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2016 Bienniallnternational Conference on Power and Energy Systems: Towards Sustainable Energy (PESTSE)

Maximum Power Point Tracl<ing System for Stand


Alone Solar PV Power System Using Adaptive
Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System
S. Sheik Mohammed D. Devaraj T. P. Imthias Ahamed
Kalasalingam University, Kalasalingam University, TK.M College of Engineering,
Sr iv ill iputhur, Sr iv ill iputhur, Kollam,
Tamilnadu, India Tamilnadu, India Kerala, India
ssheikmd@yahoo.co.in deva2 30@yahoo.com imthiasa@gmail.com

Abstract - A Maximum Power Point Tracking controller for


stand alone solar PV power system is presented in this paper. A
solar PV power system consists of PV Module, DC-DC boost
converter and an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System
(AN FIS) based MPPT controller is developed in $ Isc Current
t: Im
MATLAB/Simulink. The operation of the DC-DC Boost ~ Maximum power
converter in the PV system is controlled by ANFIS MPPT "
U poin l (MPP)
controller. The ANFIS model is trained using randomly selected
data obatined for various temperature and irradiation levels. The
cell temperature and irradiation level are the input to the O~ ____________________ ~ ______L -_ _-J O
controller and the output of the controller is duty cycle. The o v"
model is simulated for various weather conditions and the Vollage (V)
simulation results are obtained. Perfomance of proposed ANFIS
MPPT controller is analysed by comparing its results with the PV Fig. 1. Characteristics of PV Cell
systems without MPPT and PV systems with Incremental
Maximum Power Point (MPP) is the point at which the
Conductance MPPT.
output power of PV cell is maximum for the present
environmental condition. The MPP of PV cell changes
whenever there is a change in the weather conditions. The
Keywords - Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (AN FIS),
Incremental Conductance (InC), Maximum Power Point output voltage of PV cell is affected by the cell temperature
Tracking, Photovoltaic, Simulation, MATLAB. and the current generated by the PV cell is affected by the
solar irradiation level. Hence, the MPPT controller is
employed in PV system to adjust the operating region of the
I. INTRODUCTION
OC-OC converter so as to produce maximum power from the
Solar PV based power generation seeks significant PVmodules.
attention among the renewable energy power generation
MPPT methods are calssified into two categories; direct
systems. Photovoltaic (PV) modules are used to generate
method and indirect methods[3]. Perturb and Observe (P&O)
electricity from light. When sunlight falls on the PV modules,
[4], Incremental conductance (InC) [5] algorithms and the AI
it converts sun light into DC electricity. Solar PV power
methods such as Fuzzy systems[6], Artificial Neural Networks
generation projects are implemented in very large scales in
(ANN)[7], Genetic Algorithm(GA)[8] are the direct methods.
many countries. World's total electricity consumption in 2014
Open circuit voltage (Voc) and Short circuit curent (1\c) [9]
was 18,400 TWh. The total capacity of 177 GW is produced
method are the indirect methods.
in 2014 by PV based power plants. Germany has installed a
total capacity of 38.2 G W PV plant by the end of 20 14[ 1] and ANFIS MPPT is proposed in many literatures. The work
holding the first place in the list of the largest solar power presented in [10] uses the power and current as input and the
producer in the world. Solar Star PV power plant with a output is change in duty cycle. In [11]-[13], temperature and
capacity of 579 MW located in California is the world's irradiation are given as input to the ANFIS and the output of
largest solar farm by June 2015 [2]. the controller is either Pmax or VlIlax' The work presented in this
paper uses temperature and irradiation as input and the fuzzy
The PV cell has a non-linear ouput characteristics. The V-I
controller gives duty cycle as output.
characteristics of PV cell is shown in Fig. 1. Vm, Im and Pm are
the maximum voltage, maximum current and maximum power
respectively. Open circuit voltage is denoted as Voc I sc is the 11. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PV CELL
short circuit current. Modeling of PV module based on the mathematical
equations and simulation using MATLAB are presented in
[14]-[15]. The equivalent circuit of a PV cell has a current

978-1-4673-6658-8/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE


source (Ipv), a diode connected in anti parallel (D), aseries networks to develop the fuzzy membership functions and rule
resistor (R s ) and a parallel resistor (Rp ) as shown in Fig. 2. base through the training process. The data sets consist of
inputs and outputs obtained through the conventional methods
Rs I are used to train the MPPT model.
+ ANFIS MPPT based stand alone PV system is shown in
t Fig. 3. The inputs of the controller are Temperature (T),
irradiation level (G) and the output is duty cyc1e (D). The
v MPPT detects the inputs T, G; selects the duty cyc1e
corresponding to them and send it to PWM controller. The
PWM controller then produces the switching pulse and drive
the switch in the power conditioning unit. The MPPT detects
Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit of Photovoltaic Cell the inputs repeatedly and changes the duty cycle accordingly,
so that the PV system produces the maximum power at all
The output current ofthe PV cell is expressed as, times.

1 =1
pv,
-1 { exp(
AkTeN,
q V +1R
'
J-1}-V-+R-IR,- Pow..-
CondllliDn~
p
(1)
Load

where, 1pv denotes light generated current, I, is the saturation


current of the diode, q is the electron charge which is 1.60 x
10- 19 oe. V and 1 denote the output voltage and the output
current of the PV cell respectively. The ideality factor of the Fuzzy PWMPulse
MPPT Generator
cell is defined as A. k in the equation is Boltzmann constant
(1.38x 10-23 J/K). The number of series connected cells in a PV
module is denoted by N,. The light generated current (lpv) in Fig. 3. Block Diagram
equation (1) is expressed as,
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
(2) Solarex MSX 60 PV Module is developed in Simulink and
used as PV source in this paper. The voltage-power
characteristics of MSX 60 PV Module under various
where, Kr is the temperature co-efficient of short circuit
environmental conditions are shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. The
current of the cell. Tc and T ref are the cell's operating
maximum output power ofthe selected module is 60 W [15].
temperature and reference temperature respectively. G is the
solar irradiation level in W/m 2 The diode saturation current
( I, ) of the PV cell is,

1 =1,
s ~ [TTc . J exp qEA
ref
3 [[
g

k
_I __1_
Tc Trel :l (3)

O L-------~------~------~----~~~~
o 5 10 15 20
The reverse saturation current is, Voltage

Fig. 4. P-V Characteristics ofMSX 60 PV for various Tc


1 - l,c
RS - exp( q Va 1 ,1_ 60
AkT::N, c)
------r------r-----
I I

(4)
~ 40
111. ANFIS MPPT BASED PV POWER SYSTEM 0..
--1-------+------
The computational intelligent methods like Artificial I

Neural Networks (ANN), Fuzzy systems and ANFIS are


suitable for non-linear systems. These techniques are used to
10 15 20 25
develop the MPPT for PV system also. ANFIS is a hybrid Voltage
controller which combines FLC and NN and provides the
combined advantages of both techniques. ANFIS uses neural Fig. 5. P-V Characteristics ofMSX 60 PV for various G
Fig. 4 shows the P-V characteristics of the selected PV level by setting the temperature to T=25C. The irradition is
module under different temperature levels with irradiation of varied as shown in Fig. 8(a).
G=1000 W/m 2 . The power produced by the module decreases
when the temperature increases. But, the output power of PV
cell increases when the irradiation increases. Fig. 5 shows the
P-V characteristics of MSX 60 PV under different irradiation -E
0..

levels at a constant temperature ofT=25 C. o I!?


Q) Q)
E!.o 0.5 r=--=
--=,,-=-~-~-~-
= - *~-~-~-
=- ~ - - - -- -----1-

To perform the training in ANFIS, the data is collected by OlE


Q) Q)
operating the stand alone PV system with InC MPPT method o E
for various conditions. The range of temperature and o - -j - - - - - -j - - - - - -+ - - - ~
-'::
-~-+f=-~-
~ -=
-=-'T"'~~~~
irradiation values are selected as T= 15 C to 45C and G= 100
W/m2 to 1300 W/m2 respectively to simulate the model. For 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
each set of given T and G value, the corresponding duty cycle Irradiation
is recorded. A total of 10 1 data sets are collected for randomly Fig. 7(b). Irradiation Membership function
selected temperature and irradiation levels between the
selected ranges through simulation. Each set of data consists
of T, G and corresponding duty cycle (D) value. ANFIS 1000 f-........- - - t ____ L ___ ___ _

\
_ _ _ _ L __ _ ~

training is performed with 101 data sets in which T, Gare the


inputs of the fuzzy system and the output is duty cycle. Each N~

E 800 __ , ____
,

input and output of fuzzy system has 3 membership functions ~ L---~--~,


' -

and 9 rules are developed. The model is trained for 2000 ~


CJ
Epochs; the training error is set as 5%. Actual testing data of 600
ANFIS and FIS output upon completion of training are shown
in Fig. 6.
400~~----~--~--~--~----~--~--~

Testing data : . FIS output : * 5 10 5 20 25 30 35 40


0.5 Time

Fig. 8(a). Variation in Irradiation level


OA
::; .** .. **.* +*
-m t */ *
. t-
60 F-=-~==;;::.r-=--=--=-=-=-:-:-=-=--ce_-=j-,-=--=-=-=-:-:-=-=--ce_-=--=-T',-=-=-:-:-=-=--ce_-=--=---=j-
::; 0.3
0..

0
t * .J-.;. ....'*'
+ ~ ++t
~ * t
0.2 t t- t- t- t- 40
~ iIHt- -.J.Ik ~*W ++*-J'1- t.. -t#
0.1
- - - - - NoMPPT
- - ANFISMPPT :~',Ir::..::-_
--_ ...~
-.~
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 20 ------+-- _ .... - InC MPPT - - -1- - ~-- _ ......... .--;..

. Jnd ~ x

Fig. 6. Actual Testing data Vs FIS Output


o ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

o 10 20 30 40
--~------r--- -r-----~-----~--
Time

0..
-:.c
o I!?
Fig. 8(b). Ouput Power under slow chan ging irradiation levels
Q) Q)
E!.o05
OlE .
- - - -1- - - --~-----~-----~- - - - --1 - - - - The ouput power of PV module without MPPT controller,
Q) Q) with InC MPPT, and ANFIS MPPT for the selected
o E
temperature and irraidition levels is given in Fig. 8(b).

28 - - - -, - - - - - '1 - - - - - T - - - - - r - - - - - ,- - - - - -
20 25 30 35 40
Temperature 26 - - - -, - - - - - .1 - - - - - 1. _ _ _ _ _ L - - - - ,- - - - - -
I I I I j

24 - - - -: - - - - - ~ - - - - - +- - - - - ' - - - - -:- - - - - -
Fig. 7(a). Temperature Membership function
22 - - - -, - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - - ,
,
"

t- - - - - - ,- - - - - -
The membership funtions of the inputs of the fuzzy logic , ,

20 - - - -: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - :- - - - - -
~ ~ ~
controller developed by ANFIS are shown in Fig. 7(a) and , , ,
7(b) respectively. 18 1---.....,...------r - - - - - r - - - - - ,- - - - - - T - - - - -

16L-~-L~~~~~~~~~L-~~~~~~
The stand alone solar PV system is simulated without 5 10 15 20 25 30
MPPT, with InC MPPT and the proposed ANFIS MPPT for
various conditions. The obtained results presented and Fig. 9(a). Variation in Temperature level
discussed in this section. Simulation of PV system with the The model is again simulated by keeping the irradiation
proposed ANFIS MPPT is carried out for varying irradiation value constant i.e., irradition value is set as G=900 W/m2 and
the tempearure is varied as shown in Fig. 9(a). The module cycle quickly with respect to the change !TI the weather
power for all the selected conditions is presented in Fig. 9(b) conditions and the duty cycle is accurate.
for a PV power system without MPPT and with selected
MPPT controllers. REFERENCES

60,---~----~----~------~----~----.

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==
i ' I '" Y I I I
40 1/- - ~ - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - ~ - - - - -: - - - - - [2] Eric WesofI(2015, June 26) , Solar Star. Larges! PV Power Plant in
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~
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O ~--~----~------~----~----~----~
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