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OBJECT: -

To study the separating and throttling calorimeter for measuring the dryness
fraction of steam.

INTRODUCTION:-

The arrangement of this calorimeter is shown in the fig. where these


separating and throttling calorimeters are placed in series. The steam from
the sample tube is first passed through the separating calorimeter where
most of the water particles are removed and then it is passed on to the
calorimeter.

The wet steam enters at the top from the main steam pipe through holes in
the sampling pipe facing upstream which should be as far as possible
downstream from the elbows and values to ensure representative sample of
steam. The valve should be fully open when testing for dryness so that no
throttling or wire drawing takes place. When in operation, the wet entering
steam passes down the central passage and undergoes a sudden reversal of
direction of motion when it strikes the baffle plates. This causes the water
which has greater inertia, to separate from the mixture. The water collects in
the inner chamber, which is connected to gauge glass, with a graduated scale
showing the quantity of water separated. The dry steam moves upwards from
the inner chamber and downwards in annular space between inner and outer
chamber. A gauge is fitted to the outer chamber, which is calibrated to give
discharge of any saturated steam in 10 minutes. The steam then passes
through the orifice to bucket calorimeter on the platform of balance, further
conforming the weight of steam discharge.
Let x1 be the dryness fraction as calculated by this calorimeter. The
expression is:

x1=M/(M+m)

where m=Mass of water

M=Mass of dry steam

Now the driver steam as obtained from the separating calorimeter passes to
the throttling calorimeter and is passed out and condensed.

The sampled steam passes through the throttle valve and the throttled steam
flows into the inner chambers. The minimum condition for the successful
operation of the throttling calorimeter is that the steam after throttling must
be superheated. The pressure after throttling is vertically atmospheric.
Corresponding to this pressure, saturation temperature can be found out, and
if the temperature recorded by the thermometer is more than this, it is
confirmed that the steam is superheated after throttling. The steam then
flows out of the inner chamber at the top, turns downwards into the annular
space of the inner and outer chamber.

The outer chamber is insulated and this steam, surrounding the inner
chamber aids the inner chamber in insulating loss by radiation.

Let x2 be the dryness fraction of the steam as measured from the throttling
calorimeter, then

x2=[h g2+Cp(tsup2-ts2)-hf1]/hg1
where ts2=Saturation temperature at final pressure

tsup2=Superheated steam temperature

hf1= Enthalpy of water at P1

hg1= Enthalpy of vapour

CP=Specific heat of superheated steam after throttling in kJ/kg

The steam coming out of throttling calorimeter is condensed in a condenser


and mass of the condensate in separating calorimeter and pressure and
temperature of the steam leaving the throttle valve are recorded with the help
of water manometer and mercury in glass thermometer.

Let x be the dryness fraction as determined by combined separating and


throttling calorimeter, x=x1 x x2

Let M=Mass of air actually used in kg/kg of fuel

M+1=Mass of the flue gases in kg/kg of fuel

First of all, let us find the volume of outside air/kg of fuel at NTP (i.e. at 0C
temperature and 1.013 bar pressure)

Let V0=Volume of air at 0C.

Therefore, Absolute temperature T0=(0+273)K=273K

Atmospheric pressure, p0=1.013 bar=1.013x105N/m2

We know that p x V=mRT

Or V0= mRT0/P0 = (m x 287 x 273)/(1.013 x 105)


= 0.773 m 3/kg of fuel

Volume of outside at T1K

V1 = V0 x T1 /T0 = 0.773m x T1 /273 = mT1/353 m3/kg of fuel

Density of outside at T1K = f1 = m/(mT1/353) = 353/T1 kg/m3

Therefore, pressure due to a similar column of outside (cold) air = p 1

= f1 Hg = (353/ T1)x H x
9.81

= 3463H/ T1 N/m2

According to Avogadros law, the flue gas at NTP occupies the same volume as
that of air used at NTP.

Volume of flue gases at 0C=0.773m m3/kg of fuel

Density of flue gases at T2 K

p2 = (m+1) / (mT2/353) = 353(m+1)/mT2 kg/m3

Therefore pressure due to column of hot gases at the base of chimney p 2

=p2 x H x g = [353 x (m+1) x H x 9.81]/m T2

= [3463(m+1)H]/mT2 N/m2

We know that draught pressure is due to the pressure difference between the
hot column of gas in the chimney and the similar column of cold air outside
the chimney. Therefore, draught pressure

p=p1-p2 =[3463/ T2] [(3463(m+1)H)/m T2] N/m2


VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS:-

1. What is a calorimeter?

2. Explain the construction of combined separating and throttling


calorimeter?

3. Explain the working of combined separating and throttling calorimeter?

4. What do you understand by draught?

5. What is meant by the term dryness fraction?