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1 Soil Classification and


Subsurface Geophysical Exploration
Engr. Jefferson R. Vallente Jr. CE, Assoc. TSSP, M.EASTS
Asst. Instructor , Civil Engineering Department
Content
AASHTO soil classification
USCS soil classification
Soil surveys
Resistivity Method
Seismic Method
Soil compaction
Standard Proctor test
Field compaction equipment
Resistance (R) values
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test
Ground Improvement
Suitability Number (SN)
AASHTO Soil Classification System
AASHTO Soil Classification System

= 35 0.2 + 0.005 40 + 0.01(F 15)(PI 10)


Example:
The results of the particle
size analysis of a soil are as
follows:
Percent passing through
No.10 sieve = 100
Percent passing through
No.40 sieve = 80
Percent passing through
No.200 sieve = 58
LL = 30 and PI = 10.
Solution:
Since %passing No.200 is >
35, soil is silt clay. It falls
under group A-4, A-5, A-6 or
A-7. Using LL and PI values,
soil appears as A-4.
Calculating for GI = 3.45 3
Soil will be classified as A-4 (3)
USCS Soil Classification System
USCS Soil Classification System
USCS Soil Classification System

60 30 2
= =
10 10 60
USCS Soil Classification System
USCS Soil Classification System
Assignment: Use AASHTO (A to C) &
USCS (D to F) to classify the soil, Use
Crosswise N.P.
Sieve Analysis, % Finer
Soil No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 Liquid Limit Plastic Limit
A 98 81 38 42 23
B 84 58 8 --- N.P.
C 99 85 71 55 21
D 30 40 30 33 12
E 4 44 52 29 11
F 11 24 65 44 23
Example
For a given soil, the ff: are known:
Percentage passing no.4 sieve = 70
Percentage passing no. 200 sieve = 30
LL = 33
PL = 12

Coarse Fraction = 100 30 = 70%


Soil Surveys for Highway Construction
Resistivity Method
Soil Surveys for Highway Construction
Seismic Method
Soil Surveys for Highway Construction
Seismic Method
Soil Surveys for Highway Construction

1 2
1 = 2 =
2 cos 2 cos
Where:
, time obtained from plot 2 , velocity of wave in underlying stratum
1 , velocity wave in upper stratum 3 , velocity of wave in third stratum
, time obtained from plot , first refraction angle

sin = 12 ; sin = 23
Example: Seismic method
Estimating Depth and Soil Type of Each Soil
Stratum
Distance of Impulse to Geophone (m) Time for wave arrival (10-3 sec
6 32
12 60
18 88
24 94
30 100
36 106
42 112
48 116
54 117
60 118.5
66 120
75 122
Estimating Depth and Soil Type of Each
Soil Stratum
Distance of Impulse to Geophone
140

E
120
F
C
100

D
80 B

60

40

20

A
0
32 60 88 94 100 106 112 116 117 118.5 120 122
Solution
18
1 = = 3 = 205 /
8810
4218
2 = = 3 = 1000
11288 10
52.5042
3 = = = 2625 /
116112 103

1
sin =
1
2 ; sin = 23 1 = = 7.10
2 cos
= 11.8
2
= 22.39 2 = = 14.05
2 cos
Material Velocity (ft/sec)
Soil
Sand, dry silt, and fine-grained top soil 650-3,300
Alluvium 1,650-6,600
Compacted clays, clayey gravel, and dense clayey sand 3,300-8,200
Loess 800-2,450

Rock
Slate and shale 8,200-16,400
Sandstone 4,900-16,400
Granite 13,100-19,700
Sound limestone 16,400-32,800
Seismic Refraction Survey in SI
The impact on the ground surface creates two
types of waves :
P Waves (Plane), faster than S Waves
S Waves (Shear)
, velocity of P waves is computed as:
(1 )
=
(1 2 )(1 + )

Seismic Refraction Surveys
( )
A (1 ) B (2 ) C 3 D

Layer I 1 1
1 1 1 Velocity
1
2
2
Layer II 2 2 Velocity
2
3
Layer III Velocity
Step 1: Obtain t at various x 3
Step 2: Plot graph of t vs. x
d
Step 3: Determine slopes of lines ab, bc, cd,

Time of first arrival


Step 4: Determine 1 : c
1 2 1
1 =
2 2 + 1 b
Step 5: Determine 2 :

1 32 12 3 2
2 = 2 21 a
2 3 1 Distance, x
32 22
SI values for P-wave velocity
Range of P-Wave Velocity in Various Soils and Rocks
Type of Soil or rock P-wave velocity (m/sec)
Soil
Sand. Dry sill, and fine-grained 200-1000
topsoil 500-2000
Alluvium 1000-2500
Compacted clays, clayey gravel
and 250-750
dense clayey sad
Loess 2500-5000
Rock 1500-5000
Slate and shale 4000-6000
Sandstone 5000-10,000
Granite
Sound limestone
Soil Surveys for Highway Construction
Soil Compaction

=
1 +
Review Problem:
The results of field unit weight determination of
a soil sample using the sand cone method is as
follows:
V = 0.00134 m3 = = =
2.25
= 16.466 /3
0.00134
M = 2250 g 2250 1734
= = = 0.2976 = 29.76%
Ms = 1734 g 1734

Dry density = 1.425 g/cc


MC = 13.8 % , =
1734
= = 1.294 /
1340
1.294
= = = 0.9081 = 90.81%
1.425
Soil Surveys for Highway Construction
Optimum Moisture Content
Two tests:
Dynamic
Impact
Plotting OPC:
using ASTO
Standard
Modified
Net Volume (ft^3) = 1/30 or 1/13.33
Sample Problem
The table shows results obtained from a
standard AASHTO compaction test on six
samples, 4 in. diameter, of a soil to be used as
fill for a highway. Determine the maximum dry
density and the optimum moisture content of
the soil.
Control of Embankment Formation
Destructive
Non destructive
Field Compaction Equipment
Spreading Equipment Compaction Equipment
Bulldozers and motor Smooth wheel or drum
graders roller
Field Compaction Equipment
Compaction Equipment
Typical Rubber-tired roller
Typical Sheepsfoot roller
Special Soil Tests for Pavement Design
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test
0.1 /2
=
0.1 /2


0.1 6890
2
0.1
= 100
6890
100
= 100
2.5
1 +1

Where:
R, Resistance value
Pv, vertical pressure (1100 kPa)
Ph, horizontal pressure at Pv 1100 kPa
D, number of turns of displacement
pump
Ground Improvement
Soil stabilization
Chemical Stabilization
Lime
Cement
Fly-Ash
Mechanical Stabilization
Vibrofolation
Dynamic Compaction
Blasting
Precompression
Sand Drains
Soil Stabilization
Soil-Lime (SL), lime, water and fine-grained
soil. If soil contains silica and alumina,
pozzolanic reaction occurs resulting in a
cementing-type material.
Soil Stabilization
In cases where suitable subbase material is not readily
available stabilization is needed.
Cement-stabilized soil (CSS), water soil and measured
amounts of cement and Soil Cement (SC),
mechanically compacting finely crushed soil, water
and cement. Usually 5 to 14 percent portland cement
Soil Stabilization
Cement-modified soil (CMS), semihardened or
unhardened mixture of water, portland
cement and finely crushed soil and Plastic Soil
Cement (PSC), mixture with mortar
consistency
Soil Stabilization
Soil-Asphalt (SA), liquid asphalt with
nonplastic or moderately plastic soils
How Mixing is Done?
Wet Mixing
Dry Mixing
Soil Stabilization

Application of chemical admixtures (lime, fly ash, cement etc.)


Stabilization Methods Most Suitable for specific applications
Vibroflotation

For in situ densification of thick


layers of loose granular soil deposits.
Suitability Number
Backfill rating for construction:
SN 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 >50

Backfill Excellent Good Fair Poor Unsuitable


rating

3 1 1
= 1.7 2 + 2 + 2
50 20 10
Note: D50, D20 and D10 corresponds to %finer
than the indicated subscript number.
Examples
Given:
10 = 0.36
20 = 0.52
50 = 1.42

3 1 1
= 1.7 2 + 2 +
50 20 10 2

3 1 1
= 1.7 + + = 6.1 (Good)
1.422 0.522 1.422
Dynamic Compaction
Blasting

Detonation of explosive charges


such as 60% dynamite at a certain
depth. Up to 80% relative density is
achievable
Sand Vertical Drains

Holes are backfilled with highly permeable sand and then a surcharge
is applied at the ground surface. The surcharge increase the pore
water pressure in the clay layer.