , instead of an official d o c u m e n t issued
from t h e Chancellory at St. P e t e r s b u r g .

183
Karl Marx

S u c h w a s t h e i m p o r t a n c e R u s s i a attached t o this d o c u m e n t t h a t 4 8 h o u r s
after L o r d M a l m e s b u r y h a d b e e n i n office, B a r o n B r u n n o w c a m e a n d a s k e d
him w h e t h e r h e h a d r e a d it; b u t M a l m e s b u r y h a d n o t t h e n d o n e so, i t being
n o t f o r w a r d e d to him till a few d a y s after. B a r o n B r u n n o w u r g e d on him t h e
n e c e s s i t y of reading this d o c u m e n t , w h i c h he stated constituted the key of
all conferences with Russia. F r o m t h a t m o m e n t , h o w e v e r , he n e v e r m e n -
tioned t h e d o c u m e n t again to the D e r b y i t e s , apparently judging t h e T o r y
Administration t o o powerless or t o o transitory for carrying out t h e Russian
policy. In D e c e m b e r , 1852, the D e r b y G o v e r n m e n t w e n t o u t , and shortly after
t h e intelligence of the formation of t h e Coalition reaching St. P e t e r s b u r g , on
J a n . 11, the Czar again o p e n e d this questiona sufficient e v i d e n c e this t h a t
he t h o u g h t t h e cabinet of all t h e talents r e a d y to act on t h e basis of this
memorandum.
H e r e , t h e n , w e h a v e the m o s t compromising revelations m a d e i n t h e H o u s e
of L o r d s by t h e most irreversible witnesses, all of t h e m having b e e n Prime
or Foreign Ministers of G r e a t Britain. An " e v e n t u a l engagement"the e x -
p r e s s i o n u s e d in the memorandumis secretly e n t e r e d into with R u s s i a by
an English Foreign Minister, n o t only w i t h o u t the sanction of Parliament,
b u t b e h i n d t h e b a c k s of his o w n colleagues, t w o of t h e m only having b e e n
initiated into t h e m y s t e r y . T h e p a p e r is for t e n y e a r s withheld from the F o r -
eign Office and k e p t in clandestine c u s t o d y by e a c h successive Foreign Mini-
ster. W h e n e v e r a ministry disappears from the s c e n e , t h e R u s s i a n E m b a s s a -
dor a p p e a r s i n Downing-st. a n d intimates t o t h e n e w - c o m e r t h a t h e h a d t o
l o o k closely a t t h e b o n d , t h e secret b o n d , e n t e r e d into n o t b e t w e e n the
nation a s legally r e p r e s e n t e d , b u t b e t w e e n s o m e Cabinet-Minister a n d t h e
C z a r , a n d to act according to the line of c o n d u c t p r e s c r i b e d in a R u s s i a n
m e m o r a n d u m d r a w n up in the Chancellory of St. P e t e r s b u r g .
If this be n o t an o p e n infraction of the Constitution, if n o t a conspiracy
a n d high t r e a s o n , if not collusion with Russia, we are at a loss to u n d e r s t a n d
t h e m e a n i n g of t h e s e t e r m s .
A t t h e same time w e u n d e r s t a n d from t h e s e revelations w h y t h e criminals,
perfectly s e c u r e , are allowed to r e m a i n at t h e h e l m of t h e S t a t e , at t h e v e r y
e p o c h of an ostensible w a r with Russia, with w h o m t h e y are convicted to
h a v e p e r m a n e n t l y conspired, and w h y the P a r l i a m e n t a r y opposition is a m e r e
s h a m , intended to a n n o y b u t n o t to i m p e a c h t h e m . All F o r e i g n Ministers, and
c o n s e q u e n t l y all t h e successive Administrations since 1844 are accomplices,
e a c h of t h e m b e c o m i n g so from t h e m o m e n t he neglected to a c c u s e his
p r e d e c e s s o r a n d quietly a c c e p t e d t h e mysterious b o x . By t h e m e r e af-
fectation of secrecy e a c h of t h e m b e c a m e guilty. E a c h of t h e m b e c a m e a
p a r t y to t h e conspiracy by concealing it from Parliament. By law t h e con-
cealer of stolen goods is as criminal as the thief. A n y legal proceeding,

184
The War Debate in Parliament

therefore, w o u l d ruin n o t only the Coalition, b u t their rivals also, and not
only t h e s e Ministers, b u t the P a r l i a m e n t a r y parties t h e y r e p r e s e n t , and n o t
only t h o s e parties, but t h e governing classes of England.
I m a y r e m a r k , en passant, t h a t the only s p e e c h delivered in the H o u s e of
5 L o r d s w o r t h mentioning is t h a t of t h e E a r l of D e r b y ; b u t his criticism of t h e
m e m o r a n d u m and t h e secret correspondenceand I m a y say t h e s a m e w i t h
r e s p e c t to t h e d e b a t e in t h e Commonscontains nothing t h a t I h a v e n o t stated
before in the full analysis I g a v e y o u of that fatal m e m o r a n d u m and t h a t
extraordinary c o r r e s p o n d e n c e .
10 " T h e p o w e r of declaring w a r is a prerogative of the C r o w n , a real p r e -
rogative; a n d if H e r Majesty s u m m o n s h e r Parliament, a n d informs t h e m t h a t
she has found it n e c e s s a r y to engage herself in w a r , it is n o t an occasion w h e n
the C o m m o n s enter on t h e policy or impolicy of t h e war. It is their duty, u n d e r
such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , to rally r o u n d the t h r o n e , and to take a p r o p e r , s u b -
15 s e q u e n t and constitutional occasion of c o m m e n t i n g on the policy which m a y
h a v e led to the w a r . " So said Mr. Disraeli in the sitting of the C o m m o n s , and
so said all t h e C o m m o n e r s , and yet The Times fills s e v e n t e e n columns with
their c o m m e n t s o n t h a t policy. W h y w a s this? E v e n b e c a u s e i t w a s not the
" o c c a s i o n , " b e c a u s e their talk w o u l d r e m a i n resultless. B u t w e m u s t e x c e p t
20 Mr. L a y a r d , w h o stated plainly: "If it should be the feeling of the H o u s e ,
after w h a t he should state to t h e m , t h a t t h e c o n d u c t of t h e Ministers should
force the subject of a P a r l i a m e n t a r y inquiry, he should n o t shrink from
t h e duty t h u s i m p o s e d u p o n h i m , a n d w o u l d b e r e a d y t o a s k the Ministers
to fix an early d a y on w h i c h t h e m a t t e r might be b r o u g h t f o r w a r d . " Y o u will
25 c o m p r e h e n d n o w t h e r e a s o n w h y The Times begins to d o u b t the justice of
the Assyrian discoveries of M r . L a y a r d .
L o r d J . R u s s e l l , w h o introduced t h e a d d r e s s in the H o u s e of C o m m o n s ,
distinguished himself from L o r d C l a r e n d o n only by his intonation of t h e
w o r d s integrity, liberty, i n d e p e n d e n c e , civilization, w h e r e b y he secured t h e
30 c h e e r s of his m o r e c o m m o n audience.
Mr. L a y a r d , w h o r o s e t o reply t o him c o m m i t t e d t w o great b l u n d e r s , w h i c h
disfigured his o t h e r w i s e r e m a r k a b l e speech. In t h e first place, he sought to
establish t h e existence of opposite e l e m e n t s in t h e Coalition, the R u s s i a n
element a n d the English element, t h e A b e r d e e n fraction a n d t h e P a l m e r s t o n
35 fraction, t h e s e t w o fractions possessing no o t h e r distinction t h a n their lan-
guage and their m o d e s of subserviency to Russia. T h e one is a p a r t i s a n of
Russia, b e c a u s e h e d o e s n o t u n d e r s t a n d her, a n d the other although h e
u n d e r s t a n d s her. T h e former is, t h e r e f o r e , a n o p e n partisan, and t h e other
a secret agent. T h e former, t h e r e f o r e , s e r v e s gratuitously, and the latter is
40 paid. T h e former is less d a n g e r o u s b e c a u s e placed in o p e n antagonism to t h e
feelings of the English p e o p l e ; the latter is fatal, b e c a u s e he m a k e s himself

185
Karl Marx

p a s s for t h e incarnation of the national animosity against Russia. With


M r . L a y a r d we m u s t p r e s u m e that it is ignorance of the m a n w h o m he places
in opposition to A b e r d e e n . F o r Mr. Disraeli, w h o e m p l o y e d t h e same con-
trast, t h e r e is no such e x c u s e . No m a n k n o w s L o r d P a l m e r s t o n better t h a n
t h a t chief of the Opposition, w h o declared already in 1844, t h a t no foreign 5
policy of any Minister had ever b e e n so fatal to British interests as that of
the noble L o r d . T h e second blunder c o m m i t t e d b y Mr. L a y a r d w a s his argu-
m e n t that The Times w a s t h e direct organ of the A b e r d e e n p a r t y b e c a u s e
t h e secret and confidential c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , t w o or t h r e e d a y s after arrival,
furnished materials for its leading articles, w h i c h e n d e a v o r e d to bring the 10
c o u n t r y to c o n s e n t to the nefarious transaction intended at St. Petersburg,
especially its articles during F e b r u a r y a n d M a r c h of last y e a r . L a y a r d w o u l d
h a v e d o n e better t o conclude with L o r d P a l m e r s t o n t h a t t h o s e materials w e r e
furnished b y the Russian E m b a s s y a t L o n d o n , w h e n h e w o u l d h a v e b e e n able
to charge b o t h The Times and t h e Foreign Office with being t h e organs of 15
t h e St. P e t e r s b u r g Cabinet.
Holding the opinion that The Times is, in fact, a greater p o w e r t h a n the
Coalition, n o t as to its opinions b u t as to t h e d a t a w h i c h constitute t h e
t r e a s o n a b l e character of this secret c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; I subjoin t h e whole
s t a t e m e n t of Mr. L a y a r d against t h a t p a p e r : 20
" T h e first of t h e s e secret dispatches w a s received in this c o u n t r y on the
23d of J a n u a r y , 1853, and on the 26th of the same m o n t h a p p e a r e d in The
Times t h e first of t h o s e articles to which he h a d referred. T h e n e x t dispatch
w a s received on the 6th of F e b r u a r y , 1853, a n d on t h e 11th of the s a m e m o n t h ,
four d a y s afterward, t h e r e a p p e a r e d an e x t r a o r d i n a r y article in The Times, 25
from w h i c h he would n o w quote. In o n e part of t h e article it w a s stated:
' W e do n o t s u p p o s e that it is the intention or the policy of R u s s i a to
accelerate a c a t a s t r o p h e in t h e E a s t , and the g o o d offices of this c o u n t r y will
again be e m p l o y e d to lessen the perils of a situation w h i c h is becoming
critical. We cannot, h o w e v e r , forget t h a t t h e a t t e m p t to prolong t h e brutal 30
and decrepit authority of the T u r k s in E u r o p e is p u r c h a s e d by the surrender
of fine p r o v i n c e s and a large Christian population to b a r b a r o u s mis-
g o v e r n m e n t ; and we shall rejoice w h e n civilization and Christianity are able
to repair the injuries of the O t t o m a n c o n q u e s t . '
Again, it w a s stated in The Times on the 23d of F e b r u a r y 1853, after various 35
c o m m e n t s on t h e e x h a u s t e d state of T u r k e y :
'With the u t m o s t political caducity, with a total w a n t of ability and integrity
in t h e m e n w h o are still its rulers, with a declining M u s s u l m a n population, a n d
an e x h a u s t e d treasury, the Porte unites as if by w a y of derisory contrast a
dominion over some of the most fertile regions, t h e finest ports a n d t h e most 40
enterprising a n d ingenious people of S o u t h e r n E u r o p e . . . . It is h a r d to

186
The War Debate in Parliament

c o m p r e h e n d h o w so great a positive evil c a n h a v e b e e n so long defended


by politicians as a relative g o o d ; and, t h o u g h we are n o t insensible to t h e
difficulties attending any change in t h e territories of so huge an empire, we
are disposed to view with satisfaction r a t h e r t h a n with alarm the a p p r o a c h
5 of a p e r i o d '
H o w did The Times k n o w t h e p e r i o d w a s a p p r o a c h i n g ?
' w h e n it will be impossible to prolong t h e d o m i n i o n of such a G o v e r n m e n t
as t h a t of t h e Porte over such a c o u n t r y as t h a t w h i c h is n o w subject to its
authority. P e r h a p s t h a t period is less distant t h a n is c o m m o n l y s u p p o s e d ;
10 a n d it m a y be t h e part of wise s t a t e s m e n to provide against such a con-
j u n c t u r e , w h i c h it is b e y o n d their p o w e r indefinitely to p o s t p o n e . We do n o t
believe, and we do not m e a n to imply, that a n y combination of A u s t r i a a n d
Russia, hostile to t h e territorial claims of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e , is now in
existence, or is likely to be f o r m e d without the knowledge of t h e other
15 E u r o p e a n p o w e r s . We h a v e strong g r o u n d s to believe'When The Times
says t h a t , we k n o w w h a t it means'that P r i n c e Menchikoff is sent from
St. P e t e r s b u r g to Constantinople u p o n a special e m b a s s y , for the e x p r e s s
p u r p o s e of declaring, in t h e n a m e of t h e E m p e r o r Nicholas, t h a t as h e a d of
the G r e e k C h u r c h he c a n n o t submit, or allow the E a s t e r n C h u r c h to submit,
20 to t h e conditions of t h e firman recently obtained by t h e F r e n c h E m b a s s a d o r
w i t h reference t o t h e H o l y Shrines i n t h e H o l y L a n d . '
N o w , the first intimation of Prince Menchikoff's mission w a s contained
in Sir H . S e y m o u r ' s dispatches, received F e b r u a r y 14 and F e b r u a r y 2 1 . It
w a s important to o b s e r v e t h a t on the 6th of M a r c h , 1853, arrived the dispatch
25 giving t h e w h o l e of t h e E m p e r o r of R u s s i a ' s plan for t h e partition of T u r k e y .
T h e a n s w e r to it, as he had before said, w a s n o t r e t u r n e d before t h e 23d of
M a r c h , a n d no Cabinet Council w a s held until t h e 13th of M a r c h , though cer-
tain m e m b e r s of t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a d s e v e n d a y s previously received t h e E m -
p e r o r ' s proposal. T h a t p r o p o s a l w a s n o t submitted to their colleagues till t h e
30 13th of M a r c h , b u t it h a d b e e n previously submitted to The Times, for on
t h e 7th of M a r c h , t h e morning f ollpwing t h e receipt of the dispatch, w h i c h
t h e n could not h a v e b e e n k n o w n t o m o r e t h a n t w o o r t h r e e m e m b e r s o f t h e
Cabinet, a n d which could not t h e n h a v e b e e n seen by a n y clerk in the Foreign
Office, there a p p e a r e d a particular article in The Times. ( H e a r , h e a r . ) T h e
35 article said, a m o n g other things, that
' T h e state of the T u r k i s h E m p i r e a n d the relations of the E u r o p e a n P o w e r s
to t h e E a s t are subjects on w h i c h it m a y be useful for reflecting politicians
and the i n d e p e n d e n t p r e s s to form a n d e x p r e s s opinions, though t h e con-
s u m m a t i o n to which t h e s e opinions point be still u n w e l c o m e and r e m o t e .
40 Statesmen, b o u n d to transact the business of the d a y , and to recognize at
every t u r n t h e obligations of w h a t is called S t a t e necessity, are restrained

187
Karl Marx

within n a r r o w e r limits, and would probably be u n a b l e to give effect to any


novel or original conception if it had not previously b e e n entertained by the
mind a n d r e a s o n of the p u b l i c '
H e e n t r e a t e d the noble L o r d t o m a r k the w o r d s w h i c h followed, for t h e y
referred to t h e objection which he h a d offered. 5
' W e are therefore by no m e a n s surprised that, in adverting to the dif-
f e r e n c e s which h a v e recently t a k e n place in T u r k e y , a n d especially on its
E u r o p e a n frontiers, L o r d J o h n Russell should h a v e e x p r e s s e d his dissent
from t h e opinions w h i c h h a v e b e e n recently p u t f o r w a r d o n this subject, a n d
should h a v e r e p e a t e d in his place in Parliament, speaking u n d e r t h e weight 10
of official responsibility, the old story of t h e integrity a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e of
t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e . W e ourselves, h o w e v e r , are n o t affected b y similar
considerations.'
H o w did the writer know that the noble lord d i s s e n t e d ? ( H e a r . ) T h e article
proceeded: 15
' W e do not, therefore, c o n c u r in the opinion of L o r d J. Russell that no
greater calamity could occur t o E u r o p e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h a n t h e n e c e s -
sity of considering w h a t ought to be d o n e in s u c h a c a s e as t h e d i s m e m b e r -
m e n t of t h a t empire.'
L e t t h e H o u s e m a r k the following w o r d s , for t h e y w e r e almost identical 20
with t h o s e of t h e E m p e r o r of Russia:
'It would, we think, be a far greater calamity t h a t the d i s m e m b e r m e n t
c o m m e n c e d b e f o r e any such consideration h a d t a k e n place.'
( H e a r , H e a r . ) T h e y w e r e the very w o r d s . T h e writer w e n t o n t h u s :
' A n d h e r e we m u s t be allowed to e x p r e s s our surprise t h a t any s t a t e s m a n 25
should, for an instant, confound t h e policy w h i c h it might be p r o p e r to p u r s u e
in the e v e n t of a dissolution of the T u r k i s h E m p i r e with t h a t w h i c h led to
t h e partition of Poland. No doubt the argument of S t a t e necessity still re-
mains to support the integrity and i n d e p e n d e n c e of the T u r k i s h E m p i r e ; b u t
t h a t a r g u m e n t stands alone against a h o s t of evils, a n d it m e a n s , in reality, 30
no m o r e t h a n the fear of dealing with a m o m e n t o u s and u n c e r t a i n question.
Y e t , s o strange are the p r e p o s s e s s i o n s o n this subject w h i c h h a v e b e e n
fostered, especially of late y e a r s , that an a t t e m p t to discuss this question on
its o w n merits is v i e w e d in some q u a r t e r s as an act of political depravity,
and a violation of all the laws which bind nations together.' 35
T h e n e x t article a p p e a r e d on t h e 10th of March. T h e H o u s e might, p e r h a p s ,
h a v e b e e n of opinion that hitherto he h a d n o t s h o w n t h a t the writer in The
Times e m p l o y e d t h e exact w o r d s u s e d in t h e d i s p a t c h e s ; b u t t h e article
h e w a s a b o u t t o r e a d w o u l d r e m o v e all d o u b t u p o n t h a t point. O n the
10th of M a r c h an article a p p e a r e d in The Times c o m m e n c i n g with t h e s e 40
words:

188
The War Debate in Parliament

'Prince Menchikoff arrives in a m o r e strictly diplomatic capacity, a n d we


h a v e r e a s o n to believe t h a t his instructions are m o r e conciliatory t h a n t h o s e
of C o u n t Leiningen.'
A similarity of expression w o u l d be found in Sir H. S e y m o u r ' s dispatch
5 of t h e 21st of F e b r u a r y :
' H i s Excellency (Count N e s s e l r o d e ) wished to a s s u r e me that the in-
structions with which Prince Menchikoff would be provided w e r e of a
conciliatory n a t u r e . '
T h e article continued:
10 ' W e m u s t v e n t u r e to say that it implies s o m e p e n u r y of r e s o u r c e s in m o d e r n
s t a t e s m e n t h a t , w h e n t h e y h a v e to deal w i t h a question which involves t h e
civilization of great p r o v i n c e s , t h e r e s t o r a t i o n of Christianity itself to t h a t
s u p r e m a c y which it o n c e enjoyed in all p a r t s of E u r o p e , and t h e progressive
welfare of millions of h u m a n beings, the only e x p e d i e n t on which they c a n
15 agree is to dress up a T u r k ' s h e a d in a t u r b a n , a n d agree to treat it as if it
w a s still a symbol of force and e m p i r e . '
A Cabinet Council w a s held on t h e 19th of M a r c h , at w h i c h the dispatch
received on t h e 6th of t h a t m o n t h w a s discussed, a n d an answer to it w a s
r e t u r n e d on t h e 23d of M a r c h , containing this p a s s a g e :
20 'Although her M a j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t feel compelled to adhere to t h e
principles and the policy laid d o w n in L o r d J o h n Russell's dispatch of t h e
9th of F e b r u a r y , yet they gladly c o m p l y w i t h the E m p e r o r ' s wish, that t h e
subject should be further and frankly discussed.'
On the s a m e d a y an article a p p e a r e d in The Times, in w h i c h some of t h e
25 p h r a s e s u s e d in L o r d C l a r e n d o n ' s dispatch might be found. T h e article
commenced thus:
'The opinions w e h a v e e x p r e s s e d o n t h e p r e s e n t condition and future
p r o s p e c t s of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e do n o t coincide with t h e views entertained
by L o r d J . R u s s e l l , and c o m m u n i c a t e d by him to the H o u s e of C o m m o n s ;
30 t h e y differ from t h e c o u r s e of policy w h i c h this c o u n t r y has p u r s u e d in
former times and on several o c c a s i o n s ; and t h e y are entirely at variance w i t h
t h e s y s t e m w h i c h a large numerical p r o p o r t i o n of t h e L o n d o n p r e s s is at-
tempting, n o t v e r y brilliantly or successfully, to defend.'
H o n o r to t h e British p r e s s that, t h o u g h w a n t i n g the brilliant epigrammatic
35 p e n which h a d shaken a Colonial Minister a n d almost u p s e t a Cabinet, it did
n o t s u p p o r t the views of The Times. The Times a d d e d n e a r the e n d of its
article:
' H e (the E m p e r o r ) has said t h a t it is an object of his ambition to stand well
with this c o u n t r y , a n d to d e s e r v e its confidence. H i s proceedings on this
40 o c c a s i o n will bring t h a t a s s u r a n c e to the test, a n d he c a n give us no greater
proof of m o d e r a t i o n and good faith t o w a r d T u r k e y a n d t h e rest of E u r o p e

189
Karl Marx

t h a n a willingness to c o o p e r a t e on t h e s e subjects, as he has b e f o r e d o n e , w i t h


t h e British G o v e r n m e n t . '
On t h e same d a y on w h i c h The Times a n n o u n c e d t h a t its e n d e a v o r s to
reconcile t h e British public to t h e partition of T u r k e y h a d failed, t h e a n s w e r
to the dispatch w h i c h h a d b e e n delayed for 16 d a y s w a s sent to St. P e t e r s b u r g . 5
( H e a r , h e a r . ) He n e e d not trouble t h e H o u s e with further e x t r a c t s from The
Times."
Mr. Bright supported the character of M r . C o b d e n , in order to afford
a n o t h e r opportunity to L o r d P a l m e r s t o n to gather popularity by a b u s e of
R u s s i a a n d sham-energetic defense of t h e war-policy. A m o n g other things 10
P a l m e r s t o n stated:
" N o w , it is k n o w n , I think, to those w h o h a v e given their attention to t h e
affairs of E u r o p e for a considerable time past, t h a t t h e views of R u s s i a u p o n
T u r k e y a r e n o t o f y e s t e r d a y , o r indeed o f any r e c e n t d a t e . ( H e a r . ) I t i s k n o w n
t h a t for a great length of time it h a s b e e n t h e standing a n d established policy 15
of R u s s i a to e n d e a v o r to obtain possession of at least the E u r o p e a n p a r t of
T u r k e y , and subsequently of Asiatic T u r k e y . This policy h a s b e e n p u r s u e d
with undeviating a n d systematic p e r s e v e r a n c e . It h a s b e e n e v e r k e p t in view.
W h e n opportunities h a v e offered, steps i n a d v a n c e h a v e b e e n m a d e , and
w h e n c h e c k s h a v e b e e n experienced, t h o s e steps h a v e b e e n w i t h d r a w n ; b u t 20
only for t h e p u r p o s e of taking advantage of t h e n e x t opportunity w h i c h
offers. ( H e a r , h e a r . ) Delay has b e e n no e l e m e n t in mitigating or in inducing
R u s s i a to a b a n d o n its schemes. Its policy has b e e n to k e e p o n e object in
viewnot to hurry, not to lose its object by p r e m a t u r e l y grasping at its
possession, b u t to w a t c h the c o u r s e of t h e other G o v e r n m e n t s of E u r o p e , 25
and to t a k e advantage of every opportunity w h i c h might p r e s e n t itself, by
w h i c h it could get e v e n the slightest a d v a n c e t o w a r d t h e ultimate object of
its a m b i t i o n . "
N o w c o m p a r e this declaration of L o r d P a l m e r s t o n w i t h t h o s e he m a d e in
1829, '30, ' 3 1 , ' 3 3 , '36, '40, ' 4 1 , '42, '43, '46, '48, '49, a n d y o u will find that 30
t h e a b o v e is less a reply to Mr. Bright t h a n to his o w n f o r m e r policy. B u t while
this cunning foe, by such onslaughts u p o n Russia, conciliates t h e sympathies
of the public, he on the other hand secures favor with the Czar, by the
following observation:
" N o w , Sir, do I blame the Russian G o v e r n m e n t for entertaining s u c h a 35
policy? A policy of aggrandizement p u r s u e d by legitimate m e a n s is a policy
w h i c h y o u m a y c o n d e m n a s dangerous t o y o u r s e l v e s , w h i c h y o u m a y o p p o s e
as destructive of t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e and t h e liberties of other S t a t e s , b u t w h i c h
is n o t a r e p r o a c h to the G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h p u r s u e s it, p r o v i d e d it be p u r s u e d
by o p e n , undisguised, and a v o w e d m e a n s , without c o n c e a l m e n t , without 40
subterfuge, a n d without fraud. N o w , t h e c o u r s e w h i c h , I am sorry to say,

190
r

The War Debate in Parliament

t h e Russian G o v e r n m e n t h a s p u r s u e d in all t h e s e r e c e n t transactions h a s n o t


b e e n that o p e n and straightforward c o u r s e w h i c h w o u l d justify it in avowing
a n d in boldly declaring its policy."
B u t t h e only r e p r o a c h t o b e m a d e against the R u s s i a n G o v e r n m e n t w a s
5 j u s t , as Mr. Disraeli t e r m e d it, h e r fatal frankness. P a l m e r s t o n , accordingly,
by disapproving only of w h a t R u s s i a did n o t d o , justifies entirely t h a t w h i c h
she really h a s done.
M r . Disraeli's criticism of the secret p a p e r s w a s clever, as usual, b u t missed
its effect by his declaration t h a t it w a s o u t of p l a c e , a n d t h a t his only intention
10 in addressing the H o u s e w a s to s u p p o r t the a d d r e s s . It is painful to see a m a n
of his genius cajoling a P a l m e r s t o n , n o t only in t h e H o u s e , b u t also in his
r e p u t e d organ, The Press, from so sordid a m o t i v e as t h e politics of place
a n d party.
In y e s t e r d a y ' s sitting of the H o u s e , Sir J. G r a h a m stated that he had r e -
15 ceived intelligence that t h e fleet h a d e n t e r e d t h e Black Sea, and w a s in t h e
n e i g h b o r h o o d of V a r n a .
I n t h e H o u s e o f L o r d s , L o r d A b e r d e e n g a v e notice that o n T u e s d a y , t h e
11th, he should m o v e the adjournment of t h e H o u s e till T h u r s d a y , 27th inst.

191
Karl Marx
Russia and the German PowersCorn Prices

New-York Daily Tribune.


Nr. 4059, 21. April, 1854
F r o m Our O w n C o r r e s p o n d e n t .

L o n d o n , F r i d a y , April 7, 1854.

L o r d C l a r e n d o n declared last night in the H o u s e of L o r d s t h a t " h e had r e a s o n


to b e l i e v e " that t h e n e w s of the landing of 4,000 R u s s i a n s in t h e D o b r o d j a
by m e a n s of t r a n s p o r t s from O d e s s a w a s u n t r u e . He w a s not a w a r e t h a t the 5
R u s s i a n fleet h a d left Sevastopol which point h a d b e e n w a t c h e d , n o w and
t h e n , by English a n d F r e n c h steamers. W i t h regard to the alleged inactivity
of t h e fleets, he begged to say t h a t a blockade of S e v a s t o p o l a n d O d e s s a could
only be u n d e r t a k e n by the whole of the c o m b i n e d s q u a d r o n , w h i c h w o u l d
h a v e b e e n a d a n g e r o u s undertaking during t h e b a d season. He believed, 10
t h e r e f o r e , t h a t it had b e e n politic to retain t h e m at B e i k o s . T h e V i e n n a
c o r r e s p o n d e n t of The Times c o n c u r s in this v i e w of L o r d Clarendon, a n d
m o r e o v e r , states t h e true motives of his policy. T h e a p p r e h e n s i o n of riots
at Constantinople has never b e e n more justified t h a n since t h e negotiations
for "Christian e m a n c i p a t i o n " h a v e b e c o m e k n o w n , and it would h a v e b e e n 15
highly " i m p o l i t i c " to move the fleets from the B o s p h o r u s before the arrival
of a sufficient land force, i.e., sufficient to p u t d o w n t h e T u r k s .
In t h e H o u s e of C o m m o n s L o r d J o h n Russell said the responsibility for
t h e G r e e k insurrections rested with the C o u r t of A t h e n s , w h i c h h a d favored
t h e m at first secretly, and n o w openly. 20
T h e d e b a t e s of the w e e k offer nothing of interest, e x c e p t t h a t on
Mr. M o o r e ' s motion for a Select C o m m i t t e e to t a k e into consideration t h e
c a s e of the appointment of H. Stonor to the office of a J u d g e in the colony
of Victoria, t h e said S t o n o r having b e e n r e p o r t e d by a C o m m i t t e e of t h e
H o u s e to h a v e b e e n guilty of bribery at the elections in the b o r o u g h of Sligo 25
in 1853, t h e a p p o i n t m e n t of t h e C o m m i t t e e w a s granted. T h e prosecution of
M r . S t o n o r is, h o w e v e r , a m e r e p r e t e x t for renewing, on fresh ground, the
battle b e t w e e n t h e t w o fractions of the b r o k e n Irish Brigade. To w h a t degree
t h e sanctimonious clique of Mr. Gladstone and his co-Peelites are involved

192
!

Russia and the German PowersCorn Prices

a n d c o m p r i s e d in t h e s e Irish scandals, m a y be j u d g e d from t h e following


r e m a r k of The Morning Post:
" I n the letters t h a t h a v e b e e n p r o d u c e d , t h e gossip that has b e e n retailed
a n d t h e evidence w h i c h has b e e n given b e f o r e Parliamentary C o m m i t t e e s
5 within the last few w e e k s , t h e r e is m u c h calculated to give strength to t h e
suspicion t h a t t h e Peelite section of t h e coalition h a v e , for s o m e time past,
systematically e m p l o y e d agents to influence m a n y of the Irish elections, a n d
t h a t t h e y h a v e supplied t h e m largely with m o n e y for t h e p u r p o s e . T h e D u k e
of N e w c a s t l e is especially c o m p r o m i s e d T h e r e certainly a p p e a r s to h a v e
10 b e e n a conference of p r e f e r m e n t u p o n individuals conducting election
b u s i n e s s , seemingly u n d e r his instruction."
The Daily News of to-day publishes t h e t r e a t y b e t w e e n F r a n c e , E n g l a n d
a n d T u r k e y , which, h o w e v e r , merely contains t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s for military
action. T h e w e s t e r n p o w e r s are careful n o t to bring t h e real conditions of
15 their " a s s i s t a n c e to the S u l t a n " into the form of a treaty. T h e s e are i m p o s e d
by L o r d Stratford de Redcliff e and his m i n a t o r y a p p a r a t u s in loco, and m a d e
to a p p e a r as t h e voluntary act of t h e T u r k i s h G o v e r n m e n t .
T h e peace-mission of the Prince of M e c k l e n b u r g to Berlin had no other
object in view b u t to furnish t h e K i n g of P r u s s i a with a n e w p r e t e x t for
20 keeping aloof from the W e s t e r n Alliance. I am informed from Berlin t h a t
R u s s i a w o u l d only acknowledge the S w e d i s h declaration of neutrality after
the King h a d b o u n d himself to r e i s s u e to t h e c o m m a n d a n t s of the S w e d i s h
h a r b o r s t h e old regulations, according to w h i c h no m o r e t h a n four foreign
men-of-war are allowed to a n c h o r within t h e range of the guns of any port.
25 As this order considerably departs from t h e stipulations of neutrality agreed
u p o n b e t w e e n S w e d e n a n d D e n m a r k , n e w negotiations b e t w e e n the Scandi-
navian p o w e r s o n t h e o n e h a n d , and t h e w e s t e r n p o w e r s o n t h e other h a n d ,
are to be anticipated. It is generally believed at S t o c k h o l m that the R u s s i a n s
will a b a n d o n their occupation of Aland, a n d r a z e their fortifications on t h a t
30 island, carrying a w a y t h e guns and o t h e r material of w a r . A telegraphic
dispatch received to-day states t h a t this step h a d already b e e n carried out.
T h e A u s t r i a n corps d'observation in t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n p o r t i o n s of H u n g a r y
is n o w on a c o m p l e t e w a r footing, a n d d r a w n up in t h e different positions
allotted to it. T h e concentration required from t e n to twelve d a y s . T h e
35 G e r m a n p a p e r s generally a s s u m e t h a t this a r m y w o u l d be destined to t a k e
t h e T u r k i s h a r m y in the flank, in c a s e of A u s t r i a joining actively with Russia,
and t h e r e would be no difficulty in doing so. B u t t h e A u s t r i a n s c a n only enter
T u r k e y either by M e h a d i a , w h e n t h e y w o u l d h a v e the T u r k i s h a r m y in their
front, or by Belgrade, w h e n t h e y w o u l d find t h e m s e l v e s in a line with t h e
40 e x t e n d e d left flank of the T u r k s . It is m u c h m o r e p r o b a b l e , therefore, t h a t
if t h e Austrians enter T u r k e y with hostile intentions, t h e y will m a r c h from

193
Karl Marx

Belgrade u p o n Sophia b y K r u s c h e v a t z and N i s s a ; b u t e v e n i n t h a t c a s e the


T u r k s would h a v e a shorter w a y to Sophia, by marching from Widdin in a
direct line s o u t h w a r d .
T h e r e p o r t of t h e Prussian L o a n - C o m m i t t e e in t h e Second C h a m b e r ,
c o n t a i n s an a c c o u n t of the policy p u r s u e d by P r u s s i a in t h e E a s t e r n Question, 5
and publishes several di