Sie sind auf Seite 1von 75

Part G reading between the lines

A seminar for CIBSE Society of Public Health Engineers


15th October 2010 held at CIBSE, London

Brian Whorlow
BA(Hons) IEng FCIPHE

Professional Courses for Professional People


Seminar objectives
The new Part G came into force on 6th April

This seminar is not intended to be a systematic


explanation of the Approved Document G; it will
hopefully stimulate deeper thoughts about the
technical implications relating to:

Water Supply, G1 and G2

Hot Water Provision, G3

Professional Courses for Professional People


Scale reduction

1. The Domestic Heating Compliance Guide requires the


inclusion of a scale reduction device on the cold water inlet to
any type of water heater where the water hardness is above
200ppm
2. The Non-Domestic Compliance Guide does not include a
similar requirement, although this is recommended in BS 6700
for areas where the water hardness is above 200ppm
3. Suitable methods for scale reduction would involve the fitting
of either:
a) water softener (this needs to be topped-up with salt)
b) reverse osmosis unit
c) polyphosphate dosing unit (this needs to kept topped-up)
d) proprietary electro-magnetic device (requires electrical supply)
e) proprietary magnetic device (may have a limited life span)

Professional Courses for Professional People


Softened water facts
1. In addition to minimising scale during heating, a softener is
sometimes used to:
a) to improve the washing quality of the water for user comfort
b) to minimise the scale deposition on TMVs, shower outlets, etc.
2. Softeners increase the sodium level of the water; the harder the
water the more salt is required which increases the sodium level
3. If mains water had a hardness above 400 ppm and the supply had
a natural sodium level of say 25mg/l the resulting sodium level
would exceed the PCV (prescribed concentration value)
4. Water with high levels of sodium could be harmful if used when
mixing powdered milk for babies or if drunk by anyone on a sodium
controlled diet
5. There is guidance amongst health professionals that many people
should reduce their daily salt intake

Professional Courses for Professional People


ADG view of softened water supplies
Wholesome Public Water
Supply, direct from mains
of via suitable storage cistern

WRAS Fluid Water WRAS Fluid


Category 1 Softener Category 2 or 3

Sodium Sodium
level level
<200ppm >200ppm

Wholesome Wholesome Wholesome


Water Water Softened Water

Professional Courses for Professional People


Best practice: Softened water supplies

1. The Water Regulations


Guide & the DWI
Softened wholesome Raw (untreated)
water Fluid Category wholesome water
recommend that artificially
2 or 3 (depending on Fluid Category 1 softened water (irrespective
the application) of the sodium PPM level) is
not used to supply dedicated
drinking water points; and
2. It is generally considered to
Kitchen sink
be good practice that
softened cold water should
Water not be supplied to kitchen
softener sinks, ice making machines
& drink making machines;
Incoming also
wholesome
water supply

Professional Courses for Professional People


A typical direct supply RWH system
Big Society questions (also applicable to Greywater systems)
What is the running cost to the user?
What is the lifetime carbon cost and how does this compare to other options?

Rainwater system
designed to ADH3 &/or
BS EN 12056:3
Combined primary filter
tank inlet & overflow outlet

Child-proof access cover

Drainage system
designed to ADH3
Overflow drain & &/or BS EN 752
soakaway designed to
ADH3 &/or BS EN 752
Rainwater storage tank Pumped reclaimed water
designed to BS 8515 & ADH3 pipe & level control cable

Professional Courses for Professional People


Rainwater characteristics

1. UK rainwater is slightly acidic; pH 5.6


2. Average UK annual rainfall varies from 520mm to > 1250mm
3. Many densely populated areas have the least rainfall
4. Rainfall is very variable
5. Discolouration can be objectionable:
a) some metal roofing materials (e.g. blue water from copper
roofing)
b) cast iron pipes (red water from rust)
c) green roofs (brown water due to decaying vegetation)
d) bitumen roofs (of yellow water)
6. Contamination can include leaves, grit, lichen, bird droppings,
trace elements (e.g. lead from lead flashings)

Professional Courses for Professional People


Rainwater catchment considerations
1. For flat roofs CIRIA* recommend
1:50 min gradient; rather than the
standard 1:80
2. Yield area should be based on plan
dimensions of pitched roofs
3. For maximum yield, use roofing with
low absorption (metal, plastics &
slate are good), whereas
Clay tiles = 3 to 9%
Concrete tiles = 10 to 16%
4. Some filter systems prior to storage
discard a percentage of the
rainwater; some do not
5. Where rainwater is to be treated and
used as wholesome water, check to
ensure no toxic leaching e.g. lead
6. To reduce maintenance no trees should be close to the roof, some USA Codes
require no trees higher than the lowest roof surface if within 6m radius
7. Filter maintenance can be reduced by using devices such as gutter guards or
proprietary gutter shields to reduce the accumulation of debris

*CIRIA C539 Rainwater and greywater use in buildings Best practice guidance

Professional Courses for Professional People


Rainwater storage calculations
BS 8515 Design Simplified Intermediate Detailed
Application For normal dwellings For dwellings Any building
Method Use Fig 3 based on The lesser of either Use a computer model
occupancy 5% yield or demand based on 5 years span
Account for appliance
design e.g. flush volume
Account for seasonal
demand variation

Awareness of make-up
& waste volume
e.g. Cambridge house 650mm/yr from Fig 2 From a 5 year model the
90m roof, 4 people, 4L From Fig 3c = 2.2m 4 x 4.42 x 4 x 365 x most appropriate size =
single flush WCs = 2,200 Litres 0.05 = 1,291 Litres 1,500 Litres

Several research papers suggest that many


storage arrangements have been over-sized

Professional Courses for Professional People


Preventing decaying rainwater odour

BS 8515 (clause
4.7.2, Note)
Back-up wholesome
water supply recommends the
use of a waterless
trap on the tundish
Air gap tundish outlet
with air closure
device on outlet
The use of HepVO
might be
considered to be
Harvested rainwater
appropriate
storage tank

Professional Courses for Professional People


Distribution piping for reclaimed water
The pH of RW in the UK is typically 5.6, so should copper pipes be specified?

Avoid Use
CDA pH 8.0 is ideal for copper, but BS 8515 . . . system should be able
TN33 Rainwater
(1988)
if pH is 6 - 6.5 or less Harvestin
to withstand pH levels as
treatment should be used. A g (2009) low as 5 . . .
low pH will increase the risk Copper to BS EN 1057 may
of cupro-solvency be used
CIRIA Copper piping is not BS 8525 Copper to BS EN 1057 may
C539 Greywater
(2001)
recommended for rainwater Systems
be used
and greywater (2010)
BSRIA, PH Check that copper & The UK Standards are based on
Design
Checks
galvanised steel pipes are experience in Germany that the actual
(2006) not used pH of collected RW is naturally
reduced by contact with other
materials & storage time

Professional Courses for Professional People


Greywater facts
1. Greywater is normally considered to mean wastewater from any sanitary
appliance except: WCs, urinals, kitchen sinks & macerators
2. Greywater will be available as long as the building is occupied, and is not
dependant on weather conditions (unlike RWH systems)
3. Greywater may contain human bacteria, viruses, skin particles, hair, nail
clippings, soap residue, detergents & possibly traces of faecal matter
4. There is mixed opinion on whether a bathroom WB should discharge to a
grey water recycling system, this is because a WB can receive;
toothpaste
shaving foam & hair particles (male & female)
vomit
hair dye
remnants of tea, coffee & other drinks
paint & adhesive washed off decorating equipment; (many are now water based)
5. It is preferable not to store greywater for long periods, this will minimise
bacterial growth
6. Treatment can be simple localised packaged units or remote central units

Professional Courses for Professional People


Local greywater unit - simple concept
This example is the W+W manufactured
by Roca
The unit has user control which allows
either normal discharge to drain or
recycle mode (it is recommended that
normal is discharge is selected
during/after tooth brushing or shaving
The unit incorporates a back-up water
supply, simple mesh filter & bleach
dosing
There is no automatic drain; so it is
necessary for the user to empty the
greywater storage tank by consecutive
flushing if they into to vacate the
property
Maintenance consists of;
remove & flush the filter, e.g. every 2 weeks
top-up the bleach tank, e.g. every 4 weeks

Professional Courses for Professional People


Local greywater unit - packaged unit
This example is the Ecoplay manufactured by CME
Sanitary Systems Ltd (the manufacturer
recommends that WBs are not connected)
Normally located on the floor below the bathroom,
grey water is fed to the WC by gravity & can be
pumped to feed the WC above
Wastewater enters a cleaning tank, which allows
light waste products to be skimmed off the surface,
whilst heavier ones sink to the bottom.
100L capacity tank
Back-up water supply provided
Empties every 24 hours to minimise deterioration of
water.
A manual control allows the tank to be emptied if the
contents become contaminated, e.g. hair dye
Where the unit is on the same floor level as the
bath/shower a separate pump unit can be used to lift
the wastewater into the top of the unit
Disinfecting is recommended every 12 months

Professional Courses for Professional People


Remote greywater unit treatment tank
1. This example is the Vado unit
manufactured by Hydrocyc UK
2. The unit is located on the floor
below the sanitary fittings
3. The manufacturer does not
recommended that discharge
from a WB is excluded
4. Routine maintenance:
a) Monthly check biocide level
b) Quarterly remove strainer &
flush-out
c) Annually Check location of
glass beads within the unit &
check level controls within
grey water storage cistern
5. What is reasonable for a user
to maintain? What about those
who are less able?
6. A greater risk of inferior
sanitary pipework layout?

Professional Courses for Professional People


Stagnant water & waste precautions
1. Systems have back-up wholesome
RW Gravity Tank water, so means to minimise the effect
on water quality should be considered:
SINGLE
CHECK a) Does the control system allow weekly
VALVE mains water flushing?
Warning Pipe
IV b) Can the routing of the pipe avoid warm
areas such as airing cupboards?
c) Can the stagnant water volume be
reduced by altering the pipe layout?
d) Provide single check valve on mains
2. BS 8525-1 (Greywater) covers (b) - (d),
Reclaimed Water see Clause 4.71, but there is no
Supply to WCs mention within BS 8515 (RWH)
3. Many Water Companies now insist on
whole-site protection (DCV on
incoming supply)
4. On direct systems with underground
Control storage, if the mains back-up infill valve
System fails to close, the overflow would be
DOUBLE
unseen, so the Standards require the
CHECK
provision of a user warning signal
VALVE 5. Consider: What will happen if the infill
SC controls fail & the water level reaches
the Type AB air gap?

Professional Courses for Professional People


Stand-by provisions
1. Both the RWH & Greywater Standards
require a back-up water supply
Wholesome water 2. On normal boosted water supplies it is
solenoid valve should be standard practice to specify standby
open on failure, allowing pumps & sometimes standby power
floatvalve to control inflow
3. There is no Regulation about back-up
Indirect Supply System: 24 hr provision power supplies for pumps, although
(no standby pumping or back power supply) clause B.6 in BS 6700 recommends it,
where prudent

Will the WC cistern


4. As Part H requires provision for 24hrs
have two supplies*
usage where wastewater is pumped;
(with Type AB air gap) 5. Therefore for some buildings it is
or will an interposed logical that reclaimed water systems
cistern be required? should be able to supply WCs during
pump or mains power failure for 24 hrs
although this may not be happening
in many direct supply systems!

Direct Supply System: 24 hr provision


(no standby pumping or back power supply) *WRAS WFR Update July 2010

Professional Courses for Professional People


Identification external buried piping

The RWH & Greywater Standards make no reference


to buried pipes
For MDPE distribution pipes WRAS states that BLUE
piping should not be used; pipes should be Black &
have Green stripes plus the words Reclaimed Water
at regular intervals
For collection systems PVCu pipes should be Brown
drainage pipes; although marking of pipes may not be
considered necessary, marking of entry points (e.g.
inspection chambers should be considered)

Professional Courses for Professional People


Identification internal collection piping
BS 8515 Rainwater (guidance only provided for distribution pipes)

BS 8525:1 Greywater (markings at 0.5m intervals)

GREYWATER
BATHROOM

100mm (Min)

WRAS 0-02-05 (non-dwellings & large buildings)

RECLAIMED RECLAIMED
WATER WATER

150mm (Min) 100mm (Min) 150mm (Min)

Professional Courses for Professional People


Identification internal distribution piping
BS 8515 Rainwater (markings at 0.5m intervals)

RAINWATER

100mm (Min)

BS 8525:1 Greywater (markings at 0.5m intervals)

GREYWATER
BATHROOM

100mm (Min)

WRAS 0-02-05 (non-dwellings & large buildings)


RECLAIMED RECLAIMED
WATER WATER

150mm (Min) 100mm (Min) 150mm (Min)

Professional Courses for Professional People


Pipe marking - conclusions

The 0.5m intervals mentioned in the RWH &


Greywater Standards appear to be based on
installations in dwellings where marking
between every floor joist is sensible, but 0.5m
marking intervals in commercial buildings is
excessive
The term Reclaimed Water suggested by
WRAS is non-specific & not reliable for large
buildings where both RWH and Greywater
systems might be installed
Greater universal clarity is required

Professional Courses for Professional People


Markings at the point of use
Both the RWH & Greywater Standards require marking at the
point of use
at all bib taps
on appliances or at local valves serving these
The marking should comprise of wording or a prohibition sign
Examples of wording
WC CISTERN
Non-potable water: RAINWATER
WC CISTERN
Non-potable water: GREYWATER

There seems to be a difference of opinion within the water industry: Non-potable or


Not Suitable for Drinking
Which gives clarity to the widest population range?

Professional Courses for Professional People


Cross connections
1. Earlier this year in Upton*, Northamptonshire, on a 550 house
development, cross-connections were found between the RWH
system and the wholesome water system in 87 properties;
a) cross connections fitted with isolating valves
b) the valve was found to be open in 3 properties
c) in one of these properties, a water sample indicated <100/100ml E.coli
& coliforms (the occupier had been complaining of foul smelling water
at taps)
d) labelling/identification infringements were found in 134 properties
e) some of the housing management companies were not aware that the
properties had RWH systems installed
2. Both the RWH & Greywater Standards state that a connectivity test
should be undertaken, use of coloured water is recommended
3. The owner & end-user should be provided with a guidance notice
about the system . . .

*Refer to www.dwi.gov.uk

Professional Courses for Professional People


User guide recycled water
An example record
continuation
RECYCLED WATER NOTICE
Guidance for the installer: This form should be Source of alternative Rainwater from roofs
completed by the installer and given to the property supply:
owner together with maintenance advice. Size of recycled 2,000L
water storage tank:
Guidance for the property owner: The water supply in this
property is supplemented by a recycled water system. Location of recycled Buried underground in
This arrangement is in accordance with Building water storage tank: rear garden
Regulations that are designed to reduce consumption Appliances fed with WC in cloakroom
of public water systems. The recycled water system recycled water: Washing machine in
should be maintained in accordance with the
utility room
manufacturers and/or installers guidance which
should be attached. WC in main bathroom
WC in en-suite bathroom
Property: 222 Balham High Road,
Balham Additional user guidance: In the event that the recycled
water supply becomes exhausted, the system will
Installer: XXXXXX Plumbing Ltd,
automatically revert to the public water supply. The
Balham
recycled water system should not be altered to supply
Completion date: 15th October 2010 water to any other appliances.

Professional Courses for Professional People


Requirements for water efficiency
G2. Reasonable provision must be made by the installation of fittings
and fixed appliance that use water efficiently for the prevention of
undue consumption of water.

A Local Planning Authority can require water efficiency targets in


excess of the minimum statutory level, their policy should be set-out
within their LDF (Local Development Framework)

STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS


FOR DWELLINGS SUSTAINABLE HOMES MIN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

17K; in essence: The Code for Sustainable Homes; BREEAM (or similar
theoretical consumption of in essence: Credits are awarded environmental assessment
water for each new dwelling based on the theoretical method): Credits are
must not exceed 125 consumption of water for each awarded based on the
L/person/day. new dwelling, which must not design features &/or the
exceed 120, 110, 105, 90 or 80 theoretical water
L/p/day. consumption

Professional Courses for Professional People


Water efficiency - performance
1. The water efficiency of the installation shall take account of
any alternative water sources
2. The sanitary appliances & white goods used in the water
efficiency calculation shall correspond to those installed
3. Any alternative water sources shall comply with the
respective Standards and requirements
4. A record of any alternative water source used to meet the
water efficiency target should be provided together with any
relevant information that will enable the building
owner/occupier to maintain the efficiency of the system
5. A record of the installed sanitary appliances & white goods
should be provided together with any relevant information
that will enable the building owner/occupier to maintain the
efficiency of the system . . .

Professional Courses for Professional People


User guide water efficiency

An example record
continuation
WATER EFFICIENCY NOTICE
Guidance for the installer: This form should be APPLIANCE TYPE AND RATING
completed by the installer and given to the property Kitchen sink 12 Lpm Flow limiters
owner.
Dishwasher Not supplied
Guidance for the property owner: The water using
appliances in this property were selected in Washing machine Not supplied
accordance with Building Regulations that are Cloaks WC Armitage Accolade 3/6L
designed improve water efficiency and reduce
consumption. If any of the appliances are replaced or Cloaks WB Grohe Allure 6 Lpm
serviced, the work should be done in a manner that
Main bathroom; Twyfords Signature
does not adversely affect the listed values.
bath 145 L capacity
Property: 222 Balham High Road,
Balham Main bathroom, Twyfords Galerie
WC Dual flush 4.0/2.6 L
Installer: XXXXXX Plumbing Ltd,
Balham Main bathroom, Grohe Allure 6 Lpm
WB
Completion date: 15th October 2010

Professional Courses for Professional People


The Water Efficiency Calculator

Originally issued May 2009


Amended version issued September 2009
A printed copy is available to download on
the CLG website
An automatic online calculator is available
on the WRc website

Professional Courses for Professional People


An example of a tap with integral
flow restrictor

Image: Grohe Allure Monobloc


wash basin mixer 32146 000

Professional Courses for Professional People


Flow regulator options

Tap spout regulator Tap in-tail regulator Tap tail extension regulator
Aquaflow Regulators Ltd Deva Taps Aquaflow Regulators Ltd

Valve regulator
Coupling regulator
Cottom & Preedy CP961
Aquaflow Regulators Ltd

Professional Courses for Professional People


Functional requirements: Kitchen sinks
The assumption that the user can rely
on running water for all tasks is not
valid!
Some guidance suggests that a
kitchen sink tap having a reduced flow
as low as 4 Lpm would be satisfactory!
Many water saving tips issued by
various Water Companies recommend
that vegetables should be washed in a
bowl; not under running water
The typical capacity of a domestic sink
is 10 L, which should be filled in a
reasonable time
BS 6700 recommends a min design
flow of 0.2 L/s (12 Lpm) to enable the
sink to be filled, and to allow a
Photo: Brian Whorlow cleaning bucket or a large saucepan to
be filled in a reasonable time

Professional Courses for Professional People


Functional considerations: Wash basins
Conserving Water in buildings* suggests that a 8, 6 or 5 Lpm flow
restrictor will provide plenty of flow for direct use or filling a small basin

Basin type BS 6465 More likely Approx BS 6700 L/s Equivalent Functional
sizes min sizes volume design flow flow Lpm result
Domestic bathroom 700 x 600 600 x 450 6.0 L 0.15 9.0 Gives 40 sec
fill which may
Small non-domestic 600 x 450 500 x 400 4.5 L 0.10 6.0 be considered
Hand rinse only 500 x 400 350 x 260 2.0 L 0.05 3.0 as the max.

Filling a wash basin for washing is necessary where:


The basin is fitted with separate pillar taps, and so the user needs to mix
the hot & cold water in the basin
The user requires a strip-wash because of their medical state
The user is having a wet shave
A basin that is only provided for hand washing (e.g. adjacent to a WC)
may be provided with spray taps, but the delivery time of hot water
should be considered, particularly prior to conversion work (some tap
nozzles can be converted to spray nozzles)

* A practical guide, published by the Environment Agency (2007)

Professional Courses for Professional People


Aerated outlets

These outlets have venturis which are designed to induce air


& mix it with the water
This can have a slight cooling effect on the water
Aerated flow technology is ideal for a shower head, as it will
give the impression of an increased body of water compared
to a standard shower head
Taps where the user washes under a running stream of
water are also an effective use of aerated flow technology
These type of outlets may have increased service
requirements to remove scale deposition in hard water areas

Professional Courses for Professional People


Bath water efficiency

1. The water capacity of a bath is


dependant on its size and its
internal design shape
2. Traditional bath capacity can vary
from 160 200L
3. The Water Calculator requires the
capacity to the overflow level to be
stated (with no immersed body)
4. Normal baths (1700mm long) are
available with a capacity of less
than 150 L
5. There is no need to restrict the
flowrate of taps as the purpose of
Image: Twyford Signature bath,
capacity 140 L to overflow the taps is to fill the bath, although
low flow bath taps are marketed
by some companies

Professional Courses for Professional People


WC water efficiency
1. The Water Regulations require that WCs
should have either:
a) single flush using 6L; or
b) dual flush using no more than 6L for the
larger flush
Image:
Twyford Galerie
Flushwise
2. Therefore most conventional products
Dual flush have a 6 L single flush, or a 6/4 L or 6/3
4.0 / 2.6 L
L dual flush
3. WCs with low flush volumes are
increasingly becoming available:
a) Dual 4.0/2.6 L flush
b) Dual 4.5/3 L flush
Image: c) Single 4.5 or 4.0 L flush
Ideal Standard
Water Saving CC 4. WCs are available in other countries
Sandringham
S426201 Cistern
which operate on less than 4L
S426301 Valve

Professional Courses for Professional People


WC flush volume comparisons

Flush Average flush volume (L) Usage


Volume L/p/day*
Single 6L = 6.00 26.52
Dual 6 / 4L (6 x 0.33) + (4 x 0.67) = 4.66 20.60
Single 4.5L = 4.50 19.80
Single 4L = 4.00 17.68
Dual 6 / 3L (6 x 0.33) + (3 x 0.67) = 3.99 17.64
Dual 4.5 / 3L (4.5 x 0.33) + (3 x 0.33) = 3.468 15.33
Dual 4 / 2.6L (4 x 0.33) + (2.6 x 0.67) = 3.062 13.54
Single 3L = 3.00 13.26
Note*: Based on 4.42 usage factor within the CLG Water Efficiency Calculator

Professional Courses for Professional People


WC usage: Functional thoughts
1. The move away from siphon flush control to drop valves
means there is now a reliance on a mechanical seal to
prevent leakage of water from the cistern into the pan
a) It is interesting to note that the siphon operated cistern was
originally called a WWP.
2. Evidence from water companies shows that leakage from valves
is already becoming a serious problem.*
3. From a sample of over 500 homes investigated* (because of
high water usage) 31 were found to be caused by a leaking drop
valve on a WC. This had resulted in an average 370 being
added to the each bill over a 6 months.
4. Regulations require 20,000 cycle flush testing (about 10 years
use), but premature leakage from drop valves can be caused by;
a) installation debris - perhaps we need to adopt more stringent onsite
QA measurers?
b) scale deposition - is scale reduction more relevant today than in the
past?
c) particles within the water supply this could be more of a problem
when recycled water systems are incorrectly designed or maintained.

Images: CME Ltd


*Environment Agency (Nov 2009, online) Toilets

Professional Courses for Professional People


WC leak detection

Is the use of an alarm the future, to


detect float valve leakage in;
commercial buildings, and
homes for disabled people, and
homes for elderly use, and
similar applications?
How can we detect flush valve leakage?
maybe we need an automated system
which isolates the water supply during no
demand (e.g. at night) & checks the
Image: WC Overflow Detection System, cistern water level after a few hours?
Dart Valley Systems Ltd The above thoughts could result in less
close-coupled cisterns being used and
more concealed cisterns in the future!

Professional Courses for Professional People


Water efficiency anomalies
1. There is no requirement to apply the Water Efficiency calculator to
a fully refurbished single dwelling
2. The use of click stop or water break design taps is taken as full
flow; i.e. their effect is ignored.
3. Although taps on pressurised systems are assumed to operate at 3
bar, there is no requirement or mention of PRVs to limit pressure
4. There is no account taken for the location of flow limiters, i.e. one
on each hot & cold inlet or one on the mixed outlet
5. The information required for water softeners is very difficult to
obtain from manufacturers
6. There is no allowance for:
a) Piped irrigation systems or decorative ponds; they would be deemed to
part of the 5 L per person allowance for external water use
b) The official guide states that Jacuzzis can be ignored because they are
not filled on a daily basis; its odd to see a brand name used, this
company produces both hot tubs & baths so the meaning is unclear
c) Swimming pools; located inside or outside
d) Turkish baths (steam rooms)

Professional Courses for Professional People


Winning conditions
M M M

Water efficiency Water efficiency Water efficiency


Regs / Codes Regs / Codes Regs / Codes

Reclaimed Reclaimed
Rainwater Greywater

User: Enjoys reduced water supply & wastewater charges


Water Company: Less water to supply & less wastewater to receive

Professional Courses for Professional People


General DHW requirements
1. Heated wholesome water must be provided to any
a) Wash basin or bidet located in or adjacent to a WC
b) Wash basin, bidet, bath or shower located in a bathroom
c) Any sink located where food is prepared
2. The hot water system including any vessel & associated cistern must be
fail-safe. Able to resist the effects of high temp / pressure that could occur
during normal use or anticipated during any malfunction
3. A hot water storage vessel shall incorporate precautions to ensure that;
a) the stored water temp does not exceed 100C
b) the temperature of hot water distributed from a storage vessel does not exceed
80C
c) the discharge from any safety device does not cause a danger
4. The hot water supply to any bath (in a new dwelling) shall be arranged to
prevent the delivered water temp from exceeding 48C

Professional Courses for Professional People


DHW safety improvements
Minimum height V of Recent tragic failures have resulted
open vent pipe above
overflow level (m)
led the following changes to ADG:
Open vent pipe of adequate size (19mm
min ID) terminates over feed cistern All vented systems have
V
Overflow measures to prevent the
pipe malfunction temp exceeding
100C
Cistern outlet to DHW
vessel should be All immersion heaters must
located slightly higher comply with BS EN 60335-2-73
than the CWDS outlet (2003), which requires they
have a non-resetting
450mm (min) thermostatic cut-out in addition
to the normal thermostatic
V = (H x 0.04) + 0.15
control
e.g. If H = 4.5m:
V = (4.5 x 0.04) + 0.15
Drawing attention to the need
V = 0.33m (min) H (m) for cistern support
Drawing attention to the need
for correct vent piping

Professional Courses for Professional People


Domestic hot water combination units
This cold feed cistern will never
collapse, but boiling water could
spill-out inside the property how?

Solvent weld PVC or push-fit PP


warning pipes should not be used
on combination units

Photos: Brian Whorlow

Professional Courses for Professional People


Control safety - vented DHW vessels

a.i.) Direct heat source a.ii.) Indirect heat source b.) Uncontrolled heat source
e.g. Immersion heater, integral e.g. Heated by primary hot water e.g. Heated by a solid fuel boiler,
gas fired or oil fired burner coil fed from a boiler such as coal or wood
Safety requirements: A non- Safety requirements: An overheat Safety requirements: A temp relief
self-setting energy cut-out to stop the supply of heat valve or a combined temp &
cut-out to prevent excessive to prevent excessive overheating, pressure relief valve discharge
overheating this may be included on the boiler safely via a tundish

Professional Courses for Professional People


Distribution safety DHW temperature
DHW Cold G.3.63 requires that a DHW
Feed system does not distribute
water at a temp that could be
DHW open vent dangerous.
(if applicable) The system should incorporate
a tempering valve (mixing
DHW supply to valve) whenever the normal
building at
operating conditions could
T produce a water storage
60C temperature over 80C.
T
The valve should comply with
BS EN 15092.
DHW return circuit This is most likely to apply to
T
(if applicable) solid fuel systems
Over solar heated systems
80C Caution: Someone could
(wrongly) assume that this
suggests that storing &
distributing water at up to 79C
is acceptable

Professional Courses for Professional People


Typical Unvented arrangement

Temperature &
pressure relief valve

Check Expansion
valve vessel Storage
heater

Tundish
PRV (if
required)
Expansion D2 discharge pipe to
relief valve safe drainage point
Mains fed or
boosted water Note: For commercial work, a dual inlet
expansion vessel might be preferred
supply

Professional Courses for Professional People


Changes for Unvented DHW Systems
WARNING TO USER
a. Do not remove or adjust any component
part of this unvented water heater;
1. Installer should be competent, but
contact the installer. only CPS registrants can self-certify
b. If this unvented water heater develops a work
fault, such as a flow of hot water from
the discharge pipe, switch the heater off 2. Suitable plastics may be used for
and contact the installer. D2 discharge pipes such as piping
WARNING TO INSTALLER to PB or PE-X to Class S of BS
a. This is subject to Building Regulations. 7291
b. Use only installation appropriate
components for installation or
3. D2 discharge pipes may connect to
maintenance. a sanitary discharge stack providing;
Installed by: a) a mechanical seal is used; not a
Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . water seal trap
Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . b) Stack can withstand the temp.
Completion date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Every vessel should have a label as
shown opposite, the bottom label is
CAUTION
This heater should be serviced annually by not a recommendation in ADG
a competent person

Professional Courses for Professional People


Self-sealing valve certified for UVHWS
No waste water flow Waste water flow

Appliance outlet

Valve closed HepvO Valve open


Elastomeric tubular
membrane seal
inside a white
polypropylene body

Waste pipe

Professional Courses for Professional People


Joining D2 pipes to a sanitary stack
1. The branch pipe must be independent
i.e. not serve any sanitary appliances
D1 pipe Sanitary
2. The pipe may be metal or a suitable
stack plastics (BRE recommends PP, but ADG
mentions PB & PE-X)
Tundish lip 3. PP piping needs close support (300mm
centres) in order to maintain 1: 200
gradient when in use (5mm per m)
4. HepvO must be installed upright, with
Not less 300mm (min) vertical drop
than 300mm 5. Tundish must not be lowest overflow
level of appliances using the same stack
6. Tundish should be easily visible e.g. from
airing cupboard doorway; not located in
D2 pipe an area accessed only for maintenance
7. G3.60 The discharge pipe should not be
connected to a soil discharge stack
300mm unless it can be demonstrated that . . .
(it is) . . capable of safely withstanding
temperatures of the water discharged . .

Note: Item 5 and 5 are not mentioned in the ADG

Professional Courses for Professional People


Fearful Public information Relaxed

A thermal store Several plastics bre - IP 8/07 Hepworth


manufacturer manufacturers
(published by UKAS HepvO manufacturer
accredited body)
Various bulletins and PVCu can withstand a A discharge pipe from Can be connected to a
press releases have continuous flow temp of an UVHWS may be ventilated stack
stated that a discharge 70C. Higher connected to a PVCu providing the P&T relief
pipe from an UVHWS intermittent discharges stack providing it is valve does not exceed
should NOT discharge of up to 95C may be traditionally vented; not DN20.
to a plastic soil pipes accommodated provided fitted with an AAV (air No mention about the
because they are unable the discharge does not admittance valve), and stack material; so the
to withstand the temp. exceed two minutes providing the unit size implication is that PVCu
This could be 300 litres duration. does not exceed 210 is acceptable.
of water at 95C over a litres.
20 minute period.
This scenario is Similar guidance in There is no mention about consideration of the
applicable to a large given by some HDPE temp rating of the P&T relief valve; ie 90C rather
storage volume, and manufacturers; some than 95C
where the P&T relief state 90 as the limit,
valve is rated at 95C but often no mention of
flow rate or duration.

Professional Courses for Professional People


Typical failure mode - domestic UVHWS

A typical 120L unvented cylinder with 3kW input


operating in a cyclic failure mode with a P&T
relief valve rated at 95C (many are 90C)
Average discharge volume per cycle = 20L
Average duration of discharge = 120s
Average flow rate = 0.17L/s
Min duration between discharge = 12 mins
Note: The larger the unit and/or larger the
heat input; the greater the discharge volume
and/or frequency of discharge

Professional Courses for Professional People


PVCu stack Standards
Although ring seals are typically
EPDM and able to withstand high
temp, it is also necessary to
consider the conditions that will
cause the pipe to deform, the
safe limit can be considered to be
the manufacturers test;
Image: Hepworth

The BS EN 1329 factory test method for PVCu


systems includes the following:
hot water temp = 93 2C
water volume per cycle = 30 0.5 L
rest period between each hot/cold cycle = 60 2 secs
duration of each discharge = 60 2 secs
approx flow rate 0.5L/s

Professional Courses for Professional People


G3 discharge to a PVCu sanitary stack
1. After considering all known facts, discharging to a PVCu stack
might be considered acceptable where the following can be met:
a) The UVHWS unit should not exceed 210L (BRE); and in addition;
any direct heat source should not exceed 3kW
the P&T valve must be of adequate size which should not exceed G
and should be rated at 90C (some are rated at 95C)
b) The stack is traditionally vented; not fitted with an AAV (BRE), this is
because the discharge from a G P&T valve into a 100mm stack
will only result in an annular thickness of less than 2mm, therefore
natural cooling will occur, however additional precautions might also
include at least one storey height between the stack connection and;
any stack offset below; or
the drain connection.
2. Where the above conditions cannot be met, the whole stack or
the section of the stack between the UVHWS connection and the
drain connection may need to be piped in an alternative material

Professional Courses for Professional People


PB or PE-X to Class S, BS 7291
Considerations for use as D2 piping:
Piping is flexible & needs very
close support to maintain true
gradient at high temp
Pipe bore is much smaller than
copper therefore G3, Table 1 is not
relevant, e.g;
22mm copper = 20mm I.D.
Image: Typical BS 7291 22mm PB = 18mm I.D.
components
22mm PB pipe support sleeves
used at pipe joints are 14.5mm I.D.
Bends are not swept and are 90
All joints can rotate, and some can
be easily de-mounted, so pipework
is not naturally secure without
brackets
How can the allowable length &
Image: 32mm Polypropylene number of bends be assessed?
waste piping

Professional Courses for Professional People


Safeguarding DHW ablutionary temp

Thermostatic control requirements


Application Appliance England & Wales Scotland
Dwellings: Bath
Bidet
Buildings
other than a
Bath
dwelling, Bidet

e.g. hotel: Shower

Professional Courses for Professional People


TMVs: True of false?
TMVs will guarantee that the temperature of the
delivered hot water is not excessively hot

True, providing the following


conditions are met:
TMVs are not a 1. TMV has been correctly
fit and forget installed & commissioned
product! 2. TMV is correctly subjected to
regular routine service
3. DHW supply temp is correct
August 2007: 4. Cold water flow rate is stable
Yelena, an 18 year old disabled teenager
was left in excruciating pain after being
lowered into a bath in a care home . . .
She died in hospital 4 days later

Professional Courses for Professional People


TMV operational considerations
1. TMVs have previously been used on commercial installations, typically
where the water services are relatively stable in terms of temp & flow; this
does not always apply in dwellings
2. In order to control the mixed water temp TMVs require a 55C min temp &
a min temp difference of not less than 10C between the DHW supply &
the set point in order to operate correctly.
a) Many combi-boilers have a 40-60C user control
3. TMVs require an adequate cold water flow rate in order to control the
mixed water temp, if the TMV is starved of cold water (without actual
failure), then the TMV may allow the mixed water temp to rise to the reach
the min temp difference of the TMV.
a) Cold water supplies need to be properly designed, if necessary using flow
restrictors to prevent water starvation
4. TMVs need to be properly commissioned & annually serviced
a) Part G does NOT require the issue of a user guidance note
b) In dwellings TMVs could become a fit & forget device
c) Maintenance will be more relevant in hard water areas
d) TMV safety could be compromised by DIY servicing, e.g. householder removes
blocked filters

Professional Courses for Professional People


TMVs Specifiers considerations
1. Is the performance OK, such as?
a) BS EN 1111, and/or BS EN 1287, and/or TMV2/TMV3
b) Working pressure & flow rate
2. Does it have flat face unions on the inlets to enable easy
removal for intensive servicing or replacement?
3. Does it have an integral check valves on each inlet?
a) if not pipeline check valves will be required
4. Does it have integral strainers?
a) If so can they be easily removed for cleaning?
b) If the answer is no to both aspects above, then fitting a pipeline
strainer to each water supply should be considered.
5. Does it have isolating valves fitted as standard or available as
an optional extra? - If not provide pipeline isolating valves
6. Does the temperature adjustment have a temperature scale to
assist commissioning?

Professional Courses for Professional People


TMV components
TMV

NRV NRV

STR STR
IV IV

Mixed
water
outlet
Hot Cold
water water Typical TMV internals
inlet inlet
Notes:
1. Valves may be part of TMV assembly
2. Outlet port is normally central, but some
products are designed as end outlet

Professional Courses for Professional People


TMV installation considerations
1. TMVs should be located as close
Access? to the taps as possible; not further
than 2m
2. Each assembly should be provided
with isolating valves & check valves
3. TMVs should be located in a
readily accessible position to
facilitate annual safety checks
4. If the valve is installed under a
bath, has the location and
orientation of the TMV been
considered?
5. During initial system flushing, how
will this be done without blocking
the strainers? Pipeline strainers
may be easily cleaned-out
afterwards, but integral strainers
Image: Reliance Water Controls Ltd
may be difficult.

Professional Courses for Professional People


User guide (not mentioned in ADG)
An example record

BATH WATER SAFETY GUIDE


Guidance for the installer: This form should be
continuation
completed by the installer and given to the property
owner.
Date of initial 15th October 2010
Guidance for the property owner: The bath identified on commissioning:
this form has been fitted with a thermostatic device to
Classification of BS EN 1111
prevent excessively high temperature hot water being
delivered. This device is fitted for the benefit of user
safety device: BS EN 1287
safety, and should be inspected annually by a person TMV2
who is competent in plumbing technology. The Manufacturer & RWC Ltd
annual inspection should be documented for future model reference: Heatguard DC2
reference.
222 Balham High Road, Device location: Behind bath panel
Property:
Balham Outlet 45 deg C
Bath location: Main bathroom temperature:
Installer: XXXXXX Plumbing Ltd,
Balham

Professional Courses for Professional People


Energy efficiency
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 2002/91/EC
requires all member states to promote energy efficiency
Building Regulations for England & Wales
Domestic applications (dwellings) Non-domestic (commercial) buildings
Approved Document Part L1 A&B Approved Document Part L2 A&B
Domestic Heating Compliance Non-Domestic Heating, Cooling
Guide and Ventilation Compliance Guide
Scale reduction required if water Scale reduction not mentioned, but is
hardness exceeds 200ppm recommended in BS 6700
Max heat loss imposed for secondary Max heat loss imposed for secondary
pipework circuits pipework circuits
DHW storage heated primarily by DHW storage heated primarily by
electricity should have 2 elements; the electricity should have 2 elements; the
lower being off-peak lower being off-peak

Professional Courses for Professional People


Hot water saving = energy saving

1. Guidance from many Water Companies includes:


a) Turn-off whilst brushing teeth
b) Wash vegetables in a bowl; not under running
water
2. Should we design our systems, so these types of
savings could be extended to other functions?

Professional Courses for Professional People


Showering: energy saving potential
1. A Waterwise (2009) review found the average duration of showering is:
a) 6.93 mins for weekday use
b) 7.59 mins for weekend use
2. If we are serious about maximising water savings, then we need to stop
the water during lathering-up. An example of the potential saving is:
a) Assume a 25 sec wash @ 0.12 L/s = 3.0 L warm water wasted per shower!
b) 3.0 L x 0.75 = 2.25 L of hot water, therefore 0.088 kWh wasted per shower
(based on 0.039 kWh/L for a central gas fired supply)
3. Conclusion: Users need an on/off 40 W 40 W
water control that is easy to use with a
wet soapy hand (a bath/shower
diverter is not helpful); this will help to
produce water & energy savings
Saving for one hour
References:
1. Waterwise (2009) The Water and Energy Implications of Bathing and Showering Behaviours and Technologies
2. Waterwise East (2010) Water efficiency in new developments: A best practice guide

Professional Courses for Professional People


Hand washing: energy saving potential
Consider hand washing under
running water:
If we are serious about maximising
water savings, then we need to
stop the water flow during
lathering-up. An example of the
potential saving is: 30 W
Assume a 10 second wash @ 0.1
L/s = 1.0 L of warm water wasted Saving for
per wash! one hour
1.0 L x 0.75 = 0.75 L of hot water,
therefore 0.03kWh wasted (based
on 0.039 kWh/L for a central gas
fired supply)
3. Conclusion: Users need an infra-red
electronic (touch free) tap if hand
washing under running water; this will
help to produce water & energy savings
References:
1. Waterwise East (2010) Water efficiency in new developments: A best practice guide

Professional Courses for Professional People


Baths: energy saving potential
1. A Waterwise Review* reported on a survey which
found that about 32% of households used their
bath rarely or never (preferring to shower)
a) It might be reasonable to assume that the
percentage would be higher if it was possible to
exclude households having infants
2. This suggests there are many households that
have a bath which is rarely or never used:
3. If these households have a hot water storage
system designed to meet the peak demand arising
at bath time, then it will be operating in an
inefficient manner throughout most of its life.
There are two sensible options to address this
problem;
a) do not include a bath if the user does not intend to
use it, and reduce the DHW storage; or
Image source: b) where a bath is provided consider a non-storage hot
Albion Cylinders water system, or provide controls enabling the
volume of heated hot water to be varied from full to
part storage volume.
Reference:
*Waterwise (2009) The Water and Energy Implications of Bathing and Showering Behaviours and Technologies

Professional Courses for Professional People


DHW flow reduction functional issues
Flow limiter on mixer inlets

Consider the minimum flow


required to initiate combi
3 3 boilers & instantaneous water
Lpm Lpm heaters:
May initiate heating providing When the unit incorporates a
scale build-up does not further small stored reserve of hot
reduce the flow water & the heat input is
controlled via a temp sensor
Flow limiter on mixer outlet no problem should arise; but
Assume 40C When the heat input is
set by user 3 Lpm
activated via a flow sensor the
required minimum flow is
50C 10C typically 2 3 Lpm (through
the boiler) depending upon the
HW ratio: (40 10) (50 -10) = 0.75 design of the model
3 Lpm x 0.75 = 2.25 Lpm
This may not initiate heating

Professional Courses for Professional People


DHW for isolated hand wash basins
1. We need hot water for hand washing:
a) hot water is essential for proper hand washing to improve the
efficiency of the soap & to keep skin pores open
b) hand washing using anti-bacterial gels (often referred to as hand
sanitisers) only work on clean hands
c) G3 requires the provision of hot water
2. The typical requirement is water at 38C
a) 1.0 L for a normal mixed outlet
b) 0.5 L for a spray outlet
3. Designers should be asking: What is the most energy efficient
way to meet this demand?
a) A central DHW supply is will require trace heating or return circulation,
which would each create energy loss.
b) A typical small localised storage heater may be OTT for a low demand
and so not energy efficient.
c) Should we be using the same rationale that has become common for
washing machines & dishwashers heating locally on demand only to
the temp required?
d) See SBEM Guide; EPC-W2 Recommends point-of-use DHW
wherever practicable

Professional Courses for Professional People


Typical features of instantaneous heaters

Application: Units for 1 or 2 outlets


Pressure type: Up to 6/10 bar
Min dynamic pressure: Normally
based on tap requirements
Capacity: Some as low as 0.2L
Heating system: Tubular or bare
wire technology 6.6 8.8 kW
1Ph, or larger 3Ph
Temp rise: 24 - 48C
Image: Zip Water Heaters
Switch-on flow: Some operate as
low as 1.6 Lpm
No standing losses (SBEM)

Professional Courses for Professional People


DHW: Current dead-leg design
Water Regulations Guidance G.18.7 Results
Outside dia of pipe (mm) Max dead-leg (m) Cu pipe dia Vol (L)
12 or less 20 10 1.0
Over 12, up to & incl 22 12 15 1.6
22 3.7
Over 22, up to & incl 28 8 28 3.3
Over 28 3 35 2.4

In CP 342 (1974) now obsolete, there was Not acceptable


differentiation between 15 & 22mm pipe sizes! for current water
BS 6700 repeats the above limits, but the text only efficiency &
states that its for lengths of uninsulated pipes. energy concerns
Commentary to 5.3.8 in BS 6700: Terminal
branches should be as short as possible and a
pipe feeding a spray tap for hand washing should
not exceed one metre

Professional Courses for Professional People


DHW: Future dead-leg design
Current guidance is often contentious where more than one
pipe size occurs
As terminal outlet flows are being reduced, perhaps a better
assessment of a good design should be: How long does it take
the hot water to appear?
Although waiting up to 60 secs. might be acceptable from a
Legionella risk assessment in older large buildings; it is surely
not acceptable for new buildings where good water & energy
efficiency is required
New guidance is required that can be applied to dwellings &
large buildings
Maybe for dwellings with DHW storage the best solution would
be a HWR pump for each circuit controlled automatically by a
PIR with say 1min run timer?

Professional Courses for Professional People


Water piping design theory is out of date!
Consider a system supplying 6 bathrooms Original UK Loading Unit or Demand Unit
theory evolved in the 1950s when
WC 2 0 WC 2 0 separate pillar taps were the norm
WB 2 2 WB 2 2 It was based on the full demand at the
appliance being met separately by each
Bath 10 10 Bath 10 10
(gravity) hot & cold system
On a boosted system if we add together
WC 2 0 WC 2 0 all hot & cold LUs to size the pump
WB 2 2 WB 2 2 mains the total LU value will represent
over 170% of the true value, this will
Bath 10 10 Bath 10 10
cause over-sizing of;
booster pumps & associated main pipes
WC 2 0 WC 2 0
electrical demands & cables
WB 2 2 WB 2 2 Where mixer taps are used, this is not
Bath 10 10 Bath 10 10 sustainable design!
Why should the cold water LU for a bath
be the same as the hot LU?
The current LU values do not take
Cold LU = 84 account of new water saving measures
Hot LU = 72 We need a new design Standard that is
LU = 156 (1.7L/s) relevant to current practice

Professional Courses for Professional People


Avoiding drainage over-sizing
Use a DU value that is relevant to the WC being used, reduced
flush WCs generally have reduced flow rates
Do not use plugged WB DU values when spray taps are used
Do not add DUs from appliances that are not used during normal
usage, e.g. cleaners sinks
Remember that the peak design flow may rarely occur
To avoid dry drain problems check how the system designed for
peak flow will perform during average flow
The average flow might be assumed to be half the DU value
At average flow, a self-cleansing flow velocity should occur, this
should ensure the drain is adequately flushed at least once each
working day

Professional Courses for Professional People


Further references

CIBSE Publications
CIBSE Mid Career Courses
Building Regulations Approved Document G, L & H
BS 6700 (2009) Design, installation, testing & maintenance of
services supplying water for domestic use within buildings & their
curtilages
www.waterwise.org.uk guidance on water saving measures
www.environment-agency.gov.uk - Information guides on reclaimed
water, rainwater and greywater
Guide to Part G (2010), RIBA publication

Any product references are included only as an example of the type of products that are available and are not
intended as a recommendation by the presenter or by the course organiser. Performance, suitability and availability
of any products mentioned should be confirmed with the manufacturer before being considered for any installation.

Professional Courses for Professional People