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CEN 323

Ultimate Strength Design (USD) of Beam:

M u M n

Pu P n

V u V n

The nominal strength of a proposed member is calculated based on the best current knowledge of member

and material behavior. That nominal strength is modified by a strength reduction factor , less than

unity, to obtain the design strength.

The required strength, should the hypothetical overload stage actually be realized, is found by applying

load factors , greater than unity.

Flexural Design

Mn Mu

The distribution of concrete compressive stresses at or near ultimate load have no well-defined shape

parabolic, trapezoidal, or other shape. For this and other reasons, wholly rational flexural theory for

reinforced concrete has not yet been developed. Present methods of analysis, therefore, are based in part

on known laws of mechanics and are supplemented, where needed, by extensive test information.

It has been mentioned before that an exact criterion for concrete compression failure is not yet known,

but that for rectangular beams, strains of 0.003 to 0.004 have been measured immediately preceding

failure. If one assumes, usually slightly conservatively, that the concrete is about to crush when the

maximum strain reaches = 0.003.

Figure 1: Stress distribution at ultimate load

Let

f av (1)

= '

f c

Then

(2)

'

C= f c bc

For a given distance c to the neutral axis, the location of C can be defined as some fraction of the

distance. Thus, as indicated in Fig. 1 for a concrete of given strength it is necessary to know only

and to completely define the effect of the concrete compressive stresses.

Extensive direct measurements, as well as indirect evaluations of numerous beam tests, have shown that

the following values for and are satisfactorily accurate.

(3)

Figure 2: Variation of and with concrete

If this experimental information is accepted, the maximum moment can be calculated from the

laws of equilibrium and from the assumption that plane cross sections remain plane. Equilibrium

requires that

'

C=T f c bc =A s f s

Also, the bending moment, being the couple of the forces C and T, can be written as either

(4)

M =Tz= A s f s ( dc )

' (5)

M =Cz= f c bc ( dc )

For failure initiated by yielding of the tension steel, f s=f y . Substituting this value in Eq. (3), one

obtain the distance to the neutral axis

As f y (6)

c=

f 'c b

(7)

f yd

c= '

f c

giving the distance to the neutral axis when tension failure occurs. The nominal moment M n is then

obtained from Eq. (4), with the value for c just determined, and f s=f y ; that is

f y (8)

M n= f y b d 2 1

( f 'c )

With the specific, experimentally obtained values for and given previously, this becomes

(9)

f

M n= f y b d 10.59 y '

2

fc ( )

The above equation is valid only for a steel ratio less than the balance steel ratio, b

f 'c u (10)

b=

f y u + y

A equivalent rectangular stress distribution of concrete stress was proposed by C. S. Whitney and was

subsequently elaborated and checked experimentally by others and accepted in many countries are

presented below

c

Where C= f 'c bc = f 'c ab from which =

a

f 'c psi

4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

0.72 0.68 0.64 0.60 0.56

0.425 0.400 0.375 0.350 0.325

1=2 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65

= / 1 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.86

' (11)

C=0.85 f c ab

f 'c u (12)

b=0.85 1

f y u + y

A compression failure in flexure, should it occur, gives little if any warning of distress.

In Under reinforced beam failure initiated by yielding of the steel, typically is gradual.

Distress is obvious from observing the large deflections and widening of concrete cracks asso-

ciated with yielding of the steel reinforcement, and measures can be taken to avoid total collapse.

Strain-hardening of the reinforcing steel is not considered, which provide substantial strength to

the beam.

That is why to design a beam, which fail by yielding of steel, reinforcement ration, is chose less

than the balance reinforcement ration b .

To ensure under reinforced behavior, ACI Code 10.3.4 establishes a minimum net tensile strain t at

'

the nominal strength of 0.005 for members subjected to axial loads less than 0.10 f c A g . By way of

comparison y , the steel strain at the balanced condition, is 0.00207 for f y =60,000 psi .

Using t = y =0.005 in Eq. (12) provides the maximum reinforcement ratio allowed by ACI code

for beam

'

fc u

max =0.85 1

f y u +0.005

The value of reduction factor depends upon the net tensile strain of steel of which can be

determined by following figure.

Minimum Steel Ratio

200

Minimum steel ratio according to ACI 10.5 is min = for flexural member.

fy

Example 1

b=10., h=25. ,d=23. , and is reinforced with three No. 8

(No. 25) bars. The concrete cylinder strength f 'c =4000 psi. and

yield point of steel is f y =60,000 psi . Compute the nominal and

design strength of the section.

Solution:

A s 3 0.79

For this beam reinforcement ratio, = = =0.0103

bd 10 23

'

fc 0.003 4 0.003

Max reinforcement ratio, 0.005=0.85 1 =0.85 0.85 =0.0181

f y 0.003+ 0.005 60 0.008

Nominal Moment,

fy

(

M n= f y b d 2 10.59 '

fc ) (

=0.0103 60,000 10 232 10.59

0.0103 60

4 )

2,970,000lb=248 ft - kips

Example 2

A rectangular beam must carry a distributed live load of 680 plf and support the dead load of a wall

weighing 380 plf, in addition to its own weight, on a simple span of 24 ft. Design the beam for flexure,

'

using f y =60 ksif c =4 ksi .

Solution 1:

The total load acting on the beam includes its own weight, which must be estimated. As a trial a total

depth equal to 1 in. per ft of span and a width of one-half that amount are assumed; the beam weight is

144

estimated as 12 24 / 150=300 plf ,

Dead load self weight +wall dead load=300+380=680 plf

1904 plf

1

Factored Moment, M u= l 2

8

1

1904 242 ft - lb

8

Figure: Assumed section

137088 ft - lb

1645056- lb

fy

Now we have,

(

M n= f y b d 2 10.59

f 'c )

60

1645056=0.9 60,000 12 212 10.59 ( 4 )

1645056=285.768 106 ( 18.85 )

6 9 2

1645056=285.768 10 2.529 10

9 2 6

2.529 10 285.768 10 +1645056=0

assume, =0.00608

'

f 0.003 4 0.003

Max reinforcement ratio, 0.005=0.85 1 c =0.85 0.85 =0.0181

f y 0.003+ 0.005 60 0.008

200

Minimum steel ratio according to ACI 10.5 is min = =0.003

fy

with this reinforce ration the beam would be under reinforced one.

2

A s=bd=0.00608 12 21=1.53

This could be provided by two No. 6 (No.19) and two No.5 (No.16) bars in a row which provide a steel

area 1.50 2 , which is sufficiently close to the required steel.

(1.50)

Solution 2:

The total load acting on the beam includes its own weight, which must be estimated. As a trial a total

depth equal to 1 in. per ft of span and a width of one-half that amount are assumed; the beam weight is

144

estimated as 12 24 / 150=300 plf ,

Dead load self weight +wall dead load=300+380=680 plf

1.2 680+1.6 680

1904 plf

1

Factored Moment, M u= l 2

8

1

1904 242 ft - lb

8

137088 ft - lb

1645056- lb

Max reinforcement ratio, 0.005=0.85 1 =0.85 0.85 =0.0181

f y 0.003+ 0.005 60 0.008

Taking =0.0181

fy

Now we have,

(

M n= f y b d 2 10.59

f 'c )

0.0181 60

1645056=0.9 0.0181 60,000 b d 2 10.59 ( 4 )

2 3

820.84 b d =1645056

2 3

b d =2004.11

Assume b=10.

2 3

Then 10 d =2004.11

2 2

d =200.41

d= 200.41.

d=14.15.

d 14.5.

A s=bd=0.018110 14.5=2.62 2

2

This could be provided by six No. 6 (No.19) bars in two rows which provide a steel area 2.64 ,

which is slightly greater to the required steel.

6#6 bars

(2.64)

An improved economy may be possible, refining the steel area based on the actual larger

effective depth and smaller concrete section.

144

Now self-weight can be estimated = 10 18/ 150=187.5 190 plf

Dead load self weight +wall dead load=190+380=570 plf

1772 plf

1

Factored Moment, M u= l 2

8

1 2

1772 24 ft - lb

8

127584 ft - lb

1531008- lb

fy

Now we have,

(

M n= f y b d 2 10.59 '

fc )

60

1531008=0.9 60,000 10 14.52 10.59 ( 4 )

1531008=113.535 10 6 ( 18.85 )

6 9 2

1531008=113.535 10 1.004 10

9 2 6

1.004 10 113.535 10 + 1531008=0

Assume, =0.015650

2

A s=bd=0.0156 10 14.5=2.26

This could be provided by three No. 6 (No.19) and three No.5 (No.16) bars in two row which provide a

steel area 2.25 2 , which is sufficiently close to the required steel.

(2.25)

According to the ACI Code, all beams are to be designed for yielding of the tension steel with

t not less than 0.004 and, thus, max . Occasionally, however, such as when analyzing

the capacity of existing construction, it may be necessary to calculate the flexural strength of an

over reinforced compression controlled member, for which f s is less than f y at flexural

failure.

d c

In this case, the steel strain, s = u

c

Substituting the steel strain from in the last equation, and defining k u =c /d , one obtains a quadratic

equation in k u as follows:

2

k u +m k um=0

As

Here, = as usual and m is a material parameter given by

bd

Es u

m= '

0.85 1 f c

k u = m+

m 2 m

2

( )

2

Neutral axis depth for the over reinforced beam, c=k u d , after the stress-block depth a= 1 c .

With steel stress f s=E s s the nominal flexural strength is

M n= A s f s d( a2 )

The strength reduction factor will be equal 0.65 for beams in this range

Practical Consideration in the design of beams

To focus attention initially on the basic aspect of flexural design, the preceding examples were

carried out with only minimum regard for certain practical considerations that always influence

the actual design of beams. These relate to optimal concrete protection, rounding of dimension,

standardization of dimension and selection of bar combination.

ACI Code 7.7

Not exposed

Concrete is cast

directly to Exposed to weather or in contact

in direct contact

ground or with ground

with the ground

weather

2.

Slab 3 1

and . ( 1 . for No. 5 and smaller 3.

4 2

wall

bar)

2.

Beam 1 1

and 1 . ( 1 . for No. 5 and smaller 3.

2 2

column

bar)

1 1

2 3. from the top or bottom surface to furnish at least 1 . of clear

2 2

cover

In slabs, 1 in. to the center of the bar is ordinarily sufficient to give the required

3

. cover.

4

To simplify construction and thereby to reduce costs, the overall dimension of

beams, b and h, are almost always rounded to the nearest inch, and often to the

next multiple of 2 in.

1

For slab, the total depth h, is generally rounded to the nearest in. up to 6 in.

2

and to the nearest in above that thickness.

Should be arranged symmetrically about the vertical centerline

Many designers limit the variation in diameter of bars in a single layer to two bar sizes

According to ACI Code 7.6, the minimum clear distance between adjacent bars in beam

shall not be less than the nominal diameter of the bars, or 1 in.

When reinforcement are placed two or more layers, the clear distance between layers

must not be less than 1 in., and the bar in the upper layer should be placed directly above

those in the bottom layer.

If a beam cross section is limited because of architectural or other consideration, it may happen

that the concrete cannot develop the compression force required to resist the given bending

moment. In that case, reinforcement is added in the compression zone, resulting in a so-called

doubly reinforced beam.

a) Tension and Compression Steel Both at Yield Stress

A

( s A 's )f y d ( a2 ) or

M n 2=

With the definition = A s /bd and ' = A's /bd

f y ( ' )

' 2

M n 2=( ) f y b d 10.59

( f 'c )

The total nominal resisting moment is then

A

a

( s A's) f y d ( )

2

' '

M n=M n 1+ M n 2= A s f y ( d d )+

Or

'

' ' '

M n=M n 1+ M n 2= A f y ( d d )+( ) f y b d 10.59

s

f 'c

2

( f y ( )

)

In accordance with the safety provision of the ACI Code, the net tensile strain is checked,

and if t 0.005, this nominal capacity is reduced by the factor =0.9 to obtain the

design strength. For t between 0.005 to 0.004, must be adjusted.

max =max + '

Minimum tensile reinforcement ratio cy that will ensure yielding of the compression

steel at failure

'

f d' u

cy =0.85 1 c + '

f y d u y

f 's

'

max =0.005 +

fy

d u

( + 0.005) f y ]

Then value of c could be found out by solving

'

cd

A s f y =0.85 1 f 'c bc + A's u E s

c

Then a= 1 c

M n=0.85 f 'c ab d ( a2 )+ A f ( dd )

'

s

'

s

'

DL: 1 k/ft

Example 3 LL: 5 k/ft

dead and live load as shown as

20

Architectural reason the section

is fixed by 10 in. width and 20

10

in total depth. If

f y =60 ksif 'c =4 ksi , what steel must be provided?

Solution:

144

Self weight can be estimated = 10 20/ 0.150=0.21 klf

Dead load self wei ght+ dead load=0.21+1=1.21 klf

Live load 5 klf

9.452 klf

1

Factored Moment, M u= l 2

2

1

9.452 72 ft - kips

2

231.57 ft - kips

2778.88- kips

Assuming the tensile steel centroid will be 4 in. below the top face of the beam and that

compression steel, if required, will be placed 2.5 in. above the beams bottom surface. Then

d=16.

First, check the capacity of the section if singly reinforced with reinforcement ratio

'

fc 0.003 4 0.003

0.005=0.85 1 =0.85 0.85 =0.0181

f y 0.003+ 0.005 60 0.008

fy

(

M n= f y b d 2 10.59 '

fc) (

=0.018160 10 162 10.59

0.0181 60

4 )

2334.82- kips

Because corresponding design moment, M n=2101.33- kips , is less than the required

capacity, 2779 - kips , compression steel is needed as well as additional tension steel.

2779

M n 1= 2334.82=752.95- kips

0.9

As d is less than the value required to develop the compression reinforcement yield stress (Table

3.2, page 99, Nilson 13th edition), a reduced stress in the compression reinforcement will be used.

' '

f s=E s s=E s u [ d'

d u

( + 0.005) ]

29000 .00175 ksi

50.75 ksi

M n1 752.95

A 's = = =1.12i n2

'

f ( d d )

s

'

50.75(162.5)

'

f

A s = bd + A s '

s

fy

50.75

0.0181 10 16+1.12

60

2

3.84 in

zone and two No. 7 bar provide slightly

greater than the required steel.

10

4#9

20

14.75

2#7

A final check is made to ensure that the section has sufficient capacity

cd '

A s f y =0.85 1 f 'c bc + A's u E s

c

c2.5

4 60=0.85 0.85 4 10 c +1.20 0.003 29000

c

c2.5

4 60=0.85 0.85 4 10 c +1.20 0.003 29000

c

2

28.9 c 135.6 c261=0

c 1.47 , c=6.16

f s=E s s= s=29000 0.003 =51.69 ksi

6.16

17.256.16

t =0.003 =0.0054

6.16

[

Then M n =0.9 0.85 4 5.236 10 16 ( 5.236

2 )

+1.2 51.69 ( 162.5 )

]

= 2897.7 - kips

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