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February 2007

Process Industry Practices


Vessels

PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification
PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES

In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical
requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering
costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice
is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual
applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence
over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters
or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not
be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names
from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather
recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications
are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines
are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA
requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or
other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed.
Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material
contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time.

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The


University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.

PRINTING HISTORY
February 2007 Issued

Not printed with State funds


February 2007

Process Industry Practices


Vessels

PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification
Table of Contents
5.3 MAWP {Design Pressure} and
1. General Requirements ............... 3 Coincident Maximum
1.1 Purpose .......................................... 3 Temperature................................. 11
1.2 Scope ............................................. 3 5.4 Minimum Design Metal
1.3 Alternative Design Proposals ......... 3 Temperature (MDMT) and
1.4 ASME Code Requirements ............ 4 Coincident Pressure ..................... 12
1.5 National Board Registration ........... 4 5.5 External Pressure Design ............ 13
1.6 Jurisdictional Compliance............... 4 5.6 Design Loads and Load
1.7 Units of Measurement .................... 4 Combinations ............................... 13
2. References .................................. 4 5.7 Wind Load .................................... 14
5.8 Seismic Loads .............................. 15
2.1 Process Industry Practices............. 5
5.9 Cyclic Service............................... 15
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards....... 5
5.10 Local Loading ............................... 16
2.3 Government Regulations................ 6
5.11 Shipping and Rigging
2.4 Other References ........................... 6
Considerations ............................. 16
3. Definitions ................................... 6 5.12 Formed Heads.............................. 17
5.13 Nozzles......................................... 17
4. Responsibilities .......................... 7 5.14 Manway Davits ............................. 19
4.1 General........................................... 7 5.15 Flanges......................................... 19
4.2 Documentation to be Provided 5.16 Supports ....................................... 26
to the Manufacturer ........................ 8 5.17 Anchor Bolts ................................. 28
4.3 Conflicts.......................................... 8 5.18 Heat Exchanger Component
4.4 Documentation ............................... 8 Design and Fabrication ................ 29
4.5 Language ....................................... 9 5.19 Attachments ................................. 35
4.6 Designers Responsibility ............... 9 5.20 Heat Exchanger Thermal ............. 36
5. Design Requirements................. 9 6. Materials.................................... 44
5.1 General........................................... 9 6.1 General......................................... 44
5.2 Design Pressure and 6.2 Source of Materials ...................... 44
Temperature................................. 10 6.3 Dual (Multiple) Marked Materials . 44
6.4 Corrosion/Erosion Allowance ....... 45

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February 2007

6.5 Protection of Austenitic Stainless


Steel Equipment from Stress
Corrosion Cracking .......................46
6.6 Gaskets.........................................46
7. Fabrication ................................46
7.1 General .........................................46
7.2 Shells and Heads..........................47
7.3 Nozzles, Manways, and Flanges ..48
7.4 Temporary Welded Attachments ..49
7.5 Welding .........................................49
7.6 Post Weld Heat Treatment ...........50
8. Examination, Inspection and
Testing .......................................51
8.1 Examination ..................................51
8.2 Inspection......................................53
8.3 Pressure Testing - General...........54
8.4 Hydrostatic Test ............................55
8.5 Pneumatic Test .............................56
9. Preparation for Shipment .........56
9.1 Cleaning, Painting, and Marking...56
9.2 Preparation and Closure...............57

Appendices
Appendix A - General Considerations for Pressure Relief Valve Application
Appendix B - Welded Pressure Joint Requirements Form
Appendix C - Equivalent Pressure Formulas for Bending Moment and Axial Tensile Load
Appendix D - Documentation Schedule and Manufacturers Data Package
Appendix E - Manufacturers Drawing Information
Appendix F - Quality Overview Plan for Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2 Heat Exchangers
Appendix G - Minimum Clearance of Nozzle Adjacent to Tubesheet

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February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

1. General Requirements
Note to Readers: This Practice contains design and fabrication criteria for shell-and-tube heat
exchangers. This Practice shall be used for shell-and-tube heat exchangers built to TEMA and
Section VIII Division 1 or Division 2 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,
henceforth referred to as the Code. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII,
Division 2 requirements are shown in braces { }.

1.1 Purpose
The primary focus of this Practice is to communicate heat exchanger design and
fabrication criteria and methodology from the User to a Designer and/or the
Manufacturer. This Practice is also intended as guidance for the development of
purchase specifications covering the construction of new shell-and-tube heat
exchangers which meet the philosophy and requirements of Section VIII, Division 1
{or 2} of the Code and TEMA Standards of the Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers
Association.
1.2 Scope
1.2.1 This Practice must be used in conjunction with PIP VEDST003, and
PIP VEFV1100 (applicable details), in order to comprise a complete heat
exchanger purchase specification.
1.2.2 Many recognized and generally accepted good engineering construction
practices are included herein. However, in light of the many diverse service
applications of Code vessels, these practices must be employed with
engineering judgment and supplemented as appropriate with requirements
related to specific materials of construction, service fluids, operating
environments, and heat exchanger geometries. Accordingly, provisions of
this Practice may be overridden or supplemented by an Overlay
Specification.
1.2.3 Standardized pre-designed (off-the-shelf) heat exchangers are not within the
scope of this Practice, but are covered in PIP VESSM001.
1.2.4 Heat exchangers with layered construction are outside the scope of this
Practice.
1.3 Alternative Design Proposals
The Manufacturer shall provide a base bid in full compliance with the Purchasers
request for quotation. The Manufacturer may submit an alternative design if, in the
Manufacturers judgment, economy and/or improved schedule can be realized
without loss of capability and without shortening the anticipated life of the heat
exchanger. The Manufacturer shall comply with the following requirements when
submitting an alternate bid:
a. Alternative design quotations shall be accompanied by the base quotation and be
clearly noted as an alternate.
b. Alternative designs shall be fully and clearly described and substantiated by
sketches or drawings. Specific exceptions shall be identified as such.
c. An alternative design shall not be used unless approved in writing by the User.

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PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

1.4 ASME Code Requirements


1.4.1 Heat exchangers within the scope of this Practice shall satisfy all applicable
requirements, including Code symbol stamping.
1.4.2 Applicable Code Scope Exemptions
The Code Scope exemptions that represent across-the-board acceptance are
those covered under Code Paragraphs U-1(c)(2)(h) {AG-121(h)} and
U-1(c)(2)(i) {AG-121(i)}, as follows:
1.4.2.1 U-1(c)(2)(h) {AG-121(h)}: Vessels not exceeding 15 psig, with no
limitation on size [see Code Paragraph UG-28(e) {AD-300}]
1.4.2.2 U-1(c)(2)(i) {AG-121(i)}: Vessels having an inside diameter,
width, height, or cross-section diagonal not exceeding 6 inches,
with no limitation on length of vessel or pressure
Note: The 6-inch dimension is in the corroded condition.
The above is not intended to prohibit the use of other Scope exemptions in
Code Paragraph U-1(c)(2); however, such use shall be by agreement with the
User.
1.4.3 Waste Heat Recovery Heat exchangers
Steam generating heat exchangers associated with waste heat recovery
operations shall be constructed and stamped with the Code U symbol in
accordance with Code Section VIII, Division 1. Dual Code symbol stamping
of such heat exchangers (both Section I S symbol and Section VIII,
Division 1 U symbol) is not permitted.

1.5 National Board Registration


National Board registration of heat exchangers stamped with the Code U {U2}
symbol is required.

1.6 Jurisdictional Compliance


All aspects of the work shall comply with applicable local, county, state, and federal
rules and regulations. This includes, but is not limited to, the rules and standards
established by EPA and OSHA, or applicable national standards at the point of
installation.

1.7 Units of Measurement


US customary (English) units shall be regarded as standard for domestic US
locations; metric (SI) units may be included for reference only and shall not be
interpreted as a precise conversion.

2. References
The following documents are only those specifically referenced in this Practice. In
applications where laws or regulations issued by municipal, state, provincial, or federal
authorities cover heat exchangers, those laws or regulations shall be reviewed prior to the
initiation of design work since the requirements may be different or more restrictive than
those covered in this Practice. Short titles are used herein where appropriate.

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February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP)


For the following reference documents, the latest edition issued at the date of contract
award shall be used.
PIP VEDST003 - Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet
PIP VEFV1100 - Vessel/S&T Heat Exchanger Standard Details (29 Details
and Index)
PIP VEFV1101 - Vessel; Nameplate Bracket
PIP VEFV1102 - Vessel; Tolerances (Orientation)
PIP VEFV1103 - Vessel; Grounding Lug
PIP VEFV1105 - Vessel; Horizontal, Saddles Supported on Concrete
PIP VEFV1106 - Vessel; Horizontal, Saddles Supported on Steel
PIP VEFV1116 - Vessel; Manway Hinges
PIP VEFV1117 - Vessel; Manway Vertical Davit
PIP VEFV1118 - Vessel; Manway Horizontal Davit
PIP VEFV1129 - Vessel; Studded Joints
PIP VESSM001 - Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and Heat
Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards
For the following reference documents, if Table U-3 {AF-150.1} of the Code lists an
edition or addenda different than the latest edition issued, the edition listed in Table
U-3 {AF-150.1} shall be used. For documents not listed in Table U-3 {AG-150.1},
the latest edition or addenda issued at the date of contract award shall be used.
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)
AISC Manual of Steel Construction
American Petroleum Institute (API)
API 605 - Large-Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges (Nominal Pipe Sizes 26
through 60, Classes 75, 150, 300, 400, 600 and 900)
API 650 - Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
ASCE 7 - Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section I - Power Boilers
Section II - Materials, Parts A, B, C, D
Section VIII - Pressure Vessels, Divisions 1 and 2
Section IX - Welding and Brazing Qualifications
ASME B1.1 - Unified Inch Screw Threads (UN and UNR Thread Form)

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PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

ASME B16.5 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, NPS 1/2 through NPS 24
ASME B16.9 - Factory Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings
ASME B16.11 - Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded
ASME B16.47 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges, NPS 26 through NPS 60
ASME PCC-1 - Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint
Assembly
American Welding Society (AWS)
AWS A2.4 - Welding and Brazing and Nondestructive Examination
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
(MSS)
MSS SP-44 - Steel Pipeline Flanges
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA)
Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association
Welding Research Council (WRC)
WRC Bulletin 107 - Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells Due
to External Loadings
WRC Bulletin 297 - Local Stress in Cylindrical Shells Due to External
Loadings on Nozzles
2.3 Government Regulations
U. S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA)
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146(k)(3)(ii) - Permit-Required Confined Spaces for
General Industry
2.4 Other References
Stresses in Large Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle Supports,
L.P. Zick, Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis, A Decade of
Progress. Vol. 2, 1972.
Wind Loads on Petrochemical Facilities, ASCE Task Committee on Wind-
Induced Forces, Wind Loads and Anchor Bolt Design for Petrochemical
Facilities. (ISBN-0-7844-0262-0)

3. Definitions
approved equal: A substitution to a specified product that has been approved in writing by
the Purchaser

Code: ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 1{or 2} and its
referenced sections such as I,II, IX, and Code cases as specified by the User. References to
Division 2 are identified in braces { }.

construction: An all-inclusive term comprising materials, design, fabrication, examination,


inspection, testing, certification (Code stamp and Manufacturers Data Report),
{Manufacturers Design Report} and pressure relief

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February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

cyclic service: Services that require fatigue analysis per AD-160 of ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII Division 2. This applies to Division 1 and Division 2
vessels or heat exchangers.

Designer: The party responsible for defining and specifying the mechanical design
requirements (e.g., Heat exchanger Drawing/Data Sheet {Users Design Specification})
consistent with User criteria for use by the Manufacturer. The Designer is frequently an
engineering contractor, but could be the User, third party consultant, or the Manufacturer.
The Designer is also considered the thermal Designer with respect to heat exchanger design.

Manufacturer (Supplier): The party entering into a contract with the Purchaser to construct a
heat exchanger vessel in accordance with the purchase order. In accordance with the Code
definition, the Manufacturer is the party that possesses a valid Certificate of Authorization to
manufacturer pressure vessels with the ASME Mark. The Manufacturer may or may not be
the Supplier.

National Board: The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, an
organization comprised of chief inspectors of various governmental jurisdictions in the
United States and Canada. Heat exchangers meeting requirements of the Code, except those
stamped with the Code UM symbol, may be registered with the National Board.

Overlay Specification: Technical requirements that supplement or override the provisions of


this document, such as a User specification or a project specification

Owner: The party who owns the facility wherein the heat exchanger will be used. The owner
is normally also the User but in certain cases is not.

Purchaser: The party actually placing the order for the heat exchanger or heat exchanger
components. This may be the User or the Users Designated Agent.

User: The party responsible for establishing construction criteria consistent with the Code
philosophy and service hazards. User refers to the owner and/or operator of the equipment.

Users Inspector: The person or company authorized by the user to inspect heat exchangers
to the requirements of this specification

Vessel: This term may be used as a non-specific reference to a pressure vessel or a shell-and-
tube heat exchanger.

4. Responsibilities

4.1 General
4.1.1 The Manufacturer is responsible for the construction of the heat exchanger(s)
in conformance with this Practice and the documents referenced herein.
Review of Manufacturers documentation (e.g., fabrication drawings or weld
procedures) by the Purchaser or User does not alter this responsibility.
4.1.2 Manufacturers documents, as referenced in Appendix D, shall be reviewed
by Purchaser and comments resolved prior to start of fabrication unless
release to proceed is obtained from Purchaser in writing.

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PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

4.1.3 When a heat exchanger or heat exchanger component design is specified on


the Users heat exchanger design drawings, the Manufacturer is in no way
relieved of his obligations and/or responsibilities to comply with the
purchase specifications.
4.1.4 Welded fabrication shall not be sublet by the Manufacturer without prior
approval of the Purchaser.
4.1.5 Release for shipment by Purchasers or Users inspector does not relieve the
Manufacturer of any responsibility for complying with the Code,
specifications and/or drawings.
4.1.6 All aspects of the work shall comply with applicable local, county, state, and
national rules, regulations and standards at the point of installation.

4.2 Documentation to be Provided to the Manufacturer


The following information shall be provided to the Manufacturer with the purchasing
inquiry:
4.2.1 Design requirements to be provided to the Manufacturer shall be per
PIP VEDST003, with additional drawings or details as necessary.
4.2.2 Welded pressure joint requirements, including:
a. Type of Category A, B, C, and D joints (see Appendix B)
b. Type and degree of nondestructive examination to be applied to the
joints (see Appendix B)
4.2.3 Quality Overview Plan (see Appendix F)
4.2.4 Documentation Schedule and Manufacturers Data Package
(see Appendix D)
4.2.5 {Users Design Specification}
List of permanent attachment, if any, to comply with OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146, or
applicable national standard at the point of installation.

4.3 Conflicts
If the Manufacturer finds a conflict between this Practice, the design drawings or
Data Sheet, referenced codes and standards, or any supplementary specification, the
Manufacturer shall obtain written clarification from the Purchaser prior to proceeding
with any work.

4.4 Documentation
The Manufacturer shall provide the following documentation to the User, in
quantities and at dates indicated on the Documentation Schedule in Appendix D.
All records shall be provided in electronic media, in a format as agreed upon by the
User, and be of legible quality.
US customary (English) units shall be regarded as standard for heat exchangers to be
installed in domestic US locations; metric (SI) units may be included for reference
only and shall not be interpreted as a precise conversion.

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February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

4.4.1 Design calculations shall include relevant formulas and source paragraphs
from the Code, values used in the formulas, calculated results, and
comparisons with acceptable values. Where calculations are based on
formulas other than those in the Code, the source of the formulas shall be
referenced. Where calculations are done by a computer program, a program
description shall be given, including name and version of the program. If the
program is not commercially available to industry, the Manufacturer shall
maintain and provide program documentation, upon request. (See Foreword
of the Code for Cautionary Note regarding responsibility for the use of
computer programs.)
Calculations shall include:
a. Code calculations
b. Wind and earthquake calculations, as applicable
c. Support calculations
d. Calculations associated with lifting and erection of the heat exchanger
e. Nozzle load analysis for local and gross effect, per WRC 107 or other
approved method, when required
f. Design of attachments, internal and external, including PIP or any other
standard details used
g. Fatigue analysis as applicable for fatigue services (see Section 5.9)
4.4.2 Final Manufacturers documents shall include, but are not limited to, the
items listed in Appendix D.
4.4.3 Manufacturers Data Package shall be printed or folded to 8-1/2 x 11 size
and suitably bound.

4.5 Language
The language of all documents shall be either English or include the English
translation.

4.6 Designers Responsibility


The Designer is responsible for the design of the heat exchangers in conformance
with this Practice and the documents referenced herein. Review of Designers
documentation (e.g., design calculations or drawings) by the Purchaser or User does
not alter this responsibility.

5. Design Requirements

5.1 General
5.1.1 The heat exchanger design by the Manufacturer shall comply with the
applicable requirements of the Code, {Users Design Specification} this
Practice, the Heat exchanger Data Sheet, and all other requirements in the
purchase specification. Heat exchanger-related design performed by the
Designer does not relieve the Manufacturer from this responsibility.

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PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

5.1.2 Where two allowable stress values are given in Section II Part D of the
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for a material, the higher value shall not be
used in the design of flanges of gasketed joints or other applications where
slight amounts of distortion can cause leakage or malfunction.
5.1.3 The minimum corroded shell and head thickness shall be 3/16 inch (5 mm).

5.2 Design Pressure and Temperature


5.2.1 The design pressure and coincident maximum metal temperature shall be
determined by the Designer by carefully considering all operating phases and
associated loadings (e.g., liquid head and other sources of pressure variation,
such as that resulting from flow) that the heat exchanger may experience
during the specified project life, such as:
a. Initial startup
b. Normal operations
c. Temporary operations
d. Emergency shutdown
e. Emergency operations
f. Normal shutdown
g. Startup following a turnaround or an emergency shutdown
h. Cleaning, steam out, and decontamination
i. Upset conditions
j. Environmental restraints on relief venting
k. Tube failure [Code Paragraph UG-133(d)]
5.2.2 The margin above the maximum anticipated operating pressure selected to
establish the design pressure and coincident maximum metal temperature
must be carefully considered for each heat exchanger component as a
function of the overall objective with respect to pressure relief, coupled with
the uncertainties in determining what actual pressures will be developed.
For example, where minimization of severely flammable or acutely toxic
environmental hazards is a controlling design requirement, the establishment
of a design pressure and associated Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
(MAWP) {MAWP replaced by Design Pressure in Division 2, AD-121.1}
that will provide containment without actuation of the pressure relief device
may be a consideration.
As will be noted with reference to Appendix A, this margin is also dependent
upon the operational characteristics of the pressure relief device. For
example, when the maximum anticipated operating pressure of a gas/vapor
service can be identified with confidence, and when metal-seated, direct
spring-operated valves will be used, the design pressure is frequently
established by dividing the maximum anticipated operating pressure by 0.90.
However, when a pilot-operated pressure relief device is used, the design
pressure is sometimes established by dividing the maximum anticipated
operating pressure by a factor as high as 0.98.

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February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

Refer to the Overlay Specification for any margins to be applied to the


maximum operating pressure(s) and coincident temperature(s).
5.2.3 In lieu of 5.2.2 use of Code Case 2211, entitled Pressure Vessels with
Overpressure Protection by System Design, Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2,
may be an appropriate option. Note that prior jurisdictional acceptance may
be required and that this Code Case Number shall be shown on the
Manufacturers Data Report.
5.2.4 With permission from the authority having legal jurisdiction over the
installation of pressure vessels (should one exist), the advantages of using the
provisions of Code Case 2203, entitled Omission of lifting Device
Requirements for pressure Relief Valves on Air, Water over 140 F (60C),
or Steam Service, Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2, shall be considered.
5.2.5 The shell side and tube side design pressures and temperatures shall be
reviewed to determine extreme conditions that may be encountered. During
transients (startup, pressure relief, or shutdown, etc.), the shell side or tube
side fluid may be absent, not flowing, or auto-refrigerating with design
pressure in the other chamber. For components subjected to both shell side
and tube side conditions, the more severe condition shall control. The
following additional conditions in 5.2.6 and 5.2.7 shall be considered.
5.2.6 The exchanger shall be designed for full pressure on either side with
atmospheric (or full vacuum if specified) on the other side. If an exchanger is
designed for differential pressure, the Data Sheet and nameplate shall so
indicate.
5.2.7 Fixed tubesheet exchangers cannot generally be operated at the coincident
nameplate temperature-pressure conditions. The basis for differential thermal
expansion used in the design shall be defined and shall become a fabrication
drawing requirement.

5.3 MAWP {Design Pressure} and Coincident Maximum Temperature


5.3.1 The MAWP {Design Pressure} to be marked on the Code nameplate is
defined as the maximum gauge pressure permissible at the top of a
completed heat exchanger in its normal operating position at the designated
coincident metal temperature for that pressure. (See Code Appendix 3
{AD-121} for definitions of MAWP and Design Pressure.) This MAWP may
be determined from the design pressure or from calculations based on the
specified nominal component thickness, but reduced by the specified
corrosion allowance. The hydrostatic head considered to apply in addition to
and coincident with the design pressure shall be the hydrostatic pressure on
each component when the heat exchanger is filled to its maximum operating
depth with a liquid having a specific gravity equal to the greater of the
operating liquid or 1.0. Exchangers shall be assumed to operate completely
filled with liquid. The MAWP shall not be limited by nozzle reinforcement.
See Code Paragraph UG-20(a) {AD-121} for Code rules relative to
determining the coincident maximum metal temperature to be stamped on the
nameplate. A suitable margin consistent with the uncertainties with which the
true maximum mean-metal temperature can be determined shall be included.

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PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

The maximum design temperature rating shall be increased to the highest


temperature possible without affecting the thickness of the shell, heads or
tubesheet and without changing the pressure class for nozzle flanges. When
appropriate, a heat exchanger may be designed and Code stamped for more
than one pressure/coincident maximum metal temperature condition.
Maximum design metal temperature shall not be less than 150F.
5.3.2 When a provision for future hydrostatic field test is specified, the heat
exchanger shall be designed to satisfy the load combination as specified in
5.6.9.4 so that any component in the corroded condition will withstand the
hydrostatic test pressure at the top of the heat exchanger (as defined in
Paragraph UG-99 {Article T-3} of the Code) and the hydrostatic head of the
heat exchanger full of water when the heat exchanger is in its operating
position without exceeding the Code tensile and compressive allowables at
the coincident test temperature, in both circumferential and longitudinal
directions. Note that Code permits higher allowable tension stresses for wind
or seismic load combination. See Section 5.16.1.1.
The stress level in 5.6.9 is not permitted in those portions of the cylindrical
shell within a meridional distance of 2.5 R t , where R is the mean radius of
the shell and t is the thickness of the shell at the junction, from a gross
structural discontinuity such as, but not limited to, the following:
a. Cone-to-cylinder junctions
b. Shell flange-to-cylinder junctions
c. Torispherical head (inside crown radius/head thickness L t ratio greater
than 500) -to-cylinder junctions
d. Openings in the shell that exceed the dimensional limits given in Code
Paragraph UG-36(b)(1) {Not Division 2 Applicable}
Refer to Section 5.6 for additional requirements that apply. Note that the
equipment foundation (provided by others) must also be designed to support
the loading of a future test.

5.4 Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) and Coincident Pressure


The MDMT and coincident pressure to be marked on the Code nameplate shall be
selected by the Designer in consideration of the operating phases such as those listed
in Section 5.2 and of the Code rules in Paragraph UG-20(b). Reliable administrative
procedures to control the pressure/coincident temperatures during transient
operations (e.g., startup and shutdown) are often appropriate from a materials of
construction selection point of view. For example, when considering the effects of
auto-refrigeration on carbon and low-alloy steels, such procedures make it
appropriate to consider operations below the MDMT stamped on the nameplate,
provided the reduction in MDMT for the coincident general primary membrane
tensile stress results in a temperature that is no colder than that permitted in Code
Paragraph UCS-66(b) {AM-218.1}. When atmospheric temperatures govern the
metal temperatures during startup or normal operations, the lowest 1-day mean
atmospheric temperature at the installation site must be considered. Figure 2-2 from
API 650 may be used to establish the lowest 1-day mean temperatures insofar as
applicable. The mean metal temperature during shop and future field pressure testing
shall also be considered during the heat exchanger design stage.

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February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

5.5 External Pressure Design


In a manner similar to that described in Section 5.1.2, the Designer shall establish the
external design pressure and coincident temperature by determining requirements for
external pressure based on the expected operation of the heat exchanger and adding a
suitable operating margin.
5.5.1 Code-required stiffening rings for shells under external pressure shall be
placed on the outside of the heat exchanger, shall have a thickness not less
than 3/8 inch (10 mm), and shall have a ring width-to-thickness ratio no
greater than 10. Stiffening rings shall be attached by continuous fillet welds
on both sides of the ring.
5.5.2 Heat exchangers subjected to operating pressure less than atmospheric shall
be designed and Code stamped for full vacuum. Heat exchangers that are
subjected to steam-out conditions shall be designed for full vacuum.
Consideration shall also be given to external pressures caused by sudden
cooldown of gases or vapors in the heat exchanger or by the sudden
emptying of the heat exchanger contents.

5.6 Design Loads and Load Combinations


The Designer shall determine the following loads and specify them on the Heat
exchanger Drawing/Data Sheet. Design loads are defined and classified as follows:
5.6.1 Dead Load (L1)
Dead Load is the installed weight of the heat exchanger, including internals,
catalyst, refractory lining, platforms, insulation fireproofing, piping, and
other permanent attachments.
5.6.2 Operating Live Load (L2)
Operating Live Load is the weight of the liquid at the maximum operating
level.
5.6.3 Pressure Load (L3)
Pressure Load is the MAWP {Design Pressure} (internal or external at the
coincident temperature) considering the pressure variations through the heat
exchanger, if any. MAWP may be equal to the design pressure (see Code
footnote 33). For heat exchangers with more than one independent chamber,
see Code Paragraph UG-19(a) {AD-102}.
5.6.4 Thermal Load (L4)
Thermal Loads are the loads caused by the restraint of thermal
expansion/interaction of the heat exchanger and/or its supports.
5.6.5 Test Load (L5)
Test Load is the weight of the test medium, usually water. Design basis shall
consider that the heat exchanger will be tested in its normal operating
position. (See Section 5.3.2.)
5.6.6 Wind Load (L6)
Wind Load shall be determined in accordance with Section 5.7.

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5.6.7 Seismic Load (L7)


Seismic Load shall be determined in accordance with Section 5.8.
5.6.8 Piping and Superimposed Equipment Loads (L8)
Loads caused by piping other than the Dead Load in Section 5.6.1 and those
caused by superimposed equipment shall be considered as applicable.
5.6.9 Load Combinations
Heat exchangers and their supports shall be designed to meet the most severe
of the following load combinations, with the controlling load combination
indicated in design calculations. (See Section 5.16.1.1 for allowable stresses
with wind or seismic loads.) Note: The multipliers on design loads may be
dictated by local building codes.
5.6.9.1 L1+L6 Erected Condition with full Wind Load
5.6.9.2 L1+L2+L3+L4+L6+L8 Design Condition with full Wind Load
(include both full and zero pressure conditions (L3) for check of
maximum longitudinal tensile and compressive stress)
5.6.9.3 L1+L2+L3+L4+L7+L8 Design Condition with Seismic Load
(include both full and zero pressure conditions to determine L3 for
check of maximum longitudinal tensile and compressive stress)
5.6.9.4 L1+(F)L3+L5+(0.25)L6 When specified by User, initial (new
uncorroded) hydrostatic test condition and future (corroded)
hydrostatic test condition with the heat exchanger in normal
operating position and with 50% of design wind velocity (25% of
wind load)
Test factor F shall be in accordance with the Code for the test
medium used. When applicable, Code Case 2055 (or their
subsequent reaffirmed versions) on pneumatic testing of pressure
vessels can be used.
The general primary membrane tensile stress in the corroded
condition (or when no corrosion allowance is specified) under this
load combination shall not exceed {AD-151.1}:
a. 90% of the Specified Minimum Yield Strength at 100F (38C)
for carbon and low-alloy steels
b. The Specified Minimum Yield Strength at 100F (38C) for
austenitic stainless steels
(See examples of design considerations described in Section 5.3.2
and testing requirements in Section 8.)
5.6.9.5 Lift Condition: See Section 5.11.

5.7 Wind Load


Unless otherwise dictated at the point of installation, the wind load shall be in
accordance with ASCE 7.

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5.7.1 Force on Heat exchanger Attachments


ASCE 7 does not provide the complete methodology needed to account for
wind-induced forces on common appurtenances to heat exchangers such as
ladders, platforms, handrails, piping, etc. The report entitled Wind Loads on
Petrochemical Facilities (see Section 2.4 of this Practice) provides guidelines
and examples for the determination of the total wind-induced forces on
pressure vessels, including those from appurtenances. If most detail items
(ladders, platforms, piping, etc.) of the heat exchanger are known or can be
estimated with reasonable accuracy, the Detailed Method described in this
report shall be used for the heat exchanger design.
See purchasing documents for specific loading information, when applicable.

5.8 Seismic Loads


Unless otherwise dictated at the point of installation, the seismic load shall be in
accordance with ASCE 7.

5.9 Cyclic Service


The required service for all heat exchangers shall include consideration by the
Designer of cyclic service. Code Paragraph UG-22(e) mandates that cyclic and
dynamic reactions from any mechanical or thermal loading source be considered in
design. The following guidelines are recommended as a starting point when
determining if cyclic analysis will be required. The need for a fatigue analysis by the
Manufacturer shall be stated on the Data Sheet by the Designer.
5.9.1 Number of Cycles {See AD-160.2}
Code heat exchangers shall be considered to be in cyclic service when the
total number of cycles in the following three items (1.+2.+3.) exceed 1000
cycles in the desired design life of the heat exchanger:
1. The expected number of full range (design) pressure cycles, including
startups and shutdowns
2. The expected number of operating pressure cycles in which the range of
pressure variation exceeds 20% of the design pressure
3. The expected number of thermal cycles where the metal temperature
differential between any two adjacent points exceeds 50F (28C)
(For a definition of adjacent points, see Code Section VIII, Division 2,
Paragraph AD-160.2, footnote 3.)
5.9.2 Fatigue Analysis
In cases where the preliminary guidelines in Section 5.9.1 indicate that a
fatigue analysis may be required, the rules in Code Section VIII, Division 2,
Paragraph AD-160, Fatigue Evaluation, are recommended for use with
sound engineering judgment as a guideline for establishing further action.
5.9.3 Fatigue Loading Data
The applicable fatigue loading conditions shall be stated on
PIP VEDV1003 and PIP VEDST003.

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5.10 Local Loading


{Not Division 2 Applicable} When external loads are provided, the local membrane
and surface stresses due to local loads (e.g., piping loads, platform loads, etc.) shall
be determined using the WRC Bulletin 107 and 297 procedures, or other local stress
analysis procedures. For local loads and pressure, the allowable stresses are 1.5S for
local primary membrane stress and 3S for primary membrane plus secondary
bending stress at nozzles, platform lugs, etc. S shall be the Code-allowable stress at
the design temperature.

5.11 Shipping and Rigging Considerations


5.11.1 Transportation Loads
Vessel and heat exchangers subject to transportation loadings shall be
analyzed for bending between supports, general primary membrane tensile
stress and compressive stress at supports and fixture attachment points.
Calculated general primary membrane tensile stress shall not exceed that
listed in 5.11.3 below. Vessels and heat exchangers shall be analyzed for
vertical, lateral and longitudinal loadings as applicable. Minimum
acceleration loadings are given in Table 1 for the various modes of
transportation. Where erection loadings are in excess of the transportation
loadings, the heat exchanger shall be designed for the most severe vertical,
lateral and longitudinal loading condition.
Table 1-Transportation Acceleration Loadings

Vertical Acceleration Longitudinal


Transportation Mode Lateral Acceleration
Acceleration
Downward Upward
Truck (Highway
1.7g 0.5g 0.3g 1.8g
Speeds)
Truck (< 25 MPH/
1.3g 0.2g 0.2g 0.2g
Multi-wheel Bogy)

Rail 2g 2g 2g 3g

Inland Barge 1g 0.2g 0.75g 0.4g

Oceangoing Ship or
2g 2g 0.75g 0.4g
Barge
Notes:
1. Where multiple modes of transportation are used, the most severe condition governs.
2. 1g would be a load equal to the weight of the vessel or heat exchanger.

5.11.2 Impact Factor


A minimum impact factor of 2 shall be applied to the lift weight for
designing lifting devices. The basis for the lift weight shall include all
components to be included in the lift (e.g., ladders/platforms, insulation,
additional piping with insulation, etc.).
5.11.3 Lifting Stresses
Vertical heat exchangers having height-to-diameter ratios greater than 8 and
weighing more than 25,000 pounds (11,300 kg) shall have bending stresses

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in the heat exchanger shell checked from the loadings imposed during the lift
from the horizontal to vertical position. Calculated general primary
membrane tensile stress shall not exceed 80% of the materials specified
minimum yield strength at 100F (38C). Calculated compressive stress shall
not exceed 1.2 times the B factor obtained from the Code.
5.11.4 Local Stresses
Local stresses in the heat exchanger shell/head from the lifting attachments
(e.g., lugs, trunnions, etc.) shall be determined for the imposed loadings
using local stress analysis procedures such as WRC Bulletins 107 or 297, or
other accepted local stress analysis procedures (e.g., finite element analysis).
For the rigging condition, the allowable stresses as shown in Section 5.10
shall be used.
5.11.5 Welds
Shear stresses for fillet welds on the lifting attachments to the heat exchanger
shell/head shall not exceed 0.55 times the Code-allowable stress {design
stress intensity} at 100F (38C) for the material selected.

5.12 Formed Heads


Formed heads in heat exchangers over 2 thick shall have hemispherical or 2:1
ellipsoidal heads.

5.13 Nozzles
5.13.1 Nozzles for pressure relief devices shall be designed and reinforced for thrust
reaction. Gussets shall not be used to strengthen, stiffen, or reinforce nozzles,
unless demonstrated by calculations to be suitable for the specified cyclic life
or thermal condition.
For such nozzles, consideration shall be given to the dimensional
requirements of the device as supplied by the device manufacturer
(e.g., tolerances).
5.13.2 Surface-attached nozzles as shown in Code Figures UW-16.1(a), (a-1), (a-2),
(a-3), and (b) {Figures 610.1(a) and (b)}, and those with internal reinforcing
pads, are not permitted.
5.13.3 Nozzle locations (including manways) and their reinforcing pads, if
necessary, shall preferably not interfere with or cover heat exchanger weld
seams. When located in heads other than hemispherical heads, all the nozzle
reinforcing shall preferably be within the spherical portion of the head.
5.13.4 Heat exchangers shall be provided with sufficient connections to permit
purging, pumpout, venting, decontamination, pressure relieving, and
draining.
5.13.5 In establishing nozzle projections, clearance shall be provided for removing
flange stud bolts from between the flange and the heat exchanger and for
accessing flange stud nuts. Clearance for flange studs and nuts shall be
considered when nozzles penetrate insulation or platforms.

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Minimum projection from the outside of the vessel wall to the nozzle face
shall be:
a. 8 inches (200 mm) for nozzles up to and including NPS 8 (DN 400)
b. 10 inches (250 mm) for nozzles larger than NPS 8 (DN 400)
Round up the dimension from the face of the nozzle to the heat exchanger
centerline or reference line to the next larger 1/2-inch (10 mm) increment.
5.13.6 Minimum nozzle neck thickness for carbon steel and low alloy steel nozzles
shall be per Code Paragraph UG-45, except in no case shall the nominal
thickness selected for nozzle necks up to and including NPS 3 (DN 80) be
thinner than Sch 80.
5.13.7 Minimum nozzle neck thickness for high-alloy and non-ferrous alloy nozzles
shall be per Code Paragraph UG-45, except in no case shall the nominal
thickness selected for nozzle necks up to including NPS 3 (DN 80) be thinner
than Sch 40S.
5.13.8 When there is concern that an overstress condition may exist, the local
membrane and surface stresses due to local loads (e.g., piping loads, platform
loads, etc.) shall be determined using the WRC Bulletin 107 or 297
procedures, or other local stress analysis procedures. For local loads and
pressure, the allowable stresses are 1.5S for local primary membrane stress
and 3S for primary membrane plus secondary bending stress at nozzles,
platform lugs, etc. S shall be the Code-allowable stress at the design
temperature.
5.13.9 Nozzles shall not be located closer to an integrally attached tubesheet, either
shell side or tube side, than shown in Appendix G.
5.13.10 A minimum of three safety retainer clips shall be welded to the nozzle neck
at the back of NPS 4 (DN 100) and larger lap joint flanges that face upward.
(Facing upward is defined as inclination of the nozzle from the horizontal at
an angle of 30 degrees or greater.) These clips shall be located so that a
spacing of one length-through-hub dimension (dimension Y in ASME B16.5)
will exist between the back of the lap and the face of the flange. This will
allow for future painting of the nozzle neck in this region.
5.13.11 Integral Reinforcement
Nozzles and manways shall be integrally reinforced for the following:
1. When located in shells greater than 2 inches (50 mm) thick
2. For heat exchangers where cyclic service is the controlling design
consideration, see Section 5.9.
3. The maximum design metal temperature is warmer than 750F (400C).
4. Radial nozzles within the scope of Code Paragraph 1-7(b)
5. When radiography is required on nozzles connections
5.13.12 Bolting Considerations for Studding Connections
When studded connections are used, the holes in the studded connection and
the studs shall be machined per PIP VEFV1129. Indicator type studs for
studded connections, when used, shall be in accordance with ASME PCC-1

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Figures 1 and 2. A spacer ring of the same material as the nozzle flange
may be provided to increase the effective stud length (see detail on
PIP VEFV1129, page 2). When used, the thickness of the spacer ring shall
be at least as thick as the mating flange thickness. The Manufacturer shall
furnish the studs and spacer ring (when required) for each studded
connection on the heat exchanger. The studded connection shall be checked
to assure the remaining thickness of the drilled holes complies with
UG-43(d).

5.14 Manway Davits


Manways shall be equipped with either a davit or a hinge to facilitate handling of the
blind flange. Manways oriented with the nozzle neck axis in a horizontal plane shall
be equipped with a hinge in accordance with PIP VEFV1116 or a davit in accordance
with PIP VEFV1117. Attach the davit-socket bracket to the nozzle neck when lap
joint flanges are employed. Manways on the top of heat exchangers oriented with a
vertical nozzle neck axis shall be equipped with a davit in accordance with
PIP VEFV1118. Hinged manways require Owner approval due to potential pinch
point.

5.15 Flanges
5.15.1 The Designer is responsible for ensuring that the facings, bolt circle, number
of bolts, and size of bolts of heat exchanger nozzles match the mating piping
flanges. Weld neck flanges shall be used except as permitted elsewhere in
this specification. Flanges for all flanged heat exchanger nozzles equal to or
smaller than NPS 24 (DN 600) shall meet the requirements of ASME B16.5.
Body flanges in this size range may be either per ASME B16.5 or custom-
designed per the Code. For nozzles larger than NPS 24 (DN 600) and for
body flanges of any size, the options available (as follows in Sections 5.15.2
through 5.15.5) to the User must be carefully selected as a function of the
need.
5.15.2 ASME B16.47, Series A (NPS 26 through NPS 60)
These are standard carbon, low-alloy, and austenitic stainless steel flanges of
the integral hub, welding neck style that are dimensionally the same as MSS
SP-44 flanges. The materials covered are identical with those in Materials
Groups 1 and 2 of ASME B16.5. Line valves and machinery nozzles may be
provided with flanges of MSS SP-44 dimensions. Therefore, heat exchanger
nozzle flanges that meet the dimensions of Series A flanges may be either
necessary or desirable. Series A and Series B flanges are not dimensionally
compatible in all sizes.
5.15.3 ASME B16.47, Series B (NPS 26 through NPS 60)
These are standard carbon, low-alloy, and austenitic stainless steel flanges of
the integral hub, welding neck flange style that are dimensionally the same as
flanges covered under the now obsolete API 605. The materials covered are
identical with those in Materials Groups 1 and 2 of ASME B16.5. Machinery
nozzles may be provided with flanges of Series B dimensions. Therefore,
heat exchanger nozzle flanges that meet the dimensions of Series B flanges

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may either be necessary or desirable. Series A and Series B flanges are not
dimensionally compatible in all sizes.
5.15.4 Custom-Designed Flanges per Code
5.15.4.1 Custom-designed flanges may be required when:
a. Materials of construction covered in ASME B16.5 or
ASME B16.47 are not appropriate for the service conditions.
b. For NPS 26 through NPS 60, the desired flange style is other
than the welding neck type (e.g., lap joint, slip-on) covered in
ASME B16.47.
c. Design conditions for the intended service application exceed
the pressure-temperature ratings of ASME B16.5 or ASME
B16.47 flanges.
d. Service requirements result in significant mechanical loadings
other than pressure. The pressure-temperature ratings of both
ASME B16.5 and ASME B16.47 are based primarily on
pressure loadings and accordingly, the flanges may not be
suitably designed for externally applied moment or axial thrust
loadings (e.g., as imposed by mating piping, weight, wind, or
seismic loadings), resulting in leak-tightness problems. See
Appendix C for the method usually employed for considering
such mechanical loadings.
e. Rigidity requirements of ASME B16.47 flanges are sometimes
below recommended guidelines, even when flanges are
subjected only to pressure loadings within the pressure-
temperature ratings, or for those flanges designed in
accordance with Code Appendix 2 {Appendix 3}. See Code
paragraph 2-14 {3-395} for Rigidity Index guidelines.
5.15.4.2 Recommended minimum gasket contact widths are shown in the
following table:
Flange ID Gasket Contact Width
inches (mm) inches (mm)
36 (900) 1 (25)
36 (900)< OD 60 (1500) 1-1/4 (32)
OD > 60 (1500) 1-1/2 (38)
Notes:
1. Gasket Contact Width is the recommended minimum
width of the gasket in contact with both flange faces.
2. For 3-ply corrugated metal gaskets, the gasket OD
shall be a minimum of 1/4 inch (6 mm) less than the
raised face or lap ring OD. (See Section 5.15.5.4.)

5.15.4.3 Design flanges not only for the design pressure, but also for other
loadings that will be applied to the joints during the project life
(e.g., externally applied bending moment and axial thrust
loadings). (See Section 5.15.4.1.)

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5.15.4.4 Select flange thickness so that, considering all loadings that will be
applied (see Section 5.15.4.1), the Rigidity Index as defined in
paragraph 2-14 {3-395} of the Code is 1.0, based on the
recommended value of kL of 0.2 or KI of 0.3, as applicable.
5.15.4.5 Flange bolts shall not be less than 3/4 inch (16 mm) nominal
diameter. Flange bolt holes shall be 1/8 inch (3 mm) larger than the
diameter of the bolts.
5.15.4.6 Nubbins are permitted only by agreement with the User.
5.15.4.7 For corrosive service, splice welds on gasket contact surfaces of a
lap ring or flange are permitted only by agreement with the User.
5.15.4.8 Bolt Spacing Factor
The design of custom flanges shall include the effect of bolt
spacing in accordance with the following:
6t
1. Maximum bolt spacing = 2a +
m + 0.5
2. If bolt spacing exceeds (2a + t), the design moment (Mo)
BS
acting on the flange shall be multiplied by
2a + t
where: Mo, and m are as defined in Code Appendix 2,
Paragraph 2-3;
a = nominal bolt diameter, inches (mm)
Bs = actual bolt spacing, inches (mm)
t = minimum finished flange thickness, exclusive
of corrosion allowance, inches (mm).
5.15.4.9 Indicator-Type Bolting
For high bolt-load control accuracy during operation at temperature
as well as during initial assembly, it is recommended that flanged
joints requiring 2 inch diameter and larger bolting be furnished with
bolts having an indicator rod through the bolt center for measuring
installed bolt elongation (using a depth gauge). Indicator bolts shall
be purchased in accordance with Fig. 1 or Fig. 2 of ASME PCC-1, as
applicable. Every bolt in the joint assembly shall be an indicator-type
bolt, except when hydraulic tensioners are used, use of indicator-type
bolts for every fourth bolt is recommended for calibration purposes
during initial assembly and for bolt-load control during operation at
temperature. The indicator rod material for low alloy steel bolting
shall be nickel alloy C-276. The indicator rod for other bolting
materials shall be the same as the bolts or a material having
essentially the same coefficient of expansion and a composition
suitable for welding to the bolts. All bolts in the assembly shall have
a through-hardened flat washer under each nut.

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5.15.5 Custom-Designed Lap Joint Flanges


Practices relative to lap joint flanges that experience has shown will result in
a level of damage tolerance, leak-tightness integrity, and gasket replacement
capability equivalent to the welding neck style are as follows:
5.15.5.1 The recommended radial lap width is as shown in the following
table:
Nozzle/Heat Radial Lap Width
exchanger OD inches (mm)
inches (mm)
OD 18 (450) 1 (25)
18 (450)< OD 36 (900) 1-1/2 (38)
36 (900)< OD 60 (1500) 1-3/4 (44)
OD > 60 (1500) 2 (50)
Note: Radial Lap Width shall be measured from the
toe of the lap-to-shell attachment weld to the outer
edge of the lap ring. (See Section 5.15.5.4.)

5.15.5.2 The gasket contact width is as shown in the Table in


Section 5.15.4.2.
5.15.5.3 Finished lap ring thickness is a minimum of 3/16 inch (5 mm)
greater than the nominal wall thickness of the nozzle/shell to which
it is attached. This thickness will allow possible future
re-machining of the lap and shall be sufficient to allow the laps to
be machined front and back, if necessary to maintain parallel
surfaces after repair.
5.15.5.4 If the values in the Tables in Sections 5.15.4.2 and 5.15.5.1 are not
used, the gasket/lap/flange design shall be configured so that the
gasket load reaction on the lap (defined as G in Code Appendix 2
{Appendix 3}) is as close as practicable to being coincident with
the reaction of the flange against the back of the lap (taken at the
midpoint of contact between the flange and lap). The Code does
not treat the gasket reaction and flange/lap reaction independently
(see Code Figure 2-4(1) {Figure 3-310.1(a)}). However, this
recommended configuration is believed to promote improved joint
performance because it minimizes the amount of bending in the lap
ring resulting from applied forces.
5.15.5.5 Lap Type Flange-to-Shell Clearance
The difference between the flange inside diameter (ID) and the
shell OD shall not exceed:
a. 1/16 inch (1.5 mm) for nominal diameters up to and including
NPS 12 (DN 300)
b. 1/8 inch (3 mm) for nominal diameters over NPS 12
(DN 300) through 48 inches (1200 mm) OD
c. 3/16 inch (5 mm) for nominal diameters over 48 inches
(1200 mm) OD

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5.15.5.6 Flange Bevel and Lap Ring Weld


The fillet weld attaching the lap ring to the shell shall be an equal
leg fillet weld with the leg dimension equal to the nominal shell
thickness of +1/16 inch (1.5 mm) and -0. The difference between
the diameter of the flange bevel where the lap ring contacts the
surface of the flange and the nominal diameter at the toe of the lap
ring attachment weld at the back of the lap ring shall be 1/8 inch
(3 mm) with a tolerance of +1/16 inch (1.5 mm) and -0.
5.15.5.7 Lap Flange-to-Bolt Hole Distance
The distance between the inside edge of the bolt hole in the lap
joint flange and the outside diameter of the lap ring shall not
exceed 1/16 inch (1.5 mm).
5.15.5.8 Outside Diameter of Shop-Fabricated Laps
The nominal outside diameter of shop-fabricated laps shall
correspond to ASME/ANSI B16.9 standard diameters when used
with ASME standard flanges.
5.15.6 Lap Joint Flanges NPS 24 (DN 600) and Smaller
When ASME B16.5 lapped flanges are specified, the User is cautioned to
make the checks/inspections necessary to ensure that the flanges actually are
ASME B16.5 lapped flanges.
For certain of the smaller sizes in each pressure class, the length-through-hub
(dimension Y) of the slip-on flange and the lapped flange are the same. (This
is true through NPS 12 (DN 300) for Class 150, through NPS 8 (DN 200) for
Class 300, etc.) Accordingly, since the slip-on flange is more commonly
used, flange manufacturers typically modify the small slip-on flanges to
make the lapped style. This modification consists of machining the corner
radius of the bore as specified in ASME B16.5 (dimension r) and removing
the raised face. The latter change is permitted in Interpretation 3-5 of
ASME B16.5, provided the resulting flange meets the requirements for a
lapped flange, including flange thickness, or a length-through-hub
dimension.
The caution is focused on larger sizes where the length-through-hub
(dimension Y) for lapped flanges is greater than that of the slip-on style.
Some flange manufacturers have furnished the modified versions of these
slip-on flanges as lapped flanges, calling them short-hubbed lapped flanges.
These flanges do not comply with ASME B16.5 and, as a result, do not
comply with either the Code or OSHA when Code construction is mandated.
The strength of the short-hubbed flanges cannot generally be justified by
Code calculations.
5.15.7 Slip-on Flanges
Slip-on flanges are limited to use under the following conditions:
5.15.7.1 ASME B16.5 standard forged flanges for design pressures and
coincident temperatures not exceeding the pressure-temperature
ratings for Class 150 flanges as specified in ASME B16.5, except

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that the maximum design temperature shall not exceed 450F


(230C).
5.15.7.2 {Not Division 2 Applicable} Custom-designed flanges per Code
Figure 2-4(8), (8a), (9), (9a), (10), or (10a) for design temperatures
not exceeding 650F (345C); and for flange thickness not
exceeding 3 inches (75 mm).
5.15.7.3 Corrosion allowance does not exceed 1/16 inch (1.5 mm).
5.15.7.4 Carbon or low-alloy steel flanges attached to solid high-alloy
necks are limited to design temperatures no higher than 450F
(230C), unless a higher temperature is justified by a complete
stress analysis and approved by the User.
5.15.7.5 MDMT is not colder than minus 20F (-29C) for carbon and low-
alloy steels.
5.15.7.6 Heat exchanger is not for lethal service (Code requirement).
5.15.7.7 Heat exchanger or nozzle is neither for cyclic pressure or
temperature service nor subjected to cyclic loadings from
associated equipment.
5.15.7.8 For heat exchangers not in hot hydrogen service [Hot hydrogen
service is defined as hydrogen partial pressure exceeding 100 psia
(700 kPa-a), with a corresponding coincident temperature
exceeding 400F.(205C).]
5.15.8 Threaded and Socket Weld Flanges
Threaded and socket weld flanges shall not be used. (See Section 5.15.10.)
5.15.9 Flange Facing and Surface Finish
5.15.9.1 Flanges, except for lapped flanges, shall either have a raised face
or shall have a construction that provides outer confinement to the
gasket if required by Section 5.15.9.3. The height of a raised face
shall be 1/16 inch (1.5 mm) or a greater height when required by
ASME B16.5 or ASME B16.47, or as specified by the User. For
some User-designated services, flat-face flanges or ring joint
facings may be required.
5.15.9.2 Standard flanges and factory-made lap joint stub ends shall have a
surface finish in accordance with ASME B16.5 or ASME B16.47,
as applicable. For standard flanges in services requiring special
consideration (e.g., hydrogen) and for custom flanges and shop-
fabricated lap joint stub ends, the gasket contact surface shall have
either a serrated concentric or serrated spiral finish having a
resultant surface finish from 125 - 250 inch (3.2-6.4 m)
average roughness.

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5.15.9.3 Confined Joints


For any of the following conditions, gasketed flange joint designs
(body flange and nozzle joints) larger than NPS 24 (DN 600) shall
provide outer confinement of the gasket:
a. Design pressure 300 psi (2 MPa) or higher
b. Design temperature hotter than 500F (260C)
c. MDMT colder than minus 20F (-29C)
d. Cyclic pressure or temperature service
e. Joint requires metallic gasket
Note: Robust metal reinforced gaskets (e.g., spiral-wound with
outer gauge ring, double-jacketed corrugated metal gaskets with a
corrugated metal filler, etc.) are exempted.
5.15.10 Piping Connections
All piping connections to heat exchangers shall be either flanged or butt-
welded. The minimum size shall be NPS 1-1/2 (DN 40). The use of
threaded connections is not recommended because of the potential for
crevice corrosion and notch sensitivity. Threaded connections for vents and
drains or instrument connections are permissible when specified by the
User. When used, the minimum size shall be NPS 3/4 (DN 20) Schedule
(Sch) 160 or 6000# coupling. (See ASME B16.11.) Nozzle sizes NPS 1-1/4,
2-1/2, 3-1/2, and 5 (DN 32, 65, 90, and 125) shall not be used.
5.15.11 Quick Opening Closures
Swing bolts (eye bolts) shall be of one-piece construction without welding.
Hinge pins shall be solid (not rolled) and of the same material as the swing
bolts.
5.15.12 Flanges - Pass Partition Areas
In multi-pass heat exchangers, the total gasket sealing areas of the pass
partition plate(s) shall be included when calculating the minimum initial
bolt load required to seat the gasket (Wm2).
5.15.13 Flanged Joints
Removable channels or bonnets, channel covers, and floating head covers
shall be attached with through-bolted flanged joints, except TEMA Type D
stationary head designs.
5.15.14 Lap Joints
Flanged joints for stainless steel and nonferrous alloy components shall be
of the lap-joint type with carbon or low-alloy steel flanges except when the
nominal diameter of the heat exchanger component does not exceed
NPS 24 (DN 600) and the maximum temperature stamped on the Code
nameplate is not warmer than 300F (150C).

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5.15.15 Flanged Joints with Dissimilar Metals


Austenitic stainless steel or nonferrous alloy flanges may be bolted to
carbon steel flanges provided that the differential diametrical expansion
will not result in diametrical interference of recessed (e.g., tongue and
groove) joints and does not exceed 1/32 inch (0.8 mm). Bolting joining a
carbon steel flange to a stainless steel or nonferrous alloy flange shall be of
low-alloy steel.

5.16 Supports
5.16.1 General
5.16.1.1 Code-allowable stresses {design stress intensity} shall be used for
heat exchangers and their supports. For combinations of
earthquake or wind loadings with other loadings listed in Code
Paragraph UG-22 {AD-110}, the allowable stresses {design stress
intensity} may be increased as permitted by Code Paragraph
UG-23(c) {AD-151.1}. See Section 5.6.9 for load combinations to
be considered. See also Code Appendix G {AD-940}.
5.16.1.2 For structural-shape support members in compression where
slenderness ratio is a controlling design consideration, no increase
in the allowable compressive stress is permitted.
5.16.1.3 For supports outside the scope of the Code, either Code-allowable
stresses {design stress intensity} or, for structural shapes, those in
the AISC Manual of Steel Construction may be used.
5.16.1.4 The MDMT for the heat exchanger support assembly shall not be
warmer than the lowest 1-day mean atmospheric temperature at the
installation site. (See Section 5.4.)
5.16.1.5 Localized shell stresses at all support-to-shell locations shall be
considered, as applicable, for wind load, earthquake, and all other
loadings described in Paragraph UG-22 {AD-110} of the Code.
(See Sections 5.7 and 5.8.)
5.16.1.6 Where reinforcing pads are used under supports, consideration
shall be given to stresses due to possible temperature differentials
among the heat exchanger, pads, and supports.
5.16.2 Vertical Heat Exchangers
Vertical heat exchangers shall normally be designed as self-supporting units
and shall resist overturn based upon wind or earthquake loadings (as
described in Sections 5.7 and 5.8) and other applicable loadings per
Paragraph UG-22 {AD-110} of the Code.
5.16.3 Horizontal Heat Exchangers
5.16.3.1 Horizontal heat exchangers shall be designed for two saddle
supports attached by welding. Design of saddle supports and
calculation of localized shell stress may be determined by the L. P.
Zick method. (See Section 2.4 and Code Appendix G {AD-940}.)
The minimum saddle support contact angle shall be 120 degrees.
For heat exchangers, saddle supports shall be located a maximum

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distance of Ro/2 from the head tangent line, where Ro is the shell
outside radius.
5.16.3.2 Saddle wear plates, when required, shall have the following
proportions:
a. Thickness: Established by design, but not less than the smaller
of shell thickness or 3/8 inch (10 mm)
b. Width: Width of saddle plus 5t each side of the saddle,
where t = cylindrical shell thickness in the corroded condition
c. Extension Beyond Horn of Saddle: r/10, where r = radius of
cylindrical shell in corroded condition
The wear plates shall have a minimum radius of 2 inches (50 mm)
on the corners, shall be continuously welded to the shell, shall be
provided with one 1/4 inch (6 mm) drilled telltale hole (or
equivalent venting) per segment, and shall be vented to the
atmosphere. Vent holes shall be located at the low point of the
wear plate and shall not be plugged during hydrostatic testing.
5.16.3.3 One of the saddles shall be designated as the fixed saddle in which
holes shall be provided to receive the anchor bolts. The other
saddle shall be designated as the sliding saddle in which slotted
holes shall be provided. The diameter of the bolt holes and width
of the slot shall be 1/4 inch (6 mm) larger than the bolt diameter.
The length of the slot shall be: 2DLT
where:
= Coefficient of thermal expansion of shell material,
in/in/F*
DL = Length between saddle supports, measured to centerline
of anchor bolts, inches*
T = Greatest absolute value of: ambient temperature at
installation [but not warmer than 70F (20C)] minus the
maximum or minimum shell temperature to be stamped
on the Code nameplate, F*
* Metric values may be used provided a consistent set of units are
used.
The anchor bolts are to be located at the center of the bolt holes
(fixed saddle) or the midpoint of the slot (sliding saddle). All
sliding saddles shall be provided with slide plates, when the
operating temperature exceeds 250F (120C) or the calculated
thermal expansion exceeds 1/4 inch (6 mm). Slide plates are to be
furnished by others. Examples of standard details that may be used
(non-mandatory) are shown on PIP VEFV1105 and
PIP VEFV1106.
5.16.3.4 The bottom of the saddle supports shall extend at least 1 inch
below nozzles or other projecting heat exchanger components.

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Alternatively, a temporary member shall be attached at each


support to provide necessary extension until the heat exchanger is
placed in permanent position.
5.16.3.5 Saddles to be used in conjunction with weigh cells or slide plates
require design considerations to accommodate the applicable
loadings.
5.16.4 Stacked Exchangers
5.16.4.1 Stacked exchangers shall have the lower shell(s) designed to
withstand the superimposed load of the upper exchanger(s) filled
with water or operating fluid (whichever is greater) without
distorting the shell in a manner that could cause binding of tube
bundle(s).
5.16.4.2 When two or more exchangers are stacked, a 1/2-inch (13 mm)
shimming allowance shall be provided between intermediate
supports.
5.16.4.3 The lower fixed support of stacked exchangers shall be designed
for the full bundle pulling load for removal of any upper bundle.
5.16.4.4 Consideration shall be given to the effects of differential thermal
expansion between exchangers.
5.16.4.5 Component (i.e., bonnet, cover, etc.) lifting lugs shall be given
special consideration. Two or more lifting lugs located at
45 degrees from the top centerline shall be provided to permit
removal of the component without difficulty.

5.17 Anchor Bolts


5.17.1 Materials for anchor bolts shall be selected from one of the following:
1. Carbon steel: A-36, A-307 Grade B or F-1554 Gr 36
2. Low-alloy steel: A-193 B7 or equal. (Note some users have reported
environmental cracking of B7 anchor bolts as a result of the hydrogen
from the corrosion process.)
3. For corrosive applications stainless steel or other high alloy materials
may be used, with due consideration for possible chloride exposure, as
well as the yield strength.
5.17.2 The allowable design stress, as calculated using the tensile stress area of the
threaded portion, shall not exceed the following (see Note):
a. Carbon steel or stainless steel: 20,000 psi (138 MPa)
b. Low-alloy steel: 30,000 psi (207 MPa)
Note: For heat exchangers on concrete foundations, the allowable stress
of anchor bolts may be limited by the strength and dimensions of the
concrete for the bolt spacing selected. Allowable stresses used in the
final design shall be agreed to by the structural engineer.

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5.17.3 Anchor bolts shall be selected with the following threads and the tensile
stress area shall be selected accordingly:
a. Bolts 1 inch (25 mm) and smaller in diameter: Coarse thread series,
ASME B1.1
b. Bolts larger than 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter: 8 thread series,
ASME B1.1
5.17.4 For heat exchangers on concrete foundations, the design concrete bearing
stress used shall be 1658 psi (11.4 MPa).
Note: This value is based on the use of concrete with an ultimate strength, f'c,
of 3000 psi (20.7 MPa) for which the minimum allowable bearing is
(0.65)(0.85)f'c (approximately 1658 psi (11.4 MPa)for 3000 psi (20.7 MPa)
concrete).
Higher values may be used consistent with the ultimate strength chosen (if
known) and other provisions of state-of-the-art concrete foundation design.
The design loadings for anchor bolts embedded in concrete may be
determined by either the simplified method (neutral axis of bolt pattern at
centerline of heat exchanger) or the shifted neutral axis method (see Section
2.4, Brownell and Young). However, the use of the latter method is
recommended for large vertical heat exchangers because of the economic
benefit.
Note: The neutral axis shift method does not apply for heat exchangers
supported by steel structures.
5.17.5 Anchor bolts embedded in concrete foundations shall be zinc-coated (hot dip
galvanized or mechanically zinc-coated) unless they are stainless steel so that
the addition of a corrosion allowance is not required. If J-bolts are used, they
shall be fully stress relieved at 1100F (595C) for one hour per inch of
diameter prior to hot dip galvanized coating. Threaded J-bolts in the bent
area are not allowed.
5.17.6 Anchor bolts for heat exchangers shall not be less than 3/4 inch (19 mm).
Anchor bolts shall straddle normal centerlines. The anchor bolt circle shall be
selected to provide radial clearance for the bolt tensioning device when low-
alloy steel bolting is required.
5.17.7 Anchor bolting shall be furnished and installed by the User.

5.18 Heat Exchanger Component Design and Fabrication


5.18.1 Tubes
(See Section 5.20.5 for additional information.)
5.18.1.1 Tubes may be either welded or seamless.
5.18.1.2 Corrosion allowance need not be added to tubes.
5.18.2 Tubesheets
5.18.2.1 Tubesheets shall be designed for full design pressure on either side,
with atmospheric pressure or specified vacuum on the other side.

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Differential pressure design may only be used when approved by


the User.

5.18.2.2 Tubesheets for U tube, fixed tubesheet and floating tubesheet heat
exchangers shall be designed per the rules of Code Part UHX.
5.18.2.3 Tubesheets welded to a carbon steel shell or channel shall be of
carbon steel or clad carbon steel. Solid alloy tubesheets may be
welded to a carbon steel shell or channel, provided one of the
following is met:
1. The thermal coefficients of expansion do not vary more than
15% from the tubesheet to the shell or channel over the
operating temperature range.
2. A stress analysis is performed by the Manufacturer and
approved by the User for the joint between the tubesheet and
the shell or channel.
3. The tubesheet is welded to a relatively short cylindrical section
of the same material, and a stress analysis of the junction of the
alloy and carbon steel cylindrical section is performed and
approved by the User.
5.18.2.4 In addition to TEMA requirements for tubesheet cladding,
consideration shall be given to providing adequate cladding
thickness under pass partition and gasket grooves.
5.18.2.5 Loose liners and plug-welded liners are not permitted.
5.18.2.6 Confining gasket grooves shall be provided for all exchangers with
gasketed pass partition joints.
5.18.3 Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints
5.18.3.1 When the type of joint is not specified, expanded joints with
grooves shall be used for tubesheets of homogeneous material.
Expansion may be by roller, hydraulic pressure, or other User
approved method.
5.18.3.2 If tube-to-tubesheet leakage is deemed to be detrimental to the
process, seal-welded and expanded joints are to be used. Transient
operations may also warrant seal-welded and expanded tube joints.
Seal-welded and expanded joints with grooves shall be used for
integrally clad tubesheets.
5.18.3.3 Strength-welded tube-to-tubesheet joints are to be used when
expanded joints cannot carry the expected tube load or when the
residual interface pressure due to expansion (tube rolling or
hydraulic expansion) is compromised during operation. The loss of
residual interface pressure can occur with high temperature
applications or when significant differential thermal expansion
occurs between the tube and the tubesheet.

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5.18.3.4 The special close fit tolerances for tube holes as stated in TEMA
shall be mandatory for:
a. Austenitic tubes with expanded and grooved tube-to-
tubesheet joints
b. Seal-welded or strength-welded tube-to-tubesheet joints
c. Hydraulically expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints
5.18.4 Tube Bundles
5.18.4.1 The minimum mean bend diameter of U-tubes shall not be less
than 3 times the nominal tube OD.
5.18.4.2 The end baffle spaces shall be equal to or greater than the central
baffle space.
5.18.4.3 Cross-baffles
1. Cross-baffle metallurgy and thickness shall be selected
considering the corrosivity of the shell side fluids and the
intended design life.
2. Cross baffles that resist corrosion shall have a thickness no less
than the greater of that specified by TEMA or 1/8 inch (3 mm).
3. Cross baffles susceptible to corrosion shall have a thickness
not less than the greater of the TEMA minimum, 2 times the
corrosion allowance, or 3/16 inch (5 mm).
5.18.4.4 Each support plate and baffle in horizontal exchangers shall be
provided with a 1/2 inch (13 mm) x 90 degree notch in the bottom
for draining.
5.18.4.5 All TEMA Type S and T (with removable shell cover) exchangers
shall have a floating head support plate located 4 to 6 inches
(100 to 150 mm) from the inside face of the floating tubesheet.
5.18.4.6 Except for shell side isothermal boiling, isothermal condensing, or
kettles, bypass sealing devices shall be provided as follows:
a. Seal strips are required when the radial clearance between shell
and the outer tubes exceeds 5/8 inch (16 mm).
b. Exchangers with vertical cut baffles (baffle cut parallel to shell
side nozzle centerline) shall have seal strips installed to seal
the bypass areas caused by the omission of tubes.
c. Dummy tubes, rods, or seal strips shall be provided for any
pass partition lanes that are parallel to the shell side flow.
d. Seal strip thickness shall not be less than the greater of 75% of
baffle thickness or 1/4 inch (6 mm).
e. For vertical cut baffles (baffle cut parallel to shell side nozzle
centerline), seal strips shall not extend into the inlet or outlet
baffle spaces. For horizontal cut baffles (baffle cut
perpendicular to shell side nozzle centerline), seal strips shall

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extend from the front or stationary tubesheet to the last baffle


or support plate.
f. One pair of seal strips or one dummy tube shall be provided
for each five (5) tube rows between baffle cuts. Minor
adjustments may be made to suit actual tube layout.
5.18.4.7 Exchangers with removable tube bundles weighing 20,000 pounds
(9070 Kg) or more shall have bundle skid bars.

5.18.4.7.1 A minimum of two skid bars shall be provided. The


bars shall be 1/2 inch (13 mm) minimum thickness by
1-1/2 inch (38 mm) minimum height flat bar. The skid
bars shall be located no more than 30 degrees from the
vertical centerline.

5.18.4.7.2 The skid bars shall extend from the stationary


tubesheet to floating head support plate (TEMA Types
S and T) or end baffle (TEMA Types P, U, and W).

5.18.4.7.3 When skid bars interfere with nozzle openings, the


skid bars shall be terminated at the baffle or support
plate adjacent to the nozzle. A tie rod/spacer of
adequate strength to carry the bundle pulling load shall
be located close to the tube field and within 3 inches
(75 mm) of the skid bar and shall extend from the
tubesheet or baffle/support plate on one side of the
nozzle to the baffle/support plate on the other side of
the nozzle.
5.18.4.8 Perforated or slotted impingement plates shall not be used.
5.18.4.9 Multiple exchangers of the same TEMA size and material, either
stacked or parallel, shall have interchangeable components to the
maximum extent possible.
5.18.5 Expansion Joints
5.18.5.1 Shell expansion joints shall be of the thick wall flanged and
flued type or flanged only type. Thin wall bellows type shall
only be used by User agreement, shall conform to Code
Appendix 26, and shall have the welding stubs of the same material
as the shell.
5.18.5.2 The design of expansion joints shall be performed by any method
of stress analysis (e.g., finite element analysis), including TEMA
Paragraph RCB-8, which can be shown to be applicable to
expansion joints. The allowable stresses and cycle life for design
shall conform to Code Appendix 5. The need for and design of
expansion joints shall satisfy the following condition:
a. Differential thermal expansion encountered in the most
adverse combination of temperature combinations anticipated
and specified by the User for all normal operating (including
shutdown and startup) and upset conditions or operation based

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on metal temperatures rather than fluid temperatures and


MAWP rather than operating pressures
5.18.5.3 Shell expansion joints shall be ventable and drainable in the
operating position.
5.18.5.4 Expansion joints for single pass floating head units may be of the
thin wall bellows type. The expansion joint manufacturer shall
provide the bellows with welding stubs of the same material as the
tail pipe material. The design of the expansion joint shall conform
to Code Appendix 26.
5.18.5.5 The expansion joint-to-shell weld shall not be located less than
2 ( Rt ) from the back of the tubesheet, where R is the outside
radius of the shell, in inches (mm), and t is the actual thickness of
the shell less corrosion allowance, in inches (mm).
5.18.6 Vapor Belts
5.18.6.1 The design of vapor belts shall include:
a. Effect of pressure loads
b. Longitudinal stresses produced by operating and test pressures
(in other than fixed tubesheet designs)
c. Consideration of flexibility produced when designing the
exchanger shell, tubes, and tubesheet. When a sleeve type
vapor belt is used, the design shall be considered flexible and
designed per Section 5.18.5.1.
5.18.6.2 Vapor belts may be used as expansion joints provided all
requirements of Section 5.18.5 are met. Whether or not vapor belts
are used as expansion joints, vapor belt flexibility shall be
considered in the design of exchanger shell, tubes, and tubesheets.
5.18.7 Exchanger Covers
5.18.7.1 TEMA Type T exchangers (except kettle type reboilers) shall have
removable shell covers.
5.18.7.2 When full diameter tubesheets are specified on exchangers with
removable tube bundles, the following shall apply:

1. Retaining studs are recommended to maintain the gasket seal


on the shell side of the tubesheet with the channel (or bonnet)
removed. Retaining studs shall be installed in 25% of the bolt
holes (four minimum).
2. The tubesheet shall be designed to withstand shell side or tube
side hydrostatic test pressure with bonnet/channel or shell
removed.

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5.18.7.3 Mitered 90 degree reducing elbows for thermosyphon reboiler


outlet heads shall conform to the following requirements:

1. No less than three (3) changes in direction at the inside and


outside contour
2. Cyclic loading is not a governing design requirement.
3. Meridian (change of direction) angles between adjacent
sections shall be approximately equal for gradual flow
transition.
4. The general contours shall be similar to those of commercial
forged reducing elbows.
5.18.8 Pass Partition Plates
Drain holes shall not be provided in pass partition plates.
5.18.9 Floating Heads
5.18.9.1 Floating heads shall be designed and dimensioned in accordance
with Code Figure 1-6(d).
5.18.9.2 Nubbins shall only be used by agreement with the User.
5.18.9.3 Floating heads shall be designed with respective corrosion
allowance applied to the inside and outside of the floating head and
flange. Corrosion allowance on the OD of the flange shall be added
to the recommended edge distance for the selected bolt size.
5.18.10 Kettle Type Exchangers
5.18.10.1 If a weir plate is required, the weir plate shall be continuously
welded all around to the shell and shall be of sufficient height to
flood the top row of tubes with a minimum of 2 inches (50 mm)
of process fluid during normal operation.
5.18.10.2 Consideration shall be given to draining both sides of the weir.
5.18.10.3 Rails shall be provided to support and guide the tube bundle.
Rails shall be welded to the shell. A hold down bar or angle shall
be provided directly above the floating head or the last U-tube
support plate.
5.18.10.4 All kettle type exchangers shall either have a 3-inch (75 mm)
minimum length cylindrical section (includes flanged hub, if
any) between the shell flanges and conical transitions or be
provided with other alternatives for cone-to-flange fit-up and
bolting clearance. For kettle type exchangers with tubesheets
integral with the shell, the minimum length of cylindrical section
between the tubesheet and the conical transition shall be the
greater of 3 inches (75 mm) or ( Rt ) , where R is the mean
radius of the cylindrical section and t is the thickness of the
section.

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5.18.11 Instrument, Vent, and Drain Connections


5.18.11.1 Additional connections (such as specified by TEMA) shall not be
provided in the nozzle necks.
5.18.11.2 Consideration shall be made to placing vents in the tubesheet to
meet specific process needs. When vents/drains are specified to
be in the tubesheet, installation shall be per standard details.
(See PIP VEFV1127.)
5.18.12 Nameplates and Stampings
5.18.12.1 Required nameplate markings shall not be stamped directly on
the exchanger.
5.18.12.2 In addition to required Code information, the following
information shall be stamped on the nameplate:
a. Users equipment item number
b. Initial test pressures
c. Purchase order number
5.18.12.3 Exchanger nameplates shall be located on the shell in an
accessible location. Manufacturer shall show the nameplate
location on the dimensioned outline drawing.
5.18.13 Shell and Bonnet Design
The use of commercially produced NPS pipe for shell and bonnet sections
NPS 24 (DN 600) and smaller is recommended. When specifying NPS pipe
as an acceptable option for rolled plate, consider Manufacturers tolerance
when specifying inside diameters if internals such as minimum tube counts
are critical.

5.19 Attachments
5.19.1 All attachments welded to pressure-retaining heat exchanger components
shall be considered critical to the structural integrity of the heat exchanger
for evaluation of impact test requirements (see Code Paragraph UCS-66(a))
{AM-204}.
5.19.2 No galvanized clips or attachments shall be welded to a heat exchanger.
5.19.3 Structural attachment welds (e.g., internal support rings or clips, external
stiffening rings, insulation support rings, and ladder, platform or pipe support
clips) shall clear weld seams by a minimum of 2 inches (50 mm). If overlap
of pad type structural attachments and weld seams is unavoidable, the portion
of the seam to be covered shall be ground flush and radiographically
examined before the attachment is welded on. The seam shall be
radiographed per Code Paragraph UW-51 {Article I-5} for a minimum
distance of 2 inches (50 mm) beyond the edge of the overlapping attachment.
Radiographic examination of weld seams is not required when single-plate
edge-type attachments such as stiffening rings, insulation support rings,
ladder, platform, or pipe support clips cross weld seams. Coping of external
attachments to clear main seams shall be done wherever possible.

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5.19.4 External Attachments


Unless otherwise specified by the User, the Manufacturer shall furnish and
install all clips, brackets, and other items which are welded to the outside
surface of the heat exchanger or skirt, including:
a. The Manufacturers nameplate shall be made either of a 300 series
stainless steel or of a nickel-copper alloy UNS N04400 or equivalent
(Monel), and shall be attached securely on a support bracket. The
nameplate support bracket shall conform to PIP VEFV1101.
b. Lifting attachments, as designed by the Manufacturer or as specified on
User drawings
c. Code-required stiffening rings for shells under external pressure shall be
placed on the outside of the heat exchanger, shall have a thickness not
less than 3/8 inch (10 mm), and shall have a ring width-to-thickness ratio
no greater than 10. Stiffening rings shall be attached by continuous fillet
welds on both sides of the ring.
d. A grounding lug in accordance with PIP VEFV1103
5.19.5 As a minimum, the attachments shall be of the same type material (ASME
Code P-number) as the pressure part to which attached except austenitic
stainless steel external welded attachments may be any 300-series stainless
steel.
5.19.6 As an alternative to 5.19.5 above, the Manufacturer may propose other
materials for the attachments with due consideration being given to the
following:
1. Potential problems associated with welding dissimilar materials
2. Compatibility with the Code nameplate maximum and minimum design
metal temperatures
3. Whether or not the attachment is essential to the structural integrity of
the heat exchanger (see Code Paragraph UCS-66 {AM-204})
4. Differential thermal expansion characteristics and associated stresses
5. Corrosion resistance
6. Painting requirements
7. Suitability for the anticipated loadings
5.19.7 Carbon and low-alloy steel attachments welded to pressure-retaining
components shall be considered as being essential to the structural integrity
of the heat exchanger; accordingly, for purposes of establishing the
attachment impact test requirements, the level of applied general primary
membrane stress shall be considered to be the same as the maximum level
applied to the pressure boundary component to which they are attached.

5.20 Heat Exchanger Thermal


Thermal design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers must consider safety, operation,
maintenance, and initial cost aspects of the intended service. Each heat exchanger
unit requires independent design. The thermal design method to be used must be

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acceptable to User and Designer. The Designer shall be sufficiently trained to


perform the calculations and properly interpret the results.
5.20.1 Fouling Factors Selection
5.20.1.1 An arbitrary rule to distinguish between clean and dirty service is
to define a service as dirty when the fouling factor equals or
exceeds 0.002 hr-ft2-F/BTU (0.0004 hr-m2-C/kcal). A lower
fouling factor implies a clean service.
5.20.1.2 Fouling factors shall be supplied from previous experience or
similar service. If not available, the fouling factors for each fluid
shall be selected from TEMA. The fouling factor is based on the
heat transfer surface contacting the fluid. The total fouling factor is
the sum of the outside fouling factor and the inside fouling factor
related to the outside surface.
Do not use arbitrarily high fouling factors to provide thermal
overdesign or to compensate for uncertainties in thermal properties
or process design. High heat transfer coefficients shall not be
expected when high fouling factors are used; low heat transfer
coefficients shall not be expected when low fouling factors are
used. The percentage of surface area added as a result of the
fouling factor shall be reviewed.
5.20.1.3 The service overall heat transfer coefficient divided by the clean
overall heat transfer coefficient determines the fraction of surface
required for the heat exchanger to meet the process requirements
when the exchanger is clean. The balance of the surface exists
for fouling. Excessive surface available for fouling can be
expensive, promote fouling, and make the exchanger difficult to
control when it is clean. A review of the clean exchanger
performance is required.
Note: A clean reboiler with low-pressure steam may require a
wide range control valve or low outlet pressure for control.
5.20.2 Fluid Side Selection
When the fluids have not been assigned a side, the following guidelines may
be used to select the fluid side: (Consideration shall be given to the
maintenance, operation, size, and cost.)
5.20.2.1 Favoring Shell Side Fluid Placement
a. More viscous services
b. Lower flow rate service
c. Low available pressure drop
d. Clean service
5.20.2.2 Favoring Tube Side Fluid Placement
a. Cooling water service
b. Slurry service

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c. High-pressure service
d. Higher fouling service
e. Service requiring more expensive materials
5.20.3 Exchanger Configuration
The various configurations have certain advantages and disadvantages with
regard to maintenance, operation, and cost. Selection of the proper
configuration is of prime importance and affects the thermal design
characteristics significantly. The various configurations are defined in
TEMA.
5.20.3.1 Fixed Tubesheet Units
Advantages:
a. Typically lowest cost design
b. No gasketed joint between tube side and shell side fluids
c. Shell side has no gasketed girth joints
d. Can handle temperature crosses with counterflow designs
e. Low circumferential bypass area around the bundle
f. Straight tubes allow mechanical tube side cleaning
Disadvantages:
a. Shell side cannot be mechanically cleaned
b. Limited access for internal shell inspection
c. Limited differential thermal expansion allowed without the use
of an expansion joint
5.20.3.2 U-Tubes
Advantages:
a. Typically lowest cost removable bundle design
b. No thermal expansion problems between shell and tubes
c. Removable bundle for shell side mechanical cleaning
d. Allows for internal shell inspection
e. Low circumferential bypass area
f. For tube side high-alloy and high-pressure, typically lower cost
than fixed tubesheet
g. No gasketed joint between tube side and shell side fluids
Disadvantages:
a. Tube side not easily mechanically cleaned
b. Only tubes at bundle periphery can be easily replaced
c. Can have large pass lane bypass area under certain baffle
arrangements

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d. U-Bends are susceptible to vibration problems, unless properly


supported
5.20.3.3 TEMA Type S (non-pull through floating head)
Advantages:
a. Removable bundle for shell side mechanical cleaning
b. No thermal expansion problems between shell and tubes
c. Straight tubes allow mechanical tube side cleaning
d. Allows for internal shell inspection
Disadvantages:
a. Higher cost
b. Internal gasketed joint
c. Larger circumferential bypass area
d. Labor intensive to pull bundle
5.20.3.4 TEMA Type T (pull through floating head)
Advantages:
a. Removable bundle for shell side mechanical cleaning
b. No thermal expansion problems between shell and tubes
c. Straight tubes allow mechanical tube side cleaning
d. Allows for internal shell inspection
Disadvantages:
a. Highest cost
b. Internal gasketed joint
c. Largest circumferential bypass area around the bundle
5.20.3.5 TEMA Type F (two pass shell)
Use of the TEMA Type F shell requires Users approval.
Consideration shall be given to differential pressure and
temperature across the longitudinal baffle, heat transfer through the
longitudinal baffle, and flow bypassing around the removable
longitudinal baffles.
5.20.4 Flow Arrangement
5.20.4.1 Liquids, in general, are to be arranged in an upward flow direction
in order to facilitate liquid filling without gas pockets. Particulate-
laden liquids, such as boiler water blowdown, may be considered
for a downward flow arrangement to assist in the exhaustion of
solids when velocities warrant such arrangement.
5.20.4.2 Two phase flows, in general, are to have the hot stream
(condensing) flow downward and the cold stream (boiling)

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upward. Exceptions are falling film evaporation and reflux


condensation, which will have downward liquid and upward
vapor flows. Mist flow may warrant flow in either direction.
5.20.4.3 Gases may flow down or up consistent with the Log Mean
Temperature Difference (LMTD) calculation.
5.20.5 Tube Selection
(See Section 5.18.1 for additional information.)
5.20.5.1 Diameter
The preferred tube size for use in heavy tube side fouling (dirty
service) [0.002 hr-ft2-F/BTU (0.0004 hr-m2-C/kcal)] or greater)
is 1 inch (25 mm) OD. For light tube side fouling (clean service),
3/4 inch (19 mm) OD tubes are preferred.
5.20.5.2 Length
Specify commonly used tube lengths, if practical.
5.20.5.3 Recommended Tubewall Thickness

Tube Material Tube Wall Thickness


BWG inches mm
Carbon steel, low-alloy steel, 14* 0.083* 2.1*
aluminum, and aluminum alloys
Copper and copper alloys 16* 0.065* 1.7*
High-alloy steel and other non- 16** 0.065** 1.7**
ferrous materials
Titanium 20** 0.035** 1.2**
BWG = Birmingham Wire Gauge
* = minimum
** = average

5.20.5.4 Enhanced Surface Tubes and Turbulence Promoters


The use of enhanced surface tubes or tube inserts requires an
agreement between the User and the Designer. Enhancements may
be quite effective in one process, but not effective in another.
Designers may offer enhancements as an alternate.
Enhanced surfaces are available in many forms such as low fin,
sintered metal, oval or deformed tubes, or tubes with longitudinal
fins. Inserts are used to promote turbulence. Spiral inserts may also
reduce fouling buildup.
Low fin tubes may be used under the following conditions:
a. Deposition of solid matter on the tube surface from the shell
side stream is not a problem.
b. Tube side inlet temperatures are well above the shell side
stream pour-point temperature.
c. Surface tension will not hold the condensate in the fins.
d. Tube external corrosion is not expected.

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5.20.6 Bundle Design and Tube Layout


5.20.6.1 Tube Layout

5.20.6.1.1 Removable bundle designs and square (or rotated


square) tube pattern shall be considered for dirty shell
side service. (See Section 5.20.1.2.) Cleaning lanes of
1/4 inch (6 mm) minimum are to be maintained
throughout the bundle.

5.20.6.1.2 Triangular pattern can be used for clean shell side


services, independent of whether the bundle is
removable or not. An expanded pitch triangular design
can be used in dirty services only when sufficient
cleaning lanes are provided by the tube layout and
when approved by User.
5.20.6.2 Baffles

5.20.6.2.1 In horizontal exchangers, the horizontal cut (baffle cut


perpendicular to shell nozzle axis) single segmental
baffles are the most commonly used and generally
preferred for single-phase shell side service. In
horizontal exchangers, vertical cut (baffle cut parallel
to shell nozzle axis) baffles may be used to minimize
liquid pooling in two-phase service.

Vertical exchangers shall have baffles cut


perpendicular to the inlet flow path.

To avoid flow-induced tube vibration, the tube field


may be modified to provide no tubes in the baffle
window. Intermediate tube supports may be provided
to further reduce vibration probability.

5.20.6.2.2 Multi-segmental baffles (usually double, occasionally


triple segmental) are used to reduce the shell side
pressure drop.

5.20.6.2.3 Special baffle designs (e.g., rod, disk and donut,


longitudinal, spiral baffles, etc.) require Users
approval.

Baffles utilizing rods are used to reduce shell side


pressure drop and probability of flow-induced tube
vibration.

Longitudinal baffles (TEMA Type F shell) allow the


maximum LMTD correction factor.

De-tuning baffles are used in gas service shell side


when required to prevent acoustic vibration.

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5.20.6.2.4 U-tube bundles: The baffle adjacent to the tube bends


shall be located in the straight portion of the tubes not
more than 2 inches (50 mm) from the tangent line of
the bends.

5.20.6.2.5 Tie rods and spacers: Peripheral tie rods and spacers
for positioning baffles shall be located so that the
outside of the spacers coincides with the outer
periphery of the baffles. The ID of the spacer shall not
be greater than the OD of the tie rod plus 1/8 inch
(3 mm).
5.20.7 Thermal Performance
5.20.7.1 Condensing Heat Transfer
For accurate condenser design, the temperature difference shall be
calculated incrementally. The temperature and heat transfer of the
condensing vapor mixtures will vary with the fraction condensed.
Even with pure components, the condensing temperature will not be
constant if there is significant pressure drop. The effect of delta P on
delta T shall be checked, especially if the overall delta T is small.
For rough calculations, a straight line temperature may be used for
the condensing zone. For final design, the results shall always be
checked using stepwise increments. When the vapor entering a
condenser is superheated (temperature above the dew point) or
when the condensate is subcooled (temperature below the bubble
point), special considerations are required.
If the temperature of the heat transfer surface (tube wall
temperature) encountered is less than the dew point of the vapor, the
vapor will begin to condense on contact and a wet wall condition
will occur. In such cases, a condensing heat transfer coefficient is
used (just as in the case of saturated vapor) and the Mean
Temperature Difference (MTD) is based on the dew point
temperature rather than the superheated vapor temperature.
If the tube wall temperature is greater than the dew point of the
vapor, a dry wall condition occurs. In such cases, the single phase
gas heat transfer coefficient is used and the actual vapor
temperature is used to calculate the MTD for the increment of the
exchanger at dry wall conditions.
Some subcooling of condensate usually occurs in total condensers.
Condensers can sometimes be designed to accommodate subcooling
by flooding a portion of the shell with condensate. However, the
accuracy of predicting subcooling performance is low because the
true liquid level and subcooling MTD are almost impossible to
determine. If required, significant subcooling duty shall be done in a
separate liquid cooler.
5.20.7.2 Water Cooled Services (Cooling Water on Tube Side)

When the cooling water is on the tube side, water velocity


significantly affects the fouling rate, erosion, corrosion, and

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resulting maintenance of installed equipment. The Designer shall


therefore attempt to select an optimal velocity with considerations
given to installed and maintenance cost. The following tabulated
values for minimum and maximum velocities and maximum tube
wall temperature provide accepted practical limitations. Site-
specific water quality and treatment practices may justify deviations
from these limits.
Minimum Velocity Ft/sec (m/sec)
Material CTW Closed Brackish Raw Seawater
loop surface
Ferrous 5 (1.5)* 3 (0.9) --- --- ---
Nonferrous 5 (1.5)* 3 (0.9) 4 (1.2) 5 (1.5) 5 (1.5)
* Lower minimum velocities may be necessary in some cases due to
hydraulic limitations. Consideration shall be given to the water quality and
higher fouling factors for these cases.

Maximum Velocity Ft/sec


Material CTW Closed Brackish Raw Seawater
loop surface
Ferrous 10 (3) 16 (4.9) --- --- ---
Admiralty 8 (2.4) --- --- --- ---
Al-Brass 8 (2.4) --- 6 (1.8) --- ---
Cupro- 12 (3.7) --- 7 (2.1) 7 (2.1) 7 (2.1)
Nickel
Aust. SS --- 16 (4.9) --- --- ---
Monel 16 (4.9) 16 (4.9) 14 (4.3) 14 (4.3) 14 (4.3)
Titanium 16 (4.9) 16 (4.9) 16(4.9) 16 (4.9) 16 (4.9)

Maximum Contacted* Metal Surface Temperature, F (C)


Material CTW Closed Brackish Raw Seawater
loop surface
All 140 (60) No Limit 140 (60) 120 (49) 140 (60)
Material
* Beneath any fouling layer on the waterside when there is no fouling on the
hot side.

Blanks in the above tables indicate that the listed material is


generally not specified for the application.
5.20.8 Hydraulic Performance
The requirement for thermal design described in Section 5.20 also applies to
the hydraulic design.

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The User and the Designer shall agree on the pressure drop design factors.
Pressure drop considerations include:
a. Mill tolerance of tubes
b. Fouling build up on tube side and shell side
c. Piping between exchangers in series
d. Piping for thermosyphon reboilers
5.20.9 Vibration
The Designer shall include a check for flow-induced tube vibration. The
method of vibration analysis shall be acceptable to the User. The vibration
analysis shall consider, as a minimum, vortex shedding, fluid elastic
instability, turbulence excitation (buffeting), and acoustic resonance.
Generally, the natural frequency (or harmonics) of the tubes shall not be
within 20% of the predicted flow vibration frequency produced by any
excitation mode, unless the vibration amplitude is within accepted practices.

6. Materials

6.1 General
The cost of heating the test fluid for shop or future field hydrostatic tests (so that the
temperature of the pressure-resisting components is MDMT plus 30F (17C) during
the test) shall be a consideration when selecting the materials of construction and the
associated MDMT to be stamped on the heat exchanger.

6.2 Source of Materials


If the User restricts sources of fabrication materials, the prospective manufacturers
must be informed at the time of bidding. Some reasons for restrictions may include
but are not limited to:
a. Maintenance of a specific alloy composition
b. Compliance with government requirements
c. Compatibility with existing equipment
d. Compliance with User procurement policies

6.3 Dual (Multiple) Marked Materials


ASME guidelines for dual or multiple marking of materials are given in Appendix 7
of Section II Part D of the Code. Under these ASME guidelines, dual or multiple
marking signifies that the material so marked meets all of the requirements of all of
the specifications, grades, classes, and types with which it is marked. Therefore, this
means, for example, that the allowable stress values given in Section II Part D of the
BPV Code for a regular grade of Type 304 stainless steel plate may be used in design
for SA-240 plate material with a dual marking of 304/304L. By the same standard,
the rating for an SA-182 GR F304 B16.5 flange may be used when it is dual marked
SA-182 GR F304/F304L. However, the following requirements apply for dual-
marked materials and Standard pressure parts that comply with Code requirements
(e.g., flanges and pipe fittings per UG-44):

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6.3.1 Care must be taken to comply with the temperature limitations for the
material. (See applicable General Notes to the allowable stress tables in
Section II, Part D, Notes in Table 2 of B16.5, etc.)
6.3.2 When using only one set of allowable stress values for the dual-marked
Grade designation, the material listed on the Manufacturer's Data Report
Forms shall be the material grade chosen from the allowable stress or ratings
tables. For example, if the allowable stresses for SA-240 Type 304 are used
in design for the shell and heads, the material listed in the Manufacturer's
Data Report Form shall be SA-240 Type 304. However, a note in the
Remarks section of the Manufacturers Data Report Form may contain the
phrase: The shell and head material meet all of the requirements of SA-240-
304 and SA-240-304L. (See Code Interpretation VIII-1-92-166.) By the
same standard, this same material information must be included on the Data
sheet and/or drawings covering the pressure parts involved, as appropriate,
since this is the source of the information used by the Manufacturer.

6.4 Corrosion/Erosion Allowance


6.4.1 Basis
The required design life shall be based on written agreement between User
and designer. Allowances specified by the Designer shall be based on need
and can best be determined by past experience in similar operating
environments. If no past experience is available, such as with a new process,
a materials engineer shall examine the process and make judgment on the
expected corrosion rate. Corrosion allowance shall not be arbitrary; rather, it
shall be compatible with design life requirements.
6.4.2 Corrosion Loss
Additional metal thickness must be added to compensate for anticipated loss
due to metal reacting with the environments to which it is subjected
(including cleaning operations, shutdowns, etc.).
6.4.2.1 Internal corrosion loss due to the process conditions affects all
pressure-containing parts. Internal structural parts may experience
corrosion loss on more than one surface. Bolted parts are
frequently constructed of different materials and need to be
assessed separately.
6.4.2.2 External corrosion may result from exposure of bare metal to the
atmosphere, especially in coastal areas and under insulation. Other
equipment operating nearby may influence corrosion (e.g., cooling
towers).
6.4.3 Erosion Loss
Additional metal thickness must be added in specific locations where metal
loss is expected due to stream flow that is of high velocity or abrasive for any
reason. Erosion loss usually occurs within a definable area, and
compensation can be made as follows:
a. Weld overlay of the area with the intent that the overlay is sacrificial

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b. Addition of a welded wear plate with the intent that the plate is sacrificial
Note: Use caution when using this method in hydrogen service.
c. Internal refractory linings, if appropriate
d. Increase of inlet nozzle size

6.5 Protection of Austenitic Stainless Steel Equipment from Stress


Corrosion Cracking
Insulated austenitic stainless steel equipment that is susceptible to atmospheric
chloride stress corrosion cracking shall be protected by a suitable external protective
coating.

6.6 Gaskets
Gaskets specified in the purchase order or on the drawings/data sheet shall be
supplied by the Manufacturer unless otherwise specifically noted. For test gaskets,
see Section 8.3.8; for spare gaskets, see Section 9.2.2.

7. Fabrication

7.1 General
7.1.1 Tolerances
All equipment shall meet the manufacturing tolerances as shown in the
purchase order or on the drawings. Tolerances on fabricated equipment as
shown on PIP VEFV1102 shall apply to the completed heat exchanger after
pressure test.
7.1.2 Machining shall be performed after welding or heat treatment if such
operations change machined surface characteristics or geometry (e.g., flange
face flatness).
7.1.3 When forming any austenitic stainless or nonferrous plate, care shall be taken
to prevent carbon pickup or contamination of formed material.
7.1.4 Only stainless steel brushes and clean, iron-free sand, ceramic or stainless
steel grit shall be used for cleaning stainless steel and non-ferrous surfaces.
Cleaning tools or materials shall not have been previously used on carbon
steel.
7.1.5 Prevention of Stress Raisers in Impact Tested Materials
Special care shall be taken to prevent stress raisers which might cause low
impact strength due to notch effect or abrupt change in section. Welders and
welding operators symbols and reference lines may be stamped on the
material in accordance with the provisions of Code Paragraph UW-37
{AF-235}, provided that a round-nose stamp is employed and the symbol is
located at least 1 inch from the edge of the weld.
7.1.6 Cutting of Stainless Steel
The cutting of stainless steel shall be by mechanical methods; i.e., shearing,
sawing, or machining. If required by special exception, the cutting is done by
any thermal process (such as plasma arc or air arc), an allowance shall be

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made for the removal of not less than 1/8 (3 mm) of metal (e.g., (6 mm)
in the diameter of an opening) by machining or grinding to the finished
dimension.
7.1.7 Materials that may cause corrosive attack when the heat exchanger part is
heated shall not be used, including:
a. Marking inks (containing halogens)
b. Lubricants
c. Crayons
d. Adhesives, except as required in Appendix E
e. Tapes (e.g., duct tape)
f. Coatings to prevent adhesion of weld spatter
g. Paints containing sulfur
h. Chlorine compounds (which will decompose to hydrogen chloride)
i. Carbon
j. Harmful metal or metal salts such as zinc, lead, or copper

7.2 Shells and Heads


7.2.1 Longitudinal joints of adjacent shell courses (including skirts) shall have a
minimum offset of not less than 5 times the plate thickness or 6 inches
(150 mm) whichever is greater.
7.2.2 Plate layouts shall be arranged so that longitudinal and circumferential weld
seams clear all nozzles, manways, and their reinforcing pads by 2 inches
(50 mm) minimum, measured from weld edge to weld edge.
7.2.3 The layout of seams shall be, to the maximum extent possible, such that the
longitudinal seams are not behind any obstruction that prevents inspection of
these welds.
7.2.4 When the requirement of 7.2.2 and 7.2.3 cannot be met, the subject seam
shall be ground flush and radiographically examined before welding the
nozzle. The seam shall be radiographed per Code Paragraph UW-51 {Table
AF-241, Article I-5} as required in Code Paragraph UW-14 {AD-502}.
7.2.5 Seams in Formed Heads
The flat plate from which formed heads are made shall be either seamless or
made equivalent to seamless in which all Category A welds are Type (1) and
fully radiographed per Code Paragraph UW-51 before forming. Any welds
shall be ground flush with the plate surfaces prior to forming. After forming,
the spin hole, if it remains in the final construction, shall be repaired with a
metal plug which is butt-welded in place with the weld meeting the above
Category A weld joint requirements.

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7.3 Nozzles, Manways, and Flanges


7.3.1 Bolt holes in all fixed flanges and studding outlets shall straddle the natural
centerlines. For nozzles in heads, the bolt holes shall straddle centerlines
parallel to, or coincident with, the natural heat exchanger centerlines.
7.3.2 All inside nozzle neck edges shall be rounded to 1/8 inch (3 mm) minimum
radius. Nozzles for pressure relief devices and for drainage shall be flush
with the inside wall of the shell or head.
7.3.3 Nozzle reinforcing pads shall be external and, when constructed in segments,
shall have the segments joined with full penetration butt welds, the location
of which shall be at least 45 degrees from the longitudinal axis of the heat
exchanger (see Code Figure UG-37 {Figure AD-520.1}). Each pad segment
shall have one American Standard Taper Pipe Thread (NPT) 1/4 inch (6 mm)
telltale hole for testing purposes. Holes shall be located as low as possible
with the heat exchanger in its operating position to promote drainage.
7.3.4 Nozzle reinforcing pads and all attachment pads, if not circular, shall have
rounded corners of 2 inches (50 mm) minimum radius.
7.3.5 Nozzles supporting other mechanical equipment shall be suitably reinforced
to withstand the mechanical loadings specified by the device manufacturer
and approval by User. Dynamic loading shall be evaluated for an infinite
number of stress reversals using a stress concentration factor K = 5 for as
welded or K = 3.5 for contoured and blend ground nozzle attachment welds,
where K is defined per ASME Section VIII Div 2 Figure 4-130.1. Use of
heavier nozzle necks, conventional reinforcing pads with properly contoured
fillet welds, and formed heads of appropriate stiffness are the elements that
result in a design suitable for an infinite number of cycles. Nozzles for
pressure relief devices shall be designed and reinforced for thrust reaction.
Gussets shall not be used to strengthen, stiffen, or reinforce nozzles, unless
demonstrated by calculations to be suitable for the specified cyclic life or
thermal condition.
For such nozzles, consideration shall be given to the dimensional
requirements of the device as supplied by the device manufacturer
(e.g., tolerances).
7.3.6 For heat exchangers supported by a skirt, the flange of any nozzle in the
bottom head shall be located outside the skirt.
7.3.7 Nozzles (including attached piping) within or passing through heat exchanger
support skirts shall be adequately supported for the operating conditions and
for protection during shipping and handling. Differential thermal expansion
between the skirt and nozzle in both the vertical and horizontal directions
shall be considered.
7.3.8 For all flanges (except ASME B16.5 and B16.47 flanges) and shop-
fabricated lap rings, the gasket contact surface flatness tolerance, in both the
radial and circumferential directions, shall be 0.006 inch (0.150 mm) total
indicator reading. Measurement shall be made by a dial indicator after all
other operations have been completed with regard to the fabrication and heat
treatment of the flange or lap ring and its attachment to the shell or nozzle

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neck that can affect flatness tolerance. The total circumferential tolerance
shall not occur in less than 20 degrees arc.
7.3.9 For corrosive service, splice welds on gasket contact surfaces of a lap ring or
flange are permitted only by agreement with the User.

7.4 Temporary Welded Attachments


7.4.1 Attachment point of spiders, braces or other temporary attachments shall be
of the same material alloy as the point on the heat exchanger to which it is
attached.
7.4.2 All temporary attachments shall be removed prior to hydrotest.
7.4.3 Temporary attachments shall be removed flush with the heat exchanger shell
and nondestructively examined Magnetic Particle Examination (MT) or Dye
Penetrant Examination (PT), in addition to visual examination, to ensure no
cracks have been generated.
7.4.4 Temporary welds shall be made in accordance with Section 7.5.

7.5 Welding
7.5.1 All welds, including those for nonpressure parts and attachments (including
temporary attachments and shipping attachments), shall be made by welders,
welding operators, and welding procedures qualified under the provisions of
Code Section IX. Welds shall meet the supplementary provisions of the
Code, plus recognized and generally accepted good welding practices
(including, but not limited to, the use of clean and dry materials, good
techniques, and the proper chemistry).
7.5.2 Unless otherwise specified, the welding consumables used in the fabrication
of the heat exchanger and its components shall be of the same nominal
chemistry as the base metal and shall have material properties, e.g. tensile
strength, yield strength, etc., not less than the minimum requirements for the
base metal at both ambient and design temperature.
7.5.3 Shielded metal arc electrodes used for pressure-retaining welds shall be of
the low-hydrogen type. Use of higher strength weld materials for all welding
processes is prohibited except as specifically approved in writing by the
User.
7.5.4 Welding Procedure Specification, Procedure Qualification Record, and
Welder Performance Qualification is required for review and approval prior
to start of fabrication. The responsibility for welding shall be part of the
overall construction responsibility of the Manufacturer.
7.5.5 A detailed weld map shall be provided, along with the welding procedures
and fabrication drawings, to the User for review and approval. The weld map
shall include, as a minimum, a sketch of all weld joints, welding symbols
used (per AWS A2.4), and associated weld procedure numbers.
7.5.6 Pressure boundary butt-weld seams shall be in accordance with Type No. 1
of Code Table UW-12 {Table AF-241.1} (i.e., butt joints as attained by
double-welding or by other means that will obtain the same quality of
deposited weld metal on the inside and outside weld surfaces to agree with

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the requirements of Code Paragraph UW-35 {AF-221}). Welds using


permanent metal backing strips are not permitted. Butt-weld seams shall be
accessible for examination, inspection, and/or repair with welded
attachments in place. For joints inaccessible from the inside, the
Manufacturer shall submit an alternative method for obtaining a full
penetration and full fusion weld from one side. (Refer to the Welded Pressure
Joint Requirements Form in Appendix B {not Div 2 applicable}.)
7.5.7 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) shall be used only in the spray transfer
range. Pulse arc is considered spray transfer. The short arc transfer mode is
acceptable for carbon steel materials up to and including 3/16 (5 mm) thick
and for the root pass in carbon steel material of any thickness.
7.5.8 Where weld overlay is specified, the deposited weld overlay shall have a
composition that corresponds to that of the composition and depth specified
on the Data Sheet.

7.6 Post Weld Heat Treatment


7.6.1 Heat exchangers shall be postweld heat treated per applicable sections of the
Code in accordance with material specifications or when specified by the
User due to service such as ammonia, caustics, amines, or wet hydrogen
sulfide. Requirements for PWHT of carbon and low-alloy steels are provided
in Table UCS-56 {AF-402.1} of the Code. Alternative PWHT requirements
of Code Table UCS 56.1 {AF-402.2}, Alternative Postweld Heat Treatment
Requirements for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels, shall not be employed,
unless when required to prevent distortion of material or for cladded heat
exchangers construction.
7.6.2 Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) of test specimens shall be in accordance
with Code requirements. PWHT shall include one extra PWHT cycle for
potential future field repair as specified by the Designer on the Data Sheet.
7.6.3 Where PWHT is required, PWHT shall be performed after all welding
(including repairs) and nondestructive examination is completed, but prior to
any hydrotest or other load test.
7.6.4 Furnaces used for PWHT shall be constructed so as to prevent flame
impingement on the work.
7.6.5 A sufficient number of thermocouples (attached directly to the unit being
heat-treated) shall be used to accurately indicate the temperature of the work
and detect uneven heating.
7.6.6 The equipment shall be adequately supported during the PWHT to avoid
distortion.
7.6.7 Pressure parts made of austenitic stainless steel, if hot formed, shall be
solution annealed between 1850F (1010C) and 2050F (1120C) followed
by rapid cooling through the sensitization range. Stabilized grades or ELC
grades with 0.035% carbon max will not require solution annealing.

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February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

8. Examination, Inspection and Testing

8.1 Examination
8.1.1 Welded Pressure Joint Requirements
Consistent with the service-specific needs of each heat exchanger,
consideration must be given to the type of welded pressure joints to be
furnished in the pressure-boundary components. Consideration shall also be
given to the type/degree of nondestructive examination to be applied to these
joints. (See Users responsibilities under the Code as outlined in the Code
Foreword. See also Code Paragraph U-2(a).) As a minimum, specific Code
requirements must be met. In order to provide a means of communicating the
requirements to the prospective manufacturers in a manner that is not open to
dispute, the Code has provided the Welded Joint Category system in Code
Paragraph UW-3. A Welded Pressure Joint Requirements Form for
documenting and transmitting the needed information for each welded joint
category (location) is included in Appendix B. Notes A through C of the
Nondestructive Examination Notes (Page 2 of the Form) are standard
examination notes that may be selected by the User. The remaining options
or User-defined options may be added as appropriate.
8.1.2 The welded pressure joint requirements are to be selected consistent with
service-specific needs; however, the following shall apply as a minimum:
8.1.2.1 Welded joints of Categories A, B, and, when used, butt-type
Categories C and D shall be Type No. 1 of Code Table UW-12.
Note that this excludes the use of permanent weld joint backing
strips and the use of butt welds with one plate offset [Code Figure
UW-13.1(k)]. (See Section 8.1.2.3.)
8.1.2.2 Non-butt joints that connect nozzles (including manways and
couplings) to the heat exchanger wall (Code Category D joints)
shall be full penetration welds through the heat exchanger wall and
through the inside edge of reinforcing plates, when used. Nozzle
necks designated to extend beyond the inside surface of the heat
exchanger wall shall have a fillet weld at the inside corner.
8.1.2.3 {Not Division 2 Applicable} The minimum degree of examination
of welded butt joints shall be spot radiography per Code Paragraph
UW-52. In applying the rules of Code Paragraph UW-52, the
increments of weld shall be selected so as to include all Category
A, B, and C butt welds, except Category B or C butt welds in
nozzles and communicating chambers that exceed neither NPS 10
(DN 250) nor 1-1/8 inches (29 mm) wall thickness.
8.1.2.4 Use Appendix B to specify the welded pressure joint type and
associated nondestructive examination requirements.
8.1.2.5 Tubesheet-to-shell (or channel) weld joints shall be any full
penetration weld permitted by Code Figure UW-13.2 or Figure
UW 13.3, except as follows:

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PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

8.1.2.5.1 Weld joints that employ a permanent backing strip are


not permitted.

8.1.2.5.2 To avoid the potential for crevices generated during


fabrication, Code Figures UW-13.2 (d), (e-2) and (i)
are not permitted.

8.1.2.5.3 Exchangers having any of the following design


conditions shall employ tubesheet-to-shell (or channel)
weld joints per Code Figures UW-13.2 (a), (f) or (k),
or Figure UW-13.3:

a. Tube side MAWP exceeding 600 psig (4 MPa)

b. Shell side MAWP exceeding 1000 psig (6.9 MPa)

c. MDMT colder than minus 20F (29C)

d. High-alloy tubesheet and adjoining shell (or


channel) with the weld joint exposed to the
process fluid

e. Shell (or channel) inside diameter (ID) larger than


48 inches (1200 mm) with carbon steel, low-alloy
steel, or clad steel tubesheet material; or larger
than 30 inches (760 mm) with high-alloy or
nonferrous tubesheet material
8.1.2.6 For the purpose of determining required tubesheet-to-shell (or
channel) weld sizes in accordance with Code requirements, a fixed
tubesheet shall be considered supported (not less than 80% of the
pressure load is carried by the tubes) if:
[(AtEt)/(AsEs)] 4.0
Where:
At = Total cross-sectional metal area of tubes, sq. in.
(sq. mm)
Et = Modulus of Elasticity of tube material at mean metal
temperature, psi (KPa)
As = Cross-sectional metal area of shell based on actual
thickness less corrosion allowance, sq. in. (sq. mm)
Es = Modulus of Elasticity of shell material at mean metal
temperature, psi (KPa)
8.1.3 The extent of examination and special documentation, over and above the
minimum requirements of the Code, will be specified in the purchase
documents. All specified nondestructive examination, including that for
non-pressure parts and attachments, shall be performed per Code methods.
8.1.4 Welded joints that will be inaccessible after assembly shall be examined by
PT and repaired as required, prior to painting, assembly, and testing, as
follows:

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February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

8.1.4.1 Examine the root pass and its opposite side after back-chipping to
sound metal.
8.1.4.2 After any required machining or grinding, examine the finished
surfaces of the weld with the following additional requirement: all
indications on the finished weld surfaces shall be removed by
grinding or welding prior to the required pressure test.
8.1.5 If an examination reveals an unacceptable imperfection, the imperfection
shall be repaired, and the repair shall, as a minimum, be examined by the
same method, to the same extent, and by the same acceptance criteria that
revealed the condition.
8.1.6 Magnetic Particle and Liquid Penetrant Examination
Examine the following by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination:
8.1.6.1 Categories A and B, and Categories C and D butt-type joints which
exceed 2 inches (50 mm) in thickness, as follows:
a. After back-chipping or gouging root pass to sound metal,
examine the back-chipped or gouged surface.
b. All accessible surfaces of completed weld
8.1.6.2 Category C and D non-butt type joints, including those in nozzles
and communicating chambers, when the heat exchanger section
and/or head is designed on the basis of a joint efficiency of 1.00 as
follows:
a. After back-chipping or gouging root pass to sound metal,
examine the back-chipped or gouged surface.
b. All accessible surfaces of completed weld
8.1.6.3 The cut edge of openings in heat exchanger walls thicker than
1/2-inch (13 mm) into which nozzles and communicating chambers
are attached with a full penetration weld through the nozzle or
communicating chamber wall. The examination shall be made
before nozzle attachment, and a re-examination made after
attachment when accessible.
8.1.6.4 All accessible surfaces of completed weld
a. Welds (internal and external) when the thickness of the
pressure part exceeds 2 inches (50 mm)
b. Welds attaching vertical heat exchanger supports (e.g., skirts,
lugs, legs, etc.)
c. Welds attaching heat exchanger lifting (erection) lugs
d. Welds attaching manway davits
8.2 Inspection
8.2.1 If inspection by the Purchaser is specified in the purchase order, the
Purchasers quality assurance representative will contact the Manufacturer to
schedule inspection visits. The Manufacturer shall notify the Purchasers

Process Industry Practices Page 53 of 57


PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

Quality Assurance Organization at least five working days before an


inspection is required. Appendix A, or equivalent form, shall be utilized by
the Designer to convey inspection and associated documentation
requirements.
8.2.2 The Manufacturer shall make a complete set of fabrication drawings
reflecting all purchaser's comments available to the Purchasers Quality
Assurance Representative at the time quality surveillance activities are being
conducted.
8.2.3 If major components or services are obtained from sub-suppliers, the
Purchasers Quality Assurance Representative shall be notified and given the
option of inspecting those items at their point of manufacture. The
Manufacturer is responsible for including the Purchasers quality
surveillance and notification requirements in suborders. The Manufacturer is
also responsible for arranging for certified drawings for use by the
Purchasers representative at the sub-suppliers location.
8.2.4 The Manufacturer retains overall responsibility for ensuring, either directly
or through sub-suppliers, that the inspections necessary for conformance to
the purchase specifications are conducted. The performance of quality
surveillance by the Users representative does not relieve the Manufacturer
or sub-suppliers of responsibility for meeting the specification requirements.

8.3 Pressure Testing - General


All new heat exchangers shall be pressure tested prior to being placed in service. The
following paragraphs provide guidance and references to design and execution
considerations relative to hydrostatic and pneumatic pressure testing.

8.3.1 Heat exchangers shall not be painted or controlled shot peened prior to the
Code pressure test, with the following exceptions:
8.3.1.1 Surfaces that are required to be painted and which will be
inaccessible after assembly (e.g., mating surfaces of lap-joint stub
ends, flanges and nozzle necks, flange bolt holes, welded joints, etc.)
shall be painted prior to assembly and pressure testing.
8.3.1.2 Welded joints that will be inaccessible after assembly (e.g., joints
covered by lap-type flanges) shall be examined by PT and repaired
as required, prior to painting, assembly, and pressure testing (see
Section 8.1.4).
8.3.2 The test pressure shall be measured at the high point of the heat exchanger in
the test position.
8.3.3 All welds shall be sufficiently cleaned and free of scale or paint prior to
pressure testing to permit proper examination for defects.
8.3.4 The Manufacturer shall provide all facilities and materials, such as blinds,
bolting, and gaskets.
8.3.5 Except for leakage that might occur at temporary closures for those openings
intended for welded connections, leakage is not allowed at the time of the
required inspection. Leakage from temporary seals shall be directed away so
as to avoid masking leaks from other joints.

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February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

8.3.6 If field assembly erection is involved the final pressure test shall be on the
Users site. The Manufacturer shall provide the Purchaser a detailed test
procedure for review prior to testing.
8.3.7 No welding, burning or grinding (including cosmetic grinding of pressure
resisting welds) shall be performed on heat exchangers that have been
pressure tested unless approved by the User. This includes but is not limited
to welds for shipping attachments, refractory or insulation clips, stiffeners,
spiders, or grinding for surface preparation.
8.3.8 The use of service gaskets for test purposes shall be as follows:
8.3.8.1 Any flanged joint for which the service gasket is to be furnished by
the Manufacturer and which will not be disassembled after testing
shall be tested with the specified service gasket.
8.3.8.2 If the joint is to be disassembled after testing and employs flanges
per ASME B16.5, the test gasket may be selected by the
Manufacturer.
8.3.8.3 If the joint is to be disassembled after testing, employs nonstandard
flanges (other than ASME B16.5), and the service gasket is not
specified, the test gasket shall be approved by the Purchaser.
8.3.9 No joint sealing compound or gasket lubricant shall be used unless specified
for the service condition.
8.3.10 Flanged joint assemblies specified to be furnished with service gaskets
(e.g., main body flange joints, manways, blind flange nozzles) and which are
disassembled following tests shall be reassembled using new service gaskets.
If such joints are shipped unassembled new service gaskets for field
installation shall be suitably packaged, marked, and shipped with the heat
exchanger. (See Section 9.2.2.)
8.3.11 Reinforcing pad attachment welds and accessible surfaces of inside nozzle to
heat exchanger wall welds shall be tested for the absence of leaks with a
gauge pressure of 15 psig (100 KPa) dry air or nitrogen and bubble forming
solution. This test shall be prior to the final hydrostatic or pneumatic test as
applicable.
8.3.12 Flanged joints shall be assembled using controlled torque in accordance with
the provisions of ASME PCC-1.

8.4 Hydrostatic Test


8.4.1 UG-99 Standard Hydrostatic Test
All provisions of this Code paragraph must be met when the hydrostatic test
is employed. Paragraph UG-99(b) {AT-302}, including footnote 34 {Not
Division 2 Applicable}, shall be considered to be the standard hydrostatic
test. The test pressure or applicable Code paragraph number shall be
specified on the Data Sheet.
8.4.2 Horizontal Heat exchangers
Heat exchanger designed to support a full weight load of water shall be tested
while resting on its support saddles, without additional supports or cribbing.

Process Industry Practices Page 55 of 57


PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

8.4.3 Vertical Heat exchangers


8.4.3.1 Short vertical heat exchangers may be shop-tested in the erected
position, depending on their height and the shop capability.
8.4.3.2 Vertical heat exchangers being tested in the erected position,
whether shop or field, shall have consideration given to the
additional pressure and weight due to the fluid head. (See
Section 5.3.2.)
8.4.4 Test Temperature
8.4.4.1 Before application of the test pressure, the test water and heat
exchanger material shall be allowed to equalize to approximately the
same temperature.
8.4.4.2 The temperature of the pressure resisting components during the
pressure test, regardless of test media, shall be a least 30F (17C)
warmer than the minimum design metal temperature to be stamped
on the nameplate, but need not exceed 120F (50C).

8.5 Pneumatic Test


8.5.1 Pneumatic testing presents hazards that require strict attention as part of the
engineering design of the heat exchanger to ensure personnel safety. These
considerations include, but are not limited to, the following:
8.5.1.1 The heat exchangers shall be constructed of materials that ensure
fracture toughness during the test.
8.5.1.2 Additional nondestructive examination may be required of main
seams, nozzle attachments, and some structural attachments (see
UW-50). All such nondestructive examination shall be performed in
accordance with Code methods and acceptance criteria.
8.5.2 Pneumatic testing, when required in the field on the Users site shall be so
stated in the purchase specification.
8.5.3 The detailed procedure for pneumatic testing shall be submitted in writing by
the Manufacturer for the Users written approval.
8.5.4 When required by the Purchaser, procedures for acoustic emission
monitoring of the pneumatic test shall be submitted for approval prior to
testing.

9. Preparation for Shipment

9.1 Cleaning, Painting, and Marking


9.1.1 Before shipping, the heat exchanger shall be thoroughly cleaned inside and
outside. Grit, scale, oil, grease, weld rod stub ends, sand, water, free
moisture, and all other foreign material shall be removed from the heat
exchanger. Painting shall be complete as required by the purchase
specification. (See Section 8.3.6.)

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February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

9.1.2 All PWHT heat exchangers shall have the following notice painted on two
sides of the shell and insulation covering, if present, in three-inch high letters
visible in the shipping position from grade:
POSTWELD HEAT TREATED - DO NOT BURN OR WELD
9.1.3 All heat exchangers with non-metallic linings shall have the following notice
painted on two sides of the shell and insulation covering, if present, in three-
inch high letters visible in the shipping position from grade:
LINED VESSEL - DO NOT BURN OR WELD

9.2 Preparation and Closure


9.2.1 Machined surfaces, flange faces, threaded surfaces, and other finished or
delicate parts shall be well-greased and protected against rusting and damage
during shipment. Telltale holes (see paragraph 7.2.5) in reinforcing pads shall
be plugged with Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV) silicone sealer or
rust preventative grease.
9.2.2 For flanged joints specified to be furnished with service gaskets, a spare
gasket (in addition to any required for initial field assembly in Section
8.3.10) shall be furnished and suitably packaged, marked, and shipped with
the heat exchanger for the following joints: flanged joints having other than
ASME B16.5 flanges with other than commercially available sheet or
laminate gaskets. Unless otherwise specified, one set of unused service
gaskets shall be furnished by the Manufacturer for non-ANSI body flanges
and other non-standard flanges. Service gaskets used for testing shall be left
installed for all blind flanged connections.
9.2.3 Blind flanged connections, including manways, shall have the blinds attached
with a full complement of new bolts.
9.2.4 All flange faces other than those furnished with permanent blinds shall be
covered with 1/2 inch (13 mm) thick wood or 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick suitable
metal plate, no smaller than the flange OD and secured with a minimum 25%
complement of (but no fewer than 4) bolts.
9.2.5 Welding stub ends shall be provided with bevel protecting caps.
9.2.6 Internals which cannot be safely shipped in place shall be identified, tagged,
and shipped separately. For those internals which have specified clearances
or tolerances, the Manufacturer shall trial assemble at least one of each type
(e.g., tray type or distributor type) into the heat exchanger to ensure proper fit
prior to shipment.
9.2.7 All bolting and other loose parts shall be suitably packaged and identified to
the purchase order. Uncoated bolts and nuts shall be coated with a suitable
thread lubricant to prevent corrosion during transportation and storage. The
lubricant shall be easily removable with mineral spirits or a solvent.

Process Industry Practices Page 57 of 57


Appendices
Appendix A General Considerations for Pressure Relief Valve Application
Appendix B Welded Pressure Joint Requirements Form
Appendix C Equivalent Pressure Formulas for Bending Moment and Axial Tensile Load
Appendix D Documentation Schedule and Manufacturers Data Package
Appendix E Manufacturers Drawing Information
Appendix F Quality Overview Plan for Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2 Heat Exchangers
Appendix G Minimum Clearance of Nozzle Adjacent to Tubesheet
Appendix A

General Considerations
for
Pressure Relief Valve Application
PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

General Considerations for Pressure Relief Valve Application

A general comparison of operational characteristics is given for the different types of pressure relief
valves in common industrial use. The influence on operating margin, from set pressure, is
considered.

Operational characteristics of direct spring-operated and pilot-operated pressure relief valves


should be known by the User as well as the Designer. Direct spring and pilot-operated relief
valves are available for use on applications that must meet Code requirements. The approximate
reseating pressure for direct spring-operated valves is 93% of the set pressure in gas or vapor
service and 85% of set pressure for National Board tested safety relief valves in liquid service.
Many older liquid service safety valves, requiring 25% overpressure to be full open, have a
reseating pressure as low as 70% of the set pressure. The reseating pressure for pilot-operated
valves is typically specified in the same range as the direct spring valves. However, the reseating
pressure of pilot-operated valves can be lowered to a value slightly above atmospheric by adding
a manual blowdown connection which can be operated either locally or remotely. Pilot-operated
valves are used in this fashion as remote, manual, emergency, blowdown valves. The versatile
pilot-operated valve has some significant application limitations. Pilot-operated pressure relief
valves are supplied with filters to protect against foreign matter and are generally recommended
for relatively clean service. A summary detailing when, and when not, to use pilot-operated valves
is given below.

USE DO NOT USE


Clean gas or vapor service Corrosion of wetted part is possible
Clean liquid service Polymerization process
Coking service
Abrasive or dirty service
Freezing of contents at ambient temperature is
possible

The point where leakage begins to be a concern when using direct spring-operated valves
depends on the disk seat design. Metal-to-metal contact seats will begin to leak at about 90% of
set pressure. O-ring soft seat disk type direct spring-operated valves will not leak below 95% of
set pressure. Pilot-operated valves will not leak below 98% of set pressure. The recommended
maximum equipment operating pressure is slightly below, but many times considered to be equal
to, the start-to-leak limit for the valve.

Page A-2 Process Industry Practices


Appendix B

Welded Pressure
Joint Requirements Form
PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

Welded Pressure Joint Requirements


DESIGN BASIS
SHELL THICKNESS BASED ON: DISHED HEAD THICKNESS BASED ON:
JOINT EFFICIENCY E = _________(SHELL) JOINT EFFICIENCY E = _________(SHELL)
JOINT EFFICIENCY E = _________(CHANNEL) JOINT EFFICIENCY E = _________(CHANNEL)

WELDED PRESSURE JOINT REQUIREMENTS


JOINT LOCATION TYPE OF JOINT NDE
PARAGRAPH UW-3 (SEE LETTERED NOTES)

CATEGORY A (SEE NOTE 5) TYPE NO. (1) OF TABLE UW-12

SHELL HEAD-TO-SHELL
CATEGORY B TYPE NO. (1) OF TABLE UW-12
SIDE OTHER

CATEGORY C TUBESHEETS FIGURE UW-13.2

NOZZLE FLANGES FIGURE 2-4

CATEGORY D SEE GENERAL NOTE (6)

CATEGORY A (SEE NOTE 5) TYPE NO. (1) OF TABLE UW-12

TUBE HEAD-TO-CHANNEL
CATEGORY B TYPE NO. (1) OF TABLE UW-12
SIDE OTHER

CATEGORY C

BODY FLANGES FIGURE 2-4

NOZZLE FLANGES FIGURE 2-4

CATEGORY D SEE GENERAL NOTE (6)

GENERAL NOTES:
1) Unless otherwise indicated, all references on this form are to ASME Code paragraphs, tables, and figures. All nondestructive examination
shall be performed per Code methods.
2) Joints supplied shall be either detailed or identified by use of standard AWS welding symbols on the heat exchanger Manufacturer's
drawings.
3) Permanent weld joint backing strips are not permitted.
4) Separate internal nozzle reinforcing plates are not permitted.
5) The flat plate from which formed heads are to be made shall be either seamless or made equivalent to seamless in which all Category A
welds are Type (1) and fully radiographed per UW51 before forming. After forming, the spin hole, if it remains in the final construction, shall be
closed with a metal plug which is butt-welded in place with the weld meeting the Category A weld joint requirements shown in the table.
6) Category D welds shall be per Figure UW-16.1 using full penetration welds through the heat exchanger wall and through inside edge of
external reinforcing plates, when used. Nozzle necks designated to extend beyond the inside surface of the heat exchanger wall shall have a
fillet weld at the inside corner.

WELDED PRESSURE
JOINT REQUIREMENTS
ITEM NUMBER: ____________________________________ SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

HEAT EXCHANGER ASSEMBLY DWG.: DRAWN BY CHECKED BY DATE DRAWING NUMBER


__________________________

PAGE 1 OF 2

Page B-2 Process Industry Practices


February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

Nondestructive Examination Notes


A. Full radiography shall be per Paragraph UW-51. For welded pipe components, this applies
only to Categories B and C butt joints. For exclusions, see Paragraph UW-11(a)(4).

B. Spot radiography shall be per Paragraph UW-52. For welded pipe components, this applies
only to Categories B and C butt joints. For exclusions, see Paragraph UW-11(b).

C. Spot radiography shall be per Paragraph UW-52. Rules of UW-11(a)(5)(b) must be satisfied.
The Manufacturer is cautioned to select the appropriate increments of weld for establishing
the spot radiography requirements for the heat exchanger. [See UW-52(b)(4).]

General Note: Notes D through L are examples of user options that are sometimes
selected for critical services. Other options may be provided as appropriate.

D. When joint thickness exceeds 2 inches (50 mm), examine (using MT or PT) the root pass
after back-chipping to sound metal and all accessible surfaces of completed welds of
Categories A, B, C, and D butt type joints.

E. When design is based on a joint efficiency of 1.00, examine (using MT or PT) Categories C
and D non-butt type joints after back-chipping or gouging root pass to sound metal and
accessible surfaces of completed weld.

F. When nozzles are attached with a full penetration weld through the nozzle wall, the cut edge
of the opening in the heat exchanger walls thicker than 1/2-inch (13 mm) shall be examined
(using MT or PT). The examination shall be made before nozzle attachment and a re-
examination shall be made after attachment, when accessible.

G. Examination (using MT or PT) of completed welds shall be made after PWHT for the
following:
1. Heat exchangers or heat exchanger parts for which impact testing is required
2. Welds joining non-impact tested low-alloy steels thicker than 1-1/4 inches (32 mm)
3. Welds joining carbon steels thicker than 2 inches (50 mm)
4. When required by Code
H. Butt welds exempt from radiography by Paragraph UW-11(a)(4) shall have accessible
surfaces of completed welds MT or PT examined. (Only applies to designs employing impact-
tested steels when Category A joints are based on a joint efficiency of 1.00.)

I. Non-butt type joints attaching tubesheets shall be MT or PT examined [(usually on


exchangers larger that NPS 24 (DN 600), or any size having design pressure on the
tubesheet attachment side exceeding 300 psi (2 MPa)] as follows:
1. Before welding, examine the cut surfaces per Paragraph UG-93(d)(4).
2. For joints per Figure UW-13.2(f), (j), or (k), examine the deposited groove weld
surfaces after machining weld flush with tubesheet.
3. For double-welded joints, after back chipping the reverse side of weld metal first
deposited and before additional welding, examine the back-chipped surfaces.
4. Examine all accessible surfaces of completed weld.
5. After welding, re-examine all cut edges examined per Item 1 above that remain
exposed.

J. Tubesheet stock material exceeding 3 inches (75 mm) in thickness shall be ultrasonically
examined after cutting to final size per ASME SA-578 Acceptance Level 1, Supplementary
Requirement S1 (applies to nonclad material).

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PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

K. Clad tubesheet material shall be ultrasonically examined after cutting to final size per
ASME SA-578 Acceptance Level 1, Supplementary Requirement S7 (applies to clad material
of any thickness).

Item Number:

Heat exchanger Assembly Dwg.:


Reference paragraphs are contained in Division 1 of the ASME Code.
MT = Magnetic Particle Examination
PT = Liquid Penetrant Examination

PAGE 2 OF 2

Page B-4 Process Industry Practices


Appendix C

Equivalent Pressure Formulas for


Bending Moment and Axial Tensile Load
PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

Equivalent Pressure Formulas for Bending Moment and Axial Tensile Load

When sustained bending moments or axial thrust loadings are applied to the flanged joint during
operation in sufficient magnitude to warrant consideration in the flange design, the design
pressure, P, used in the calculation of total hydrostatic end load, H, in the flange design
calculations shall be replaced by the following design pressure:

PFLG = P + PEQ

The equivalent pressure PEQ is determined as follows:

16M 4F
PEQ = +
G3
G2
Where:
M= Sustained bending moment applied across full section at flange during the design
condition, in-lb (mm-kg)
F= Sustained axial tensile force applied at flange, lb (kg)
G= Diameter at location of gasket load reaction, in (mm) (See Appendix 2 {Appendix 3}
of the Code for full definition.)
Note: Experience has shown that axial tensile forces resulting from a properly
designed piping system have no significant effect on the flange design and hence are
typically not included in the PEQ determination.

Therefore, the hydrostatic end load, H, used in the flange calculations is determined as follows:

H = 0.785 G2 PFLG

Dynamic Bending Moment

8M
PEQ =
G3

Where:

M= Bending moment, as defined above, but including dynamic bending moment (e.g.,
seismic moment) applied across full section at flange during the design condition,
in-lb (mm-kg)

Other Terms = Same as above

Page C-2 Process Industry Practices


Appendix D

Documentation Schedule and


Manufacturers Data Package
PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

Appendix D
Documentation Schedule
Equip. No. ____________________________ P.O. No. ___________________________ S.O. No. ______________________
Equip. Description ____________________________________________________________________________________
Project Engineer __________________________________________ Phone No. ___________________________________

WKS Column = Number of Weeks Required from P.O. Date


P Column = Number of Legible Prints Required
E Column = Number of Electronic Files Required (5)
ALLOW FOR
WITH FOR FINAL (2) DATA (3) WITH USER
BID APPROVAL CERTIFIED BOOKS EQUIP APPROVAL
WKS WKS WKS WEEKS FROM
ITEM E P FROM E P FROM E P FROM E/P P DATE OF DATA
PO PO PO RECEIPT

Completed Data Sheets

Heat exchanger Dimension


Outlines

Heat exchanger Details

Heat exchanger Structural


Attachments for Ladders,
Platforms, etc.

Column Tray and Downcomer


Support Details

Weld Procedures with Weld Maps

Nondestructive Examination and


PWHT Procedures

Design Calculations

Shipping Diagram and Rigging


Instructions

Manufacturer's Data Package


(See Page D-3)

Fabrication Sequence and


Schedule

Sub-Supplier List

Progress Report (Monthly)

NOTES:
1. Drawings and data are to be mailed to _____________________________________________
unless submitted with quotation.
2. Final certified drawings are to be submitted within two (2) weeks of receipt of Approved or Approved As Noted prints.
3. All data must be supplied prior to submission of final invoice.
4. All questions of a technical nature shall be directed to _________________________________.
5. All records shall be provided in electronic media, in a format as agreed upon by the User, and be of legible quality.
6. Each copy of all data (e.g., drawings, manuals) must be certified by Manufacturer with equipment or instrument Tag
Number and Purchase Order Number written or typed on the face of each copy.

Page D-2 Process Industry Practices


February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

Manufacturers Data Package

The Manufacturers Data Package is to include:


1. Final certified fabrication drawings
2. Manufacturers Data Report (U Forms)
3. Plate material (mill) test reports and/or certificates of compliance (provide index when
appropriate)
4. Impact test values including production weld test results
5. Heat treatment charts (time/temperature record)
6. Pressure test charts (time/pressure/water temperature record) when a recording device is
used
7. Nondestructive examination records and reports (PT, MT, RT, BHN, PMI chemistry)
8. Nameplate facsimile
9. If requested, weld procedures, qualifications, and weld maps
10. Description of non-conformities accepted by the User, if any
11. Required bolted joint assembly procedures including bolt preload for custom flanges
12. Any other documentation required by Purchaser
13. Operating instructions, performance data, and parts list (when applicable)
14. Manufacturers design calculations
15. If requested, tube-to-tubesheet expanding and testing procedures

Process Industry Practices Page D-3


Appendix E

Manufacturers Drawing Information


PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

Appendix E
Manufacturers Drawing Information

Manufacturer shall provide certified assembly and working drawings for all heat exchangers. Drawings
shall be complete and shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following information:
1. Maximum allowable working pressure {design pressure} and coincident maximum design
temperature (see PIP VECV1001, Section 5.2) (internal and external if applicable)
2. Minimum design metal temperature and coincident maximum allowable working pressure (see
PIP VECV1001, Section 5.3)
3. Design specific gravity, maximum liquid level, and other operating loads
4. Reference to Code Section VIII, Division 1 or 2, Edition, and Addenda. Include any Code Cases
used and special service restrictions.
5. Special service notes (e.g., for cyclic service followed by a description of the cyclic loadings and
number of cycles used in the design)
6. Applicable Code paragraphs for impact test exemption [e.g., UG-20(f), UCS-66(a), UCS-66(b),
UCS-66(c)] or for impact test requirements (e.g., UHA-51 or UHT-6)
7. National Board registration number (U- or U2-symbol stamped heat exchangers)
8. ASME material specifications for all pressure-resisting components and all attachments to
pressure-resisting components
9. Wind/seismic design criteria
10. Corrosion allowance. When a corrosion allowance is specified and the service is specified on Data
Sheet as non-corrosive, the notation for non-corrosive service shall be added to the drawing
notes.
11. Weld details. All welds shall be either detailed or identified by use of the standard welding symbols
of the American Welding Society ANSI/AWS A2.4.
12. Nondestructive examination requirements of welded pressure joints
13. Joint efficiency for each butt-welded joint (or seamless equivalent) in the heat exchanger, including
nozzles and communicating chambers. A joint efficiency map may be useful.
14. Nondestructive examination of non-pressure-resisting welds
15. Postweld heat treatment requirements
16. Hydrostatic or pneumatic test pressures, as applicable:
a. Shop test in horizontal position (referenced to top of heat exchanger)
b. Shop test in vertical position (referenced to top of heat exchanger) (except for horizontal heat
exchangers)
c. Future test in operating position (referenced to top of heat exchanger) (in the corroded
condition for heat exchangers having a corrosion allowance)
17. Minimum permissible metal temperature during hydrostatic testing
18. Sensitive leak tests, if any
19. Nominal thickness of all components [minimum thickness after forming (includes corrosion
allowance) for formed heads]
20. All pertinent dimensions, including location of weld seams, location and projection of nozzles,
location of heat exchanger and insulation supports, and any other information necessary for a
complete description of the heat exchanger
21. Manufacturers drawings shall have the same designation for nozzles, manways, skirt openings,
and column trays as shown on Purchasers drawings.

Page E-2 Process Industry Practices


February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

22. Complete description of all heat exchanger flanges (including both standard and custom design),
pressure bolting, and gaskets
23. Relevant fabrication, inspection, testing, and painting requirements
24. Heat exchanger support details
25. Surface preparation and painting or other protective coating specifications
26. Estimated weight of the heat exchanger: empty, operating, full of water, and shipping
27. Capacity of heat exchanger (or each compartment)
28. Facsimiles of Manufacturers nameplate as stamped by Manufacturer
29. Purchasers heat exchanger identification number(s)
30. Reference to specifications. Manufacturer shall include on drawings a reference to all applicable
codes, standards, and specifications, including date of issue. References shall include all applicable
PIP Practices and any applicable Manufacturer standards. When reference is made to
Manufacturers own standards, copies of such standards shall be included with the submitted
working drawings.
31. Tube bending schedule for U-tubes (center to center dimension of bends)
32. Expansion joint drawings shall include the following information:
- Maximum design pressure and temperature (when applicable)
- Spring constant (lb/in (kg/cm))
- Maximum axial movement (opening or closing)
- Total life cycles
- Materials of construction
- For flanged and flued expansion joints, provide radius dimensions of corners.

Special Notes:
Manufacturers drawings shall also include the following notes as applicable:
1. All Heat exchangers - the following note: Substances containing chlorine or which will decompose
to hydrogen chloride (e.g., coatings to prevent adhesion of weld spatter) shall not be applied to any
part of the heat exchanger.
2. Stainless Steel or Nickel-Alloy Heat exchangers - the following note: Zinc-coated (galvanized or
painted) components shall not be in contact (welded, bolted, or loose) with any alloy parts of the
heat exchanger.
3. Hastelloy, Monel, Nickel, or Nickel-Alloy Heat exchangers - the following note: Substances
containing sulfur (e.g., lubricants to aid machining) shall not be applied to alloy parts of the heat
exchanger.
4. Clad-Steel Heat exchangers - Drawing notes shall specify whether or not the thickness of cladding
metal has been included in the design calculations for strength.
5. Balance point location - for horizontal equipment, the balance point location shall be noted and
dimensioned from a permanent reference point (e.g., main body flange etc.).
6. All PWHT heat exchangers shall have the following notice painted on two sides of the shell and
insulation covering, if present, in three inch high letters visible in the shipping position from grade:
POSTWELD HEAT TREATED - DO NOT BURN OR WELD
7. All heat exchangers with non-metallic linings shall have the following notice painted on two sides of
the shell and insulation covering, if present in three inch high letters visible in the shipping position
from grade:
LINED VESSEL - DO NOT BURN OR WELD

Process Industry Practices Page E-3


Appendix F

Quality Overview Plan


for
Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2 Heat Exchangers
PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

Appendix F
Quality Overview Plan
for
Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2 Heat Exchangers

Equip. No. _______________________________________ P. O. No. S. O. No.


Equip. Description
Project Engineer Phone No.
Inspection Contact Phone No.
Activities checked apply to the above item (see Quality Overview Notes). In most cases, the User/Purchaser representative will require five (5)
days notification to make arrangements for hold point inspections.

References are either to Division 1 Code paragraphs or


applicable Code Table U-3 {AG-150.1} reference standards. All
additional requirements covered by the purchase specifications QUALITY OVERVIEW ACTIVITY DOCUMENTATION
also apply.

REVIEW WITNESS INSPECT HOLD POINT REQUIRED


No. Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

1. Material Receipt (Prior to Fab)

2. MTR's/Certificate of Compliance (Prior to Fab)


(UG-93 {AF-101})

3. Positive Material Identification (PMI)

4. Impact Test Values

5. Lap Joint Flange (ASME B16.5)

6. Machined Surfaces (Prior to Assembly)

7. WPS/Welder/Welding Operator Qualifications (UW-28 &


UW-29 {AF-210})

8. Weld Map

9. Inside Nozzle Corners Rounded [UG-36(a)(2) {AD-600}]

10. Welded Joint Fit-Up (UW-33 {AF-221.3}, UG-76


{AF-112.2}, UG-77 {AF-102})

11. Initial Welding (UW-32 {AF-141}, UW-37 {AF-210})

12. Final Welding (UW-35 {AF-142}, UW-36 {AF-225},


UW-37 {AF-210})

13. Machined Surfaces (After Assembly & Welding)

14. Magnetic Particle Examination (MT) (App. 6 {Art. 9-1} )

15. Liquid Penetrant Examination (PT) (App. 8 {Art. 9-2} )

16. Radiographic Examination (RT) (UW-11 {App. 8} )

Page F-2 Process Industry Practices


February 2007 PIP VESST001
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

References are either to Division 1 Code paragraphs or


applicable Code Table U-3 {AG-150.1} reference
standards. All additional requirements covered by the QUALITY OVERVIEW ACTIVITY DOCUMENTATION
purchase specifications also apply.

REVIEW WITNESS INSPECT HOLD POINT REQUIRED


No. Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

17. Ultrasonic Examination (UT) (App. 12 {Art. 9-3})

18. Other NDE

19. Material Repairs (UG-78 {AF-104}

20. Weld Repairs (UW-38 {AF-250})

21. Out-of-Roundness (UG-80 {AF-130}, TEMA)

22. Peaked Seam [UG-79(b) {AF-120}]

23. Weld Reinforcement/Weld Contour (UW-35


{AF-142})

24. Dimensional Check

25. Installation of Internals

26. Internal Inspection (Prior to Pressure Test)

27. PWHT (UW-40 {AF-635})

28. NDE (After PWHT, When Required)

29. Machined Surfaces (After PWHT)

30. Gasket/Gasket Installation/Bolted Joint Assembly

31. Nameplate Bracket

32. Pressure Test (UG-99 {Art. T-3}, UG-100 {Art. T-4})

33. Gas Leak Test

34. Formed Head Knuckle (After Pressure Test)

35. Internal Inspection (After Pressure Test)

36. Coating Inspection

37. Final Dimensional Check

38. Description of Nonconformance(s)

39. Preparation for Shipment

40. Bundles insertion

41. Tube expansion

42. Tube-to-tubesheet welding

43.

Process Industry Practices Page F-3


PIP VESST001 February 2007
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Specification

Quality Overview Notes

1. The User or the Users Designated Agent will provide the Manufacturer with a completed
Quality Overview Plan.
2. The Manufacturer is to provide the User with the documents for review, witness/hold point
activity notification, and inspection opportunity as indicated by the User on the Plan, as
follows:
2.1 Review: Manufacturer is to provide documentation, the review of which will allow the
User to verify that the referenced construction activity has been performed as
specified. Other construction requirements may be verified/audited.
2.2 Witness: Manufacturer is to notify User not later than five days before performing the
referenced construction activity so that the User may exercise the option to observe.
Other construction requirements may be verified/audited.
2.3 Inspect: Manufacturer is to provide User access to physically conduct
internal/external inspection of the referenced item. Other construction requirements
may be verified/audited.
2.4 Hold Point: Manufacturer must notify User not later than five days before performing
the referenced construction activity and must receive authorization from the User
before performing the activity. Other construction requirements may be
verified/audited.
3. Some of the items in this Quality Overview Plan are covered elsewhere in this Practice.
4. If a work item is not checked, then there is no requirement to provide documentation or
notification to the User. However, the work item itself is still required to be performed if
specified elsewhere in this Practice, the Data Sheet, the purchase order, the Code, etc.

Page F-4 Process Industry Practices


Appendix G

Minimum Clearance of Nozzle Adjacent to Tubesheet