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. ·INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULICS ..«:



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MANUAL

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PREFACE

Like many branches of engineering, hydraulics is both ancient and modern. The use of the water wheel, for example, is so ancient that its invention precedes written history. On the other hand, the use of fluid under pressure to transmit power and to control intricate motions is relatively modern and has had its greatest development in the past two or three decades.

Power generation, the branch of hydraulics represented by the water wheel, does not concern us here. The steam engine, the internal combustion engine, the electric motor and the water turbine all have performed an admirable job in supplying motive power. However, each lacks the mechanics to direct this power to useful work. The purpose of this manual is to study the use of fluids under pressure in the transmission of power or motion under precise control.

We have often been asked the question, "Why is industrial hydraulics necessary when we have at our disposal many well known mechanical, pneumatic and electric devices ?"

It is because a confined fluid is one of the most versatile means of modifying motion and transmitting power known today. It is as unyielding as steel, and yet infinitely flexible. It will change its shape to fit the body that resists its thrust, and it can be divided into parts, each part doing work according to its size, and can be reunited to work again as a whole.

It can move rapidly in one part of its length and slowly in another. No other medium combines the same degree of positiveness, accuracy, and flexibility, maintaining the ability to transmit a maximum of power in a minimum of bulk and weight.

The laws of physics governing fluids are as simple as the mechanics of solids and simpler than the laws governing electricity, vapors, or gases. The use of engineering in general, and hydraulics in particular, has been to achieve the end of extending man's physical and mental power to enable a job to be done more accurately, more quickly, and with a smaller expenditure of human energy.

Although this manual is devoted primarily to operation and maintenance of Vickers equipment, it includes general chapters covering basic hydraulics and all types of pumps, motors and controls. The Vickers equipment covered is limited to the representative series most commonly encountered in the machine tool industry.

In recent years, a trend has developed toward the establishment of standards in most phases of industry. In the field of hydraulics, probably the most significant efforts in this direction were started by the Joint Industry Conference (J. 1. C. ). The Joint Industry Conference was comprised of several recognized industrial associations interested in the establishment of industrial standards which would promote safety of personnel and ease of maintenance and increase the service life of equipment and tools. Since its published recommendations were received so favorably in the field of hydraulics, the efforts were continued by the American Standards Association (ASA) in cooperation with the National Fluid Power Association. The name of ASA has more recently been changed to American National Standards Institute (A. N. S. 1. ).

Operating or system pressure Exhaust flow

Intake or drain

Measured (metered) flow

Reduced pressure, pilot pressure or charging pressure Intensified pressure

Inactive fluid

The standards established for graphical symbols and color coding of flow and pressures have been used throughout this manual. Significance of the symbols is discussed in Chapter 2 and Appendix II. The color key used in pictorials of components and in hydraulic lines is as follows:

~ RED
c:==J BLUE
G::::=J GREEN
~ YELLOW
~ ORANGE
- VIOLET
c::::::::J BLANK L <3B'Bd •.....•.....•..•......... sIoqruAS I'BO~l[d'B.ID I a3'Bd .•••••....... ·S'w.r<3J, I't'!ogrqo8J, jo S'uomUU<3a

1. - 81. .•.••••.••••••.•. Snno.I1;) Onn'B.IpAH replsnpuI

1. - 1':1. •.....•.•••••••••••••••••••..•• ·S<3l.IOSS<3;);)V

1. -1.1. ........•................. 'sdmUd 01ln'B.IPAH

1-01: ·Sl0.Iluo:) <3runiOA

1-6 ........•...............• ·sIo.quoJ <3.mSS<3.Id

1-8 'S<3Al'BA OA.IClS

1- L .•..•.................. ·sl0.lfuo:) 1'Buo~pa.l1a

1. - 9 S.l0tBnpV ~lHnB.IpAH

1-9 ·S.I<3uo~:npUO;) p~nld pUB S,I~OA.I<3S<3M

I-v 'BUnB<3S ptre 2U1d~d OnnB.lpAH

1-8 'sPlnld ;)HUB.lpAH

1- I': ..•.•..•••••••• SOllnB,IPAH .Ia1t\Od JO SClld1;)U1,Id

1-1 'soqnl!JPAH Of uotjonpo.riu] uV

a60d al'!!

SlNHNO) ::10 319'11

IL_

81 1':1 n 01 6 8 l..,

9 9 v S Z 1

Ja,dol.j)

CHAPTER: ,

1:

AN INTRODUCTION 'TO HYDRAULICS

The study of hydr<IluHcs deals with the u.se and charad.eristicsof liquids. Since the beginning of time, mall hms used fluids to ease his burden. It :is not hard to rmagme a caveman fi.oating down a .river, astride a log with his wne:--ul1ldooVi.rilng his chtldren and other belongings aboard a second log with 11 rope made of~wi$ted vines.

Pas caPs Law, Sim.ply stated, says thi.s:

Pressure a;ppHed on a confined fluid is transmitted undimimshed fn aU directions, and acts withequa1l force on equal areas! and at r:i,gbt angles to them.

Ear lie st rcc orded history shows that device s such as pumps and water wheels were known .lID veryancient times. it was not, however ~ until the 17th. century that the branch of hydraulics with which we are to be concerned first crone into use, Based lllpo.!l a principle discove red by Uile Frenc h sclencist Pascal, it relates to the use Qr confined fLuids in l'r'a,ns.m itting: powe r, multiplying force and modifying motions.

This precept explains why a full glass bottle will b:reak if a svoppet is rorced into the .already full chamber. The liquid is practically nOHgCOm..pressfble and transmits the [one applieci at the stopper throughout Ul€ container (Fig. 1-1) .. The result is an eN:ceedingly higliltr .force on a larger area than the stopper, Thus it i s possfble to breai{ out the bottom by pushing onthe stopper with amoderate :force ..

:2. A W POUND FORCE APPUED ro A STO P.PER WUHI A SURFACE AREA

OF ONE SO lIARE INCH ~ ~ •

1,. iHE. !BOHLE liS FlLLED WUH A UQ U~ D, WH.KH IS NOT COMPRESSmLE~

3. RESULiS l N 10 lPOUNDS OF fORCE ON EVERY SQUARE INC H >( flRESS URiE) OF THE CONIA~ NER WALL.

4. IF THE IBOnOM HAS .AN AREA Of 20 SO LIAR!: I NCHIES A NO EAC H SQUA RiE I~ NCH ~S PUSHED 'ON !BYl e POUNDS OF FORCE,THE E NilRE BOHOM RECEIVES A

200 POUND PUSH ~

Fligure lli~ it. Pressure (Fo.t"ce per Unit Area) is Trans.mitten Thrcughoet a Confined Fluid

1-1

1. n: NPOUNDS HER E ~ ~ •

ThOO#

3. IF H-IIS "~ARM;' 'IS 10 HMES cAS lONG AS •••

V~EW B

r. AN '~NPUT FORCE Of 10 POUNDS ON A ONE SQUA REi NC H PISTON •••

:0/

3. THIS PRESSURE W~ LL SUPPORT A 100 POUND WEIGHT! F IH~S IS A ]0 SQUARE INCH PlSTON.

.2. DEVElO PES A PRlESSURE OF10 POUNDS PER SQUARE ~ NCH (psi) THROUGHOllT

1 HE CO NTAI NER.

10 SQ~ IN.

4 HiE. FO.RC.· ES ARE P.RO ... P'.O.~ •.. RiIONAl .' ... ... OUTPUT

0. THE P'iSlONAREAS. / ....

Wilt 100#

_._ :1=

~, sa. ~N. 10 so .. 1 N~

V~'fvV A

I,NPUT

Figure 1-2. Hydraulic Leverage

1~2

Perhaps it 'was the very sunpltcity of Pascal "s Law that prevented men from realizing its trcmcndous potential for some two centuries. Then, in the early stages of the iLlLtdlllstr-ialrevolulion, a British ll'l.echlank: named Joseph Bramah utilized Paseai's d:i!.s{';overy in developing a hydraulic press.

Bn1.(ull,dl decided. that, if a small force on. <Ie small area would create a propnrUon.dly bqt;er force 'On a huger area, the only limit to the force a mace hine can ex€: rt is the ar ea to which the pressure is applied.

Figl,lrc ]-2 shows how Braman applied Pasca .. Ps principlcro the hydr aulie press. The applied force ts the same as outhe stopper in F'ig. ]. ~ 1. and the sm an pisVm h~~ the sameone squar cinch area. The larger piston though) has an area of ]0 square inches. Th,e large piston is pushed On with 10 pounds of fore e per square inch, so that :it can support a total \veig"ht Or _force of 100 pounds.

It cau be seen easily that the .forc(~~ Or wf,:ig111s which win. balance with this apparatus are proportional to the pistcn areas, Thu s 1 if the ou tput piston area is 200 square inches, the output Iorce wtll be 2000 pounds (assuming the same 10 p()1!,l!I1dS of push orilcach square inelr), rhis is the

'Ope nIi ng: pr i~~dpl e of thee hydraulic j ack, as weU as the hydraulic pres s ..

It is iHtef·e~tj.ng: to note the similarity between. this snnple press and <ll mechanical lever {view B,. As Pascal had previously stated-vhere J_ga'i.n for ce is to Iorce as di.stanc e is to disbu:!,(';·e.

PRiESS U RE D Efl'NED

III order to determine the ~ohi!.l Kore,eexer'ted on OJ. surfac C., :it is nee e ssary to' know the pres sure or force on. a unit of area. We I!;!suolly express this---presslllre InP~ounds Per Square Inch, abbreviated pst, Knowingthe pre 5SUI"e .a:rldthe numbe r of squ:U€ inches of area on which .It i So being' exerted, one can :r.eadHy detormIne the tot~l force.

(l'orce in. Pounds - Pressuce in psi x Area In ::lq. In.)

CONSERVATION Of ENERGY

A .hmctam.entl.'l.l law of physics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The rrmltrplrcatton of forte in Fig. 1-.2 is not a matter of getting something for nothing. The large piston is moved only by the liquid dispfa .. ced by tlw small piston making the distance each piston moves in:versely proportronal to its area (Fig" :I. -:3).

2. ]0 CUBl.C ~ NCHES Of UQUI D WI LL MOVE T HE LA RGER PI STON ONLY 1 I NO-i.

(lO SQ. !N. X 1 ~N ... ~. 10 CU. IN.)

'" 10 SQ. IN.

1 .~ INC H ~I t=====;:====~

11

dt

r. MOVl NG THE SMALL PI STON 1 0 ~ NC HES DI S PLACES 1 0 CUBIC ~ NC HES Of LlQUI D~

n SQ_~ I~N. X 10 :~N. :;: ]0 CU~ I N~)

3. THE ENERGY TRANSFER HERE IEQ U!A.LSl 0 POl] NDS X 10m NCHiES OR 100 iNJCH POUNDS~

4. THE ENERGY IiRANSFER HERE ALSO IS WOOl NCH POUNDS ~

(1 Ii NC H X 100 POU NOS ~ WO INCH POUNDS.)

Fig;llirC 1-3. Energy Call Neifher Be Created N01~ Destroyed

1-3

What is gained in for c emus t be sac l'iIiced in distance or speed.

HYDR.AUUC POWER TIRANIS.MIS5WN

Hydr<\ulies now could be defined as a means of transmitting power by pushing on a confined liquid. The iIIJ)ut component 01 the system is called a. pump; the output. is called ~ .. n actnatox,

While for the sake of slmpHcity we have shown a single smalll piston, most power driven pumps would Incorporate multiple pistons, vanes or gears as their pumping dements. Actuator's are line 03..1' , sue h as the c j1linder shown; oz- rotary, such as hydram:Uc motors (Fig. 1-4).

The hydraulic system is not a sourc~ of power. The power source Is a prune mover such as all electric motor or an engine which drrves the pump, The reader might ask, therefore, why not forget about hydraulies and couple the mechanical equrpm ent direc Uy to the pr ime mover? The answer its in ill.€' versanhty of the hydraulic system, which gives it advantages over other methods of transmitting power,

ADVANl.A.'GES OF HYDRAUUCS

Variable Spe,ed. Most elecfrIc motors run at a constant speed. It is also desirable to operate a.H. engine at a COIl s tant spe ed, The actuator(Imear or rotary) of R hydraulic system, however ~ can be driven at infinitely vartahle speeds by varying the pump delivery or using a flow control valve (Fig. 1-'5).,

Rev er-stble, Few prime movers are rever-sible. Those that are reversible usually must be slowed to a complete stop before reversing them. A hydr;auHc actuator can be reversed instantly while in full motion without damage. A rour-wav dtreetional valve (Fig. 1-6) or a rever-sible pump provides the reversing control, while a. pressure relief valve pr-otects the system components from excess pressure.

OverloadProrectton, The pressure relief valve in a hydrauli.c: system protects it frotl), overload damage. When the load exceeds the valve setting, pump deli very is dtree ted to tank with. definite limits to torque or force output, Th.e pressure relic.! valve also provides a means Of setting a machine for a spectfied amoun t of torque .or fcrce, as in a chucking or a damp Lng: ope rwtLon,.

S01.an Packaaes. Hydrauhc components" because of their high speed and pressure c<'l.pabilitieS,

can provide hibth power output with very small weight and size.

Can Be Stalled. Stalling an electrtc motor will cause damage 0.1' blow a fuse, Likew.is!e~ eagmes cannot be staned without the necessity for restarting'. A hydraulic actuator r though, c an be stalled without damage when ever-loaded, and win start, up immediately when the load is reduced. During stall, the r eHef val ve simply diverts delivery from the pump to the tank. The oruy loss encountered is rnwasted horaepower.

HYDIRAUllC ou

Any Hquid is essentially non -compressfbl e and therefore will rransmtt power Inetantaneouslym a hydraulic system. The name hydraulics, in Jact, eornes from the Gre,ekr hydor, meaning "water" and, aulas ,. meaning ttpipe." Bramah' s first hydraulfc press and Some presse,s in service today use water as the transmittmg medium,

However 1 tile most common liquid used in hydI'[j.ll1L'i.c systems is petroleum oil. Oil transmits power readily because It is only Ycry sl.ightly eompi-esaihle, It. wiU compress about 1/2 of one percent at 1000 psi pressure, a negligible amount in most systems, The most desirable property of otl is its lubricating ability,. The hydraulic fiuid must lil,l.bricate most of the moving parts of the camp orients.

PRESS U'R E liN A. 'co LU MN 0 F IFLU II)

The weight of a 'Volume of on vartes to a degree as the viscosity (thickness) changes, However, most hydraultc oils w'e.ig.~~ from 55 to 58 [munds per cubic foot in normal operating ranges.

One important consjder-ation of the oil' s weight is i 15 effect on the pUIIlP inlet. The we i.ght or the oil win cause a. pn:!S$ure of about ,.4 psi at the bottom of a 'One - loot e clumn of oil (Fig. 1- '7). For each additional foot Of height, it will be .4 psi higher'. ThUS, to estimate the pressure at the bottom of any C olumn of oil ~ sLm;ply multiply the height by . 4p si.

To apply this principle. consider the conditions where the oil reservotr is located above or below the pump inlet (Fig. }-8). When the reservoir oil level is above the pump inlet, a positive pressure is available to .foI'(:·e the oil into the pump .. However, li the pump is located above the oil level, a vacuum equivalent to . ':I psi per foot is needed to. TTH:U" the on to 'the pump inlet. Actually the oil .i8 not "Iifted" hy the vacuum, it is forced by atmospher-ic pressure into the void

1-4

V1 ~ A U NEAR ACTUATOR

1. IHEPUMP PUSHES HiE HYDPAUUC UQUID·I NTO LINES.

2. IlL NES CARRY 'HE UQUlD TO ACIUATORS WHKH AR.E PUSHED 10 CAUSE A MECHAN1CAl OUTPUT TO MOVIE A LOAD.

o RESERVOI.R 3. SOME ACTUATORS OPERATE 1'N A

SIRAI. GHT U NiE (U NEAR ACTUATORS) ~ II-HEY ARE CAL'lED CYUNDERS OR RA.MS, lHEY ARE USED fa II FT WEI GHT, EXERT FORCE, CLAMP r HC.

4. ROTARY ACIUATORS OR MOTORS GI.VE HiE SYSTEM R.OTAII NG OUiPUT ~ lHEY CAN 'BE CONNECTED TO PULLEYS.,

GEARS, IRACK-ANf)-PiNlONS, CONVEYORS, HC.

ROTARY DRIVE SHAH

VIi8N B ROTARY ACIUATOR.

Fig,ure 1-4. Hydraulic .!Power Transmission

1-5

1 ~ ~F THE PUMP CO NSIANIL '( DEUVERS ] 0 GALLO NS PER M~ NlHE •••

2. AND THI S VOLUME ~S 10 GAtlONS ...

3.. THE P~SfON Wlll MOVIE ,HiS FAR I NONE. Ml NUTE ~

VIM A MAX~MUM SPIEED

4. ~ F THE PUMP DELIVERS

10 G.ALlONS PiER MI Nun •••

s, BUT A. VAIL VI: RiESIRlC1S THE FLOW •••

7 _ IEXCESS5 gpml I~S D~VERnlD OVER REUEF VALVE.

6. THE ACTUATOR RECE~VES ONt Y 5 GALLO NS AND iRA VELS ONLY HALF AS :FAR. I. NONE MI. Nun.

V~ e« B REDUC ED SPEED

Fib"IJI:re 1- 5. Hydraulir. Dr-ive Speed is Variable

1-6

1.1 N THIS POSHION Of 2~ PUMP DEU VERY 1.5 DiRECTED TO THE

1 HE DlRECn ONAl VAlVE.... CAP EIND Of THE CYU NDER.

3~

VALVIE

4. EX HAUST 01 L is jJ'U5HED OUT OF T HE ROD END AND DU<ECIED IO THE lANK.

5. IN ANOTHIE.R POS ilION ... Ott is Di REel ED 'TO THE. ROD END OF THE CYU 'NIDER •••

7. EXHAUST Oil FROM THIE CAP END is DI REel E.D TO TA N:K.

8. THE REUEf VALVE PR01ECTS lHE

S YSHM BY MOMENTAR~ L Y DI VERil N G flOW 10 lANK DURI NG REVERS~ NG, AND W HEN PI STGN I S STALLED OR 510 PS ATENJD OF STROKE.

Fig:l,l.re 1-6, Hydraulic Drives are H,evcrsLbk

1-7

2 .. I.F THIS WEIGHT &5 iCI'!IVIIDED lEG UAll Y' OYlER THE 144 SQUARE iNCHES OF BOnOM, THE FORCE ON EACH SQIJ~RE iNCH .5 0 .. 4 !PO U 'N DS ~ PRESS URE AT I H,E !BOTTOM THUS IS 0 .. 4 psi ..

3. A f\NO-FOOT COLUMN W'EI.GHS MICE AS MUCH, THUS THE PRESSURE AT THE BOTTOM ~S 0 .. 8 !psi ..

1.. A cuatc FOOT OF OIL WEIGHS ABOUT 55-58 POUNDS~.

Figure 1-7. Weight of Oil Creates Pre S suze

c reated at the pu m pin! et when the pump is in operation. Water and vamous fire-resistant. hydraulic fluids are heavter than oil, and therefore require more vacuum per foot of Irft,

ATM05IPH.ERIC P'RESSURE CHAR'GE$ TH'E PUMP

The inlet of a pump normally is charged with oil by a d:itiferene,e in preseure between the rescrvOir and the pump inlet. U.sually the pressure in the reservoir is atmosphertc pressure, which is 14. 7 psi OIl ;a11 absolute gauge. It then is nee essary Ito have a partial vacuum or n~d'u{~ed pressure at the pump inlet to create flow.

Figure 1-9 shows a typical situation for a hydraulic j aek pump , whichils simply a reciprocating; p tston, On the int..'iJike stroke, the piston C reate s a partial vacuum in tile pumping chamber. Atmospheric pressure in the reservoir pushes oil into the chamber- to fill the void. (In a rotary pump, successive pumping chambers increase in size as they pass the inlet, efl'ectively creating an identical void condi non. )

It itwe1'9 possible to "pun" at complete vacuum at the pump inlet; there would be available some 14. 7 psi to push the oil ill. Prac ttc ally , how-

ever ~ th:e available pressure difference should be much less. For one th.ing, liquids vaporize in, a vacuum, This puts gas bubbles in the oM .. The bubbles are carried through the pumpcotlapsing with considerable tOI"C€ whenexposed to load pressure at the outlet and causing damage that. will impair the pump operation and redu ce its hfe,

Ev,en if the oil has good vapor pressure char-acter isttcs (as most hydr-aulrc oils do) l too low an inlet Ime pressure (high vacuum) permtts air dissolved in the oil to be released. This on mixtun aiso collapses when exposed to load pressure and causes the sameeavitational damage. Driving the pUlnp at too high a speed inc r,eas€ is ve locity

in the inlet line and consequently increases the Low pr-essure condrtion, furtner incr easmg the possibility of cavitation.

If the inlet line .fittings are not tight, air at atmospheric. pressure can be for·ced through to the lower pressure urea in. the line and can be can ied into the pump. This air - oil mixture al so causes trouble and noise but it Is different from cavitation. When exposed to pressure at the PUmlJ outlet, this additional air is compressed forming- in effect a cushion, and docs not col-

I-B

10 FT.

] ~ ~IF THE 01 L LEVEL lS 10 FEEl ABQVf IHE PUMP INLET •••

.2~ THE. PRESSURE HERE is 10 ><.4 psw OR 4 psl , THE PUMP IS nCIHAR.GED'I~ WiTH A POSI.TtVE PRESSURE.

OUTtET

VI rw A. Oil LEVEl.ABOVE PUMP CHARGES I NUT

~ F IHE Oil LEVEL 1.5 HEl IBElOW IHE PUMP lIET •••

'10 H.

4. THERE MUST BE A VACUUM EQUlVAlENT TO 4 psi HERE J·UST TO II~UfTI' THE 01 L. nlE PUMP MECHA NIISM CREATES

THE LOWER. PRESSURi: CO NOITlON.

V~ ~ .B~ 01 L LEVEL IBELOW REQUI RES VACUUM 10 III U FP Oil

1-9

1. .0 N ITS ~ NfA KE STROKE" THE PUMP P'ISTON MOVES OUi EXPAN!DING THE iPUMPSNG CHAMBER S PACL

2.. A. PARTlAL VACUUM OR VOW IS CREATED HERE~

'PUMPING

¢ CHAMBER

PUMP

10 ACTUATOR

3. ATMOSPHERK PRESSURE HERE PUS HES O~ 'l I N10 THE PUMP~ NG CHAMBER TO FlU THE VOiID.

lapse' as violently. It is not dissolved in the oil but pasaes OIl into the system. as compressible bubbles 'which cause erratrc valve and actuator operation.

Most pump manufacturers recomm .. end fl. vacuum of no more than 5 inches oJ mercury (in. hg.}, the equivalent Qf about 12.2 psi absolute at the pump inlet, \Vitth 14. "'I psi. atmospheric pressure avatlable at the reservoir, this leaves only a 2-1/2 psi pressure difV:~rt~nce to push 'oil into the pump. Excessi,ve nft must be avotded and pump Inlet lines should permit the oil to flow with m mirnum resistance.

POSIUVE DISPILAC[M'ENT PUMPS CREAH FlOW

Most pumps used in hydraulic systems are classed as positiv~ displaeement. This means that, except fOl~ changes in efficiency; thepump 011 tput is constant rcgardle $5 of pre 88U1' e. The outlet is postttvaly sealed from the inlet, so that whatever gets in. is forced out the outlet port.

--'-_

The sole purpose of a pump its to create Ilow; pressure is caused by a rcststance to flow. Although there is a. common tendenJcy to blame

the pump for loss of pressure, with few exceptions pressure can be lost only when there is a leakage path that win divert all the flow from the pump,

To iUustl'ate, supposethat a 10 gallon pet minute (gpm) PUllJ} Is used to. push oil under a 10- sqnarc-tncn piston and raise an 8000 pound load (Fig. 1 ~ 10) WIlJ.le the load. Is bfling raised or: supported by the hydl"auHc oil" the pr-essure must 00 800 fJ si.

.Even If a hole in the piston allows 9-1/2 gpm to leak at SOO psi, pressure still win be maintained. Wil;h only 1/2 gprn available to move the load, it will of course ratse very slowly, But the pressu re required to do so remains the same.

NowImagme that the 9-1/2 gpm leak is in the pump instead of the cyltnder, There still would be 1/2 gpm moving the load and there still would be prossuce. Thus, a. pump can he badly worn, losmg nearly all of its efHciency~ and pressure sUll can be maintained, Mainbenarw,e of pressure alone ts no mdicator of a pump's cOndItion. It is necessary to measure the Howat a givenpressure to determine whether a pump is in good. or bad condition.

1-HI

1. 1 HE !FORe!: I.S 8000 POUNDS l~" ND

2~ IHE AREA ~S10 SQ.~ IN~

VI,lEWA

NO LEA K II N SYSTEM

3 ~ THE PRESS URE .EQ UA LS .FORC.E ,;. AREA.. :EQUAlS 3000 POUNDS ~ 10 SQ. lN~. = 800 psl ~

:8000#

4~ ~F 9 1/2 gpm .ARE lOST THR.OUGH

A LEAK~

VIEW B

LEA KilN CYU NDER

5. THE om L NOT LOST MUST STill RAI Sf THE p~srON

6~ THUS IHERE STilL ~s AN 8000 POUND FORCE ON fHE Oil AND ~RESSUREIS MAl NTAt NED.

Figure 1- HL Pr e ssure 1.08S Requires .Full Loss of Pump Output

1. W HEN THE FAUCET IS WiDE OPEN., ALL

FLOW GOES THROUGH UNRES1RICflED ~

2~ THERE is NO PRESSURE WN THIS CONDITON.

3.. AS FLOW IS RESTRNCTED BY Cl.:OSt NG T!HE FAUCET •••

..... _

.,

I Ii

I ~ L,,~ ... .J

II ~

II II

5. WHEN THE RELIEF VAlVE IS BY~PASSING ALLOR PART OF TH'E FLOW, ••• ,

6,", THE PRESS URilE GA:U GE REA DS THE RELIEF VALVE SETTING.

- -

Fif,'llTe l-lJi. Prossnre Caused by Restriction and Limited by Pressure Control VaNe

l-12

Pressure results whenever the now o.f a fluid is resisted. The resistance may come trom U} a load on an actuator or (.2:) 1l;re.strictiol). (01" omHee) in the pi~!,:i.ng.

Figure l~.~O is an example of a load on an actuator. The B 000 p01.IDd weight reaists the .flow of 'Oil under the piston and creates pressure .:i.n the oil. If the weight Increases, SO d()estih:e pressure ..

InF':i.g.. l- U, R] ij f;pm pump has its outlet connected to a pre ssure relief valve set a.tWOO psi and to an ordinary water faucet. If the faucet is widt~ open, the pump delivery flows out unres trtcted and there isno r,eading on the pre ssure gaug(~ .•

Now suppose ~w;t the faucet it>'=) p~ra.duany closed. It win resist flow and cause pressure to build up On the upstream side. A.s the opening is restrteted, 'it wrlljake inereas.in:glymore pre ssur'e to push theW gpm thro~t[{,hthe restrtcticn, Without the relief valve, there would :theol'etLcalIy be n,O lLmit to the pressure build-up. In reality, eUbe:r something would break or the pump would stalf the prime mOver ..

In ourexample, at the point where itt takesllOOO psi to push lli.e oil through the opening, the reltef valve wm begin. to open. Pcessure fhen will remain at 1000 ps I, Further do smg of the lau>C.etw:m simply result in less oil &"oil.n;g through it and more gomg over therelieL valve. With the faucet com.pletely etos e{l! , aU ]'0 grm w:iB go Over the :r'!~.di!eJ valve at 1000 psi.

It eW,1 be seen from the above that a reli.ell valve or some other p ressure limiting device should be used in. al.I system s 1,1 s.iLl!i¥ a posi live displacement pump.

PARAllEL n.,OW PATHS

An inherent characteristic of li.quids is that they wiUalway s take tile path of least resistance. Thus, whentwo parallel flow paths of1J:"er diHerent res.istances, the pre ssure win increase only to the amount required. to take the easier path.

In .l"ig. 1.-] 2; t the oil has three possible Ilow paths. Sine e val ve _A opens at ]100 pSi, the cil wtll go that way and preesure will build up to only 100. Should flow be blocked beyond A~ pressure would build up to .200 psi; then oil would. flow tbrougll R There would be no [low through Cunless tile path through valve B should also become blocked.

Simila.rly, when the pump outlet is directed to two actuatozsvthe actuator which needs the [ower pressure will be first to move, Since it :its diff1i,c:ult to balance loads exactly j cyH.rlGers which must move together are o:Uen connected me chanic ally.

5ER us FLOW PA Tii

When. re ststanc es to flowa:re 1(' onneeted in se rte B, the pressures add up. IIi! Fig. 1-13 are shown tile same val ve s as Fig. ] -]2 but connected in se rtes, Pressu re t~aJugc s plac ed in the line s indicate the pressure normally required to open each valve plus back. pressure Irom the valves downstream. The pressure-at the pump is the sum of tl~.e PI' C 8SUl"e s requi red to open iudi vidual valves,

P'II: ESSUI!l: E 'DROP TH RO uc H AN 0 R'IFICE

An Qlf"if:i{;e rsa re~trkted passage in a hydrotuli.k line or C omponent, u sed to control now or create ~t pressure diffex"ence (pressure drop) •.

In order for oil to flow through an orifice, tbexe must he a pre ssure diftern11!c e or pre ssure droll through the orifice. {The term I'drop" COmes .from tile fact that the lower pressure is always downstream. ) Conver sely ~ if there is no flow, there is no iliff.er,eIlic.e in pre saure ac 1" OSi5 the o,rHice.

Conaider the condition surrounding th€ orifi.ce in Fig. 1-14, view A. '1'1115 pressure .is equal on both side$~ ther~fore~ the oil i8 bdn;g pushed equally both ways and the re .is no 11 ow .

In view B, HI€' higher pre S:511re pushe s harde r to the right and oin doe S flow throtlgh the (}l"m.ce. In view C, ther e is also a pressure drop; however, the Haw lis less than in B because vthe preasure diffenence is lower ..

An inc rease in pres bo'll re drop Ole ross an orHh",'e win always be acccmpamcd by an .mcreuscin flow ..

If How is blocked beyond an orlike {view D}~ the pressurewtll immediateliyequaUz,e on both sides of the orifi.c.c in ac C ordance with Pas cal's La. w. T(~is principle .isessHl1ltial to the operation of many compound pr essure COn trol vall ve s •

PRIESSUR E IN D leA rss W'O RK LO A D

Figure 1-10 n 1m strated how pre ssu re is gene rated by reststanc e of a: load. .it wars noted that the pre ssu re(!!:qmus the force of th€ Road divided by the pi ston area.

1-13

1. THE O~L CA N CHOOSE 3 PATHS~

2. IT F~RSl CHOOSES "A" BECAUSE.

ONLY 100 pd IS REQUIRED. A PRESSURE GAUGE AT THE PUMP WI LL READ 100 psi +

20D psi OPENS VA l VE B

o 0, 0 () ....._ __ ~'""I L.....~~,-C-~......r. 0 0 '0 0 ..---~~"""

300 psi OPENS VALVE. C

VIEW.A

'F LOW I.S l' HROUGH 100 psi VALVE

3. IF FLOW is BtOCKED BEYOND ~·An •••

- I

........",,-~~.v--"\J 00 '0 '0 '0 "II.A-_~.....-..

00000

o 0 0 0

C ;300 psi OPENS VALVE C

VIEW B.

FLOW IS THROUGH

4. ou Wilt FLOW THRU "'B" WHEN PRESSURE AI THE PUMP REACHES 200 psi.

200 psi VALVE

F~iglilre 1-12. Parallel Flow Path.s

1-14

A 100 psi

B '200 ps~

C 300 psi

I. THERE IS NO RESI STANCE r 0 FlOW H£RE, SO •••

c_\...o!~""'_""~ 2~ T HI S GAUGE READS ZERO.

3. A 1 THIS PO~ rNT I FlOW IS RESlSTED BY A SPRI N G EQUIVAHNT TO. 100.psL

:...'-~~~ 4~ T HERHORE, 1HIS GAUGE READS 100 psi.

5,. HERE, flOW IS RIESI STIED IllY A 200 p$i SPRI NG PiUS A WO psi B·ACK~PRESSURE fROM VAlVE~A'.

6. HiE rwo PRESSURES ADD

AND IH1S GAUGE READS 300 psi,

7. W'~ TH A 300 psi BACK PRESSURE HERE •• '.

8. A ND A 300 psi SPR~ NG HERE. _ •

9. 1 HERE IS 600 psl PRESSURE AT T HE PUMP.

F4,oure 1-13. Ser ies Resistances Add Pressure

1-15

1. 1FT H E PRESS URE HERE., ••

2. ISIEQUAl TO THE PRESSURE HER.E. ••

A

,~

3~ THERE IS NO FLOW H,ERL

4~ AN ~ NCREASE ~ N

PRESSURE HERE... 5. CAUSES Oil TO FLOW THROUGH tHE ORliFlClE §

6. 1l'HE PRESSURE DROP ~S 500 psi to WO psi OR .400 psi.

r. HERE THE PRESSURE DROP ~S ONLY 10 p.si r so FLOW IS MUCH LE:SS~

c

'1iiiI!,i,

8. ] F FLOW I S StOCKED BEYOND THE ORI,'fKE, FLOW CEJ\5ES.~

D

-

9. PRESSURE THEN

EQ UA UZES ON BOIH 51 DES OF THE ORi FleE ~

Figure l~H. Pressure Drop and Flow Through an Orifice

We can express this relationship by tne general formula:

p=£ A

P is pressure in IJsi (p(}UndH pc.!" :'!(ID13.r~· inch) F is ro-ee in pounds

A Is area In square inches

Pr-om this can be seen that: an increase or decrease in the load will result in a ]ike increase or decrease in the operating presaure, In. other words, pressure is proportional to the load, and at pressure gauge reading mdicates the work load (in psi) at any given moment.

Pressure gauge readings normally ignore atmospheric pr essure, That is, a standard gauge reads Zero. at atmosphertc pressure. An aosolute gauge reads 14.7 psi at sea levelatmosphertc pressure. Absolute pressure is usually designated "psia".

FORCE II'S PROIPORTION.Al to PIRES:SURiE ANID AREA

When a hydraulic cylinder is used. to clamp or

PRESSURE REGULAT1NG VALVE

FROM PUMP

L ~F TH1S LYE

REGULATES THE PRES:SUREAT 2000 psi •• +

3. T HE OUTPUT FORCE IS 2000 x 20 OIR 40,000 IPOU NDS {20 TONS} •

press; its output: force can be computed as :follows;

F-PxA

P Is preasnre in psi F ;iii! [Ul'ee in pounds

As an example, suppose that a hydraul.ic press has its pressure regulated at 2000 psi(.Fig .. 1-15) and this pressure is applied to a ram area of 20 square inches. The outputfotce w.m then be 40 ~ .000 pounds 01'20 1;0:05.

'co M PUliNG PIIS'JON .ARlEA

1"he area olE a piston. or ram can be computed by this. formula:

A - .7854 x a.2

A Is area In square h dies

d is diameter u[ the pish~n in mches

The foregoi~ relationsmps are sometimes illustrated as shown to indicate the three relationships:

2000 ~i

@.~2. AND TIHE RAM AREA

1.$ 20SQ.IN.

Figure I-Hi. Fore c Equals P ressu re Multiplied by A rea

1-17

(!) 60 SECONDS Q 30 SECONDS

u ~ tlf THE CYl'I NDER WllH A 2 FOOT STROKIE HOLDS 1 GAltON •••

\

2. .A 1 gpm PUMP W~ LL CAUSE THE PtSTON TO MOVE THE

2 FEET tN ONE M~NUTIE, A RATE OF 2 fEET IMI NUTE.

3. If IPUMP DELI VERY TO THE SAME CYU NDIER ~S INCREASED TO 2 9pm •• +

4. 1 HE PI STON WI,U TMvn THE oisr ANCE ~.N 1/2 MlNUH, A RATE OF 4 FEET ;MINUTE,.

Fi},'"Ur,e i-H).. Speed Depends on Cylind,er Size and Rate of Oil Flow To It

1-18

F~ llxA P - FIA ll.,. - F!l~

S;PHD OF AN ACTUAlO'R

How fast a cylinder travels or a motor rotates depends on its size and the .ra.te .of on flow into it. To relate flow rate to speed, consider the volume that must be filled in the actuator to effect a given amount of travel.

.In Fig. 1- H~ ~ note that both cylinders ha vc the same volume, Yet, the piston in cylinder B wtll travel twice as fast: as cylinder- A because the rate of oil flow from tJle pump has been doubled. IT either cylinder had a smaller diameter, Us rate would ]!;H~ faster. Or if its diarnetor were larger, its rate would bo less, assuming of course the pump del ivcry remained constant.

The relationship may be expressed as 101[0\\,5:

vol./time = speed x area

v t

vOI,dUme iSlwcd

eu , in_/min\lte

a - sq. [!)I.

s = in("h(~~/m iuutc

From this W(' can conclude: (I) that the Ior-ce Or torque of an actuator is drrectly proportional to the pre~sl[lre and independent of the flow, (2) that its speed Or' rate of travel wtll d.epend\lpon the amount of Ilnid flow without regard to p re ssure,

VElO'CITY IN IPI PIE~S

The velocity at which the hydraulic Iluid flows through the lines is an iluporhlnt design consideration because of the efKe,c.t OL velocity on friction.

Generally j the r-ecommended velocity ranges are:

. Pump inlet Line - ~- -2 - 4 feet p'o.l;' second W 0 rkiing: Line S - - - - -7 - 20. f oct per se cond

In i;hi.s rega .. rd, it should be noted th .... E:

1. The vctocrty of the fluid vartes inversely as U1E! square of the inside diameter,

2. Usually, friction of a liquid flowing through

a line is proportional to the ?£l.!_ocity. How,ever·, should the flow becometurbulont, fridion varies as the squ.u·,S of the veloctty,

Fig. :1.-17 illustrates that dOlllbling the inside cliiameter of a l ine quadruples the cross-sectional area; thes the velocity is only one-fourth as fast Iu the hu"ger line. Conversely. halyinr~ the diameter d_!3Creas1fls UH~ ar ea to 1/4 and quadruples the oil velocity. --

Friction createsturbulence in the oil stream and oreoursc resists flow, resultin~ in all increased pressure drop through tile Line. Very low velocity is recommended for the pump inlet line because very little pressure drop can be tolerated there.

D ETERM~N IN G P~PE .S Il'E RE'OU IRlEM EN'IS

T'wo formulas are:::waHable for sizing hydraulic lines.

If the gpm and desired velocIty are known, use thi.s rolationshlp to find ~h c inside {.~ 1;'08 S - sc etten ~ al area:

\Vhen the gprn and size of pipe are given, use tJlitS formula to find what the velocity wil] be:

{';pm :fii7 x ~~ rca

In Chapter 4, you wUI lilld a. nomograpluc chart which permits making the se computations by laying a straight edge across printed scales.

SIZ.E RAIINGS .oF UNIES

The' nominal ratings in inchea for pipes, tubes. etc. arc not accurate Indicator's of the inside din-meter.

111 standard ptpes, the actual inside diameter is larger than the nominal s ize qnoted. To select pipe, you'H need a standar-d chart which shows actual inside drameter s (see Chapter 4} .

For steel ,~U1d copper tubing, the quoted size is the outside diameter; To Iind the inside diameter, subtr-act twice thewall thickness (Fig. 1-1B).

WOI I( ANI D POWIER

Whenever a for:·GC o:rpu.sh is exerted through a distance, work. is, done.

1-19

Th ~ 1 HI S Pl P'E tSnNK iE 1 lilE DIAMETER OF llHE SMALLER PI.PE ~

3~ U= IHE VIELOCny THROUGH IHIS P~PE ~S 5 FHl PER SECOND .•••

2. !IT WOULD TAKE FOUR PI. PES THI S

SI ZE TO EQUAL lHE CROSS~SECT'I ONAl A!R:EA Of THE LA'R;GE PI PE.

4. THE SAME gpm W~LL HAVE TOGO iHROUGH Ilil S P'IPE

4- HMES AS fAST OR 2() HET PER SIECON[) ..

cut

EVEN iF HOW! NSN\A lLER UN E RIEMA]NS lAMINIARI' IFRICnONAL LOSS WI LL BE 16 T!MES MORE TI-tAN IT I SIN THE !LARGER ONE.

F.ilgure ]-17. Veloc!l.ty is Inversely Prop ortionalto Pipe Cil"'GSS -Bection Area.

1-20

II

3. DOUBLE THE WAll 1 HI CKNESS AND SUBTRACT FROM THE 00 UOTED 91 ZE ~

2. TO FI ND THE

I NSm[ DIAMETER •••

1 ~ IHE lUBI NG SIZE QUOTED IS THE OUT ~ SIDE mAMETER.

F Igure 1-18. Tub ing Inside Diameter

Obv.liQusly, it is desi.rable to be able to convert hydraulic power to horsepower so that the meehamcal, electrtcal and heat power equivalents will be known,

Wor-k is usuatly ellPressed in foot pounds. For exampl e, if a 10 pound weight is lifted 10 feet, the work is 10poundsx]O feet or 100 foot pounds.

'T'he formula above for work. does not tal'>.einto consideration bow fast the work is done, The J;atc of doing work is called pow.£!::

H ORSE:POWER IN ,A H YIOR:A U UC SY STEM

In the hydraulic system, speed and distance are indteated by the gpm flow and fa'ree by pressure. Thus, we might express hydraul:k power thi(5 way:

To visualtze power, think. of climbing a flight of stair-s, 'T'he work done is the bodyts weight multiplied by the height of the stairs. But it is more difficult to run up the stairs than to walk. When you run, you do tile same work at a faster ram.

l-:lOWER _ Jorne X distance work

,I' - - time or time

The standard umt of power is the horsepower abbreviated hp, It is equivalent to 33~ (100 p01l.Lndls lifted one foot in one minute. It also has equivalents inelec tr-ic al power and heat,

1 I _ 3,3 ~O InQl pmlnds 5!JO foot 'pounds

. 11) minute or second

1 h,p;;;;; 746 watts (clectrteal power)

1 bp -= 42. 4: b'tu/ minute (heat power]

To change toe relationship to mechanical units, we can use th-ese equivalents;

i !~allon = 231 clJbi· inches (in. 3) 12 me hies - 1 foot

Thus:

PO. W· 1l'R ~o:nllon (231 in. 3) pounds /]. foot\ _ .... "'II -- x--2-x\--",-}-

, milL"" gaJhm in. 1.::; in.

231 foot pmJnds 12 10 inute I:>

1-21

This;; g:~yee. uS the equivalent mechnntcal f)ower o~

O:i."J;{"!' (~s:il.1.1nn :';:;":":':1."" 'n-:..inubr,: flo"'»' a.i. Oirill(": p.~i1: 'nf p':r.'(~~-:I,"

sure. To express it as hcrsepower , divkle by 33,000 pounds/minute: .

. 2.31 Toot pOll ndfl

]2 minutes

:3 3 1 QOO .f(Jut poundB minute

.00'05B3

Thus, On0 gallon per minute flow at one psi equals. 000583 hp. The b.A.<tlhorsepower for any flow condition is:

or

hp '" 61m1 x psi x "000583

_(.':pm x psi. . .

hp - HWO x , 583

or

The third formula 1.5 derived by drvidmg ,.533 into lOOG.

These horsepower IOl'trwlas ten the exact power being used in the system. 'fhc horsepower rcquir-ed ~o drive the pump will be somewhat bi.gherr man tilts since the system is not 100% efhdenL

If we assume an average efficiency of 80%, this rdationship can be used to estimate power input requtremen ts:

hp ::; ~,:pm. )!,psi. x. own

H ORSHlOW ER A NlDiI'O R.Q U E

It also is o.lIte n de strable 00 C onvc J:t back and forth Irom horsepower 00 to.rque wiHH}il1J!t computing pressnre aJ11d flow.

These are general torque-power j(01"mubl.tl for any rotating ~quipment:

630:25 x hp to !"'q. u(' _

'. rpm

Torque in this formula must be in pound-tnches.

D'ES 10. N I NO. .A. SI.MIPLE. HYDRAUUC SY SlEM

From the information given. in this chapter , it is possible to design a simple hyciral!,llUc eircutt. FDllowing isa simple des{:ripUon of how the job m ight proc eed. See .fi{,'U.res 1-1. 9 thru 1-21._

Alld:n::ui t design Inn st start with the j oo to be dOl:IJ(}. There is a. weight to be lifted, a tool head

to he rotated, 0);' ap~;ece of work that must be ·elaH~pe':L

The job determines the type of :!!'ctuaw:rthat wtll be used .

Per hap s the _first step should he the setee tion of anaetuator .

If tile requirement were snnply to raise a Load. a hydraulic eylmder pl aced I] nde l' it wO'[I1d do the job. The stroke length of the cylinder would be at least equal to the diatance the load must he moved. Its area would be deterrnmed byfl:l!e Ior ee I'eq iii :ted to rnj se Uw 1 cad and the de ~;ired operatjng pressure. Let!s assume an 8000 lb. weight is to ber:aised a didt.:;:u),Ce 9f30" and the maximum operating pressure must be Iimited to WOO psi. The (:yHnder ~':ieled:ed WQIITld have to have a str eke length of at least 30 n and with an 8 sq. in. area piston it wOI1l!.1d!pro'ilide a maximum fa rc e of (lOOO Ib 5. This 1 howeve r , w(~ild not p.l:'ovide a.ny' margin foX' error. A better seleclion would be a :110 sq. tn, cy lmder perm itting the load to be raised at 800' psi and p:rovid.ing the c <tJpabiW:y of lHting up to 10; 000 lbs,

The upward and downward travel of the cylinder would be controlled by a dirflctiona1 valve. If tl~'e load is to be stopped at intermediate points in Us travel} the diredionaiva]ve should have a neutral pas ition in wh ],ch oil flow from the u nd e I..side of the pi ston i sblocked to support the weight on the cylinder, The rate at which the load must travel win determine the purnp size. The 10 sq .. in. piston will displace 10 cu. iI'!.for every inch it Hits. Extending the cylinder 30" will require 300 cu. in. of flmd, If it is to move nJ the rate of JW"pc r see ond, it will require 10.0 cu. in. of flu.id. per sec and or 6'D'G 0 cu. in, per minute. Since pumps are usual.ly rated:i.n gallons per mmnte, it wHl he neeetl53.i·y ~() divide 231 '( cubic inc hes per gallon) into GOOO to conve rt the requirements into gallons pe.r; minute - 6000 ;;. 231 .'=' 26 gpm.

The hop needed to drive the pump Is a fun.dion of its delivery and the maximum pressure at which it will operate, The fl!)nowi[~g Icrrnula will determine the sue of the electric motor drive re-quired:

hp - f';IHU x pSi:!. .0007

hp ,2.fi x iooo x .0007 =: 18.2

To f)revent overtoading of the electrtc motor and toprotect the pump and other components from excessive pressure due 1,0 overtoads or stallmg,

:1.-22

1. TO R.A.I SE AN 8000 .POUND LOAD 30 I.NCHES •••

2. USE A HYRAUllC CYU NDER

WITH A STROKE OFt>.. T LEAST' 30 INC HES.

I-----~I

I I

I I

I I

-~..:._-- L- __ ._._ ~ ___j

30"

80001

Figl1H'e i-tH. Use a Cy Under' to Rai.se aLoad

80006

1.. IF THlE P~STON

AREA IS 10 SQ. IN. (APPROX .3-1/2" DIA.} •••

2~ THE PRESS URI: !R:EQ UI RED TO U FT THE LOA D EQUALS THE .lOAD DiVIDED BY THE PI.STON AREA:

IP ""f ;.- 8000: 800 psi

- _.

A 10

Eigu re 1- 20.

Cboo sing Cylinder Size

1-23

3. EX:HAUSi O~L FROM THE ROD END 1.5 RETURNED TO RESERV01R

THROUGH iH:!E DI,RIECIIONAt 8000'

VAlVL

2. 'I N, THI.S POSITlOH, THE DI REcnONAt VALVE PORIS 01l UNDER 1 HIE PISTON 10 ~ISE tHE CYLl NDEfC

D

1. ririE RELi EF VALVE PROfECTS THE SYSIEMfROM OVERLOADS BY DIVERtl N.G PUMP DELIVERY TO RES ERVO I R WHEN PR ESS ~J RE R!EAC HES ~ IS S em N G ~

4.1 N ANOTHER POSIUON, fHE DIRECTIONAL VALVE REVERSES THE fLOW TO LOWER tHiE CYU NDER~ THE ROD END NOW IS CON NECTE[) TO fHIE PUMP AND THE CAP END 10 lANK.

ROD END

Figure 1-2.:1. Valving to Protect ana Cont:toillie Syste(J'J,

1-24

a. relief valve set to limit the maximum system pressure should be installed in tile lin.e between we PUlUP outlet and the inlet port to the directional valve ..

A reservoir sized to hold approximately two to three ti111eS the pump capacity in gallons per minute ,and adequate interconnecting piping would

complete the system, .

CONCLUSION

This chapter has presented a brief Introdnctory overvtew of hydr anl.ies to demonstrate the basic principles involved In hydraulic system. operation. There are, of course, countless variations of the system presented, MallY of these wiB be devdoped with a mocc detailed study oloperating principles and. components in future chapter-s,

QUESnONS

1. State Pascal's Law.

3. If a force of ]000 pounds is applied over an area of 200 square inche a, wtlaJt is the pre issure '?

4. What is meant by "conservation of energy"?

5 .. 'What is the output component oi a hydraulic systenl,nam.ed? The input component?

6. What is th.e prime mover?

7. Name several advantages of a hydraulic syste.m •.

8. What is tbe origin of the term rthydraulics'~?

9. What makes petr-oleum oil suitable as a hydraulic fluid?

10. What is the pressure at the bottom of a 20 foot column of oil?

11. What can you say definitely about the pressures on oppostte sides of an orifice when oil is flowing through it?

12 .. What preasure rs usually available to charge thepump inlet?

13. Why should the pump inlet vacuum be minim ized.?

14. What: is the function of Ute pump'?

15. Wily is loss of pressure usually not a symptom of pump malfunction?

16. How is pre ssure cr eated '?

11. ]f three 20 [) psi c heel!:. val ve s are c onnected in scrtes, how much PI' essur e is required at the pump to push O'il through all three ?

lB. What is the formula for pressure developed when moving a load with a cylmder ?

1.9. What Is the formula. for the maximum force output of a cylmder ?

,20. What determines til e spe ed of an actuator '?

In. "VlIat is the relattonshipbctween fluid. veloc.i ty and friction in a pipe?

,22. 'IiIlhat is work? Power?

23 .. How do you find the horsepo\Ver in a hydraulic system?

24. With which component does the design of a hydr.lJJ,llic circuit begin?

25. What determines the s.ize pump needed in a hydranlrc circuit?

2H.W.lt a J is the piston area of a 5-inchcyUnder?

27. What does the relief valve do?

28. What does a directional valve do?

]-25

PR ~ NC f PLES OF POW E R H YDA AU lies

'I'Ms chapter is divided into three sections;

PR IN CIIPIL,ES OF PRIES$UIRE

'" Pr'inciples of Pressure '" Prtneiples of Flow

* Hydraulfc Graphical Symbols

.It has been noted that the term hydrallHcs is derived from a Greek word ror wate r, Therefor e, it m :igilt he as.sum ed C orr-ec try that the se ie ncc of hydraulies encompasses any device Operated. by water, A water wheel or turbine (Fig. 2-1) for Instaneu, is a hydraulic device.

The first two sections will further develop the fundamentals 01 the physical phenomena that combine to transfer power In the hydraulic ci ecult. The third section, tllustrattng graphical symbols for circuit di3.;gl'rlIDs,wHI deal with the classes and functions of lines ,HId components. All this material \\'ill serve as a background for foUO\I;'in.g: dH:lpi:ers on the equipment. that. makes up a hy drauljc sy ste m,

However; a. disUnc tion must be made between devices which utilize the Jmpact or momentum of a moving Jiq ui.d and tho sewhte h are ope rated by pushing on a confined fluid; that is, by pI'e~sm."'e.

1., uouio EXPELLEOt FROM A INOZZlE

A T IH~ G,H VHOC~ TY CONTA'IINS KI N.ET1C ENERGY.

.2. THE ENiERGY ~ N

THE STREAM OF UQUID IS TRANSFERRED IO ROTA RY MOTION IBY THE TURSI NE.

/

o

TURBl NiE

Figure 2,- L Hydrodynamic Device Uses Kinetic: EnerlsY Rather Than Pressure

2-1

Properly speaking:

increases with depth, The pressure is always equal at any particular depth dl!l!e to the weight of the water above it. A rou nd Pas cal t s time, ;:01 Italian scientist named Torricelli proved thatn a. bole is made ill the bottom of a tank oj[ water ~ the water runs out fastest when the tank is fun and the How rat.e decreases as the water level lowers. III other wor-ds, as the "head" of water above the op ening Ie ssens, 80 do es Ute pres b"liu·e +

.o! A hydraulic (h·vif·t· whlel! UBCI':! the . mpact or Idnelk (~lw.rg.Y in the liquid to transmit puwer Is called .l hydrodynam ic rlovu-c,

,., WJH .. 'n lb... device ild np(_~r;)tf>u by a forcu appl.led to a coufiJlt"'tJ Uquid., It is, ca.llf'-d a hy~h·ostath: device; pn'HSlH'~' being the force applied~isl1'ibu[ed (WCI' the area OI,"po8ed and behll~ 'l'Xpr{~ r.ts~~d as fon~o p(~r unit area [Ib s. ! sq. In, or ps,i).

TOI'dceUi could expreas the pressure at the bottom of the tank on]y as "feet of head", 0.1' the height in f,eet of the colum n of wate 1'. Tod.ay, with the pound per square inch. (psi) as a unit pressure, we can express pressure anywher-e til any U.qu~d or gas in more convenient terms, AU that is required. is knowing how much a cubic Joot Q~ the fluid weighs.

Of coursevall the illustrations shown so far; and in fact, all the systems and e.quipment covered in this manual are hydrostatic. AU operate by pushing on a C onfined liqu id; that is. by transferring energy through pressure.

How PresSure is Crea.ted

As shown in Fig. 2-:2, a "head" of one foot of water is equivalent to • 434 psi; a five foot head of water equals 2. 17 psr, and &0 on. And as shown ear-Iter ~ a head of oil is equivalent to about .,4: psi per foot.

Pre ssure results wheneve r' there is a. reststance to .fluid How or to a force which attempts to make the fluid flow. The tendency to cause now (0.1' the push) may be supplied by a mechanical pump or may be caused simply by the weight of the fluid.

In many plac,;es, the term "head" rs used to describe pressure, no matter how i't is created. FoOr instance, a boiler is said to "work up a head of steam" when pres,sure is created by vaporfz-

It is well known th at in a body of water, pre ssure

J. A fOOT-SQUARE SECHON OF WATER 10 FEn HIGH CONTAINS 10 CUBIC FEET. IF EAC H CUBiC FOOT

WEI GHS 62' . .4 POUNDS •••

'-0.433 P5,t ~

3. If] 0 FEEl OF WATE:I~

IS EQUIVAll:NT ToO 4. 33 ps.~ T ONE FOOT EQUALS 0.433

5 FEET EQUALS

2.165 AND so ON.

2. THE T01Al WEIGHT HIERE IS 624 POUNDS. THE PRESSURE DUE

T'O THE W'EI GHI IS 6247 144 SQUARE

II NCIHES 0 R 4.33 psl .

Figure 2~2. Pz-easure "Head" Comes From Weight of the Fluld

2.-2

2. WEI GHS 14 .. 7 POUNDS A r SEA LEVEL THUS AT MOS PHERIC PRESSURE --------I-~:B IS 14.7 psiu

fig water in confinement. The terms pressure and "head" are sometimes u .. sed interchangeably.

Atmospheric .PreSSlll"'B

Alnwspl1eric pressure is nothing; mOrl€! than pressure of the air in QU,f' atmosphere due to its weight. At sea level, a column of air one square inch in cross section and the ful] height o.f the atmosphere weighs 14. '1 pounds {Fig. 2-3). Thus the pressure ts Jl4. 7 psia. At higher altitudes, of course, there is less weight in the column, so the pressure becomes less. Below sea Ievel, atmospheric pressure is more than 14.7 psta.

Any condition where pI'eSSUl'€ is less than atmospher ic pressure is called a vacuum or partial vacuum. Ii. pe d€ d va>cuum is the complete absence of pressure or zero psia.

The Mercury Barometer

Atmospheric pressure also is measured in inches of mercury (in. Hg.) on. a device known as a barometer.

The mercury barometer (Fig. 2-4}, a device inwen ted by Torr icelri ~ is u sualfy credited as the inspir-ation for Pascalt:s studies of pressure. TorriceHi discovered that when a tube of mer-

1. A COLUMN OF ,AIR ONE

SQUARE 'I NCH I N CROSS~ SECT! ON A ND AS HI GH AS 1 H E ,A lMOSPH ERE.

cury is inverted in a pan (If the liquid, the eolumn in the tube will Jan only a certain distance. He reasoned that ahnospheetc pressure on the surface of UU'l liquid was supporting the w,eigh t of the (:.oium.n of me rcury with a pede c t vacuum at the top of the tube.

In a no rrn al atmo sphe re ~ th.e col urn n will al ways be' 2 g. 92 inches high. Tim s, 29. 9 2 (usually rounded. off to 30) in. Hg. become s another equivalent of the pressure of one atmosphere.

M easu:r in!; Vacuum

Since vacuum is pressure below atmospher-tc, vacuum can be measured in the sam e units. Thus ~ vacuum c an be exp re s sed as p sia or psi On negative units) as weU as in inehes of mercury.

Most vacuum gauges, however, are calibJl':a:ted tn inches of mercury. A pc de ct vacuum> which will support a column Of me rcu ry .29", 92 inches high is 29<,92 in. Hg, Zero vacuum (atmosphertc pressure) reads zero on a vacuum gage.

Stlmmary of Pressure~md Vacuum Seales

Since a number of ways of measuring pressure and 'i'~Cuum have been discussed, it would he wen to plaice them all together for compar-ison ..

F'igute 2-3. Atmospheric Pressure is a "Head" of Ail'

2-$

3. WIT H A PI: RFIECT VACUUM HERE.

2. WOULD SUPPORT A COLUMN OF MERCURY T HI.S HI. GH •••

29 92 I NO-IES

1. ATMOSP'HERK PRESSURE li'ERE + ••

Figure 2-4. The Mer'(:ury Barometer Measures Atmospheric Pressure

3 ATMOISIPHER'ERES A B SOL UH____;4~4~.1'T'1i"~~~2~9..:.. A~, M""" -;-:'t;;_9_0.;..~ ~"T'II_n~1 __ "rTl.;;,O,;;.2

2 ATM,O S·P HE lit E S GAUGE

2 IIfIMO~SP'HERES ABSOLtIU;.....;:,2;.;9.;...4~~~_1~4..;;,,7_H- --=-=..;..(6_0..;..l -t-I ... 7_4 __ +l-6 ... 8 ... :

, Ail" MOISPH'E REG ,iUJiGE

5

I I III

! I III

-]0.1' ,! ~11 V2

I II II'

,I 'I I~

PER:F'E(;T _ _.;O~ . .1..... -..:.11.:.,;5::..::1, l, ..u..;.O ....... 2;o.- 9~- .~9.=o2_...:..:..;.a~, ~~..;..;;.~ 0;.._

YACl!IU M PSIA PSi IN. HG. A,BS. Hi. Hil. IFEU

lPoutU~S PEIR IPOI!INDS PER !IINCitES elf [INCIIiIES OF Of

SIWARE IINI:II SIOUARt INCH MERCl!IRY IMElmURY~ O:ll

ABSIlLUfiEl CAUb!EI IilBsmunivACUIlM MISOlUiE

G A !JOIE S [:A U BAROM:EH R SCALE

SCAlE

FEU OF WAriER ABSOLUTE

Figure 2-5., Pressure and Vacuum Seale Compar-ison

2-4

As shown in Fig. 2-5; folfowmg is a summary of pressure and vacuum measurement:

6. An atmosphere is equivalent to approxim.ately34 feet of water or 37 feet of otl.

P!RIINCIPlES· OF IHOW

L An ahnosp.here is a pressure unit. equal to

14. 7 psi l'H'ess~r['e Or 14.7 psta (the weight of a one inch. square column of the air above the eo .. rth),

Flow is the action in the hydraulic system. that gives the actuator its motion. Force can be transmltted by pressure alone, but Ilow ts essential. to cause movement, Flow in the hydraulic system .ils created by the pump,

2. Psta (pounds per square Inch absolute) is a scale which starts at a perfect vacuum (0 psta). Atmospheric pzeasure is 14 .. 7 on thIs seale,

3. Psi (pounds per square inch gauge] is calibrated in the same units as psia but i~'l10reS atmosphertc pressure. Gaug'e pressure may be abbreviated psag,

How Flow is Measur'ed

There are two ways to measure 'the flow of a fluid:

4. To C onv err f rQm psia to p sig:

Velocity is the average ~"P ced of the fl uid" s partrcles past a given point or' the average distance the particles travel per unit of time. It is mea . sured in feet per second (ips) teet per minute (fpm) or- inches per second (ips).

Gaug·!.· Prcasuro + 14.7 - AhsuhJte PressureAb:;:oil.l.tn Pressure - 14.7 - Gau~~P. P.rl' s sun'

5. Atmospnertc pressure On the barOI[lehn' scale is 29,92 in. Hg; Comparing this to the psta scale, it: is evident that:

Flow rate is a measure of the ',wlume ,of fluid. passing a point in a given time, Large volumes are measur-ed in gallons per minute (~"Pm). Small volumes may he expressed in cubic inches per minute.

1 p~;i _ 2 in. H~. (approxuua (~ly)

.J!. in. Hg. - 1/2 p~i ('~p'proxima.te]y)

Fig .. 2:-0 illustrates the distinction between velocity

1,. IT TAKES roo fEET OF THE SMA!ll P~PE TO HOLD ONE GALLON OF OIL.

2. IBUT ONLY ONE FOOT OF THE LARGE PiIPE_

'~"": III FO~1·······

~ .. ~ GALLON····

.2 fEET = _

~ --------~.~~.

I 1 GAllON ..-- ........ .._"

.,"'--- ......

3. W11TH A CONSTANT FLOW :RATE OF ONE gpm •••

BUT MUST TRAVEL ONLY ONE fpm IN THIS PIPE.

4. THE Oil MUSl TRA VEL TWO fpm II N if HIS P! PE •••

Figure 2-6. F]ow is Vclume PCI' Unit of Time; Velocity' is Distance Per Unit of Time

2~5

and How rate. A constant flow of one gallon per minute either inc reases or decreases in velocity when the cross section of the p:i.pe changes stze.

Figure 2-7 illustrates pressure drop due to frknon. The suc,ceeding:pI"e+ssure drops (.trom maximum pressure to zero pressure) are shown as differences In head in s-ucc1eecling vertical pipes,

Flow Ra[H and ,speed

The speed. of a. hydr.aul.ie actuator, as was Illustrated in Chapter 1, always depends On the actuator's size and the rate of flow into itt. Since the size of the actuator wiU be (~xpI'essect in cuh:ic inches, use these conver stou factors:

Fluid Seeks aL ~el

Conversely, when there is no presaure difference on a l.iquid, it simply s{l~s:a level as shown in Fi.g.2-8. :If the preasuro changes at One point (View B) UI(~ liquid levels ill. the other's rise only until their werght Is sufficient to make up the difference :i.n pressure. The cliffe.rence in hd[~ht (head) in the case of oil is one foot per' O. 4 psi. Thu.s it can be seen that additional pressure differ-enee will be required to cause a Iiquid to now up a pipe orto lift the Hui!!d" since the force due to the \veiight of Ute Iiqutd must-be overcome. In circuit design, naturally, the pressure required to move the oil mass and to, overcome friction must be added to the pressure needed to move the load, In most applications, good deaign minimizes these preasure "drops" to the point where they become almost negligible.

1 gpm ::::;: 231 eubic m.c.;hcs/mInute

cuhic inchpsLminuw_ 23 ]

Flow and Pressure, Drop

Whenever- a l iqurd is Ilowing, there must be a <condition of unbalanced rorce to cause motton. Thcr-efore , when a fluid flows through a constantdiameter pipe, the pressure will always be slightly lower downstream with reference to any point upstream, The difienmc.ein pressur-e Q,r pressure drop is required to overcome fl!"kUnn in the Une.

La.minar and Turbulent Flow

Ideal'ly , when the partickes of a fluid move

1. PRESSURE IS MAXIMUM HERE HiECAUSE OF THE HEAD HEIGHT Of LIQUID

4. S UCCEED1. NGl Y tOWER LEVEL OF UQUIDIN THESE PI PES IS A M'EASURE OF REDUC ED PRESSU RE AT PO~ NTS DOWNSTREAM FROM T HE SOU RCE,.

3. FRICTION IN THE PIPE DROPS PRESSURE FROM MAXIMUM TO ZERO

2.

AS THE LIQUID FLOWS OUT UNRESTRICTED

Frgure 2-7. Fl"iction in Plpes Hesults in a Pressure Drop

2-6

1. IHE L~iQUID IS SUBJIECI 10 ATMOSPHERtc PRESSURE AI ALL ro~ NIS, SO I.S AT fHE SAME LEVEL A 1 ALL PO~ 'NTS.

1.5 pslc

A

3. RESUL IS I N A H~ GHER LEVEL AT THESE POI NTS e-

2. A HI N.C Rf.A.S E OF .PR ES SURE HE RE •••

HIGHER

Figu re 2 - 8 .Uq uid Seeks a Level Or Level s Depe nding on the PI' essure

2-7

1 ~ tOW VELOCITY flOW I, N A STRAI,GHT PIPE ts STREAMUNEEL THE FLUm PA mcus MOVE PARALLEl TO now D1RECnON.

3. NOR DOES .A GRADUAL C HA NGE 'IN DI.RECTION.

> 1--->

2. A. GRADUAL CHA NGE iN CROSS-SECnON DOES

NOT UPSEt THE SIREAMLI NE FLOW, •

. :I:"igure 2-9. Laminar Flow its in Paraflel Paths

I. THE FLOW MAY START OUl STREAMU NED.

3. SO DOES AN

A BRU Pl CKA. NGE IN D'IRECn ON ,.

2,. A N ABRUPT eM N GE

~ N CROSS-S sen ON MA KES IT TU RB UlE NT.

NON-PARALLEL PATHS OF PARII CLES ! NCREASE RESISTANCE TO FLOW (FRlCTION)

Figore 2-10. Turbulence Results in Flow Rcsistrule,e

2-8

through a ptpe., they wtl] move in stra:itghtj parallel How paths (F.ig·. 2-9).. This conditfon is c.dled. laminar flow and occur's at low veloci.ty in straight piping. With Iam inar- now, friction is minim.i.zed.

Tu:rbul,ence is the condition where the particles do not move smoothly parallel to the fiO'W direction (Fig. 2 ~ 10).. Turbulent flow is caused by abrupt changes in direcJion Or ,(~r'O$$ section." {)l' by too high velocity .. The result is greatly mcreased frtctton, which. g:enerates bent, incre:ases operaJing pressure and. wastes power,

BernoulH IS Pdnciple

Hydraulic flui!.din a working system contains €1}eI'b,7 in two Iorms: k:iuebc energy by v.irt~e of the fluid' s weight and velocity and potential encqzy in the fOntl of pressure.

Daniel Bernoulli, a Swiss scientist, demonstrated that in a system with a comi.d<'i;nt How rate, enf!I'b'Y is h"anSlOtmed from one form to the other each time the ptpe cross~seGti(lin size changes.

1. I N THE SMA'll SECTION

P~PE, VELOCBV IS MAXIMUM. MORE ENERGY ~S l N THE FOR1V\ OF MoOrl ON, SO PRIESSURE IS LOWER~

/

2. VELOCITY DEC REASES ! N THE LARGER PI PE. THE KI NEll C ENERGY lOSS IS MADIE UP BY AN. ! NCREASE ~ N PRESSURE.

Be:nwullP s prmejple saystlnt the SUInS of tile pre ssur e energy and kineti cene.rgy at vartous points in a system must he constant if flow rate 1$ constant. When the pipe diar.n:eter changes (Fig. 2-1il\ the veloctty changes. Kinetic energy thus either increases Of· d6c-reases. However, energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Tl1e:refore~ the change in l~in.etic energy must be offset by a decrease or increase in pressure.

The Use of a venturi in ahau tomoblle engine carburetor (Fig .. 2-12) is a famtltar example of Bernoullt'a prin.ciple. Air fleMi.ng through earbu eet)(\J;: ba.r:re! is rec;luc ed in p ressu re as it passesmrougn a reduced cross section oJ the throat. The decrease In pressure pel·l.l1it~ gasoliM to [law, vapor-Ize and. mixw:i.th the air stream.

Fig .• 2-13 shows the eombinedeffeets of friction and velocity changes on the pressure in. a line.

HiD R.AU Lie SYSTEM (; RAPH ICAIL sv M B'OLS

Hydra~lie d.rcuits [l.ndtlu:~_ir· components are depicted in various ways In drawmgs, Depending: on. what the picture must convey, i~ may be a

3. ~. GNORi NG IFRICn ON lOSS ES T THE PRESSURE AGAI N BECOMES l:HII:

SAME AS AT "A" WHEN THE n.ow VE lOC I TY BECOMES THE SAME AS AT IIAn.

Figure 2~ u. The Sum of Pr,eS5Ul'e and Kinetic Enerb'Y" Is Constant With a Constant Flow .Rate

2-9

3. PRESSURE IN FUE'l BOWL IS EOUAL TO PIRIESSU RE ! N

II AI R HOR NIII ABOVE

VENTURI

1. VOLUME OF AIRI DETERNlI NED BY "BUTTERH yu VALVE OPENI NG, FLOWS THROUG H CA RBU RHOR II BARRELil,

JIET

4.. PRIESS URE DIIFFE RI: NlilAt BETWEEN FUEl BOWL AND VENTURt THROA r CAUSES GASOUNIE TO FLOW INTO A'IR STREAM. REDUCED PRESSURE

I N VENT UR_~ HELPS GASOLI NE TO VAPORIZE.

2. Ai VENTURI. THROAT, AIR SPEEDS UP AND LOSES SOME OF ITS PRESSURE

Figure 2-]2. Venturi Effect in a Gasohn.e En.g;inc Carburetor is an Application m Bernoulla'e Pr inctple

1'. lFRICTI 0 N REDUCES T HE HEAD AT SUCCHmNG POINTS DOWNSTREAM AS IN FI G .. 7 .EXCEPT WHERE •••

2. 'rH E LA RGE R PI fiE REDUCES VIElOCITY OF THE FiLOW ..

Fibture 2-13. Friction and YelQcUy Affect Pressure

2-10

pictorial repreaentation of the components' exterIor s; a cu taway showing in ternalcons truction; a gr,aph:ic:irdiagram which shows :function.; or a combination of any 0,[ the three,

AU thre'€ type s are of nee e ss.ity used in this manual. In industry, however ~ tb,e graphical symbol f.l,.nd diagram are most common. Graphical symbols a.re the 'shorthand" of circuit diagTaIDS" using stm pie geom e tricfotms which show Iunctions and inter-connections .of Iines and components.

The 'C Olnplete" standard" for g:raph:kal sym bols is r-eproduced in AppendL'{ of this manual, FQllowing- is a brief exposition of the mod. common symbols arid how they arc used, along with an abbreviated claasification of some bydl'auHc Imes and components.

Lines

Hydraulic pipes,. tubas and fluid passages are drawn as single lines (Fig .. 2-14). There are three basic dassificatiuns:

5, A PI LOT II NE OPERA lES A VALVE OR OTHER CONTROL

<I: A working line (solid) carries the main stream of now in the system. For gr aphical ,oj;Oj,g:ram purpose s, tili 8 incl udes the pump Inlet (suctton) Iine, pressure lines and rnturn lines to the tank.

* A pilot line (long dashes] carries fluid that is lIsed to control th,e operaticn of a valve or other component.

* A drain Line (short dashes) carries leakage oil back to the reservoir.

Rotating Comp one.nts

A. circle is the baste symb (II for rotating components. Energy triangLes (Fig. 2- :1.5) are placed in the syrnbni.s to show them as energy sources (pumps) or energy recerver-s (motors). If the component is unr-drrectional, the symbol has only one triangle. A rev€l'sihLe pump CU' motor is d rawn with we triangles.

Cylinders

A eylinde1" is drawn as a. rectangle {Fig .. 2- Hi) ,vith mdicattons of a piston, pisl;on rod and port con-

4. A ID PAl N! U NE RETURNS lEAKA GE Oil TO THE RESEINOIR

11. T HE PUMP !NLET UNE

IS A WORKING LINE ..

R~SERVOIR

3. r HE PRESSURE II N E

IS A WORK'ING UNE..

RELIEF VAlVE

RETURN U NES ARE WORKING LINES

Figure 2-14. Three Classincations of Lines

2-11

J. THE !ENfRGY TR'tANGLf PO~ NTS QUl ~SHOWI NG THE PUMP AS A SOURCiE

3. THE TR~ANGLE PO~ NiS 'tN.

THE. MOTOR RECBV:ES ENERGY

PUMP

2. T\iVO l'RIANGlES I; NDI CA TE THAT THE PUMP CAN

OPE RATE I, N REVERS.E

MOTOR (UNI-D1RECnONAL)

4. TWO TRIANGLES DENOlE R'EVER$,I Bt U TV.

REVERS[ BlE PUMP

REVERS'tBlE MOTOR

Fi[.,rure .2.-15. A Cin::le With Energy Triangles Symbolizes a Pump or Motor

1. DENOTES A PI STON ROD

~~_~2. DENOTES A.~~ __

P~SlON . .--;~-4--~~

fn"L- ~~~____J

!!.... ~ __ ~~~ 3. PORf

CO NNtCi~ ONS

51. NGlE~AC1', NG CYLINDER

DOUBLE-ACTI NG CYLINDER

Figure 2-16. Cylinder Symbols are Single Acting Or Double Acting

2-12

1. E NV!ELO PIE 'IS BASIC SYMBOL

4. ARROW ~,NDICA1ES .' ADJUSTABLE

IN

OUT

2. P!,LOT U NE

DE NOTES .oPERA n OIN 'BY PRESSURE

---~~

I

.,

3. ARROW SHOWS FLOW PATH AND DIRECTION Of flOW

VIEW A

RELIEF VALVE ONFIN1T1: POSITION.ING}

2. PORT CONNECTIONS ARE DRAWN TO CENTER OR

1. 1 HREE ENVELOPES NEUTRAL POSITI ON 3,. A RROWS SHOW FLOW

MEANS THE VALVE HAS PATHS AND DIRECT'lON

TH'RH POSITIONS OF a.ow.

~,....;=:o-"'" ~~~~~

VIEW B

DI RECl1 ONAl VALVE (fl NnE POSI 11 0 N1 NG)

F~t'"lln; 2-]'l'. An Envelope is the Basic Valve Symbol

2-13

nectionrs). A single acting cylinder is shown open at the rod end and with onJ!.y a cap - end port connection. A double-acttng cylinder appears closed wUh two ports.

Valves

The basic symbol for a valve is a. square - refer red to as an envelope {Fig., 2-1'1). Arrows are added to the envejopes to show How paths and the direction of flow,

Innnite-posttiontng valves. such as relief valves, have single envelopes, They are assumed to be able to take ~wy number of pm5-iUoTIis between funy open and fully closed, depending on fucvolume of liquid passing through them.

~illite - o~j:~ion:i.~val v e s are directional val ves. Their symbols c ontain an individual. envelope for each position the valve can be shifted to.

Res€' l"yoir Tank Symbol

T'he reservoir' is drawn. as a rectangle (Fig. 2-18). It is open at the top fox' a vcntedreservoir and closed for a pressur-ized reservoir. For convenieuce, several symbols may be drawn in a diagram; though there is orny one reservotr,

Connecting lines are drawn to. the bottom of the symbol when the lines terminate below the fluid level .in the tank. If a line term mates above the fluid level, it is drawn to. tile top of the symbol.

Con.elusion

Figure 2-18 shows a graphical diagr-am of an enttre hydraulic circuit. Note that. there is no attempt to. show the slze, shape, Locatton or construction 0;[ any component. The diagram. does show runelion and connections; which suffice for most purposes in the field.

V.u-:i.ations an.d refinements of these baslc symbol s will be dealt with. in the c hap tel'S on components and systems.

DIRECTIONAL VALVE

I L

REUEf VALVE

L THE RESERVOIR MAY

BE DRAWN AS MANY TIMES AS CONVENIENCE IDI eTA 1 ES ,.

...

'I ~ II

LiJ,

I MOTOR

"'-2.

A U NE WH~ C'H TERM~ NAT ES BELOW THE FlUI D LEVEL ~ S DRAWN TO THI: BOTTOM

OF TH E SYMBOL.

F".igure ,2--18. Graphical Diagram of Motor-,Reversing Cii'CUU.

Q lJIESTIOINS

1. "What tsa hydr odynamie devic e '?

2. How does a hydrostattc device differ?

3 .. Name two ways which create a tendency for .21 liquid to Ilo w.

4. What is. a pressure "head"?

5. How roll ell is atm 0 sphe rfe pressure in psla?

In pstg? In in che 5 of m er eury ? in fee t of water?

6. How is the mercury column. supported in a barometer ?

7. Expl'ess30 psig: in psia.

8. Wha t are two way S to measure .flow?

g. EA:'})res:s5 gpm in cubic inches per minute.

10. What happens when a liquid Is subject to diliereut pressures?

11. Pump working pressure is the sum of which .individual pressures ?

12. What is laminar now?

13. \Vlm,t are some causes of hubulence?

14, .Tn what two torme do we Itud energy In tile I~ydr<lu lie fluid?

15. What is Berl1ou1U's principle?

tn. Name three kinds of. working Hues and ten what each does.

17. Vifha;i is the basic gra.phka.l. symbol for a. pump .or motor?

18. How many envelopes are in the symbol for .1 re hef valve?

19. Which connecting lines aj['(~ drawn to the bottom of the reservoir symbol?

20. How many positions does the directional valve ill Fie;. 2-13 have? ;]'he relief valve?

~

, -I

... ;:, - ; .. - ' .. ~~

CHAP3

HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

Selection and I:; are of the hydraunc Huid for a machine will have an impor-tant effed on how it performs and On the llie of UU:l hydrruJ.Hc eomponcnts, The formulation and application of hy - draul ic fluids is a. s(!ient:(~ of itself, far beyond [he scope of this manual, In this chaptcr, you will find the basic Iactor s involved :in the choice of a fluid and! its proper u se ,

A fluid has been defmed in Chapter 1 as allY liquid Ol' r:o;<ls. However, the term fluid hascome into g:eneral usc in hydraulics to refer to the liquid used as the powcr--transmittmg medium. In Ulis chapter', fluid will mean '~he hydraulic fluid, whether a spec.iall y-cumpounded petroleum (Jd Or one of the special fire-resista,nt fluids, which may be a synthetic compound,

PURPOSES OF TH E FLU ID

The hydrautrc nuid has four prtmary purposes: to transmtrpower, to lubr-icate moving parts, to seal clearances between parts, and to (~oo! or d i,t;s i p:lh~ he at.

As at power transmitting medium, the fluid must How easrly through lines and component pa$sages, Too much resistance to Uow creates constderable power loss. The fluid also must be as rncompresstble as possible so that ac lion is instantaneous when the pump is started or a valve shifts.

L u b r k alion.

In most hydrauhc components, tntcrnal Iubrication is pr-ovided by the fluid. Pump elements and ott! e.r wN!.rillg part s sl ido against each olhe r on a film of fluid (Fig. 3-1). For Iong component hie the oil m II s teo nt <lin tn e nee e S sary <t;dditi ve s to ensure hig'h antiwear «haracterfsrtc s. Not an hydr aufic oils contain these additives.

Vkkers recommends the nBW ~:eIle]"fl,Uon of industrial hydraulic oHs containing adequate quantttres of annwear additives. For gNI(~;ral hydraulic sen·it~e, these oils offer superior protection against pump and motor- ';.ilear nnd the advantage of long service life.. In addiriun, they

provide good demulsibthty as well as protection againstrust, These oils are generally known as anttwear typ e hydraulic oil s.

Experience has shown HmL tho lOW and 20-20W SAE vtscostty untomotfve crankcase oUs, having letter designatton ,. SC" ,. "SD", 0[" HSE". are excellent for severe hydraulic service whe re there is UtU~ or no water present. The only adverse effect is that their" detergent" additiv,es tend to hold water in a tight. emulsion andprevent separation of water, even on long time standing, It should be noted that very few water problems have been expertenced to date in the use of these crankcase oi ls in machine ry hydraulic systems. Normal condensation has not. been a problem,

These oils are highly r,ecoItlmencled for mobile equipment hydr aul'ie systems.

In l.ltany instances, the fluid is the only seal against pressure inside a. hydranlic component. In Figl,H'C 3-1, there is no seal :ring behll'(!c(_~n the valve spool and body to' minimize leakage from the high-pressure passage to H~(~ Iow-pressure passages, The d OS{~ mechanical fit and oil vtscosiry dctcrmtnes leakage rate.

GooliJ)~

Circulation of the oil through lines and around tho W[lUS of the reservoir (Fig. 3 -2) gives, ap heat that is generated in the system.

OUAIUTY R'EOU IREMiENTs.

In addition to the s'e p t" irn a r y fu nc tlo rD s., the hydl':)uIie,: fluid may have a number of other quality r eqnirements. Some of these 3,re;

... Prevent rust

'" Prevent formation ~)f slud~;c, b'IUll and var-nish

*' Depress foaming

3-}

1. A TYP~CAL SUDI NG VAL VE SPOOL MOVES BACK A ND FORTH ••.•

2., INSIDE ITS BODY _ ' ••

3. ON A THIN FILM Of HYDRAULIC runo {SHOWN GR:EA"I'LY EXA GGERA TED}.

4. I. f THiS PASSAGE liS lJINDER PRESSURE, THE flUID FILM SEALS IT FROM ADJACENT PASSAGE.

Figure 3 -1 + Fl uid Lu bricMes Working Parts

1. AS THIE HYDRAUUC FlLHD

01 RCUlAJES THROUGH U NES ~ + +

fROM HYDRAUUC SYSTEM ~

TO HYDRAUUC SYSTEM

2. AN D THE RESERVOI R •• +

Figure 3 - 2. C ii:t'culaUon Cools the System

3-2

'" Mamtain its 0" ... 0. stability and. thereby reduce fluid replacement cost

*' Maintain relatively stable body over a wide temper-atnre range

'" Prevent corrosion and .pitting

*" Separa tc out water

*' Compatibility wtth seals and gaskets

Th.€s·e qualtty requir-ements often are the result of special compounding and may not be present til every fluid.

FIl U H) IP R 0 PIER TIlE S

Let us now consider the properties of hydraulk fluids which enable it to carry out its primary functions and fulfill some or all of its quahty requirements.

VUCOSITY

Viscosity.is the measure of the .f1uid's resistance to. now; or an inverse measure of fhlidHy.

If a fluid flows easily, its viscosity is I'Ow. you also can say that the fluid is thin or has a low body.

A fluid that flows with diHiC!l]lty has a high viscos:i.ty. ItIs thick or higtl in body.

For any hydrautie machine, the actual fluid viscosity must be a compromrse, A highviscos-_ ity is desirable for maintaining sealing between mating surfaces.

However ~ too high a vtseosity inc reases frictiDn, re sultmg in:

* High r-e si.st[lJ1CC to How

'" Increased power consumption due to fr icttonal Ioss

:t- High temperature c au sed by fric lion

* Increased pressure drop because of the resistance

*' POi:!SibiHty of sluggish Dr slow ope ratron

*' Difficulty in separating air from oil in reservotr

And should the viscosity be too low:

:;'1 Internal leakage Increases

* Excessive wear or even seizure under heavy load may Occur due to. breakdown of the oil film between moving: parts.

'I: Pump .efficiency may decrease, causing slower operation of tile acrcator

:t- Increased temperatures result from leakage losses

Some methods of defirring-viscosity t in decreasitl'lg o.rder of exactness are: Absolute (Poise) Viscosity; Kinematic VitH~OSj_'!:y in Centistoices; Relative Vitscos.i.ty in Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS); and S. A. E. number-s, Hydraulic fluid viscosity requiremeuts are spedfied in SUS as a matter of hrstor ieal usage in this country.

Absolu te V itsc a si ty

Considel'ing viscosity as the resistance when moving one layer of Iiquid over a_Dothcr is the basts for the laboratory method of measuring absolute viscosity. Poise visecstty is defined .,13 the Iorce per unit of area required to move one parallel surface at a speed of One centimeter= per'-aecond past another paratlel surface separated by a fluid film one (;enUmeter thick. (Fig. 3 -3). [In jhe metr.ic system, force is expressed in dynes, area in square eent imeter s), Stated another way, poise is the ratio between the shearing stress and. the rate Of shear of the fluid:

ABSULUTE VIBCOSITY

.':5hear t:ltn'!H:l Hnt!~ of Shp::Ii'

A smaller unit of absolute viscosity is the centipoise, which i::; one-Jmndrcdth of a poise:

Kin.er.na.!ic V is cositv

The concept .of kinematic viscosity is the outgrowth of the use of a. head of Iiqtnd to produce a flow through a capillary tube. The coefficient of absolute vtscosuy ~ when divided by the density of the liquid is called the kinematic viscosity. In the metrtc system, the U!n.it oJ vi:~{:o~it'y is caned the Stoke and it has the units of centimeters squared per second. One one-hundredth of a Stoke is a Centistoke.

3-3

3. AND A FORCE OF 1 DYNE IS RIEQUI RED TO MOVE T HE SURFACE T TI,,'E VIISCOSITY IS !EQUAL 10 ONE POISE.

1. 1fT HI S MOVI NG SURFACE IS ONIE sa UARE CENTIMETER IN AREA AND MOVES AT A VElOCITY OF ONE CENTIMEHR PER SECOND 0 N •••

2. A FILM OF FLUI DONE CIENTl.MHER THICK •••

Figure 3,-3:. Mea-suring Absolute Viscosity

1. A MEASURED o LJANll TV Of OlliS HEATED TO THE llESl TEMPERATURE •••

1 HERlVLOMETER

2. BY A SURROUrND~ NG Oil BA. T H •••

I,

HEATING ELEMENT

3. AND THEN ALLOWED 10 DRA.lN THROUGH .AN ORI F1C E OF A

PA RnCULAR SI ZE.

4. THE ELAPSED riME IN SECONDS EO UALS THE VISCOSITY ~N SSU.

Fi~ure 3-4. Saybolt Viis,,~osimctc:r Measures Relattve Viscosity

3-4

Following are conversions between .@bSOlu~JE;~ and kinematic vise osity:

S US Vise osity

F Or ill est prae tical purposes, it win serve to know the relative viscosity of the fluid. Relative viscnsiJy i~ determined by timing the flow of a gilliN'll1 quanbty of the Hnidtfuraugh a standard orifice at a given temperature, There are sev e ral methods in use. The most ac cep ted method Iu this eoumry is the S~ybolt Vis'(':osimeter (Fig·, 3-4).

The time it take s ro r the measured quantity of liquid to now through the o.rific e ism easuned with a stopwatch. The viscosHy in Sn:ybo[t Universal Seconds (SUS) equals the elapsed time.

Obviously, a. thick hquid wiLlI flow slbwly., and the SUS viSC()3ity win be higher than for a thin.

50,000 12¥OOO 8/0l)O

Uq~id which flows .faster. Since oil becomes thicker at low temperature and thins when warms d, the vrsc osi t:y mu stbeexp re ssed as so many SUS f S at a given tempe r ann-e, The tests are usually made at IOn degrees F. 01' 3JiO'"'F.

For industrial applicatjona, hydraulic oil vtscosHies usually are in. the vieinity of 150 SDS at 100" F. It Js a: general rule that the vise osity should never go below Mi SUS Or above 4000' SUS~ regardless o.f temperature, Whero temperature extremes are encountered, the .fluid. shouM have a high vise osity index (page 3 - 6).

SAlt: Numbers

SAE Numbers have been establtsh .. ad by the Society of Automotive Eng:in.eers to specify .range s of SUS vi scos rUe s of oilsO:l:t SAE test temperatures.

Winter numbers (5W; lOW, 20W) are determined by tests at 0 degrees :F. Summer oil numbers (.20 ~ ,3 0; 4 (I; 50 j. etc.) designate the SUS rang'€! at 2;]0 U F. ''I~\ble 1 is a chart of the temp e rature ranges.

1. BOTH 01 LS HA,Vir

T HE SAME VI.SCOSIJV Al roo=r.

2. AT ZERO DEGREES I THE 50 V~ 01 LIS THICKER.

WOOF 2]OOf

3. AND Al 2W DEGREES, THE 50 VI OIL ~S TH[NNER:.

ViSCOSITY !,N SSU

150

50 43 41 40

F.itgure 3-5.. Viscosity Index om is a H.ebtive Mea.sliu8 of 'Vi.scos:i.ty Change with. Temperature Change

3-5

'fABLE 1. SAE VISOOSI'I'Y NUNlBERS FOR CMNKCASE OILS

SAE VlliCOSITY NUJMS,ER

ViscosW UnitSV

Mirdmum

Minimum

Maximum

5W

Centipoises Centtstokes SUS

l'DW

Centipoises Centistokes SUS

:I.~20c€) 1,300 6,000

20W

Centlpoises Centi.stokes SUS

2~40dfD 2,600' 12,0'00'

20

Centistokes SUS

Centis tokes SUS

40

Centistokes SUS

50

Centrstoke s SUS

Less than 1,.200 1,300 6,000

Less than 2,400 2,600 il2,O{)O

Less than 9,Gij'O .W~ 5,00 43,000

5.7 45

Less than. 9.6 58

~U) 58:

Les s than n. 9 70

12 .. 9 70

Less than :W. 8 fl5

16.8 85

Less than 22. 7 1:1.0

® The official values in this classrncattonare based upon 2]0°.F v~,s>cosU:y in cennstokes (ASl'M D 445) and O~:IF viscosjttes in. centipotses (ASTM D 260-2). Apr~ro.xim,ate values in other units of viiscosi~are given for imormation only, The approximate values at 0" F wer e calculated using an assumed oil denatty of O. [I gm/ ceat that temperature

® The viscosity oJ an oils included in this classification shill not be less than 3. n cs at ~no" F (39 SUS).

© Minimum viscosity at 00 F may be waived provided viscoaity at :2-10" F is not below 4. 2; cs (408US).

@Minimum viscosity aJ Q" ~F may be waived provided viscosity at 2,10".F is not belo,w 5. '7 es (45 SUS).

VISCOSI'I"y INiDEX

Viscosity indexIs an arbttrary measure of a fiuicP S r-e ststance to viscosity change with ternperature change a, A fluid that has a relatively st'1lble viscosity at temperature extremes has a nigh vise osi ty index (111).. A fluid that is very thick when coldand very thin when hot has 3! low VI.

F.ltgilH':e 3-5 shows a comp.a:r':i.son between a 50 VI and a 90 VI oil, Compare these actual vtseostttes at three temperature s:

4] ,SUS 43 sns

VI

50. 90

12,000 SUS 8,000 SUS

150 SUS 150 SUS

Note that the ~HJ VI oil is liliolJ;er at zero degrees and thicker at 2:W degrees, whHe both have thE!same viscositj' at 100 d.egrees.

The original VI scale was f'rom '0 to lOO, representing the poorest to best VI charaeter-tsetcs thenknQw:n. Today ~ chemical additives .and refining techniques have increased theVl e.

3. WHERE CLEARANCE BEfflEEN THE PA RTS I S CAUSED BY IDYNAM'IC FORCES ANID FlU~ D VISCOSITY.

U. MI CROSCOFlC ~MPERFECn 0 NS or THE MATING PARTS ARE ~EPARAJED. ~ ~

X 100

IBY A FILM OF flUID •••

Figure 3-6. Full Film Lubrication Prevents: Mehl-to-MeW Contact

some oils considerably above 100. A hi(g!h. VI ts desirablewhen the equipment operates in tamperature extremes. However, in a machine that runs at relatrvefy constant temperatures the vtsecsity index of the fluid is less criti.cal.

'POUR PO'INI

Pour point is the lowesttemperature at wlueh a fluid will flow. It is a very important. spccif:icatiOB if the hydrauhc system win be exposed to extremely low temperature. For a. thumb rule, the pour point should be 20 degrees F below the lowesttemperature to be encountered,

ILUBRICA TlNG ABmLlTY

It is desirable .for hydraulic system moving parts to have enough clearance to zun together on a sub stanttal film of fluid (Frg, 3, - Ei). This condition is cal.led full-film lubrteation, SQ tong as the fluid has adeqoate vtscostty j the minute imp errecttons in the surfaces of the parts do not touch.

However, in certain high performance equipmcnt, increased speeds and pressure, coupled with lowe r clearances, cause the film of fluid to be squeezed very thin (Fig. 3-7) and a condition

called boundary Iubr icatton occurs. Her e, there ma.y be metal-to-metal contact between the tips of the two mating part surfaces and some chemical fubr-ieattng ability is needed.

OX ID,A HO N R E:SlSTANCE

Oxidation, .or chemic al union with. o"""Yg'en, is a. serious reducer of the service life of a .fluid. Petroleum oils are' particularly susceptible to oxidation, since oxygen readHy combines with both carbon and hydrogen in the oil T s makeup.

Most of the oxidation products are soluble in the otl, and additional reactions t.'1,J..;:e plac e In the products to form gum, sludge and varnieh, Tbe first stage productawhich stay :i.n the oil are acid in nature and c an cause cor rosion throughout the sy stem ~ m. additlon to IIner,easing the viscosity offue oil. The insoluble gums, sludge and. varnish plug orffices , increase wear and cause valves to stick,

CATAt YSTS,

There are always a number oj oxidation catalysts Or helper-s in a hydraulic. system.Heat.~ pressure, contaminants, water ~ metal surfaces and agitation all accelerate oxidation once it starts.

3-7

1. I N, Hi GH- P ER.FOR1JtANC E

EQUI PMENII" CLEARANCES I~lii!)i:!t~~~~~

ARE' DECREASED.

2. THE FLU I. [) a LM ~S NOT "[HI CK ENOUGH TO PREVENT THE: 11 PS OF SURFACE IMPERFECTIONS FROM roue HI NG AS THE PARTS MOVE

A GAl. NSf IEAC H OIHlI:R. •.

. 3. THE 01 L MUST :HA VE SUPER.~ OR LUBRiCATI NG A BIU TV OR T HE AS PERm I:S (R.OUGH POI.NIS} WRL SEIZE AND lEAR CAUSI N G WEAR ..

Figure 3-7. Boundary Lubr-ication RcquiJ~cs Chemical Additives

FIgure 3-8. Rust Ca:used by MOllsture in the: Oil

3-8

Tempezanrre is particularly impor tant, Tests. have shown that below 135 () F j oil oxidizes very slowly. But the rate of oxtdation (or any other chemical r,e.llcUon) approxzmatcly doubles for every la~ F' increase 'in temperuture,

Oil refiner's incorporate addttives in hydraulic. oil s W r esist oxidatlon j stnce many system So operate at considerably higher temperature. The seadditi vesei the r:

L Stop oxidation from contmaingimmediately after it starts (chain breaker type) 01;' ••••

2. Ream: e the effe d oJ o;x_idati)(ln 'C atalysts {metal deactivator type).

RU $1 AND COIRROS·~O'N PREVIENilON

Rust (Fig. .3 -8 }is thC'(;;.hGmic al union of iron (or steel) with oxygen. Corrosion is a chemical reaction between a metal and a chemieal-> usuallyan acid. Acids result from the chemical un:i.on of water wi th c ertam elements.

Sinceilt is usually not possible to keep ajx and a:tm.osph>ere-borne moisbnre ou.t of the hydraulic system, therewiH always be opporw.J1JiUcs for rust and cor rosion to OCCl[] r. During eorroston,

e' )

particles ofmeL"\l are dissolved and washed away (Fi_g. 3-9). Both rust and corrosion contaminate the system and promote wear. They also .uilfwC'xcessive leru~age past the aileded parts and may cause components to seize.

.Ru_st and. corrosion can be .iJJhibited by mcorporating additives that "plate" on the metal suef~cc~ to pzevent thctr being attacf{ed chemically,

Small q uannnes of water can be tol erated in most systems, In. faet, Some anli-rust COmpounds. promote a degre·e of em 1l1si'fication.) or m txture Wittla;l).y water that .gets into We system, 'l'hisprevents the water h"om $etmug and breaking through th.e ann-rust film, However, very much. water in the oil will promote the eollectton o.f contamtnan ts and can cause sticky val ve 13 and! accelerated Wear.

WUh proper r·efining, a hydraulic on can have a high degree of demulsiliHity Ox ability to separate out water ..

USE Of ADI[HTIVES

Sine e most of the de si rable p rop ~rties of a fluid

Figu.r€ 3 - (I. Corrosion Caused by Ac id Formation lin. the HydrauHc Oil

are at least partly traceable to <l..dditives~ it might be supposed that commarctal additives could be ~.nco.rpo.rated in any oil to make it more suitable for a hydraulic system, R.efil'lersl how'Er~ r er , warn against this, sayi~"4{ that additives must be compatible with the' base fluid ~U1d with each 0 the.r and furilie r that this com patib ility cannot be determ ined in the Held. Unless one has. laboratory facilities for aseertai!'ling their compatibility it is best to leave the use of additives to the discr-etion of the fluid manufactnrer.

P'ETROLHIlMOIL AS .A. HYDRAUUC n.uso

Petr olen m oil I s s till by far the most highly used base for hydraulic fluids. The characterfstics or properties of petroleum Oil flui.ds depend on thr f,:'e' tactor s:

L The type ofcrude on used

2. The degree and method oK refining'

3. Theadditives used

In general, petroleum. on has exceuent lubricity. SO'nllec rude uils have better than average lubrreatmg or ann-wear proparttes. Depending 011 their makeup, Some crude oils nlay display higher demulsfbtltty, more oxidation .re$istai~ce <l. t hig:he I" te m.pe ratu re s or higher v isc o::::H:y index than other-s, Oil naturally protects against rust. seals well ~ dis sipate s heat easily and is. e as y to keep dean by fiUtat.ion Or gravity separation of (:ontam.inant-s. Must of the desirable properttes of a fluid, if not alireadyp:teee.!'It in the crude otl, can be incorporated throughrefining or additives.

Apl'incip.al disadvantage of petroleum oil is. that it will burn. For· applications where fire could be a hazard, such as heat treating, hydroelectric wetd]ng~ die cashng~ Icrging and. many other-s, Hi.ere are available several kinds of fire resistant fluids.

FIIR.E RESISTANT HUmS

There are three basic types of .fire reststant hydraulic ilukl.s,:

L Water-Glycols

. 2. Water-Oll gmulsions 3. Synthetics

WAIU:~Gl YCOL TYPE runns

Water glycol fluids ar s compounded of (iJ.) 35 to 40% water to provide rests tance to hu rrrin g ~ (2) a glycol (a synthc tic chemic al of the sam e fam :i.ly as permanent antt-Ireeze-c-etnylene Of' other g'lycols., and (3) a w~ter-solllble thickener to improve viscosity. They a160 eontarnadditrves to prevent foaming, rust and corrosion, and to .improve Iubrtcatron,

Chara.cte rtsttc s

Water-glycol .fluids generally have good We.w reststanca eharacterjsttcs, provided thaoj: high speeds and loads are avoided. The flu.id has a high gr~vity {it. is heavier than o:i.l), which can create a 11ig:he1" vacuum at pump inlets. Certain m eta} is such as zinc , c admium andrna;,l,"nes nim react with water glycol fluids and cannot be llsed in systel11~ whel'e compatible paints and, enamels also must be used with these Iluids.

Most of the newer synthette seal materials are compatible wit.h wa.ter-glycol fluid. Asbestos, leather" aud cork-Impr-egnated materials should be avoided in rotatmg seals, since they tend to absorb water,

Some disadvantages of these flnkis arc: (1) it is necessary to contmually measure water content and make tip lor evaporation to maintain required vtscosity and (2) evaporation may also cause loss of certain addltives, thereby reducing the Efe of the fluid and 01: the hydraulic eomponents, Also, (3) operating temperatures must be kept low and (4 } t he cost (at the p resent Nm e) is greater than for conventronal oils.

Changingto Water-Glycol

Wh,en. a system . Is changed from petroleum oil to water-glycol, it mustbe thoroughly cleaned and flushed. Rec omrn e ndaUons :inc1 ude rC mov inc; original 'p~dnt from inside tile rcservoir, changing' zinc or cadrumm plated parts, and replact.ng c e r t~dn die cast nt.tiugs. It 111 ay also be nee e ssary to replace alnm.inum parts unless properly treated, as well as ally instl'l,lmentaU.on equipment which is not compatible with the 11 uid,

WATUt-OIL EMUILSIONS

Emulaion-fype fluids arc the least expensive Iiro resistant fluids. Ltke water-glycol, they also depend. on water content for Jirc-resbstant prop£! rtie 5.. In <l!!ddH:iQn to water and oil, Ulrf,lem ufsions C ontain ernul sine rs, stabili ze r S and othc r addH:ive:5 to hold the two liquids to~etll~er •

Oil - in -Waite r

OiLt-iTh-water emnl.sions contain tiny droplets of sp ectally re fined oil. dispsr sed in water. We say that water 1$ the conttnoous phase, and the fluid' s characterrsttcs are more like water than oil. It is highly fire resistant, is low in viscosity an.dltas CXIC ellen tc ooling characteristics. -Additives can he incorporated to Improve the .relativclypoor lubricity and to protect against rust, This fluid has in the past b een. 1:,1 sed primarily with large, low-speed pumps. Now con-

3-10

ventiomil hydraulic pumps are also available for use with it.

Water-in-Oil

Water-In-oil emulstons are mere common in usc. Tiny droplet s of water are dispersed in a continuous oil phase. Like oil. these fluids have excellent lubricity and body. Addilion~lily, the disper-sed water gives the fluid. a better cooling ability. Rust inhibit.ors are Iueorpoeated for both the water and oil phases. Anti-foam additives also are used wrtn no dtfficulty.

These emulstons usually eontain about 40% water as 'U s ed in the system, Howeve r, some manufaeturor s furni:5h a fluid concentrate and the customer adds water when. ~he fluid is installed. As willi the water-glycol fluid, it is necessary to replenish the water to maintain proper vtscosity,

Other Charaderi.stics

Ope~ati:ng temperatures must be kept low with any water-oil ernufsdon to avoid evaporation and oxidation, The fluid must clrculate and should not be repeatedly thawed and h'o:t:en 'Or the two phases may separate, Inlet eonditions should be carefully chosen because of the higher density of the Iluld and. its inherent high viscostty.

Emulsions seem to have g. greater affinity for contam ination and require extra attention to ffltnaticu, Includtng magnetic plugs to ,~ttrac:.t iron particle 5.

Compatibility With Seals and Metals

Emulsion Iluids are g'eneral1y compatEble with aU metals and seals £00 no in petroleum hy draulie syskms.

Change-Over to Emulsion

'\VhE!1l a hydraulic system is changed over to warer--otl emulsion flutd, it should be completely drained, cleaned and Hushed. It's essential to get out any contamination (such as. water--glycol fluids) which might cause the new fluid to break down. Most sears can be left undistrrrbed, Butyl d.yuam.1c (moving) seals should be replaced, however, In changing from synthetic fluids, seals must be changed to those rated for petrol eum oil usc,

SYNTH EIIC f1RE-!R'ESISTANT HUmS

Synthetic fire resistant fluids are Laboratorysynthesized chemicals whi(;h are themselves less flammable than petroleum oils. Typie3J of these ar e: (I) phosphate c stu s, (2) chlorinated (halo-

genated) hydro-caJrbons~ (3) synthetic base fluids which are mixtures of !l and 2 may contain other rnatertal as well,

Character-istics

Sil.c.e the synthetics do not contain any water or other ¥olatil.€l material, they operate well at high temperature without loss of any essential elements. They also are suitable for high-pressure systems.

Synthetic .Hre r eaistant U-uids do not operate best in low-temperature systems. Auxiliary heating may be required in cold environments.

Al so, these fluids have the highest spec me gravity (weight} of any type and pump Inlet COH.ditions r equ ire spec ial C are when they are used. Some vane pumps are built with special bodies to provide the improved inlet conditions needed I::Q prevent pump cavitation when a synthetic fluid is used.

The viscosity index 01 synthetic fluids is generally Iowv- rangtng from 30 to as low as minus 400. Thus, they should not be used except where the operating temperature is relatively <constant.

Syntlil etic fluids are probably the m cs t costly hydraulic fluids being uaed at this time.

Synthetic fluids are not cornpatibl.ewith the commonly used Nitrile (Buna) and Neopn:~nc seals. Ther'eforc, a changeover from petroleum, water glycol or water-oil requires diamantlfng al.l the ,eomponen'rrs to replace the seals. Special seals made of compatible materials are available for replacement. on an Vickers components. They can be purchased singly (H' in kits, 001' can be built into new emits ordered spccifloeally for this type fluid.

Figure :3 -10 i 5 a chart showing the type s o.f materials that are compatible with var-ious hydraulic Iluids,

runo .MAINT'ENA:NCIE

Hydraulic fluid of any kind is not an incxpenstve item. Further , changing the Ilutd and flushing' 0.1' cleaning improperly mahlt<lined systems is time consuming and costly. Therefore, it' s Important to care for the fluid p.I'opedy.

SIOR AGE AINli) H.ANIHINIG

Here are some simple rules to prevent contaminatron of the fluid dur ing storage and handling:

Mi>.TFt.I~,H ~ UNO~R CON~WL"'\110N

A«(FPTA91 E SEAL At~D P.~(_""JN(i. M.·, T r <I",L ~

NEON!.( E, IlI)NA N

WA TE R-BASIE HUmS

OIL ANa Wi\HH EM1)LS·ION

ror-;:[N(, "UN!, N,

: ''''':) (()A K I

ACC[?TAS~t r .... " TS

CONVfNTI 01'11' 1

\'.fAT.fR.G-I.YCOI MllO.TURE

NtCW~EN~, B\JNA 1',1,

: hh~ CO~KI

,\~ ~r(QMM(N[l[l) a « SUfi'll E~

INO N· WA liE'R-SASE HUIDS

PHO~rtIA'E ESl'i:lts

5LlfTYL,. VITOf'<!. VYAAM 5IlICON~, HHON

fllJ.\

"/liP' C~J~" EPO'XY AS RE<;;CMM[NDW

AccrPTAnu PI~l ooeis

A(CFPTA91 f 'SUCTION )HAI N(,(S

"'(C€I'TA~i E • 11. TI:~;

100 MESH wl~r '1-1 .. 2 HMLS I'llM9 C" .. I'A( I'Y

{_(J N'I< N r I:) N".L

~() Ml~H WIRF ~ II M ~s l'U(o.W c,~PAcr.y

c,u.,~ n ~[R, ;JL!{'''':!lJD WI<:<. ~M;E [D(,[ 0~ PUi:Tf

PIF'F DOP€S A':. P.lCo,.,W.<NDEll_ TEflON 'jAPE

CELu.ILOS. r1 nr~, 2G~'.

:'M) Mo,H 'tiff:, . KNIFF meF ()P. ~L"'-Ti.

CEtLULCSE nsrz, 100':0 m MESH wm., KN:lrc

ro·(;F :)P. P~Ai~ TYI'E !.rULLER') (A!\IH O~ MI(fl.ON1C ,YPE MAY~! u5W ON NUN-·ADDInVl FLUID~.)

<-ONVENTIONo!o.L

AVOiv'

C; ..... LY,).N!?trl ~!.[JAt I~ NO CADM!UM ~!J\rlf'.!G

C~LLULO~; F!BE~. :.>00-

3:lO ,V,F)!i 'f1lP.E. KNIFE EDGE

QR PLAT[ IY~

(,()N'·.IE N no N. .... L

1. Store drums on their sides. If possible, keep them inside or under a roof.

Figure 3-10. Cornpatibility of' Hydraulic: Fluids and Scaling MaterinLs

2. Helore opening a drum, dean the top and tJH.~ bung thoroughly so no dirt can get in.

3. Use only dean container s, hoses, etc. to transter the fluid from the drum to the hydn.nllk reservoir, An. oil transfer pump equipped with 25 micron filters i;:;: recomm ended.

4. Provide a 200 mesh screen in the rescrvoir (mer pipe.

Keeping; the fluid clean and free from moisture will help it last much longer and avoid contamiuation damage to close-Ijttmg parts in the hydranl ic components,

IN-OPIERATIOIN CARE

Proper in-operation care of hydraul ic flmd ineludes:

L Pr-event coutarnination by keeping the system tight and using proper air and fluid filtration.

2. Esfnbl ish fluid change intervah.> so the fluid will be replaced before rt breaks down. If necessary. the supplier CHn test samples in the Inhor atoryat intervals 1.0 help establrsh the frequency of change.

3. Keep the reservoir Hllc.'ci properly to take fl,dvantag.e of i~~ heat dissipating characterrsttcs and prevent moisture from condensing on inside wal.l s,

QUESTION S

4. Reparr afl leaks imrllcd:i.a..tcly.

1. Name tour primary functions of the hydr • iulie fluid,

2. Name .four quality pI'op{~di(-~s of a hydraulic fluid.

3. Define vi.seos l ty. What is the common unit of viscosi ty?

4.. H ow is vise ostty affe cted by col d ? By beat'?

5. If viscosity is too high, what can happen 1.0 the sy stem?

o. \Vha t ts viscosity mdex ? When is vis cosity index important?

'1. Wki.ch type of hydraulic flmd has the best natur-al lubricity?

8. Name several catalysts to oxidation of hydraulic oil.

10. Wh at is de [nul sib !lity ?

11. What arc the thrc e factor s that deter mine the prop er he s of 2t hydratlHc oU?

12. What are the llire,e basic types of fire-resistant hydraulic fluid.?

13. Whi.ch type of hydraulic fluid ts not compatlib! e with Buna or N eop rene seals?

14 •. Whk.h type of H:re-n:s:i.sbrnt hydrauJh.: fluid is best for high temperature operation?

15. How doss the specific gravity of the fluid affect the pump i.nlet couditions ?

15. What is them os t i mpo rtant factor iLn good .fluid maintenauc e ?

3-13

iCHA.PTER

"4

specified by the American National St.3.l1.dards .:( Instrtute (ANSI) from 10 to HID (Fig. 4 -2). The numbers coyer ten sets of wall thickness,

HYDRAULIC 'PIPING AND SEALING

This chapter Is comprised of two parts. First is a descrtptlon of the hydraulic system "plumbing" --the types of connecting lines and Irtnngs used to carry fluid between the pumps, valves, aetuators, etc, The second part deals with the prevention of leakage and the types of seals and seal materials required for hydrautre appltcataons.

Piping :is a general term wh ic h embraces the var-ious kinds ofcondt.u;Ung lines that carry hydraulrc fluid between components; plus the fittings or connectore used between the conductors. Hydraulic systems today use principally three types of cond,uding' lines: steel pipe, steel '!.uhing and flexible hose. At present, pipe is the least expensive of the three while tubing and hose offer more eenvenienee ill mO.kinv; connections and in servicing the I'phrmbing". The future may see plastic plumbmg, which is gradually coming into use for certain applic ations ..

Iron and steel pipes were the fi:rst conductors used in mdustr'ial hydraulic systems and are still used widely because of their low cost. Seamless steel pipe is recommended Ior hydr auHe systems w'ith the pipe interior fr ee 01 rust, scale and dirt.

Sizing Pip e s

Pipe and pipe fittings are classmed by nominal size and wall thickness. Originally, a given srze pipe had only one wall thickness and the stated size was the actuai inside diameter.

Later, pipes were manufactured with varying wan thickneeses: standard, extra tl.'e~yY and double extra heavy (Fig. 4-1). Howevf£t" ~ the outside diameter did not change, To incr'ease wall thickness, the inside diameter was changed, Thus, the nominal pipe size alone indicates only the th read s.i;,::;e 10':[' 'C 0h11eC tions ..

Pipe Schedule

Currently, wall thickness is being: expressed as a scbcdulcnumber. Schedule Hum be l' S are

For comparison, schedule 40' cor-responds closety to standard. Schedu ie 80 e S SEl ntially is extra heavy, Schedule 160 covers pipes with the .gr eate st wall thickne SS under this sy stem.

The old double, extra heav-y classification is slightly thicker than schedule 150. Figures 4-1 and 4-2 show pipe sizes up to 12 inches (nom,i.nal). Larger sizes are available. Schedule 10,\vl:li.ch appears blank in the char-t in Fig. 4-2, is used only for pipes larger than 12 inches,

Pipe ,sealing

P tpe threads are brJer ed (Fig. 4 -,3) as oppo sed

to tube and some hose fittings which have straight :(threads. ,Joints are sealed by an interfe-rence fit between the male and female threads as the pipe

is tightened.

This creates one of the major disadvantages 0.£ pipe. When a joint is broken; the pipe must be tigntened further to reseal. Often this necessttates replacing BOHle of the pipe with slightly longer sections. How,ever.) the difficulty has been overcome somewhat by using teflon tape or ..;4- other compounds to reseal pipe jiolnts.,

Sp ectal tap s and die s are required for tl:u'eadil1g r hydraultc system pipes and Iittings. The threads

are the "dryseal" type. 'I'hey differ from stand-

ard pipe threads byengngin:g the roots and crests before the flanks; thus avoiding spiral clearance (Fig. 4-3).

Pip e Fittings

Since pipe can have only male threads, and does .1 not bend, vartous types of fitUI'I¥;s are used to make CO,nnectkms and change direction (Fig. 4-4), Most .fittings are £emale~th.r'ea.ded to mate with pipe although some have male threads to mate with other- fittings or with the ports in hydraulic components.

The many fittings necessary in a pipe circuit p resent ~ultiph~ opportunities for Ie akage, par-

4-1

1. THE OllTSI DE DIAMHE R 0 F A

GI VEN S'~ ZE p:~ PI: R:EMA~ NS CO NSlrA NT WHH CHANG.ES ~N WALL THKKNESS. IT is ALWAYS lARGER THAN THE QUOTED 51 ZE I N ~ NCHES.

2. THE NOMI NlAL pl~ PE

51 ZE ts APPROXiMA THY lIHIE ~ NSi DE mAMETER OF' EXTRA HEAVY PiPE,

STANDARD EXTRA HEAVY DOUBLE EXTRA HIEAVY

HOMJNAl PiPE: I IDOUSLE

SiL;IE o, D. $ T ANOARD EXTRA. IEX'iR.A HEAvY HfAYY

. .,05 -:<169 .215
.~~O -3M .302
.675 .493 .423
.. 840 -622 .54.6
1.0.50 .824 .742
J.3lS l_Cl4"" .957
1 .. 660 ~ .380 L278
1.900 ·~ .. (,.W 1500
2_375 2 .. 067 ~ .939
:2.B75 :::L4&9 2.323
:UQO 3.06:;l 2.900
4.000 3.548 Lh'i4
4.500 4.026 3.82,6
~-M3 5.0<17 -<i.an
6."6~5 6.Ms 5.761
8 • .625 s.on 7.62:5
WJ5(l 10.192 9.750
12./~ 12.080 ~ 1.750 1/4 3/:3; 1/2 3/4

.252 _'t34 .S9'9 ,,39'.6.

],100 L5a3 1.771

1-1/4 l-V2 ~.

~·l/2 3

3-V2 ~.

,5

6

3

to l2

Fig. 4-1. Early Classifications of Pipe WaH Thickness

4-2

(STANDARD)

(EXIRA. HlEA VV')

SCHEDULE 40

SCHEDULIE 80

COMPARtSON

~~--------~~-----~----~

/-SCH EDULE '\

1&0 DOUBLE EXliRAHEAVY

NO.IYI.INAl PIIPIE '" ~N S 101:\..01 A.M sr ~ R .......,
S~ZIE '0,0, SCt!lHL ~'c~Hl, SCHEID. SCHW,I SOlED, $CIiI~!), SCHH;i, SGI'IH}, SCiUO, SCHUL
1,0 '20 ~O 40 60 80 1000 no 140 'Ito
I/B ,.j()~ ,269 ,,21~
1;'4 , S~O .1M _ ))2
J/ll .,~5 _~9J .. 1:~~~
1/2 "8,10 _622 ~ _~66
3/~ ! .oso .~2f. .7.12 _614
I 1_]1~ [.0.19 .-957 _~I~
1~t/4 1_.M{) ! •. 380 LV8 l.16D
1-1;1 1_9DO LolO I_~{JO 1.J.J8
2 2.J7~) ,- O¢.! 1.931" 1.689
"1-1/2 2.875 2.~o9 2 .. 3<3 ~_ 1?5
J .3_~OO 3.,Q&j 2 eoo 2.6·2~
~1!1 ~_DI):) ~.:Aa J. ;II>~
~ ~.5W 4.0't. J.6<4 3,.6:~ 3..428
~ 5.363 5.04, ~.8n ~ .. ~6.3 4. j'IJ
6 6.625 (>.("''>5 5.n~ S, .. ,Ol ~. 189
:3 8.62) I 3" LL~ s,an 7. ~-:"'.l'!:! 1.11.1 :.~ 7.61~ 7 ,~:;9 r. 189 7.001 6.<11 ]
LO !C_i::'O lD_LSO LO .. 1 ~06 10_0.0 Y.7~O 9.564 <;-. :n~ 9.U-6~ aJ50 6 .. %0
12 12-'::<0 1~_2j';) 11.(190 1 1·1.<?34 11.&l~ 11.370 II .(J6~ ~()J5D Ic_~oa 10 .. 1.2\5 Fig. 4- 2.P ipes Currentlyare Sized by Sch.edule Number

ticularly as pressure :inerf:·a;."'>es. Thr€:a;oea connedJons are used up to :I. -1/4" . Where larger ipipes are needed, flanges. are welded to the pipe (J'.tg.. 4 - 5). Hat gaskets or 0 -.rings are used to seal flanged f:i. ttmgs ..

Seamle S8 steel tubing offers significant advantagee over pipe _for- .hiyfu~aJulic plumbing. Tubing

*" can be bent into. any shape, is easier tv work with andc an be 11 sed over and Over withou t any sf3aling problems, Usually the number ot: joints is reduced.

In low-volume systems, tnbmg wm.. handl.e l1;ighe.t' pressure and HoW' with less bulk and weight. However, it is more expensive, as are tile H.ttings required. to make tube connections.

Tuhing 8.izes

A tubing siz e spe cifieatioH.l'-efe1'$ to the tA,dsid e K dmmeter, TuMng- is £lvailable in l/16inch in- " crements .from 1/8 tnch to one men 0 .. D. and in

1/4 inch increments beyond one Iueh. Various wall thicknesses are available for each size. The inside diameter, <'1..8 previously noted, equals

the outside diameter less twice thewall tlnckness.

Tube .Fittmgs

'hi bing is never sealed by threads j hut by var i ~';.j-. 011S kinds of fittiNgs (Fig. 4-6). Some oJ these' fittings seal by rq.etaJ!. - 00- metal contact. They are known as comp.ression Uttin_gs and may be .... either the .nareF or .tw-:e1es5 type, Others use O-rings or comparable seals. in addition to~ threaded .fH:hngs, flanged H ttings also are available to he welded to lar geT ~i:t,edwl)ing.

1. Flare Fitting. The 37-degree flare fitti.ng ~._r is the most common fitting for tubing that can be flared. The .fitting·s shown ill Fig. 4- 6 - A - B seal by squeeztng the J:l.ared end of the tube ftgainst a seal as:llie eompresstcn nut is tightened.. A sleeve or extenainn of t~he nut supports the tu.be

to damp out v:i.bration. fie standard 45 - degree flare fitting its used Lor very high pressares. ]t

al so is made in au inverted deslb'l.l with. male threads on the compreasien nu t,

2. Sleeve or 0- Rh}£ Compression Fittings. .'/ For rubing fuat cantt ~he nared.) 01' to simply avoid the need o.f na_1."'in;g, there are various sleeve 01' ferrule compression 6th.rigS (views H- F), and 0'- rlng C ompresston .fUt"ings (view E'. The O-ring fitting allows eonsideraole variation

in the length and squareness of the tube cut.

1 I

1. THE TAPE.RED MALE THREAD 0 NTHIE SECTION OF PI PE •••

'2. SCREWS INTO THE FEMALE THREAD I N THE FITTI,NG OR HYDRAULIC COMPONENT. THl S THREAD ALSO ~S TAPERED.

3.. A:S THE. J 01 NT IS TI G HTENED I

AN I NTERFERENCE OCCURS BETWEEN THE TH'READS~ SEAUNG THE JOINTS .•

4. 'I N STA NDA RD PI PI: THREADS r THE FlANKS COME 'I'N CONTACT FIRST.

6" I.N DRY-SEAL THREADS~ THE ROOTS AND CRESTS EN'G.AGE fiRST, EUMINAllNG SPI RAL C LEA RANCE.

5. THERE CAN BIE .A

S PI RA l CLEARANCE AROUND THE THREADS.

Fig. 4-3. Hydraulic f'ip~ Threa,(Is are nry-Se~u Tapered Type

4-4

ANi! PPLE MAKES

SHORT (ONNECnONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS AND/OR FnTINGS.

A lEE ~S USED TO

MA KE PARALlEl CONI NECTI 0 NS FROM A Sll NGLE PI, PE.

A '~OO ELBOW OR ELl

IS USED 10 CHANGE

DI RECTI ON. THERE ARE ALSO 600 AND 45,0 ELLS.

l~, ",':"_ ~~~~g~~ :~~~~~~S

_-----"l~ PI,P!: SIZE TO ANOTHER.

A RI:DllO N G COUPU N G ----fIll- Al~O 1S US,ED TO, ~HANGE ~PIPE SIZE, BUT HAS

- BOTH 'FEMALE T'HREADS.

=DJ=,A SlRAtGHl COUPLING

JO," IN,S,', ',T, ,WO, , PiP,'E SECTIONS THE SAME SI ZE.

A CAP CLOSES AN OPEN PIPE END.

A PIPE PLUG IS USED TO PLUG A PORT OR

F! rn NG OPIENI NG THAT ISNIT USED.

A STREET 'Et'BOW (OR ELL) HAS ONE FEMALE A ND .oNE MALE THREA D.

A UNION HAS TWO THREADED FI HI NGS PLUS AN EXIERNAL NUT

TO PERMIT MAKING

OR BREAK,I'NG A J 01 NT WITHOUT TURNI NG THE P~PE.

A GLOBE VALVE 1S USED FOR

_ lHRonu N G now~

Fig. 4-4,. Fittings Make the Connections Between Pipes and Components

4-5

lOCK WAS HiER

"0" RING

FLANGE

SOC K.ET WI~ lID PI P:E CON NECn 0 NS ~TPAI GHT TYPE

lOCK WASHER

FlA.NGiE

THREADED Pl PE CON NECTI. ON~ STRAIGHT TYPE

Fig. <1 - 5. Flang-ed Connections for Large Pipe

4-6

A. 37° FLARE FITTI NG

C. STRAI GHT THREAD "0" RING CONNECTOR

E. "0" RING COMPRESSION FITTING

STANDARD

INVERTED

B. 4SO FLARE FITTING

D. FERRULE COMPRESSION FITTING

F. SLEEVE COMPRESSION FITTING

Fig. 4-6. Threaded Fittings and Connectors Used With Tubing

4-7

3. Straight Thread a.-Ring Connector. When :f the hydraulic component is equipped with straight threadports, fittings as shown in view 4-6,C can be used. It is ideal for high-pressure use, since the seal becomes tighter as pressure increases.

Flexible Hose

Flexible hose is used when the hydraulic lines are subjected to movement, for example, the lines to a drill head motor. Hose is fabricated in layers of synthetic rubber and braided fabric or wire (Fig. 4-7). Wire braids, of course, permit higher pressure.

The inner layer of the hose must be compatible with the fluid being used. The outer layer is

>l usually rubber to protect the braid layer. The hose may have as few as three layers, one being braid, or may have multiple layers depending on the operating pressure. When there are multiple wire layers, they may alternate with rubber layers, or the wire layers may be placed directly over one another.

1. Hose Fittings. Fittings for hose are es~ sentially the same as for tubing. Couplings are fabricated on the ends of most hose, though there

are reusable screw-on or clamp-on connectors.

It is usually desirable to connect the hose ends with union-type fittings which have tree-turrung snuts. The union is usually in the mating connector but may be built into the hose coupling. A short hose may be screwed into a rigid connection at one end before the other end is connected.

A hose must never be installed twisted.

2. Pressure and Flow Considerations. Industry standards recommend a safety factor of

at least four to one, and as much as eight to one,* in pressure capacity. If the operating pressure will be from 0 to 1000 psi, there should be an 8 :~ to 1 factor of safety, From 1000 psi to 2500 psi, the factor of safety should be 6 to 1; and at )j. pressures above 2500 psi , a factor of safety of

4 to 1 is recommended.

Factor of Safety (FS) = (BP) Burst Pressure

(WP) Working Pressure

In any nominal size pipe, the greater the schedule number the thicker the walls and the higher the burst strength. This decreases inside cross sectional area and increases flow velocity.

Thus, it is necessary to see that the conductor has the required inside cliameter to handle the

1. THE OUTER LAYER IS SYNTHETIC RUBBER ••• USED TO PROTECT •••

2. THE SECOND LAYER OF WIRE OR CLOTH BRAID.

3. FOR H\ GHER PRESSURE, ADDITIONAL BRAIDED

LA YERS ARE USED.

4. THE I NNER LA YE R IS A MATERIAL COMPATIBLE WITH THE HYDRAULIC FLUID.

Fig. 4-7. Flexible Hose is Constructed in Layer-s

4-8

20000
BASED ON FOR~ULA
AREA (SQ. IN.) G.P.~. X 0.3208
V[LOe lTV (FT./SE.C.)
I. IF THE LINE MUST
10000 HANDLE 14 gpm ...
9000
6000 5 -5
7000
2. AND A LINE WITH
6000 4 -4 3/4IN(H 1.0. IS USED •••
5000
3 - 3
4000 212-21'2
3. A FLOW VELOCITY
2 OF 10 fpsWlll RESUlT.
2
3000
13;4
11'2 I Y"
<, Ill<
2000 <, d/4
<, I

~"l-6 MAXIMUM

3/4 RECOMMENDED VELOCITY
34 FOR
INTAKE LINES_'
1000 Y2_5/e
900 9-'1& <,
800 ~8-~
700 ~16 ~
600 <,
~ <, e
~
500 9
o
W Ye III
I- 400 V4
:::J
Z W u.. 41 0
w N III Z
2 I- 0 0 0
300 :::J III I U
a: Z C( MAXIMUM w
W W W 0 III
CL ~ CL I- z RECOMMENDED
CL W <I: VELOCITY FOR C(
CI) a: :z: PRESSURE LINES_' w
W w 0 <I: W D..
I 200 0- C( al
U VJ <I: 0 :::J I-
Z Z 0 w';; I- w
0 z 9z:3 W
u _J ~ 41 u,
c!J _J <Il<l:I D..
:::J <{ fJJ ~W~ 0::
u '" >-
J I!l_
_J:::J 4- I-
<I: <1:1-1 0
Z U
:> 3: :::J .41 <I: 0
s 100 0 ~ I-WCI) W ...J
...J 0 U~O a:: w
u, 4- Z <{D..I <I: > Fig. 4-8. Conductor 1. D. Selection Chart

4-9

flow at recommended velocity or less, as well as sufficient wall thickness to provide pressure capacity.

Figure 4-8 is a nomographic chart that can be used to (1) select the proper conductor internal diameter if the flow rate is known or (2) determine exactly what the velocity will be if the pipe size and flow rate are known. To use the chart, lay a straight edge across the two known values and read the unknown on the third column.

Piping manufacturers usually furnish data on pressure capacities and sizes of their conductors. A typical sizing chart is shown in Fig. 4-9.

MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS

If cost is not prohibitive, tubing is preferable to pipe for its better sealing and convenience of 1 reuse, and quick serviceability. Flexible hose also need not be limited to moving applications.

It may be considerably more convenient in short runs and has some shock-absorbing ability. 1

Hydraulic fittings should be steel, except for *' inlet, return and drain lines, where malleable iron may be used. Galvanized pipe or fittings

should be avoided because zinc can react with some oil additives. Copper tubing also should be avoided because vibration in the hydraulic system can work-harden the copper and cause cracks at the flares. Moreover, copper de- >k creases the life of the oil.

INSTALLATION RECOMMENDATIONS

Proper installation is essential to avoid leaks, contamination of the system and noisy operation. 1< Following are some general installation recommendations.

Cleanliness

Dirty oil is a major cause of failure in hydraulic systems, Precision components are particularly susceptible to damage from plumbing installation residue. Therefore, care should be taken to make the plumbing perfectly clean at installation, When operations such as cutting, flaring and;t.. threading are performed, always see that metal particles aren't left where they can contaminate the oil.

Sand blasting, de-greasing and pickling are x:.. methods recommended for treating pipes and

OPERATING PRESSURES (0 TO 1000 psi) OPERATING PRESSURES (1000 TO 2500 psi)
Flow rate Valve size Pipe schedule Tubing Tubing-wall Flow rate Valve size Pipe schedule Tubing Tubing-wall
(15ft sec) O.D_ thickness (15ft sec) G.D. thickness
gpm gprn
1 1 80 1 0.035 2.5 1 80 3 0_058
1) "4 4 "
L5 1 80 5 0.035 6 3 80 5 0.095
1) I" 1> 1)
3 ~ 80 j 0_035 10 1 80 J. 0.120
4 "2" 4
6 3 80 1 0.042 18 3 80 I 0.148
1> "2" "4
10 1 80 5 0_049 30 1 80 It 0_180
"2" 1>
20 1. 80 7 0_072 42 It 160 H 0_220
4 1)
34 1 80 It 0.109 Safety factor 6 : 1. Above .fr in. tubing, welded flange fittings
58 It 80 It 0.120 or fittings having metal to metal seals or seals that seal with
Safety factor 8: I pressure are recommended. Fig. 4-9. Pipe and Tube Sizing Chart

4-10

tubing before they are installed. Additional information on these processes can be obtained from component manufacturers (Fig. 4-10) and from distributors of commercial cleaning equipment.

Supports

Long hydraulic lines are susceptible to vibration or shock when the fluid flowing through them

is suddenly stopped or reversed. Leakage can *: be caused by loosening or work-hardening of . joints. Therefore, the lines should be supported

at intervals with clamps or brackets. It is usually best to keep these supports away from the fittings for ease of assembly and disassembly. Soft materials such as wood and plastic are ~ best for this purpose. '

Consider Function of Lines

There are a number of special considerations relating to the function of the lines that should be mentioned.

1. The pump inlet port is usually larger than ~ the outlet to accommodate a larger intake line.

It is good practice to maintain this size throughout the entire length of the pump inlet. Keep the line as large as specified and as short as possible. Also avoid bends and keep the number of fittings in the inlet line to a minimum.

2. Since there usually is a vacuum at the pump inlet, inlet line connections must be tight.;1 Otherwise air can enter the system. .

3. In return lines, restrictions cause pressure to build up resulting in wasted power. t Adequate line sizes should be used to assure low flow rates. Here too, fittings and bends should

be held to a minimum.

4. Loose return lines also can let air into the system by aspiration. The lines must be ,i( tight and must empty below the oil level to prevent splashing and aeration.

5. Lines between actuators and speed control *' valves should be short and rigid for precise flow control.

Hose Installation

Flexible hose should be installed so there is no kinking during machine operation. Some slack should always be present to relieve strain and,"~,

permit absorption of pressure surges. I

Twisting the hose and unusually long loops also are undesirable. Clamps may be required to

avoid chafing or tangling with moving parts. A Hose subject to rubbing should be encased in a .J protective sleeve or guard. l'

SEALS AND LEAKAGE

Excessive leakage anywhere in a hydraulic circuit reduces efficiency and results in power loss or creates a housekeeping problem, or both.

Internal Leakage

Most hydraulic system components are built with operating clearances which allow a certain amount of internal leakage. Moving parts, of course, must be lubricated and leakage paths may be designed in solely for this purpose. In '{ addition, some hydraulic controls have internal leakage paths built in to prevent "hunting" or;( oscillation of valve spools and pistons.

Internal leakage, of course, is not loss of fluid. The fluid eventually is returned to the reservoir either through an external drain line or by way of an internal passage in the component.

Additional internal leakage occurs as a component begins to wear and clearances between +parts increase. This increase in internal leakage can reduce the efficiency of a system by slowing down the work and generating heat. :::t

Finally, if the internal leakage path becomes large enough, all the pump's output may be bypassed and the machine will not operate at all.

External Leakage

External leakage is unsightly and can be very hazardous. It is expensive because the oil that leaks out seldom can be returned to the system. k The principal cause of external leakage is improper installation. Joints may leak because they weren't put together properly or because vibration or shock in the line loosened them. Failure to connect drain lines, excessive operating pressure and contamination in the fluid all are common reasons for seals becoming damaged.

Sealing

Sealing is required to maintain pressure, to * prevent fluid loss, and to keep out contamination. There are various methods of sealing hydraulic components, depending on whether the seal must

be positive or non-positive, whether the sealing ). application is static or dynamic, how much pressure must be contained, and other factors.

Apositive seal prevents even a minute amount of fluid from getting past.

4-11

VICKERS

Industrial and Mobile Machinery

PREPARATION OF PIPES. TUBES, AND FITTINGS BEFORE INSTALLATION IN A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

General requirements. When installing the various iron and steel pi pe s , tubes, and fittings of a hydraulic system, it is necessary that they be absolutely clean, free from scale, and all kinds of foreign matte r , To attain this end, the following steps should be taken.

1. Tubing, pipes, and fittings should be brushed with boiler tube wire brush or cleaned with commercial pipe cleaning apparatus. The inside edge of tubing and pipe should be reamed- after cutting to remove burrs.

2. Short pieces of pipe and tubing and steel fittings are sandblasted to remove rust and scale. Sandblasting is a sure and efficient method for short st raight pieces and fittings. Sandblasting is not used, however, if there is the slightest possibility that particles of sand will remain in blind holes or pockets in the work after flushing.

3. In the case of longer pieces of pipe or short pieces bent to complex shapes where it is not practical to sandblast, the parts are pickled in a suitable solution until all rust and scale is removed. Preparation for pickling requires thorough degreasing in TRI-CHLORETHYLENE or other commercial degreasing solution.

4. Neutralize pickling s o Iu ti on ,

5_ Rinse parts and prepare for stor·age.

6. Tubing must not be welded, brazed, or silver soldered after assembly as proper cleaning is impossible in such cases. It must be accurately bent and f'itt c-d so that it will not be necessary to spring it into place.

7. If flange connections arc used, flanges must fit squarely on the mounting faces and be secured with screws of the correct length. Screws or stud-nuts must be drawn up evenly to avoid distortion in the valve or pump body.

8. Be sure that all openings into the hydraulic system are properly covered to keep out dirt and metal slivers when work such as drilling, tapping, welding, or brazing is being done on or near the unit.

9. Threaded fittings should be inspected to prevent metal slivers from the threads getting into the hydraulic system.

10. Before filling the system with hydraulic oil, be sure that the hydraulic fluid -is as spedfied and that it is clean. Do not use cloth

strainers or fluid that has been- stored in contaminated containers.

11. Use a # 120 mesh sc reen when filling the reservoir. Operate the system for' a short time to eliminate air in the lines. Add hydraulic fluid if necessary.

12. Safety prec aut ions . Dangerous chemicals are used in the cleaning and pickling operations to be desc ribed. They should be kept only in the proper containers and handled with extreme care.

PICKLING PROCESS

1. Thoroughly degrease parts in deg r-e ase r , using tri-chlor Ethylene or other commercial d eg r-e a s i ng solution.

2. Tank No.1

Solution. Use a commercially available derusting compound in solution as recommended by the manufacturer. The solution should not be used at a temperature exceeding that recommended by the manufacturer, otherwise the inhibitor will evaporate and leave a straight acid solution. The length of time the part will be immersed in this solution will depend upon the temperature of the solution and the amount of rust or scale which must be removed. The operator must use his judgment on this point.

3_ After pickling, rinse parts in cold running water and immerse in tank No.2. The solution in this tank should be a neutralizer mixed with water in a proportion recommended by the manufacturer. This solution should be used at recommended temperatures and the parts should remain immersed in the solution for the period of time recommended by the m anuf act ure r.

4. Rinse parts in hot water.

5. Place in tank No.3. The solution in this tank should contain antirust compounds as recommended by the manufacturer. Usually the parts being treated should be left to dry with antirust solution remaining on them ..

If pieces are stored for any period of time ends of the pipes should be plugged to prevent the entrance of foreign matter. Do not use rags or waste as they will deposit lint on the inside of the tube or pipe. Immediately before using pipes, tubes and fittings they should be thoroughly flushed with suitable degreasing solution.

Figure 4-10. Preparing Pipes, Tubes, and Fittings.

4-12

A non-positive seal allows a small amount of internal leakage; such as the clearance of a spool in its bore to provide a lubricating film.

Static Seals

A seal that is compressed between two rigidly connected parts is classified as a static seaL The seal itself may move somewhat as pressure is alternately applied and released, but the mating parts do not move in relation to each other.

Some examples of static seals are mounting gaskets, pipe thread connections, flange joint seals (Fig. 4-11), compression fitting ferrules (Fig. 4-6) and O-rings. Static sealing applications are relatively simple. They are essentially "non-wearing" and usually are trouble-free if assembled properly.

Dynamic Seals

Dynamic seals are installed between parts which do move relative to one another. Thus, at least one of the parts must rub against the seal and therefore dynamic seals are subject to wear. This naturally makes their design and application more difficult.

O-Ring Seals

Probably the most common seal in use in modern hydraulic equipment is the O-ring (Fig. 4-12), An O-ring is a molded, synthetic rubber seal which has a round cross- section in the free state.

The O-ring is installed in an annular groove machined into one of the mating parts. At installation, it is compressed at both the inside and outside diameters. However, it is a pressure-actuated seal as well as a compr eassorr" seal. Pressure forces the O-ring against one side of its groove and outward at both diameters. It thus seals positively against two annular surfaces and one flat surface. Increased pressure results in a higher force against the sealing surfaces. The O-ring, therefore, is capable of containing extremely high pressure.

O-rings are used principally in static applications. However, they are also found in dynamic applications where there is a short reciprocating motion between the parts. They are not generally suitable for sealing rotating parts or for applications where vibration is a problem,

BASIC FLANGE JOINTS

GASKET

METAL-TO-METAL JOINTS

Fig.4-11. Flange Gaskets and Seals are Typical Static Applications

4-13

2. WHEN PRESSURE IS APPLIED

,

THE O-RING IS FORCED AGAI NST A THIRD SURFACE CREATI NG A POSI TIVE SEAL.

1. THE O-RI NG IS INSTALLED IN AN ANNULAR GROOVE AND COMPRESSED AT BOTH DIAMETERS.

NOTE: CLEARANCES ARE GREATLY EXAGERA TED FOR EXPLANATION

Fig. 4-12. An O-Ring is a Positive Seal

4-14

2. A BACK-UP RING PREVENTS EXTRUSION.

NOTE: CLEARANCES ARE GREATLY EXAGERATED FOR EXPLANATION.

1. \ NCREASED PRESSURE FORCES THE O-R\ NG TO EXTRUDE.

Fig. 4-13. A Back-up Ring is a Non-Extrusion Ring

4-15

\ -, /

\ <, / /

,,'_ ------- // /

<, --- ».> /

<, --_- /'

- _/

- -

------

Back- Up (Non- Extrusion) Rings

At high pressure, the a-ring has a tendency to extrude into the clearance space between the mating parts (Fig. 4-13). This may not be objectionable in a static application. But this extrusion can cause accelerated wear in a dynamic application. It is prevented by installing a stiff back-up ring in the O-ring groove opposite the pressure source. If the pressure alternates, back-up rings can be used on both sides of the a-ring.

Lathe-Cut Rings

In many static applications, the lathe-cut seal (Fig. 4-14) makes an acceptable substitute for an a-ring. Lathe-cut rings are less expensive than a-rings, being cut from extruded tubes rather than individually molded. There are many applications where lathe-cut seals and a-rings are interchangeable if made from the same material.

T-Ring Seals

The T-ring seal (Fig. 4-15) is used extensively to seal cylinder pistons, piston rods and other reciprocating parts. It is constructed of syn-

thetic rubber molded in the shape of a "T", and reinforced by back-up rings on either side. The sealing edge is rounded and seals very much like an a-ring. Obviously, this seal will not have the O-ring's tendency to roll. The T-ring is not limited to short-stroke applications,

Lip Seals

Lip seals are low-pressure dynamic seals, used principally to seal rotating shafts.

A typical lip seal (Fig. 4-16) is constructed of a stamped housing for support and installation alignment, and synthetic rubber or leather formed into a lip which fits around the shaft. Often there is a spring to hold the lip in contact with the shaft.

Lip seals are positive seals. Sealing is aided by pressure up to a point. Pressure on the lip (or vacuum behind the lip) "balloons" it out against the shaft for a tighter seal. High pressure cannot be contained because the lip has no back-up.

In some applications, the chamber being sealed alternates from pressure to vacuum condition. Double lip seals are available for these appl.ica-

Fig. 4-14. Lathe-Cut Seal is Rectangular in Section

4-16

SEAL

CYLINDER

Fig. 4-15. T- Ring is a Dynamic Seal for Reciprocating Parts

A STAMPED HOUSING GIVES THE SEAL

RIGIDITY AND FACILITATES ALIGNMENT AT INSTALLATION.

THE UP IS FORMED OF A SYNTHETIC OR LEATHER IT IS INSTALLED TOWARD THE PRESSURE SOURCE.

PRESSURE FORCES THE LIP TIGHTER AROUND THE SHAFT TO AID

SEALING.

SPRI NG HELPS SEAL! NG WHEN THERE IS NO PRESSURE.

Fig. 4-16. Lip Seals are Used on Rotating Shafts

4-17

CUP SEALS ARE PRESSURE ACTUATED.

BACKI NG PLATE AND RETAINERS CLAMP CUPS TI GHTL YIN

PLACE.

CYLINDER BARREL

Fig. 4-17. Cup Seals are Used on Cylinder Pistons

SEAL RING

CYU NDER BARREL

Fig. 4-18. Piston Rings are Used for Cylinder Pistons

4-18

tions to prevent air or dirt from getting in and oil from getting out.

Cup Seals

A cup seal (Fig. 4-17) is a positive seal used on many cylinder pistons. It is pressure actuated in both directions. Sealing is accomplished by forcing the cup lip outward against the cylinder barrel. This type of seal is backed up and will handle very high pressures.

Cup seals must be clamped tightly in place. The cylinder piston actually is nothing more than the backing plate and retainers that hold the cup seals.

Piston Rings

Piston rings (Fig. 4-18) are fabricated from cast iron or steel, highly polished and sometimes plated. They offer considerably less resistance to motion than leather or synthetic seals. They are most often found on cylinder pistons.

One piston ring does not necessarily form a positive seal. Sealing becomes more positive when several rings are placed side-by-side. Very high pressures can be handled.

Compression Packings

Compression packings (Fig. 4-19) were among the earliest sealing devices used in hydraulk systems and are found in both static and dynamic applications. Packings are being replaced in most static applications by a-rings or lathecut seals.

Most packings in use today are molded or formed into "U" or "V" shapes, and multiple packings are used for more effective sealing. The packings are compressed by tightening a flanged follower ring against them. Proper adjustment is critical, because excessive tightening will accelerate wear. In some applications, the packing ring is spring-loaded to maintain the correct force and take up wear.

Face Seal

A face seal (Fig. 4-20) is used in applications where a high pressure seal is required around a rotating shaft. Sealing is accomplished by constant contact between two flat surfaces, often carbon and steel. The stationary sealing member is attached to the body of the component. The other is attached to the shaft and turns against the

FEMALE SUPPORT RING

MALE SUPPORTI NG RI NG

GLAND WIDTH

GLAND FOLLOWER RING

THREE METHODS OF ADJUSTMENT ARE:

1. THREADED FOLLOWER

2. FLANGED FOLLOWER

STACK t b: NOMI NAL I. D. -+l

HEIGHT r-r NOMINA.L O.D. 31: HEEL

I" CLEARANCE

I NTERFERENCE ~

Fig. 4-19. Compression Packings

4-19

WAVE WASHER PROVIDES SPRI NG TENSION TO FORCE STATIONARY FACE AGAINST ROTATING FACE.

THIS PART OF SEAL REMAI NS STATIONARY IN HOUSING.

SEAL! NG SURFACE

"0" RINGS PROVIDE STATIC SEAL

BEARING

SHAFT

'-- THIS PART OF SEAL ROTATES WITH SHAFT.

Fig. 4-20. Face Seal for High Pressure Sealing of Rotating Shaft

stationary member. One of the two parts is usually spring-loaded to improve contact initially and to take up wear. Pressure increases the contact force and tightens the seal. As one might expect, the multiplicity of parts and the need for precision machining of the sealing faces make this type of seal very costly.

Gaskets

Gaskets are flat sealing' devices, usually fabricated in the shape of the flat mating surfaces to be sealed. Early designs of connection flanges and surface mounted valves were sealed with gaskets. Today they have been largely replaced in hydraulic equipment by O-rings, lathe-cut seals or formed packings.

SEAL MATERIALS

Leather, cork and impregnated fibers were the earliest sealing materials for hydraulic equipment. They were used extensively until after the development of synthetic rubber during World War II. Natural rubber is seldom used as a sealing material because it swells and deteriorates in the presence of oil.

Synthetic rubbers (elastomer sj.however.ar e for

the most part quite compatible with oil. Elastomers can be made in many compositions to meet various operating conditions. Most of the hydraulic equipment seals today are made of one of these elastomers: Buria-N (Nitrile), Silicone, Neoprene, Teflon or Butyl.

Leather Seals

Leather has survived the elastomer sealing revolution because it is inexpensive and is very tough. Many cup seals, lip seals and compression packings still are being made from leather. Some leather seals are impregnated with an elastomer to improve their sealing ability.

The disadvantages of leather are a tendency to squeal when dry and a limited temperature range. Few leather seals are able to operate above 1650 F, which is insufficient for many modern systems. Their absolute temperature limit seems to be around 2000 F. However, leather functions well in extreme cold--to -650 F.

Buna-N

The elastomer Buna-N (or Nitrile) is by far the most widely used sealing material in modern hydraulic systems. It is moderately tough, wears

4-20

well and is inexpensive. There are a number of compositions compatible with petroleum oil-most of them easily molded into any required seal shape.

Buna-N has a reasonably wide temperature range, retaining its sealing properties from -400 to 2300 F. At moderately high temperatures, it retains its shape in most petroleum oils where other materials tend to swell. It does swell, however, in some synthetic fluids.

Silicone

Silicone is an elastomer with a much wider temperature range than Buna-N, and is therefore a popular material for rotating shaft seals and static seals in systems that run from very cold to very hot. It retains its shape and sealing ability to -600 F and is generally satisfactory up to 400 or 500°F.

At high temperature, silicone tends to absorb oil and swell. This however, is no particular disadvantage in static applications. Silicone is not used for reciprocating seals, because it tears and abrades too easily. Silicone seals are compatible with most fluids; even more so with fire-resistant fluids than petroleum.

Neoprene

One of the earliest elastomers used in hydraulic system sealing was neoprene. A tough material, it still is in limited use in low temperature systems using petroleum fluids. Above 150DF neoprene is unsuitable as a sealing material because of a tendency to vulcanize or "cook".

Plastics, Fluoro-Plastics and Fluoro-Elastomers

Several sealing materials are synthesized by combining fluorine with an elastomer or plastic. They include Kel-F, Viton A and Teflon. Nylon is another synthetic material with similar properties. It is often used in combination with the elastomers to give them reinforcement. Both nylon and teflon are used for back-up rings as well as sealing materials. Teflon, of course, is used in a tape form for sealing pipe joints. All have exceptionally high heat resistance (to 5000 F) and are compatible with most fluids.

PREVENTING LEAKAGE

The three general considerations in preventing leakage are:

1. Design to minimize the possibility. (Back, gasket or sub-plate mounting)

2. Proper installation.

3. Control of operating conditions.

Let us explore each briefly.

Anti-Leakage Designs

We have already noted that designs using straight thread connectors and welded flanges are less susceptible to leakage than pipe connections. Back-mounting of valves with all pipe connections made permanently to a mounting plate has made a great difference in preventing leakage and in making it easier to service a valve (Fig. 4-21). Most valves being built today are the back-mounted design. (The term gasket-mounted was originally applied to this design because gaskets were used on the first back-mounted valves. Gasket-mounted or sub-plate mounted is still used to refer to back-mounted valves sealed by O-rings or lathe-cut seals. )

A further advance from back-mounting is the use of manifolds (Fig. 4-22). Some are drilled and some combine mounting plates with passage plates (sandwiched and brazed together), providing interconnections between valves and eliminating a good deal of external plumbing.

Proper Installation

Installation recommendations were covered earlier in this chapter. Careful inatal l ati on. with attention to avoiding pinching or cocking « seal, usually assures a leak-proof connection. Manufacturers often recommend a spec ial dr ivrr for inserting lip type shaft seals to be certain they are installed correctly. Vibration and undue stress at joints, which are common causes of external leakage, also are avoided by good installation practice.

Operating Conditions

Control over operating conditions can be very important to seal life. These are the opernting factors that can help prevent leakage:

1. Avoid Contamination. An atmosphere

contaminated with moisture, dirt or any abrasive material shortens the life of shaft seals and piston rod seals exposed to the air. Protective devices should be used in contaminated atmcspheres. Equally important is clean fluid to avoid damage to internal seals.

2. Fluid Compatibility. Some nre-r eststant fluids attack and dl.sintegr-ate certain elastomer seals. Few seals, in fact, are compatible with all fluids. The fluid supplier should always hI"

4-21

Fig. 4-21. Back-Mounting Leaves Pipe Connections Undisturbed 4-22

QUESTIONS

Fig. 4-22. Manifold Contains Interconnecting Passages to Eliminate Piping Between Valves

consulted when in doubt whether to change seals when a change is made in the type of fluid. (See Chapter 3.) Fluid additives (added by the machine user) also may attack seals and should be used only at the recommendation of the fluid supplier.

3. Temperature. At extremely low temperatures, a seal may become too brittle to be effective. At too high a temperature, a seal may harden, soften or swell. The operating temperature should always be kept well within the temperature range of the seals being used.

4. Pressure. Excess fluid pressure from overloads puts an additional strain on oil seals and may "blow" a seal causing a leak.

5. Lubrication. No seal should ever be installed or operated dry. All must be lubricated or the seal will wear quickly and leak. Leather seals should be soaked in fluid before installation. Elastomer seals are not as absorptive as leather but should be coated with fluid before installation.

1. How is a pipe size specified?

2. What is the schedule number of standard pipe?

3. How does a pipe thread seal?

4. What advantages does tubing have over pipe?

5. To what does the specified size of tubing refer?

6. How are tubing connections sealed?

7. How does a flexible hose contain pressure?

8. Name some methods for cleaning hydraulic pipes.

9. Give two reasons for pipe supports.

10. What is a positive seal?

11. What is a static sealing application?

4-23

RESERVOIRS AND FLUID CONDITIONERS

This chapter deals with conditioning· the fluid; that is, providing storage space for all the fluid required in the system plus a reserve, keeping the fluid clean, and maintaining the proper operating temperature.

The storage space for the fluid, of course, is the oil reservoir. The fluid is kept clean by using strainers, filters and magnetic plugs to the degree required by the conditions.

The design of the circuit has considerable effect upon t11"e fluid temperature. Heat exchangers, however, are sometimes required, particularly where operating temperatures are critical or the system cannot dissipate all the heat that is generated.

RESERVOIRS

The designer of industrial hydraulic systems has an advantage over his counterpart in aerospace or mobile equipment. This advantage is in a good deal of flexibility in reservoir design.

With almost no location or sizing problems, the reservoir for a piece of shop equipment can usually be designed to perform a number of functions. It is first a storehouse for the fluid until called for by the system. The reservoir also should provide a place for air to separate out of the fluid and should permit contaminants to settle out as well. In addition, a well-designed reservoir will help dissipate any heat that is generated in the system.

Reservoir Construction

A typical industrial reservoir, conforming to industry standards, is shown in Fig. 5-1. The tank is constructed of welded steel plate with extensions of the end plates supporting the unit on the floor. The entire inside of the tank. is painted with a sealer to reduce rust which can result from condensed moisture. This sealer must be chosen for compatibility with the fluid being used.

The reservoir is designed for easy fluid maintenance. The bottom of the tank is dished and has a drain plug at the lowest point so the tank. can

be drained completely. Easily removable co...-ers as shown are desirable for access for cleaning. A sight glass for checking the fluid also is hlgbJ.!o"" desirable. (It is far more likely that periodic checks will be made through a sight glass than with a dipstick or cover which must be removed. l

The filler hole is provided with a fine mesh screen to keep out contamination when the fluid is replenished.

Breather. A vented breather cap is used on most reservoirs and should also contain an air filtering screen. In dirty atmospheres, an otl bath air filter may be better. The filter or breather must be large enough to handle the air flow required to maintain atmospheric pressure whether the tank is empty or filled. In general, the higher the flow rate, the larger the breather required. On a pressurized reservoir, of course, a breather is not used. It is replaced by an air valve to regulate the pressure in the tank. between preset limits.

Baffle Plate. A baffle plate (Fig. 5-2) extends lengthwise through the center of the tank; it is usually about 2/3 the height of the oil level and is used to separate the pump inlet line from the return line so that the same fluid carw.ot recirculate continuously, but must take a circuitous route through the tank.

Thus, the baffle (1) prevents local turbulence m the tauk, (2) allows foreign material to settle to the bottom, (3) gives the fluid an opportunity to get rid of entrapped air, and (4) helps increase heat dissipation through the tank walls.

Line Connections and Fittings

Most lines to the reservoir terminate below the oil level. The line connections at the tank cover are often "packed" (sealed) slip-joint type flanges. This design prevents dirt from entering through these openings, and makes it easy to remove inlet line strainers for cleaning.

Pump inlet and return lines must be well below the fluid level; othe rwi se, the oil may become aerated and foam. Drain lines, however, may terminate above the fluid level if necessary to

5-1

DRAIN RETURN

MOUNT! NG PLATE FOR ELECTRIC MOTOR AND PUMP

RETURN LJ NE

PUMP INLET LINE

AIR BREATHER AND FILLER

BAFFLE PLATE

SEALED FLANGE

CLEAN-OUT PLATE-BOTH ENDS

Figure 5-1. Reservoir is Designed for Easy Maintenance

5-2

2. lVrPJlVLf})JCE )SAYD)PED BY FORCING THE FLUID TO TAKE AN INDIRECT PATH TO THE PUMP INLET

RETURN LINE

TO PUMP

1. RETURN FLOW IS DIRECTED OUTWARD TO TANK WALL

3. OIL IS COOLED AND AIR SEPARATED OUT WHEN IT REACHES INLET

BAFFLE PLATE

Figure 5-2. Baffle Plate Controls Direction of Flow in Tank

avoid pressure build-up in drain passages or Siphoning oil through them. Connections above the fluid level must be tightly sealed to prevent the entry of air into the system. Connections below the fluid level need only be tightened sufficiently to remain connected,

consider. In industrial equipment, It's customary to provide a reservoir that holds two or three gallons of liquid for each gallon per minute (gpm) of pump delivery.

Sizing Thumb Rule:

Lines that terminate near the tank bottom and are not equipped with strainers should be cut at a 45-degree angle. This prevents the line opening from "bottoming" in the tank and cutting off flow. On a return line, the angled opening is often pointed so that flow is directed at the tank walls and away from the pump inlet line.

Tank size (gallons) ::: pump gpm x 2, or pump gpm x 3

In mobile and aerospace systems, the benefits of a large reservoir may have to be sacrificed because of space limitations.

FILTERS AND STRAINERS

Reservoir Sizing

Hydraulic fluids are kept clean in the system principally by devices such as filters and strainers. Magnetic plugs (Fig. 5-3) also are used in some tanks to trap iron and steel particles carried by fluid. Recent studies have indicated that even particles as small as 1 - 5 microns have a degrading effect, causing failures in servo systems and hastening oil deterioration in many cases.

A large tank is always desirable to promote cooling and separation of contaminants. At a minimum, the tank must store all the fluid the system will require and maintain the level high enough to prevent a "whirlpool" effect at the pump inlet line opening. If this occurs, air will be taken in with the fluid.

Heat expansion of the fluid, changes in fluid level due to system operation, inside tank area exposed to water condensation and the amount of heat generated in the system all are factors to

Filter or Strainer

There will probably always be controversy in the

5-3

Figure 5-3. Magnetic Plugs Trap Iron and Steel Particles

industry over the exact definitions of filters and strainers. In the past, many such devices were named filters but technically classed as strainers. To minimize the controversy, the National Fluid Power Association gives us these definitions:

Filter - A device whose primary function is the retention, by some porous medium, of insoluble contaminants from a fluid.

Strainer - A coarse filter.

To put it simply, whether the device is a filter or strainer, its function is to trap contaminants from fluid flowing through it. "Porous medium" simply refers to a screen or filtering material that allows fluid flow through it but stops various other materials.

"Mesh" and Micron Ratings

A simple screen or a wire strainer is rated for filtering "fineness" by a mesh number or its near equivalent, standard sieve number. The higher the mesh or sieve number, the finer the screen.

Filters, which may be made of many materials other than wire screen, are rated by micron size. A micron is one-millionth of a meter or 39-millionths of an inch. For comparison, a grain of salt is about 70 microns across. The smallest particle a sharp eye can see is about 40 microns.

Figure 5-4 compares various micron sizes with mesh and standard sieve sizes.

Nominal and Absolute Ratings

When a filter is specified as so many microns,

it usually refers to the filter's nominal rating. A filter nominally rated at 10 microns, for example, would trap most particles 10 microns in size or larger. The filter's absolute rating, however, would be a somewhat higher size; perhaps 25 microns.

The absolute rating, thus, is in effect the size of the largest opening or pore in the filter. Absolute rating is an important factor only when it is mandatory that no particles above a given size be allowed to circulate in the system.

Inlet Strainers and Filters

There are three general areas in the system for locating a filter: the inlet (Fig. 5-5), the pressure line (Fig. 5-6) or a return line (Fig. 5-7). Both filters and strainers are available for inlet lines. Filters alone are generally used in other lines.

Figure 5-8 illustrates a typical strainer of the type installed on pump inlet lines inside the reservoir. It is relatively coarse as filters go, being constructed of fine mesh wire. A 100-mesh strainer, suitable for thin oil, protects the pump from particles above about 150 microns in size.

There also are inlet line filters. These are usually mounted outside the reservoir near the pump inlet. They, too, must be relatively coarse. A fine filter (unless it's very large) creates more pressure drop than can be tolerated in an inlet line.

Pressure Line Filters

A number of filters are designed for installation right in the pressure line (Fig. 5-6) and can trap much smaller particles than inlet line filters. Such a filter might be used where system components such as valves are less dirt-tolerant than the pump. The filter thus would trap this fine contamination from the fluid as it leaves the pump.

Pressure line filters, of course, must be able to withstand the operating pressure of the system.

Return Line Filters

Return line filters (Fig. 5-7) also can trap very small particles before the fluid returns to the reservoir. They are particularly useful in systems which do not have a large reservoir to allow contaminants to settle out of the fluid. A return line filter is nearly a must in a system with a high-performance pump, which has very close clearances and usually cannot be sufficiently protected by an inlet line filter.

5-4

RELATIVE SIZE OF MICRDNIC PARTICLES MAGNIFICATION 500 TIMES

o

2 MICRONS

149 MICRONS - 100 MESH

o

8 MICRONS

o

o

5 MICRONS

25 MICRONS

RELATIVE SIZES

LOWER LIMIT OF VISIBILITY (NAKED EYE) 40 MICRONS

WHITE BLOOD CELLS ..•..................•.....•.........•............. 25 MICRONS RED BLOOD CELLS ......•••.•..........................•..•.............. 8 MICRONS BACTERIA (COCCI) .•.....•.•..........•..............•................... 2 MICRONS

UNEAR EQUIVALENTS

1 INCH 25.4 MILLIMETERS 25,400 MICRONS

1. MILLIMETER .0394 INCHES 1, 000 MICRONS

1 MICRON 25,400 OF AN INCH .001 MILLIMETERS

1 MICRON 3.94 x 10- 5 .000039 INCHES

SC REEN SIZES

MESHES PER U. S. OPENING IN OPENING IN

LINEAR INCH SIEVE NO. INCHES MICRONS

52.36 50 .0117 297

72.45 70 .0083 210

101.01 100 .0059 149

142.86 140 .0041 105

200.00 200 .0029 74

270.26 270 .0021 53

323.00 325 .0017 44

.00039 10

.000019 .5

Figure 5-4. A Micron is 39 Millionths of an Inch

5-5

INDICATOR ROTATES SHOWING:

GREEN FOR CLEAN ELEMENT YELLOW FOR PARTIAL BY-PASS RED FOR COMPLETE BY-PASS!NG

STRAI NER ELEMENT

CHECK VALVE OPENS TO BY-PASS IF ELEMENT BECOMES CLOSED

INLET

PUMP

.~

INLET LI N E ---';,,---,.._j

Figure 5-5. Inlet Line Filter Protects Pump

5-6

AI R BLEED PASSAGE

OUTLET

TO SYSTEM

PUMP

RELIEF VALVE

INLET LINE

Figure 5-6. Pressure Line Filter is Downstream from Pump

RETURN (EXHAUST) YSTEM

~ n ,t J ==> ~ FROM S

PUMP Fr I L <== .~

~ ~
u..u
<, V Figure 5-7. Return Line Filter Keeps Contamination From Reservoir

5-7

Figure 5-8. Inlet Strainer is Made of Fine Mesh Wire

Filtering Materials

Filtering materials are classified as mechanical, absorbent or adsorbent.

Mechanical filters operate by trapping particles between closely woven metal screens or discs. Most mechanical filters are relatively coarse.

Absorbent filters are used for most minuteparticle filtration in hydraulic systems. They are made of a wide range of porous materials, including paper, wood pulp, cotton, yarn, and cellulose. Paper filters are usually resinimpregnated for strength.

Adsorbent or active filters such as charcoal and Fuller's earth should be avoided in hydraulic systems, since they may remove essential additives from the hydraulic fluid.

Types of Filter Elements

Filter elements are constructed in various ways; the surface type (Figo 5-9) being most common. Surface filters are made of closely woven fabric or treated paper with pores to allow fluid to flow through. Very accurate control of the pore size is a feature of surface type elements.

A depth type filter (Fig. 5-10) is composed of layers of a fabric or fibers which provide many tortuous paths for the fluid to flow through. The pores or passages vary in Size, and the degree of filtration depends on the flow rate. Increases in flow rate tend to dislodge trapped particles. This type element is generally limited to low flow, low pressure-drop conditions.

Figure 5-9. OFM Filter uses a Surface Type Element

OIL INLET

DRAIN

Figure 5-10. Depth Type Element has Many Layers of Fabric or Fiber

5-8

1. THICKNESS OF SPACERS SANDWICHED BETWEEN PLATES DETERMI NES FI NENESS OF

FILTERATION

3. WHEN THIS HANDLE IS TURNED

OIL INLET

~~_--SPACER CLEANER BLADE~

DISC--+i

OIL OUTLET

4. CLEAN NG BLADES REMOVE MATERIAL FROM BETWEEN PLATES

5. PLUG CAN BE REMOVED TO FLUSH OUT SOLIDS

2. CLEANI NG BLADES EXTEND I NTO SPACE BETWEEN DISCS

Figure 5-11. Edge-Type Filter Traps Particles Between Finely Spaced Plates

5-9

5. BY-PASS VALVE OPENS IF FILTER IS TOO CLOGGED TO PASS FULL FLOW

An edge type filter (Fig. 5-11) separates particles from oil flowing between finely spaced plates. The filter shown features stationary cleaner blades which scrape out the collected contaminants when the handle is twisted to turn the element.

Full- Flow Filters

The term full -flow applied to a filter means that all the flow into the filter inlet port passes through the filtering element. In most full-flow filters, however, there is a bypass valve preset to open at a given pressure drop and divert flow past the filter element. This prevents a dirty element from restricting flow excessively. The Vickers OFM series filter (Fig. 5-12) is of this type. It is designed primarily for return line use with nominal filtration to 10 or 25 microns through a surface-type element (Fig. 5-9).

Flow, as shown, is out-to-in; that is, from around the element through it to its center. The bypass opens when total flow can no longer pass through the contaminated element without raising the pressure. The element is replaceable after removing a single bolt.

4. AND to OUTLET PORT

Proportional-Flow Filters

A proportional-flow filter (Fig. 5-13) may utilize the Venturi effect to filter a portion of the fluid flow. The oil can flow in either direction. As it passes through the filter body, a venturi throat causes an increase in velocity and a decrease in pressure. The pressure difference forces some oil through the element to rejoin the main stream at the venturi.

The amount of fluid filtered is proportional to the flow velocity. Hence the name proportional flow filter. Vickers OF! series proportionalflow filters are suitable for pressure-line use to

3000 psi. '

Indicator Type Filters

Indicating filters (Fig. 5-14) are designed to signal the operator when the element needs cleaning. The element is designed so that it begins to move as the pressure increases due to dirt accumulation. One end is linked to an indicator which shows the operator just how clean or dirty the element is. Another feature of this type of filter is the ease and speed with which the ele-

1. OIL ENTERS INLET.

CARTRIDGE

\~.....;i-~---3. THROUGH FILTERING MEDIUM TO CENTER

OF HOUSING

Figure 5-12. OFM Filter Handles Full Flow

5-10

1. OIL ENTERS EITHER PORT AND LEAVES BY OPPOSITE PORT

2. VENTURI CAUSES lOW PRESSURE HERE

ELEMENT (CARTRI DGE)

'tlr-- ;3. RESULTING IN

III UT -TO-I N FLOW THROUGH CARTRIDGE

Figure 5-13. Proportional Filter Operates on Venturi Principle

OUTLET (TO PUMP)

I NlET (fROM RESERVOIR)

COLOR CODED INDICATOR SHOWS CONDITION Of STRAI NER ELEMENT

Figure 5-14. Indicating Filter Signals Operator when Cleaning is Required

5-11

OIL CONNECTIONS

,;?~~~-~~

COOLING FINS

-

Figure 5-15. Air Cooler Uses Motor Driven Blower to Increase Cooling

WATER CONNECTIONS

Figure 5-16. Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Uses Water to Cool or Warm Oil

5-12

ment can be removed and replaced. Most filters of this kind are designed for inlet line installation.

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Since no system is 100 percent efficient or ever can be, heat is a common problem. For this reason, we customarily think of cooling when the fluid must be temperature conditioned. In fact, we will call the two heat exchangers illustrated here coolers. They are designed principally to cool the fluid.

However, there are some applications where the fluid must be heated. For example, some fluids with low viscosity index will not flow readily when cold and must be warmed and kept warm by heaters.

Air Coolers

An air cooler (Fig. 5 -15) is used where water for cooling is not readily available. The fluid is pumped through tubes bonded to fins. The fins are aluminum or some other metal which transfers heat easily from the tube to the outside air. The cooler may incorporate a blower to increase the heat transfer.

Water Coolers

In a typical water cooler (Fig. 5-16), hydraulic fluid is circulated through the unit and around the tubes containing the water. The water carries away heat from the hydraulic fluid and can be regulated thermostatically to maintain a desired temperature. The unit may be used as a heater by circulating hot rather than cold water through it.

QUESTIONS

1, Name three functions of the reservoir.

2. Where should the reservoir drain plug be located?

3. What is the most desirable method of check - ing fluid level in the reservoir?

4. What is the purpose of the reservoir breather?

5. What does a reservoir baffle plate accomplish?

6. Why is a return line often cut at a 45-degree angle?

7. What wouldpr-obably be an adequate size reservoir for a system with a 5 gpm pump?

8. What is a filter? A strainer?

9. What is the micron size of a 170 sieve screen?

10. How large is a micron?

11. What is meant by absolute micron rating?

12. Name three possible locations for a filter.

13. What type of filter element provides precise control of pore size?

14. What does full-flow mean?

15. What is the purpose of an indicator type filter?

5-13

HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS

In this chapter we will consider the output member or actuator, where design of the system actually begins. The type of job done and the power requirements determine what type and size motor or cylinder will be used. Only after the actuator is chosen and sized can the remaining circuit components be selected to complete the system.

CYLINDERS

Cylinders are linear actuators. By linear, we mean simply that the output of a cylinder is straight-line motion and/or force.

TYPES OF CYLINDERS

Cylinders are classified as single- or double-

acting and as differential or non-differentiaL Variations include ram or pi.ston and rod design; and solid or telescoping rods. The differences are illustrated in Figures 6-1 through 6-6, with the graphical symbol for each type.

Ram Type Cylinder (Fig. 6-1). Perhaps the si.mplest actuator is the ram type. It has only one fluid chamber and exerts force in only one direction. Most are mounted vertically and retract by the force of gravity on the load. Practical for long strokes, ram type cylinders are used in elevators, jacks and automobile hoists.

Telescoping Cylinder (Fig. 6-2), A telescoping cylinder is used where the collapsed length must be shorter than could be obtained with a standard cylinder. Up to 4 and 5 sleeves can be used;

t JJd ~
LOAD SYMBOL LOAD FROM PUMP

EXTEND

RETRACT

Fig. 6-1. Ram Type Cylinder is Single Acting

6-1

~

LOAD

FROM PUMP

EXHAUST TO TANK

Fig. 6-2. Telescoping Rod Increases stroke Length

EXTEND CYLI NDER

RETRACT CYLI NDER

TO TANK

FROM PUMP

~

Fig. 6-3. standard Double-Acting Cylinder has Two Power strokes

6-2

while most are single-acting, double-acting units are available"

Standard Double-Acting (Fig. 6-3). The doubleacting cylinder is so named because it is operated by hydraulic fluid in both directions. This means it is capable of a power stroke either way. The standard double-acting cylinder is classed as a differential cylinder because there are unequal areas exposed to pr_essure during the forward and return movements. The difference being a function of the cross-sectional area of the rod. The extending stroke is slower, but capable of exerting a greater force than can be obtained when the piston and rod are being retracted.

Double- Rod Cylinder (Fig. 6-4). Double-rod cylinders are used where it is advantageous to couple a load to each end, or where equal displacement is needed on each end. They too are double-acting cylinders but are classified as non-differential. With identical areas on either side of the piston, they can provide equal speeds and/ or equal forces in either direction. Any double-acting cylinder may be used as a singleacting unit by draining the inactive end to tank.

CYLINDER CONSTRUCTION

The essential parts of a cylinder (Fig. 6-5) are a barrel; a piston and rod; end caps and suitable seals. Barrels usually are seamless steel tubing, honed to a fine finish on the inside, The piston, usually cast iron or steel, incorporates seals to reduce leakage between it and the cylinder barrel. Step cut automotive type piston rings are used where some leakage can be tolerated. For supporting loads or very low feed rates, a T-ring or "a" ring with 2 heavy duty back-up rings is often used. The ports of the cylinder are in the end caps, which may be attached directly to each end of the barrel, or secured by tie bolts. The rod packing is a cartridge type including both the seal and wiper for easy replacement.

CYLINDER MOUNTINGS

Various cylinder mountings (Fig. 6-6) provide flexibility in anchoring the cylinder. Rod ends are usually threaded for attachment directly to the load or to accept a clevi s, yoke or similar coupling device.

ANNULAR AREAS ARE EQUAL

-
~
~ V
L I

I I CYLI NDER HAS TWO EQUAL POWER STROKES.

Fig. 6-4. Double-Rod Cylinder is Double-Acting but Non-Differential

6-3

HEAD CUSHION RI NG

OPTIONAL AIR VENTS

(FOR BLEEDING AIR PISTON SEALS

FROM CYLI NDER)

BARREL

Fig. 6-5. Cylinder Construction

CYLINDER RATINGS

To Find The Flow Required for a Given Speed:

The ratings of a cylinder include its size and pressure capability. Most come with a standard rod size although intermediate and heavy duty rods are available. Cylinder size is piston diameter and stroke length. The speed of the cylinder, the output force available and the pressure required for a given load all depend on the piston area (, 7854 multiplied by the diameter squared). The area of the piston rod must be subtracted when the piston is being retracted.

GPM '" Effective Piston Area in Sq. In. x Speed* 231

* Inches Per Minute

To Find the Force Output for a Given Pressure:

Force (Pounds) = Pressure (psi) x Effective Piston Area (Sq. In.)

FORMULAS FOR CYLINDER APPLICATIONS

The following data on cylinder application were developed in Chapter 1:

To Find the Pressure Required to Exert a Given Force:

Pressure (psi) =

To Find The Speed of a Cylinder When Size and GPM Delivery are Known:

Force (Pounds)

Effective Piston Area (Sq. In.)

Speed (Inches per Minute) '"

Table 1 is a summary of the effects for changes in input flow, size, and pressure on cylinder applic ations,

231

GPM x Effective Piston Area in Sq. In.

6-4

FOOT AND CENTERLINE LUG MOUNTS

TRUNNION MOUNT

I NTERMEDIA TE TRUNNION MOUNT

RECTANGULAR FLANGE MOUNT

'CLEVIS MOUNT

EXTENDED TIE ROD

Fig. 6-6. Cylinder Mountings

6-5

SQUARE FLANGE MOUNT

FLUSH 51 DE MOUNT

DOUBLE ROD END

-----

----_

----

TABLE 1

EFFECT ON
CHANGE SPEED OPERATING PRESSURE OUTPUT FORCE
AVAILABLE
Increase Pressure Setting No Effect No Effect Increases
Decrease Pressure Setting No Effect No Effect Decreases
Increase GPM Increases No Effect No Effect
Decrease GPM Decreases No Effect No Effect
Increase Cylinder Diameter Decreases Decreases Increases
Decrease Cylinder Diameter Increases Increases Decreases Above table assumes a constant work load.

Table 2 lists piston areas, output forces and speeds for cylinders of various sizes.

CYLINDER OPTIONS

Optional equipment available includes piston ring seals for rapid-cycling operations, cylinder cushions to decelerate the load near the end of the stroke and stop tubes to prevent excessive bearing loads due to side loading on an extended rod.

Cylinder Cushions

Cylinder cushions (Fig. 6-7) are often installed at either or both ends of a cylinder to slow it down near the end of the stroke and prevent the piston from hammering against the end cap.

Deceleration begins when the tapered cushion ring or plunger enters the cap and begins to restrict exhaust flow from the barrel to the port. During the final fraction of the stroke, the exhaust oil must discharge through an adjustable orifice. The cushion feature also includes a check valve to bypass the orifice on the return stroke.

Stop Tubes

A stop tube (Fig. 6-8) is a spacer placed on the cylinder rod next to the piston on cylinders with a long stroke. The stop tube, by increasing the minimum distance from the piston to the rod bushing, provides more support for side loading on the rod, thus minimizing chances of rod bearing failure.

HYDRAULIC MOTORS

Motor is the name usually given to a rotary hydraulic actuator. Motors very closely resemble pumps in construction. Instead of pushing on the fluid as the pump does, as output members in the hydraulic system, they are pushed by the fluid and develop torque and continuous rotating motion. Since both inlet and outlet ports may at

times be pressurized, most hydraulic motors are externally drained.

MOTOR RATINGS

Hydraulic motors are rated according to displacement (size), torque capacity and maximum pressure limitations.

Displacement is the amount of fluid which the motor will accept in turning one revolution (Fig. 6-9); or in other words, the capacity of one chamber multiplied by the number of chambers the mechanism contains. Motor displacement is expressed in cubic inches per revolution (cu. in. /rev.)

Torque is the force component of the motor's output. It is defined as a turning or twisting effort. Motion is not required to have torque, but motion will result if the torque is sufficient to overcome friction and resistance of the load.

Figure 6-10 illustrates typical torque requirements for raising a load with a pulley. Note that the torque is always present at the driveshaft, but is equal to the load multiplied by the radius. A given load will impose less torque on the shaft if the radius is decreased. However, the larger radius will move the load faster for a given shaft speed. Torque is usually expressed in pound inches.

Pressure required in a hydraulic motor depends on the torque load and the displacement. A large displacement motor will develop a given torque with less pressure than a smaller unit. The size or torque rating of a motor usually is expressed in pound inches of torque per 100 psi of pressure.

lb. in. (100 psi)

Formulas for Motor Applications

Following are the formulas for applying hydraulic motors and determining flow and pressure requirements.

6-6

A PI.
I
"I<.. ~ IE;~~
-: / '" tv
~
I ===,
(Maximum Operating Pr e ssur e 2000 p s i J
PORT SIZE **PISTON AREA "\$QUAR_,EI NCH~ RATIO -t APPRQXIMATE OUTPUT FORCE-POUNDS
CYLINDER ROD 0.0. FULL BORE 500 PSI 1000 PSI 1500 PSI 2000 PSI
BORE N.U. *-STRA1GHT PULL ANNULUS ROD TO ANNULUS
THREAD THREAD BORE AREA PUSH PUll PUSH PULL PUSH PULL PUSH PUll
S/S" TUBE: OD 5/8" STD. 1.460 .307 1.21/1.00 730 1460 2190 2920
iY2 1/2" (7/8- 14 THD.) 1.767 884 f---- 1767 I---- 2651 t--- 3534 ~
1" HVY. .982 .785 1.80/1.00 491 982 1473 1964
5/B" TUBE OD I" STD. 2.357 .785 1. 33/1. 00 1178 2357 3535 4714
2 1/2" 3.142 157t f---- 3142 I---- 4713 f-------- 6284 ~
(7/8-14 THD.) 1-3/8" HVY. 1.657 1.485 1.90/1.00 828 1657 2485 3314
I" STD. 4.124 .785 1..19/1.00 2062 4124 6186 B248
3/4" TUBE OD f---- I---- ~ ~
2V1 1/2" (1-1/16- 12 THD.) 1-3/8" INT'MED. 4.909 3.424 1.485 1. 43/1.00 2455 1712 4909 3424 7364 5136 9818 6848
J--- - - ~
1-3/4" HVY. 2.5D4 2.405 1. 96/1.00 1252 2504 3756 5008
1-3/8" oTD. 6.811 1.485 1.22(1.00 3405 6811 10216 13622
3/4" TUBE OD f--- - - ~
3~ 3/4" (1-1/16-12 THD.) 1-3/4" INT'MED. 8.296 5.891 2.405 1.41/1.00 4148 2945 8296 5891 124M 8836 16592 117B2
J--- - - -
2" HVY. 5.154 3.142 1.61/1.00 2577 5154 7731 10308
1-3(4" STD. 10.161 2.405 1.24(1.00 5080 10161 15241 20322
3(4" TUBE 00 f---- -- - r----
• 3(4" (1-1/16-12 THD.) 2" lNT'MeD. 12.566 9.424 3.142 1.33/1.00 6283 4712 12566 9424 IB849 ~4136 2513-2 13848
J--- - ~
2-1/2" HVY. 7.666 4.900 1.64/1.00 3833 7666 11500 15332
2" STD. 16.493 3.142 1. 19/1.00 824<1 16493 24739 329B6
III TUBE 00 f---- f--- f---
j 3/4" (1-5/16-12 THD.) 2-1(2" INT'MW. 19.635 14.735 4.900 1.33/1.00 9618 7367 19635 14735 29453 22102 39270 29470
3-1/2" HVY. J--- f--- 1-
10.014 9.621 1.96(1.00 5007 10014 15021 20028
2-1/2" STD, 23.374 4.900 1.21(1.00 11687 2337. 35061 46748
I" TUBE OD J--- I-- f---
6 I" (1-5/16-12 THD.) 3-1/2" INT'MED. 28.274 IB.653 9.621 1.52/1.00 14137 9326 28274 18653 42411 27979 56548 37306
J--- I---- r---
4" HVY. 15.70B l2.566 1.80/1.00 7854 15708 23562 31416
3" STD. 31.416 7.069 1.23(1.00 15708 31416 47124 62832
1-1/2·' TUBE OD r--- r--- r---
7 1-1/4" (1-7/8-12 THD.) 4" INT'MED. 38.485 25.9.19 12.566 1.48/1.00 19242 12959 38425 25919 57128 38878 76970 51838
f--- I---- f----
5" HVY. lB.950 19.635 2.04/1.0D 9425 18850 28275 37700
3-1/2" STD. 40.644 9.621 1.24/1.00 20332 40644 60966 61288
1-1/2" TUBE OD f--- - r---
8 1-1/2" (1-7/8- 12 THD.J 4-1/2" INT·MOO. 50.265 34.361 15.904 I. 46/1.00 25133 17180 50265 34361 75398 51541 100530 68722
I-- - f---- I
5-1/2" HVY. 26.507 23.758 1.90/1.00 13253 26507 39760 5801. I ~StfOlgh~ threcd ccnne c+ions ovcilcb]e UPOIl reqoes t . t" Pull" forc~ vall)es opply IJ1 both dtrec+icre for cvlinders with doublc--endad piston rods.

HFltJid dlsptocement per Tr'lch of stroke II the same value (101 cvbrc lnche~! O~ piston area (ill eqocre inches]

Table 2

6-7