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COMPLETE REVISION

June 2007

Process Industry Practices


Work Processes

PIP ADG001
Specification for Developing Practices
PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES

In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical
requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering
costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice
is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual
applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence
over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters
or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not
be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names
from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather
recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications
are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines
are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA
requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or
other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed.
Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material
contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time.

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The


University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.

PRINTING HISTORY
May 1994 Issued May 2002 Technical Revision June 2007 Complete Revision
August 2001 Complete Revision July 2004 Complete Revision

Not printed with State funds


COMPLETE REVISION
June 2007

Process Industry Practices


Work Processes

PIP ADG001
Specification for Developing Practices
Table of Contents

1. Introduction................................. 2
1.1 Purpose ............................................. 2
1.2 Scope................................................. 2

2. References .................................. 2
2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP)....... 2
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards.......... 2
2.3 Other References .............................. 3

3. Definitions ................................... 3

4. Requirements.............................. 3
4.1 Resources ......................................... 3
4.2 Planning............................................. 4
4.3 Harmonization ................................... 5
4.4 Organization of a Practice ................. 5
4.5 Data Forms ...................................... 14
4.6 Drawings.......................................... 14
4.7 Engineering Guides ......................... 14
4.8 Technical Writing ............................. 15

APPENDIXES
Appendix A PIP Practices Language
and First Draft Format
Appendix B Author Checklist
Appendix C Example of Practice
Table of Contents

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1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose
This Practice provides requirements for planning, organizing, and writing Process
Industry Practices (Practices).
Following the requirements in this Practice ensures that each Practice addresses the
intended audience, is written in the appropriate Practice style, and follows the
recommended Practice organization. Adherence to the requirements of this Practice
increases readability and uniformity among Practices and decreases maintenance costs for
the Practices.

1.2 Scope
This Practice describes the following:
a. Major planning decisions made before writing a Practice
b. Organization used for a Practice
c. Content requirements, including text examples
d. Writing style requirements for a Practice

2. References
Applicable parts of the following Practices, industry codes and standards, and other references
shall be considered an integral part of this Practice. Short titles are used herein where appropriate.

2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP)


PIP ADG004 Specification for Producing CAD Graphics for Process Industry
Practices
PIP ADG005 Specification for Authors Developing Data Forms for Process
Industry Practices
PIP ADG009 Guideline for Increasing the Global Application of Process
Industry Practices
PIP Operations Manual
PIP Philosophy for Developing and Revising Practices

2.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Petroleum Institute (API)


Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 15 - Guidelines
for the Use of the International System of Units (SI) in the Petroleum and Allied
Industries (API Publication 2564)

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June 2007 Specification for Developing Practices

2.3 Other References

The Chicago Manual of Style. 14th Ed., Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press,
1993.
William Strunk, Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style, 4th Ed., Needham Heights,
MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

3. Definitions
audience: Those who will read and use a Practice to perform the work described

authors: PIP Task Team members assigned to develop a Practice

lead author: Task Team member responsible for coordinating the efforts of the Task Team and
PIP Editor.

Practice: A compilation of documents inclusive of, but not limited to, text (criteria,
specifications, and guidelines), data forms, and drawings. See PIP Operations Manual, Table 2.

requirements: Actions to be performed, conditions to be met, or a combination of the two as


specified by a Practice to the audience

Task Team: Team chartered by a Function Team to develop or revise a specific Practice. See
Task Team in the PIP Operations Manual.

technical writer: Communications specialist who works with the Task Team and the PIP Editor to
write the Practice

4. Requirements

4.1 Resources
4.1.1 Authors
Authors shall be responsible for the following:
a. Planning and writing Practices
b. Knowing and applying PIP standards for organization and writing style
Comment: Appendix A of this Practice provides examples of Practices
language and format for preparing a draft of a Practice for
further editing. Using the information in Appendix A
provides better standardization of the formats of the Practices.
c. Harmonizing Member Company standards
4.1.2 Lead Author
The lead author shall be responsible for the following:
a. Leading the development of a Practice

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b. Ensuring that the Practice follows PIP standards for organization and
writing style
Comment: Appendix B of this Practice provides a checklist for the lead
authors use to assure that the Practice organization issues are
adequately considered.
c. Technical writing
Comment: If required, the PIP Office can arrange for outside services
support.
d. Coordinating the work of the authors, CAD representative, technical
writer, and PIP Editor
4.1.3 CAD Representative
The CAD representative shall be responsible for ensuring that CAD is in
accordance with PIP ADG004.
4.1.4 PIP Editor
The PIP Editor shall be responsible for ensuring that Practices are in accordance
with the sentence construction, writing style, format, and organizational structure
specified in PIP Administrative General (ADG) Practices and the PIP Operations
Manual.

4.2 Planning
Before writing a Practice, the author shall ensure that the Function Team makes the
following major planning decisions:
4.2.1 Type of Practice
4.2.1.1 The Practice needed for a given subject shall be determined in accordance
with the table entitled Type Codes for Practice Numbers in the PIP
Operations Manual.
4.2.1.2 A Practice shall include only the requirements for which the audience is
responsible.
4.2.1.3 If requirements need to be known by more than one audience, the shared
requirements shall be written in only one Practice.
4.2.1.4 The Practice in which the requirements are included should be
determined by which type of Practice occurs later in the design,
procurement, and construction process.
Comment: For example, if a fabrication Practice and a design
Practice share requirements, these requirements shall
appear in the fabrication Practice because the fabrication
occurs later in the process. A reference to the fabrication
Practice shall appear in the design Practice. A design
Practice shall reference other Practices related to the same
subject. However, none of the other Practices related to
that subject shall reference the design Practice.

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4.2.2 Style of Practice


The Practices shall be prepared in either exception-style or narrative-style as
described in the following subsections:
4.2.3.1 Exception-Style Practice
An exception-style Practice defines exceptions to an industry standard.
An exception-style Practice shall be used if an industry standard already
defines the majority of requirements for a subject. The exception style
shall be the first choice of authors.
Comment: Exception-style Practices reduce the number of
requirements that PIP has to generate and maintain. The
exception-style also offers the benefit of alerting the
audience to nonstandard requirements.
4.2.3.2 Narrative-Style Practice
A narrative-style Practice is used if an exception-style Practice is
inappropriate. A narrative-style Practice may supplement the content of
an industry standard, but requirements in the Practice are not written as
exceptions to the industry standard; rather, the author selects the
requirements to include and the structure in which the requirements are
presented.

4.3 Harmonization
4.3.1 The PIP Office and the appropriate Function Team shall request Member
Company standards for the harmonization process.
4.3.2 A Practice shall be developed by a Task Team in accordance with the following
compiling and harmonization steps:
a. Assemble existing, applicable Member Company standards.
b. If possible, align sections, paragraphs, and individual requirements from
each company standard for comparison.
c. Compare Member Company requirements to determine similarities and
differences.
d. Determine if one of the Member Company-provided standards is
comprehensive, up-to-date, and suitable for use as a framework to
simplify the initial development work.
e. Align similarities and harmonize the differences in the Member
Companies requirements considering safety, environmental
responsibility, quality, and Total Cost of Ownership in accordance with
PIP Philosophy for Developing and Revising Practices.
f. Provide the Practice to Member Companies for review. Comments
should be resolved in accordance with the same PIP Philosophy.

4.4 Organization of a Practice


The sections and subsections of a Practice shall be ordered as listed in Table 1. See
Appendix A for recommended language.

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Table 1. Organizations of Practice Types

Data Forms Data Drawings Piping


Narrative Exception with Form(s) with Drawings Material
Section Practices Practices Instructions Only Narrative Only Specs.
Title and TOC X X X (X) X X
Introduction X X X X X
References (X) (X) (X)
Definitions (X) (X)
Requirements X X X X
Appendix (X)
Data Forms (X) X X
Drawings (X) X X
Contact PIP Office X
Note: X Required, (X) If required.

4.4.1 Title and Table of Contents Page


1. The title and table of contents (TOC) page shall identify the Practice by
number and title, and list the main headings of the Practice.
2. The lead author shall provide the Practice title and number.
3. The PIP Editor shall format the TOC page.
4. The title of the Practice shall indicate the intended audience and purpose of
the Practice. Examples of preferred and alternate arrangements for titles for
various types of Practices are shown in Table 2.
5. See Appendix C for an example of a Practice TOC.
6. If appendixes, data forms, and/or drawings are included in the contents of a
Practice, they shall be listed on the TOC page.
7. If a Practice is jointly authored by two or more Function Teams, the Function
Teams shall be shown on the cover page. The Function Team that has
primary responsibility for the Practice shall be shown first and that Function
Teams numbering system shall be used.

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Table 2. Examples of Practice Titles

CODE TYPE AUDIENCE PREFERRED ALTERNATE


C Criteria Engineers Structural Steel Design Criteria Design of Structural Steel
E Engineering Engineers Anchor Bolt Design Guide Guidelines for Anchor
Guide Bolts
S Specification Vendors Gasket Purchase Specification Purchasing Requirements
for Gaskets
Fabricators Piping Fabrication Specification Fabrication of Piping
Manufacturers Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps for Manufacturing of
Water Service Manufacturing Horizontal Centrifugal
Specification Pumps for Water Service
Installers Instrument Pipe Support Installation of . . .
Installation Specification Application of . . .
Constructors Roadway and Area Paving Construction of . . .
Construction Specification Erection of . . .
Data Sheet Motor Control Center Data Sheet Data Sheet for Motor
Control Centers
F Fabrication Fabricators Vessel Support Fabrication Fabrication Details for
Details Details Vessel Supports
I Installation Installers Cold Insulation Installation Installation Details for
Details Details Cold Insulation
Constructors Sewer Construction Details Construction Details for
Sewers
T Inspection & Vendors Piping and Valve Positive Positive Material
Testing Material Identification Identification for Piping
Requirements Requirements and Valves
Fabricators Shop Fabricated Piping Leak Leak Testing for Piping
Testing Requirements
Manufacturers Centrifugal Pump Testing Testing for Centrifugal
Requirements Pumps
Installers Piping System Inspection and Inspection and Testing of
Testing Requirements Piping Systems
Constructors Concrete Structure Inspection Inspection and Testing of
and Testing Requirements Concrete Structures
D Documentation Vendors Process Analyzer Documentation for
Requirements Documentation Requirements Process Analyzers
Fabricators Heat Exchanger Fabrication Documentation of Heat
Documentation Requirements Exchanger Fabrication
Manufacturers Refractory Product Documentation for
Documentation Requirements Refractory Products
G General PIP Authors Comment: Should not be used
(Internal PIP) and Editors for Practices other than PIP
administrative requirements.

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4.4.2 Introduction Section


The Introduction shall consist of the following subsections arranged in the order
shown. If the Practice consists of only data forms, the Introduction section shall
be omitted.
4.4.2.1 Purpose
1. The Purpose shall define the audience and the intended use of the
Practice. The Purpose may also describe the benefit of using the
Practice.
2. Because the main purpose of an exception-style Practice is to
supplement an industry code or standard, the Purpose subsection
shall identify that code or standard.
Comment: An example of the Purpose statement for an
exception-style Practice follows:
This Practice supplements API 610, Centrifugal
Pumps for General Refinery Services. Together, this
Practice and API 610 provide requirements to
suppliers for the supply of heavy-duty centrifugal
pumps.
4.4.2.2 Scope
1. The Scope shall describe the range of topics the Practice covers.
2. Because the main purpose of an exception-style Practice is to
supplement an industry code or standard, the Scope subsection shall
identify that code or standard.
Comment: An example of the Scope statement for an exception-
style Practice follows:
This Practice describes additions, changes, and
deletions that have been made to API 610. In
addition, decisions that have been made regarding
options offered by API 610 have also been
described.
4.4.3 References Section
4.4.3.1 The References section shall list only the Practices, industry codes and
standards, and other documents that are referenced in the Practice.
4.4.3.2 The References section shall be omitted if no documents are referenced
or if the Practice consists of only data forms.
4.4.3.3 Documents that are currently under development, not approved, or not
readily available shall not be referenced.
4.4.3.4 A reference shall be listed under one of the following subheadings:
a. Process Industry Practices (PIP)
b. Industry Codes and Standards

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c. Government Regulations
d. Other References
4.4.3.5 Process Industry Practices (PIP)
1. Practices shall be listed in alphanumerical order by Practice number.
2. Each listing shall include PIP, the Practice number, and title.
4.4.3.6 Industry Codes and Standards
1. Industry codes and standards shall be subdivided by publishing
organization in alphabetical order. Each subheader shall identify the
organization name followed by organization acronym in parentheses.
2. Industry codes and standards shall be listed in alphanumerical order
under the appropriate subheading.
3. Each listing shall include organization acronym, the identification
code (if applicable), title, and date (if applicable).
4. Industry codes and standards that do not have identification codes
shall be listed by title.
4.4.3.7 Government Regulations
1. Government regulations shall be referenced only to support technical
requirements in a Practice.
2. Government regulations shall be listed in alphanumerical order.
4.4.3.8 Other References
1. Books and journal articles shall be listed in alphabetical order by
title.
2. Each listing shall include author, title, edition number (if applicable),
publisher, and publication date.
4.4.4 Definitions Section
4.4.4.1 The Definitions section shall define the following terms:
a. Words or phrases that are not well known
b. Words or phrases that have multiple definitions
c. Industry jargon, symbols, and abbreviations
d. Words used to identify responsible parties, such as supplier or
purchaser
Comment: See Appendix A for recommended language for
definitions that identify responsible parties.
4.4.4.2 Definitions of terms used in Practices of the same Function Team shall
be consistent.
4.4.4.3 The Definitions section shall be omitted if no terms require definition in
the Practice.

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4.4.5 Requirements Section


4.4.5.1. The Requirements section shall contain the requirements of the work
process described in the Practice.
4.4.5.2. The Requirements section structure shall depend on the style of the
Practice.
4.4.5.3 Exception-Style Practices
1. Exception-style Practices shall follow the structure of the industry
code or standard to which the Practice is taking exception.
2. Only those headings and subheadings from the supplemented
document in which exceptions are taken shall be shown.
Comment: Because the Practice uses the same heading numbers
and heading text from the supplemented document,
the heading numbers in the Requirements section of
the Practice can begin with any number. Heading
numbers are not always consecutive, but the
numbering system is in alignment with the
supplemented document.
3. Only the subheadings and paragraphs of the Requirements section
shall be numbered in an exception-style Practice. Other section
headings, subheadings, and paragraphs shall not be numbered.
Comment: An example of the first paragraph of the
Requirements section in exception-style Practices is
as follows:
The numbering of the headings and paragraphs in
the Requirements section corresponds to the
numbering of API 610, which this Practice revises.
The type of revision made to a specified heading or
paragraph is described after the heading or paragraph
identification. Provisions of API 610 that are not
revised remain in force.
Although this example paragraph is included in the
Requirements section, it is not part of the
supplemented document and therefore is not
numbered.
4. The exceptions shall fall into one of the following four categories:
a. Addition
(1) Supplement as follows
(2) New paragraph
b. Modification
(1) To read as follows (full modification)
(2) (First, Second, Last, etc.) sentence to read as follows
(partial modification)
c. Deletion

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(1) Delete the following portion


(2) Delete the following sentence
(3) Delete in entirety
d. Decision
(1) Option selected
Comment: An example of how exceptions may be handled in a
Practice is shown in Figure 1.

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Requirements

The numbering of the headings and paragraphs in the Requirements section corresponds to the
numbering of API 610, which this Practice revises. The type of revision made to a specified heading or
paragraph is described after the heading or paragraph identification. Provisions of API 610 that are not
revised remain in force.

2. Basic Design
2.1 General
2.1.1 Decision. Option Selected:
Head-capacity curves shall rise continuously to shutoff. Head rise for parallel
operation shall be 10 percent minimum.
2.1.2 Addition. New Paragraph:
Suction specific speed, calculated at the best efficiency point with the NPSHR
based on a 3 percent head drop, shall not exceed 11,000.
2.10 Lubrication
2.10.3.1 Modification. To Read as Follows:
An oil reservoir, with the characteristics specified in Item 1 through
Item 7 shall be supplied.
2.10.3.2 Addition. Supplement as Follows:
Specification MSS SP 55 shall govern acceptance criteria for visual
inspection.

4. Inspection and Tests


4.4 Preparation for Shipment
4.4.1 Deletion. Delete the following sentence:
Additional requirements for shipment preparation shall be specified in
Addendum C, Additional Shipping Requirements.
4.4.2 Deletion. Delete in Entirety.
Figure 1. Example of Key Sections of an Exception-Style Practice
4.4.5.4 Narrative-Style Practices
1. The structure of the Narrative-style Practices shall include headings
that follow the natural flow of the work process and shall include
only those requirements for which the audience is responsible.
2. The following shall be organizational characteristics of the narrative-
style Practices:
a. All headings and subheadings numbered consecutively
b. Maximum of four levels of headings
c. Only one requirement per paragraph
Comment: An example of the narrative-style Practice is shown
in Figure 2.

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4. Requirements
4.1 Quality Control
4.1.1 Certification as Category II by the AISC Quality Certification program shall
be provided.
4.1.2 Quality control services for materials and workmanship shall be provided.

4.2 Submittals
4.2.1 The following documents shall be submitted to the purchaser and approval
shall be received from the structural engineer of record before the start of
fabrication:
a. Two sets of erection and shop drawings
b. One set of engineering calculation sheets per Section 3.1.4.6
c. One copy of connection design certification per Section 3.1.4.5
4.2.2 A shipping list (including total weight), bolt list, and two sets of final
erection and shop drawings shall accompany the first shipment of each
release.

4.3 Materials
4.3.1 Structural Shapes, Plates, and Bars
4.3.1.1 ASTM A36 or ASTM A572 Grade 50 materials shall be used.
4.3.1.2 Structural shapes, plates, and bars shall be as specified on the
design drawings.
4.3.2 Standard Bolt Assemblies
4.3.2.1 Bolts shall be ASTM A307 Grade A heavy hex.
4.3.2.2 Washers shall be ASTM F436.
4.3.2.3 Nuts shall be ASTM A563 heavy hex.
Figure 2. Example of Key Sections of a Narrative-Style Practice

4.4.5.5 Information from reference material shall be cited, not repeated. Citation
shall be by document number, e.g., API Std 650, Section 3.1;
PIP RESP001.
4.4.5.6 Comment Paragraphs
1. A comment may be included to provide clarity or helpful
information.
2. The comment paragraph shall begin with Comment: and
immediately follows the associated paragraph.
3. The word Comment shall be italicized, and the paragraph shall be
unnumbered.
Comment: If many comments are needed for the Practice,
consider creating a separate guide.

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4.4.5.7 The Requirements section shall be omitted if the Practice consists of only
data forms or drawings.
4.4.5.8 Figures and Tables
1. Illustrations (e.g., photographs, drawings, diagrams, graphs) shall be
labeled figures.
2. Numerical data and parallel descriptions presented in tabular form
shall be labeled tables.
3. Figures and tables shall be referenced in the text and shall only
contain information that is explained in the text.
4. Each figure and table shall be labeled with a formal number and title,
e.g., Table 1. Envelope Dimensions for Underground Pipe.
5. Figures and tables shall be introduced sequentially in the text in
numerical order, i.e., Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Table 2, etc.
4.4.6 Appendix Section
4.4.6.1 The Appendix section shall include material that elaborates on or
explains information found in other sections of the Practice.
4.4.6.2 Appendix information should not be essential to the Practice yet should
be helpful to a reader seeking further clarification.
4.4.6.3 Appendixes shall be referenced in the text of the Practice.
4.4.6.4 Information essential to the text of the Practice shall be placed within the
body of the Practice.
4.4.6.5 Information not helpful to the audience shall be left out of the Practice
entirely.

4.5 Data Forms


4.5.1 If a Practice contains only data forms with instructions, the instructions shall
contain the sections and subsections as described in Section 4.4 of this Practice.
4.5.2 Data forms shall be developed in accordance with PIP ADG005.

4.6 Drawings
Drawings shall be developed in accordance with PIP ADG004.

4.7 Engineering Guides


4.7.1 Engineering guides can include:
a. Tutorial information on technical topics
b. Descriptions of design alternatives
c. Background on requirements contained in associated Practices
d. Explanations of the uses of Practices
e. Recommended calculation methods

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f. Examples of design methods and calculations


4.7.2 Engineering guides shall not include requirements.
4.7.3 Engineering guides can provide guidance for one Practice or several Practices.
4.7.4 Engineering guides shall not be referenced in other Practices.
4.7.5 The only audience for an engineering guide should be an engineer.
4.7.6 The purposes of engineering guides are to assist an engineer in the use of the
Practices and in understanding the fundamentals of the technologies.
4.7.7 Engineering guides shall be written using the narrative style.
4.7.8 Although an engineering guide shall start with an Introduction section and
contain References and Definitions sections (if appropriate), a Requirements
section shall not be included.
4.7.9 The Requirements section shall be replaced with the guidance information
organized in a way that best suits the topic to be conveyed.
4.7.10 Section headings that follow the Definitions section shall indicate each subtopic
for which guidance is given.

4.8 Technical Writing


4.8.1 Writing Style
Writing style shall be in accordance with The Chicago Manual of Style and The
Elements of Style.
4.8.2 Language and Construction
4.8.2.1 Sentence Construction
Sentences shall be clear, concise, and unambiguous. Long, convoluted
sentences shall be divided into two or more short, simple sentences.
4.8.2.2 Passive-Voice Versus Active-Voice Sentences
1. Sentences that emphasize the subject shall use indicative mood,
passive voice, e.g., Removable trays shall be designed to pass
through vessel manways.
2. Sentences that emphasize the action (e.g., procedures) may use
imperative mood, active voice, e.g., Apply rust protective coating
after sandblasting.
4.8.2.3 Statements of Intent
1. Requirements written in passive voice shall be denoted by the word
shall.
2. Recommendations shall be denoted by the word should, e.g.,
Pressure taps should be vertical, up from the top of the line.
3. Choices, options, and permissions shall be denoted by the word
may, e.g., Pressure taps may be horizontal on the side of the line or
45 degrees down from vertical.

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4. Possibilities of occurrences shall be denoted by the word may, e.g.,


Horizontal taps may require wider spacing of process piping at the
orifice section.
4.8.2.4 Pronouns
1. In exception-style Practices, pronoun use shall follow the usage in
the industry code or standard with which exceptions are taken.
2. In narrative-style Practices, pronouns shall not be used.
Comment: Refer to Section 4.4.5 for an explanation of
exception-style and narrative-style Practices.
4.8.2.5 Abbreviations and Acronyms
1. When first used in the Practice and any appendixes, a term, name, or
phrase shall be spelled out followed by the abbreviation or acronym
enclosed in parentheses, e.g., Process Industry Practices (PIP).
2. Abbreviations and acronyms without definitions may be used only if
in common usage by the audience of a Practice.
3. If used frequently throughout the Practice, abbreviations or acronyms
shall be introduced in the Definitions section of the Practice.
4. Once introduced, the abbreviation or acronym shall be used
throughout the rest of the Practice, except in titles and headings.
4.8.2.6 Jargon
1. Jargon may be used only if jargon is the most effective method of
communication.
2. If jargon is used, the term(s) shall be defined in the Definitions
section.
4.8.2.7 Emphasis
Bolding, italicizing, underlining, and other special formatting shall not
be used for emphasis.
4.8.3 Capitalization
4.8.3.1 As used here, capitalization means using an uppercase letter for the
first letter in a word and lowercase letters for the remaining letters.
4.8.3.2 Capitalization shall be used in the following applications:
a. As recommended by The Chicago Manual of Style or The
Elements of Style
b. Key words in Practice titles, headings, and subheadings
c. Key words in titles of tables and figures
d. List entries, except common nouns in the Definitions section of a
Practice
e. Terms capitalized in a referenced industry standard or code
f. PIP proper nouns, e.g., Task Team, Practice, etc.

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4.8.4 Numbers
Comment: See PIP ADG009 for guidance regarding globalization of
Practices.
4.8.4.1 Integers
1. Unless otherwise specified, whole numbers one through ten shall be
spelled out.
2. Unless otherwise specified, numbers greater than ten shall be in the
numeric form, e.g., 11, 12, 13.
3. A number at the beginning of a sentence shall be spelled out, unless
the number represents a year (e.g., 1994).
4. Numeric form shall be used for units of measure and time.
5. Numeric form shall be used for equations.
4.8.4.2 Decimals
Decimal numbers less than one shall include a zero before the decimal.
4.8.4.3 Fractions
1. A slash shall separate the numerator of a fraction from the
denominator.
2. A hyphen shall separate a whole number from a fraction, e.g., 3-3/4.
4.8.4.4 Ranges
1. A dash with no spaces on either side shall indicate the word
through if used with numbers, e.g., 68.
2. If using symbols with a range of numbers, a dash with no spaces on
either side shall be used and the symbol shall be repeated with each
number, e.g., 90%95%.
3. For temperature ranges, the degree sign shall be repeated and the
range shall be followed by the temperature scale abbreviation with
no space between, e.g., 1020C.
4.8.4.5 Units of Measure
See PIP ADG009 for units of measure requirements.

Process Industry Practices Page 17 of 17


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COMPLETE REVISION PIP ADG001
June 2007 Specification for Developing Practices

APPENDIXES

Appendix A PIP Practices Language and First Draft Format

Appendix B Author Checklist

Appendix C Example of Practice Table of Contents


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COMPLETE REVISION PIP ADG001
June 2007 Specification for Developing Practices

APPENDIX A

PIP Practices Language


and First Draft Format
Following is an example of the flush-left format and standard language to use for
submitting the first draft of a Practice to the PIP office. Use of standard language by the
Function Teams contributes to uniformity in the Practices across disciplines.
Title (See PIP ADG001, Section 4.4.1, for examples of phrases to be used at the beginning of
the title.)
1. Introduction
1.1 Purpose
This Practice provides requirements for (audience) designing (or fabricating, installing, etc.,
whatever the Practice provides).
1.2 Scope
This Practice describes the requirements for (equipment, materials, or services that need to
be provided by the audience) .
2. References (Leave out if no references are cited in the Practice.)
Applicable parts of the following Practices, industry codes and standards, and references
shall be considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in effect on the date of
contract award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles are used herein where
appropriate.
2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP) (Leave out if none are cited.)
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards (Leave out if none are cited.)
2.3 Government Regulations (Leave out if none are cited.)
2.4 Other References (Leave out if none are cited.)
3. Definitions (Leave out if no definitions are needed.)
(See PIP ADG001, Section 4.4.4, for requirements for definitions.)
owner: The party who owns the facility wherein (what is provided or installed) will be used
purchaser: The party who awards the contract to the supplier. The purchaser may be the
owner or the owners authorized agent.
purchasers inspector: The purchasers authorized representative with authority to act in the
interest of, and on behalf of, the purchaser in quality assurance matters.
supplier: The party responsible for (providing and/or installing what is required by the
Practice). (Because it is intended that the requirements in a Practice are to be provided by
the supplier, the use of the term supplier should be minimized.)
suppliers inspector: The suppliers authorized representative, responsible for the quality
control of materials, installations, and workmanship provided by the supplier, and any of the
suppliers subcontractors or vendors
4. Requirements
(See PIP ADG001, Section 4.4.5, for examples of requirements language.)

Process Industry Practices Page A-1


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COMPLETE REVISION PIP ADG001
June 2007 Specification for Developing Practices

APPENDIX B
ASSOC. PIP:
AUTHOR CHECKLIST ADG001-F
ADG001

PAGE 1 OF 1
FORM DATE: MARCH
2007

Practice No.: Date: Rev:

Check Comments
Off Requirements (Required for Noncompliance)

1. Title is descriptive of the contents of the Practice and gives


information as to the intended audience. See Table 2.

2. Purpose clearly identifies audience and intended use.


Scope clearly states range of topics that are and are not
covered.
3. References are listed only if used in the body of the text.
References are officially published and readily available.
Government regulations are referenced only to support
technical requirements.
4. Definitions include only terms that deviate from an
ordinarily accepted meaning or dictionary definition.
5. The organization of Requirements is aligned with the typical
sequence of the technical work process described.
Requirements include only requirements for which the
audience (as identified in the Purpose) is responsible.
6. Headings and subheadings in Requirements are used at
each topic or subtopic and are descriptive of the content.
7. Requirements are stated one per numbered paragraph or
list item.

8. Contents of referenced documents are not copied.

9. Requirements are clearly stated without explanation or


discussion. (The exception is Criteria Practices intended for
design engineers. In this case the explanation or
discussion is contained in a comment paragraph format.)
10. Use of tables and figures are maximized in Requirements
to convey information clearly.
Other comments:

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PIP ADG001 COMPLETE REVISION
Specification for Developing Practices June 2007

APPENDIX C

Process Industry Practices


Primary Function Team
Additional Function Team(s)

PIP ADG001
Specification for Developing Practices

Table of Contents

1. Introduction .................................2
1.1 Purpose..............................................2
1.2 Scope .................................................2

2. References ..................................2
2.1 Process Industry Practices ................2

3. Definitions ...................................2

4. Requirements ..............................3
4.1 Resources ..........................................3
4.2 Planning .............................................4
4.3 Organization of a Practice..................5

APPENDIX
Title of Appendix

Data Forms
Data Form Number Data Form Title

Drawings
Drawing Number Drawing Title

Process Industry Practices Page C-1