2 views

Uploaded by Anonymous jxr3gcz46A

In the article we present a new method of feature extraction from EEG signal for SSVEP recognition, called a simplified Matching Pursuit (sMP). The method has been tested on SSVEP for stimulation frequencies close to each other - 5, 6, 7, 8Hz. Its effectiveness has been verified and compared with commonly used for this purpose FFT method. sMP enables effective detection of SSVEP with an accuracy of 98%.

In the article we present a new method of feature extraction from EEG signal for SSVEP recognition, called a simplified Matching Pursuit (sMP). The method has been tested on SSVEP for stimulation frequencies close to each other - 5, 6, 7, 8Hz. Its effectiveness has been verified and compared with commonly used for this purpose FFT method. sMP enables effective detection of SSVEP with an accuracy of 98%.

© All Rights Reserved

- Handwritten Gurumukhi Character Recognition Using Zoning Density and Background Directional Distribution Features
- Brain Computer Interface
- Image Compression Dwt Project Report
- Tutorial Phase, Polarity and the Interpreter's Wavelet
- 07058376
- Machine Learning From Las Vegas
- Ijciis May 2011 Vol. 2 No. 5
- Brain Hacking 1
- 25th July Presentation
- GPY000789 GPRhsbishhbjdsa
- Thought Translation Device
- 1609.03499.pdf
- tmp31B
- A Fully Automated Correction Method of EOG
- First Paper
- FYP Thesis.docx
- Solutions 3
- Automatic Artichoke Harvesting
- Report of Project Rahima (1)
- KallweitWood SeisRes0PhaseWavelets Revisited

You are on page 1of 4

Institute of Theory of Electrical Engineering Measurement and Information Systems

Warsaw University of Technology

Warsaw, Poland

remigiusz.rak@ee.pw.edu.pl

AbstractIn the article we present a new method of feature interesting method of signal analysis. The main stage of this

extraction from EEG signal for SSVEP recognition, called a method is to search a dictionary of a large number of basis

simplified Matching Pursuit (sMP). The method has been tested functions (so called atoms) in order to obtain the best match

on SSVEP for stimulation frequencies close to each other - 5, 6, 7, with formed at each step residual signal. This method is quite

8Hz. Its effectiveness has been verified and compared with complex computationally, but it enables a detailed quantitative

commonly used for this purpose FFT method. sMP enables description of a signal. According to the authors, using precise

effective detection of SSVEP with an accuracy of 98%. but at the same time large and often redundant dictionaries is

not necessary for the correct recognition of SSVEP potentials.

Keywordssteady state visually evoked potentials; SSVEP;

electroencephalography; EEG; brain-computer interface; BCI;

So, the authors tried to simplify the MP analysis to make it more

feature extraction; matching pursuit; MP convenient to use for SSVEP recognition. The resulting

algorithm was named the simplified Matching Pursuit (sMP).

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SIMPLIFIED MATCHING PURSUIT

In brain-computer interfaces (BCI) based on Steady State

Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEP) [1,2] there is implemented According to our assumptions the proposed method should

an analysis of brain response to flickering light. LEDs are most enable the recognition of SSVEP coming from stimuli of a very

commonly used as the sources of light [3]. Such BCI solutions close frequencies. In order to develop an effective feature

are very popular, because they do not require a long user extraction method, the basic neuropsychological knowledge

training [4]. A very important element of all BCI systems are about SSVEP was used [1,2,3,5]. That is:

proper feature extraction methods from the EEG signal. For x SSVEPs are localized in visual cortex area. This

BCI based on imagining movement (ERD/ERS) and on visual assumption enables to precisely select the most useful

potentials (SSVEP) the feature extraction from EEG signal is EEG channel or to create a new signal as a superposition

often performed in frequency domain (e.g. Fourier transform or of signals from visual cortex region.

wavelet analysis) [4,5,6,7,8]. Considering DFT, one must pay

attention to the problem of frequency resolution. In particular, x SSVEP are periodic and include a few harmonics for

it is very important for the detection of SSVEP caused by periodic stimuli of rectangular shape.

stimuli of closely spaced frequencies. In practice frequency x The greatest SSVEP amplitude occur at a stimulus

resolution of DFT can be effectively improved only by using a frequency f and the two consecutive harmonics.

wider time window, which extends the time of analysis.

Another problem is nonstationary nature of EEG signal. In this The proposed sMP method is based on the definition of

case, Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) or Discrete Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm [19,20]. MP is an iterative

Wavelet Transform (DWT), that enable time-frequency procedure, where in the first step an atom is chosen from a

analysis, are helpful [9,10]. Also more advanced, but at the dictionary of basis functions, which gives the largest dot

same time more computationally complex, methods are used. product with the signal. In the next step, another atom is

An example is Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) matched to the residue of the signal remaining after subtracting

[11,12,13], which is used to estimate the power by computing the result obtained in the previous iteration from the signal. The

the inner product of SSVEP and normalized complex-sinusoid end result of the MP algorithm is the signal representation

signals. Another example is Hilbert transform [14]. This which is a sum of the components chosen from the dictionary,

transform is used to compute SSVEP phases after spatial taking into account the best matches to signal residuals. The MP

filtering with Minimum Energy Combination (MEC) method. method uses a large number of basis functions (atoms), such as

It needs a shorter data length than Fourier transform. Canonical sinusoidal functions, wavelet functions, etc., which by

Correlation Analysis (CCA) is as well very promising definition constitute a redundant set. As a result, accurate

[15,16,17]. It is an effective method for computing the relation dictionary search is a time consuming and computationally

between two multi-variable data sets. Only the first maximum complex process.

coefficient is used. Matching Pursuit (MP) [18,19] is a very

For SSVEP recognition, it seems reasonable to limit the

dictionary only to necessary, carefully selected atoms that best

describe considered potentials. The authors have proposed

creation of a dictionary D containing only sinusoidal functions

of frequencies fk=kf (for k=1,2,3) with a phase shifts (for

m=1,2,3M, where M is the number of basis functions with

different phase shifts). Thus, for each stimulation frequency

three dictionaries were defined, one for each of the

harmonics. Each dictionary contains sine functions:

(1)

consecutive samples of the base signal in the range 0 to N,

denotes the phase of the sinusoidal signal. Each dictionary

contains M sinusoidal functions, which differ only in phase:

(2)

width, is compared with basis functions. A scalar product

is used to compare signal SN with selected basis functions

from dictionary: Fig. 1. The SN signal and the best matching basis functions for frequencies 5,

6, 7, 8Hz with properly selected phases: C5max=0.12, C6max=0.35, C7max=0.04,

C8max=0.42

(3)

The sMP method requires only a few dictionaries containing

After making comparisons for the dictionary we get M several basis functions. The basis functions are created only for

values of corresponding to correlation of basis functions the frequencies of SSVEP stimuli. By significantly reducing the

and analyzed signal . The maximum of them, number of basis functions in dictionary, in comparison to the

regarded as a feature for classification, is interesting for us. It is standard MP method. As a result, the sMP method has a much

defined as: lower computational complexity compared to the MP. Thanks

to this, sMP method is suitable for on-line EEG signal analysis.

(4)

III. MATERIALS

Therefore, for each

dictionary we are able to define Five users, at the age of 23, 25 31, 42, and 46 participated

value. These values can be interpreted as indicators of in the experiment. Users sat comfortably in a chair. Users were

asked to observe a green LED and try to reduce the number of

the best match of SN signal to function described by movements of the head, jaw, eyes in order to minimize the

specific frequency value. As a result, we are able to identify the number of artefacts. The LED of a 1cm diameter was placed at

frequencies of SSVEP stimuli. a distance of about 1 meter from the eyes of a person. Users

The proposed algorithm can be described as follows: were informed of the start of the experiment. Each stimulation

(5, 6, 7 and 8Hz) was exposed separately for 30 seconds. After

x Create dictionaries of atoms (sinusoidal signals with the 0.5 minute break the frequency of stimulation was changed

frequencies f, 2f and 3f and different phase shifts). to another. All sessions took place at the same time of the day

x Search every dictionary calculate correlation to avoid circadian influences on the measurements.

between individual atoms and SN signal and EEG signals were recorded using g.USBAmp with 16 active

electrodes. The electrodes were placed according to the

find the value.

international 10-20 system at positions: O2, AF3, AF4, P4, P3,

x On the basis of knowledge of specify the the F4, Fz, F3, FCz, Pz, C4, C3, CPz, Cz, Oz, O1. The signals were

frequency f, which corresponds to SSVEP. recorded with sampling frequency 256Hz, using a Butterworth

bandpass filter (0.1-100Hz) and notch filter (48-52Hz, to

As an example in Fig. 1 there are presented the SN signal and correct a technical artefact from the power network).

the four basis functions (with frequencies respectively 5, 6, 7,

8Hz, and proper phase shifts) from dictionaries that best fit IV. RESULTS

to it. The obtained values of cross-correlation for best matching, The aim of the experiment was to test the usefulness of the

basis functions and SN signal, were respectively: C5max=0.12, proposed simplified Matching Pursuit method to recognize

C6max=0.35, C7max=0.04, C8max=0.42. Thus, the maximum was SSVEP of very close frequencies 5, 6, 7, 8Hz. For

obtained for the signal of 8Hz base frequency.

347

preprocessing of the registered EEG signal a Common Average TABLE III. CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY FOR SMP FEAUTRE EXTRACTION

METHOD K=3

Reference (CAR) filter was used [5]. Next the new signal S was

determined as the sum of the signals registered at the electrodes Length of window [s]

O1, O2 and Oz. Time windows 1, 2, 3 and 4 seconds, Subject 1s 2s 3s 4s avgm

overlapping 50% were used. An exemplary distribution of S1 0,39 0,26 0,31 0,21 0,23

S2 0,32 0,32 0,32 0,30 0,25

features for 8Hz stimulation, in consecutive 1 second

S3 0,30 0,29 0,34 0,33 0,25

time windows, are presented in Fig. 2. As we can see, the S4 0,27 0,31 0,35 0,33 0,25

highest feature values are for the dictionary ( . S5 0,32 0,29 0,35 0,32 0,25

avgs 0,32 0,29 0,33 0,29

electrode O1, O2 or Oz to form the SN signal. In these cases, the

accuracy of classification was several percent lower.

V. DISCUSSION

From the viewpoint of the speed of the algorithm

particularly important is the number of basis functions in the

dictionary. The experiments showed that for the values of M>5

(more than five basis functions with different phase offsets )

the accuracy of signal classification did not improve

significantly. It meant that the proposed method searched only

among small number of basis functions, which significantly

reduced the time and complexity of calculations. In practice, it

meant that for 4 frequency stimulations it was sufficient to

search just 5x4 = 20 atoms! For calculations performed on a PC

computer with (Intel Core (TM) i7-2600K, CPU 3.40GHz,

Fig. 2. Distribution of features for f=8Hz stimulation in consecutive RAM 8GB) using Matlab R2013a, average search time of 4

1 second time windows dictionaries with 5 basis functions for one-second window was

only 25sec. This allowed the application of the developed

Using the sMP method a series of experiments were carried algorithm in BCI operating in on-line mode.

out for five users. In the first place we wanted to check which

harmonics should be taken into account. The results of the The effectiveness of the proposed sMP method was

accuracy of the classification of SSVEP obtained for time compared with FFT algorithm and other methods. The accuracy

windows of different widths, using basis functions for the first, of classification in comparison with sMP method is presented

second and third harmonic are shown respectively in Tables I, in Table IV. The FFT algorithm, as the most commonly used,

II and III. Also averaged values for users (avgs) and for the was implemented by authors directly. For the other algorithms,

processing methods (avgm) are given. The results show that the there are included the comparison of the results obtained by

highest SSVEP classification accuracies were obtained for basis other research groups. For FFT algorithm time windows of 2,

functions constructed for the first or second harmonic. 3, 4, 5 and 6 seconds width overlapping in 50% were used for

feature extraction. Fast Fourier Transform was calculated for

TABLE I. CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY FOR SMP FEAUTRE EXTRACTION every window of EEG signal. Then, the spectral lines

METHOD K=1 corresponding to stimuli frequencies and their harmonics were

selected. Classification was performed using linear

Length of window [s]

Subject 1s 2s 3s 4s avgm

discriminant analysis (LDA). For classifier learning and testing

S1 0,68 0,84 0,92 0,98 0,85 10-fold cross validation test (10-CV) was used. In 10-fold

S2 0,44 0,62 0,68 0,78 0,63 cross-validation test, the original data set is randomly

S3 0,39 0,51 0,48 0,66 0,51 partitioned into 10 subsets (equal sized). Of the 10 subsets, a

S4 0,33 0,43 0,47 0,53 0,44 single subset is retained as the validation data for testing the

S5 0,64 0,77 0,89 0,87 0,79 model, and the remaining 9 subsets are used as training data.

avgs 0,49 0,63 0,68 0,76 The cross-validation process is then repeated 10 times, with

each of the 10 subsets used exactly once as the validation data.

TABLE II. CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY FOR SMP FEAUTRE EXTRACTION The results presented in Table IV indicate that for all 2 to 6

METHOD K=2

second windows better accuracies of classification were

Length of window [s] obtained for sMP than FFT method. For example, for the S1

Subject 1s 2s 3s 4s avgm user sMP gave classification accuracy 0.86 and FFT method

S1 0,44 0,55 0,59 0,64 0,55

only 0.68. The average classification accuracy for the sMP

S2 0,41 0,50 0,55 0,60 0,51

S3 0,28 0,29 0,38 0,42 0,34

method for all users and all windows was 0.77 and for FFT

S4 0,46 0,60 0,75 0,76 0,64 method - 0.48. This is a difference of 27%. Better results for

S5 0,46 0,82 0,89 0,96 0,78 sMP method as compared to FFT (for stimulation frequencies

avgs 0,41 0,55 0,63 0,67 close to each other - 5, 6, 7, 8Hz) may result from the limited

frequency resolution of the FFT.

348

TABLE IV. CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY FOR SMP AND FFT ALGOTITHMS [3] D. Zhu, J. Bieger, G. Garcia Molina, R.M. Aarts, A survey of stimulation

methods used in SSVEP-based BCIs, Computational Intelligence and

sMP FFT Neuroscience, 2010, art. no. 702357.

Window

Subject Subject

lenght [4] Q. Liu, K. Chen, Q. Ai, S.Q. Xie, Review: Recent development of signal

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5

processing algorithms for SSVEP-based brain computer interfaces,

2s 0,86 0,69 0,52 0,44 0,81 0,68 0,43 0,33 0,32 0,72

Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, 34 (4), 2014, pp. 299-309.

3s 0,92 0,72 0,44 0,46 0,94 0,71 0,40 0,35 0,39 0,69

4s 0,91 0,82 0,67 0,55 0,94 0,69 0,37 0,38 0,35 0,66 [5] R.J. Rak, M. Koodziej, A. Majkowski, Brain-computer interface as

5s 0,95 0,84 0,72 0,45 0,97 0,63 0,38 0,29 0,29 0,79 measurement and control system - the review paper Metrology and

Measurement Systems, 19 (3), 2012, pp. 427-444.

6s 0,97 0,97 0,80 0,75 0,97 0,75 0,41 0,19 0,30 0,69

0,92 0,80 0,60 0,50 0,92 0,69 0,39 0,30 0,33 0,71 [6] G. R. Muller-Putz and G. Pfurtscheller, Control of an electrical

prosthesis with an SSVEP-based BCI, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 55:

2008, pp. 361-364.

It is difficult to compare other algorithms without their [7] P. F. Diez, V. A. Mut, E. M. Avila Perona and E. Laciar Leber,

direct implementation and testing. This is due to the use of Asynchronous BCI control using high-frequency SSVEP, J. Neuroeng.

Rehabil., 8: 39, 2011.

different stimulation methods. Researchers use stimuli of

[8] P. F. Diez, S. M. Torres Mller, V. A. Mut, E. Laciar, E. Avila, T. F.

different frequencies presented in different ways. Of great Bastos-Filho and M. Sarcinelli-Filho, Commanding a robotic wheelchair

importance are also predispositions of the users. For example, with a high-frequency steady-state visual evoked potential based brain

in [1] there were shown the classification results for five Medical Engineering & Physics, Volume 35, Issue 8, August 2013, pp.

subjects and frequencies 6, 7, 8 and 13Hz (DFT method). The 11551164

achieved classification accuracy for an individual user was [9] B. Yan, Z. Li, H. Li, G. Yang and H. Shen, Research on brain-computer

between 42.5% and 94.4%. In [11] we used a modified version interface technology based on steady state visual evoked potentials,

Proc.4thInt. Conf. on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 1-4,

of empirical mode decomposition algorithm (EMD) for three 2010.

stimuli of frequencies 13,14,15Hz displayed on LCD monitor. [10] Z. Zhang, X. Li and Z. Deng, A CWT-based SSVEP classification

The average classification accuracy for 5 tested persons was method for brain-computer interface system, Proc.Int. Conf. on

94.47%. In [12] authors used EMD algorithm for 30,31,32,33 Intelligent Control and Information Processing, 43-48, 2010.

and 35Hz stimuli and achieved an average effectiveness of [11] P. L. Lee, H. C. Chang, T. Y. Hsieh, H. T. Deng and C. W. Sun, A brain-

84.63%. In [14] stimuli at all integer frequencies from 30 to wave-actuated small robot car using ensemble empirical mode

40Hz were presented. The use of the Hilbert transform and decomposition-based approach, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Syst.

Hum., 42, 2012, pp. 1053-1064.

MEC allowed the detection of SSVEP with efficiency from

71% to 94%. In [17] the accuracy for the original Canonical [12] C. H. Wu, H. C. Chang, P. L. Lee, K. S. Li, J. J. Sie, C. W. Sun, C. Y.

Yang, P. H. Li, H. T. Deng and K. K. Shyu, Frequency recognition in an

Correlation Analysis method was 78.11% (for 2.56s window SSVEP-based brain computer interface using empirical mode

length). As presented in [17], the accuracy of classification decomposition and refined generalized zero-crossing, J. Neurosci.

depends not only on the used algorithm but also on Methods, 196, 2011, pp. 170-181.

predisposition of a person. [13] C. H. Wu, H. C. Chang and P. L. Lee, Instantaneous gaze-target detection

by empirical mode decomposition: application to brain computer

VI. CONCLUSIONS interface, Proc.World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical

Engineering, 25, 2009, pp. 215-218.

In this paper a new method for creating EEG features in BCI [14] G. Garcia-Molina, D. H. Zhu and S. Abtahi, Phase detection in a visual-

based on SSVEP, named simplified Matching Pursuit, was evoked-potential based brain computer interface, Proc.18th European

presented. Experiments showed that the method enables to Signal Processing Conf., 2010, pp. 949-953.

identify SSVEP for very close frequencies of flickering light [15] G. Y. Bin, X. R. Gao, Z. Yan, B. Hong and S. K. Gao, An online multi-

with a good efficiency. The proposed method sMP performs channel SSVEP-based brain-computer interface using a canonical

much better (about 25% for all users) than widely used FFT correlation analysis method, J. Neural. Eng., 6, 046002, 2009.

analysis. Moreover, sMP algorithm has a relatively low [16] Z. L. Lin, C. S. Zhang, W. Wu and X. R. Gao, Frequency recognition

based on canonical correlation analysis for SSVEP-based BCIs, IEEE

computational complexity and according to the authors can be Trans. Biomed. Eng., 53, 2006, pp. 2610-2614.

successfully used to identify SSVEP. The proposed algorithm

[17] P. Poryzala, A. Materka, Cluster analysis of CCA coefficients for robust

has a low computational complexity and can be successfully detection of the asynchronous SSVEPs in braincomputer interfaces,

used in BCI working in on-line mode. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Volume 10, March 2014, pp.

201-208,

REFERENCES [18] P. J. Durka, D. Ircha, K. J. Blinowska, "Stochastic time-frequency

[1] G.R. Mller-Putz, R. Scherer, C. Brauneis, G. Pfurtscheller, Steady-state dictionaries for matching pursuit," in Signal Processing, IEEE

visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based communication: Impact of Transactions on , vol.49, no.3, Mar 2001, pp.507-510.

harmonic frequency components Journal of Neural Engineering, 2 (4), [19] P.J. Durka, Matching Pursuit and Unification in EEG Analysis, Artech

2005, pp. 123-130. House, ISBN 978-1-58053-304-1, 2007.

[2] G. Garcia-Molina, D. Zhu, Optimal spatial filtering for the steady state [20] S. G. Mallat and Z. Zhang, Matching Pursuits with Time-Frequency

visual evoked potential: BCI application 2011 5th International Dictionaries, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, December 1993,

IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER 2011, art. no. pp. 3397-3415.

5910512, 2011, pp. 156-160.

349

- Handwritten Gurumukhi Character Recognition Using Zoning Density and Background Directional Distribution FeaturesUploaded byKartarsiddharth
- Brain Computer InterfaceUploaded bygauthamsagar
- Image Compression Dwt Project ReportUploaded bySIRISHASIRII
- Tutorial Phase, Polarity and the Interpreter's WaveletUploaded byAngel Saldaña
- 07058376Uploaded byKarthick Vijayan
- Machine Learning From Las VegasUploaded byfaezeh
- Ijciis May 2011 Vol. 2 No. 5Uploaded byRachel Wheeler
- Brain Hacking 1Uploaded byMahender Raj
- 25th July PresentationUploaded byVikram Shenoy Handiru
- GPY000789 GPRhsbishhbjdsaUploaded bySetiyawan Adi S
- Thought Translation DeviceUploaded byArun Sudan
- 1609.03499.pdfUploaded byAnonymous lyJsaR
- tmp31BUploaded byFrontiers
- A Fully Automated Correction Method of EOGUploaded byTekno Med
- First PaperUploaded byachaparala4499
- FYP Thesis.docxUploaded byHaris Sohail
- Solutions 3Uploaded byAnit89
- Automatic Artichoke HarvestingUploaded bySanzaChinnu
- Report of Project Rahima (1)Uploaded byShafayet Uddin
- KallweitWood SeisRes0PhaseWavelets RevisitedUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- Processing Integration of Simultaneously Acquired 3D Surface Seismic and 3D VSP DataUploaded byAndrew Kryzan
- 13-wangUploaded byMurat Çobaner
- 01571613Uploaded byRoshan Jayswal
- COMPRESSION AND DECOMPRESSION OF BIOMEDICAL SIGNALSUploaded byJames Moreno
- AWavelet-Based Framework for Face RecognitionUploaded byRaveendra Moodithaya
- SparseUploaded byCatalin Toma
- HandwrittenUploaded byprjpublications
- ex6Uploaded byBirendraKisku
- PO2015Uploaded byAnimesh Ghosh
- Fusion of Images using DWT and fDCT MethodsUploaded byIRJET Journal

- MeMeA 2012 Proceedings_OK.pdfUploaded byMarcin Kołodziej
- Comparison of EEG Signal Preprocessing Methods for SSVEP RecognitionUploaded byAnonymous jxr3gcz46A
- Automatic Detection of SSVEP Using Independent Component AnalysisUploaded byAnonymous jxr3gcz46A
- Classification of Emotions From Speech SignalUploaded byAnonymous jxr3gcz46A
- Emotion Recognition Using Facial ExpressionsUploaded byAnonymous jxr3gcz46A
- System for Automatic Heart Rate Calculation in Epileptic SeizuresUploaded byAnonymous jxr3gcz46A
- System for automatic heart rate calculation in epileptic seizures.pdfUploaded byAnonymous jxr3gcz46A
- BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE ASMEASUREMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEM.pdfUploaded byAnonymous jxr3gcz46A
- A New Method of EEG Classification for BCI_OK.pdfUploaded byMarcin Kołodziej
- Implementation of automatic feature_OK.pdfUploaded byMarcin Kołodziej

- cellandmollecularbiocatalog.pdfUploaded byphyaravi
- 10.1.1.321.8383.pdfUploaded byAhui Chung
- Spring TutorialUploaded bySabari Nathan
- geoinformatics 2006 vol04Uploaded byprotogeografo
- Doble - Martin and Moore - Boston 2013Uploaded byAmmar Khalid Mayo
- Audit EvidenceUploaded byFaten Nur Artikah
- BT0072 Computer Networks -2Uploaded byMilan Antony
- Neet Model Papers(Eenadu) (1)Uploaded byPraveen Maram
- 3 Nucleon - VRIOUploaded byVeera Karthik G
- Does Better Scheduling Execution Success WP AC Feb14Uploaded byChemical.Ali
- C Programming From Problem Analysis to Program Design by D. S. MalikUploaded byNuman Shah
- A Study on Employee Welfare of Hul CompanyUploaded by9897856218
- A Laboratory Demonstration of Coriolis Effects on Wind-Driven Ocean CurrentsUploaded byRadinal
- Astudyofdigitalmarketingservices Summerinternshipproject 141216034802 Conversion Gate01Uploaded byAndro Iglesies
- 88680711-jurnal-kinetika-kimia.pdfUploaded byjosuabutarbutar
- Time is ChangeUploaded byJaime Rodriguez
- The Political Unconscious[1].Doc2Uploaded byMohammed Jhilila
- Deloitte - Learner Centric Learning (Employee Behaviour Change)Uploaded byAndré Mauricio Freire Pires
- Product Safety Management and EngineeringUploaded bysyeda zee
- Art After Identity PoliticsUploaded byMilenaCostadeSouza
- Study the Static Stiffness of a Propeller Shaft of a Car for a Maximum Torque Load to Evaluate the Shear StressUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- Chapter 8Uploaded byDragica Marina
- Senior Embedded Software EngineerUploaded byapi-78702701
- Module 17 Asteroids.pdfUploaded byJohn Van Dave Taturo
- Afreen Hr ProjectUploaded byRuishabh Runwal
- xiscUploaded bykai pi
- Pak Acad Sci-48(1)Uploaded byzakirdahri
- 4 Software SecurityUploaded byS Teja Svi
- Economics and TOKUploaded byJaffar Abbas Ali
- IQUploaded byRomualdo Begale Prudêncio