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Translated from the German by



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~ .....J' -(
K '"51'2;,

TL!74 A4 R513

liiiiillllil 0020084290

Originally published under the title

Aerodynamische Profile
by Verlag R. Oldenbourg, Munich
R. Oldenbourg, Munich, 1958

Suggested U.D.C. Number: 533.6.01

English Translation
1,+ ~


Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd.
Made and printed by offset in Great Britain by ,..)""
William Clowes and Sons, Limited, London and Beccles
i __

~..,i 0I0i

.. .;i
-,------"""- ) t

Foreword vii 2.3.3 Influences of Wing-tips and Supports 22

Preface to the English Edition ix 2.3.4 Influence of Turbulence in the Air 22
Abbreviations . xi 2.4 References. 23
Notes on the References xiii
3 Force and Moment Coefficients
1 Nomenclature. Geometry. Survey
3.1 Characteristic Aerodynamic Quantities 24
1.1 Definitions. Scope of book 1 3.2 Review of Experimental Results 26
1.2 Characteristic Geometrical Quantities 1 3.2.1 Angle of Incidence Ranging from 00 to
1.2.1 Thickness Distribution and Camber Line 1 3600 26 / /
1.2.2 Parameters . 2 3.2.2 Normal Range of Angle of Incidence 26
1.2.3 Introduction of the Parametric Angle 3 3.3 Behaviour of the Lift . 28
1.3 ExperimentaUy Investigated Families of Profiles 3 3.3.1 Lift-curve Slope 28
1.3.1 Gottingen Profiles. 3 3.3.2 Angle of Zero Lift . ! I
29 I
1.3.2 Four-figure NACA Profiles 4 3.3.3 Effect of Increase in Mach Number on
1.3.3 Five-figure NACA Profiles 5 the Relation between Lift and Angle of
1.3.4 First Extension of the Four-figure and Incidence 30
Five-figure NACA Series. 6 3.4 Maximum Lift 30
1.3.5 Extension of the NACA Series by the 3.5 Profile Drag 31
Dn 7 3.5.1 Incompressible Flow. Minimum Drag 31
1.3.6 Extension of the NACA Series with re- 3.5.2 Incompressible Flow. Dependence on
gard to the Pressure Distribution. Lami- Lift Coefficient . 32
nar Profiles 7 3.5.3 Compressible Flow 32
1.4 TheoreticaUy Developed Families of Profiles 10 3.6 Moment Coefficient, Centre of Pressure, and
1.4.1 Joukowsky Profiles and Generalisations 10 Aerodynamic Centre 35
1.4.2 Karman-Trefftz and Betz-Keune Profiles 11 3.6.1 Incompressible Flow 35
1.4.3 The Hyperbola Family 12 3.6.2 Compressible Flow 35
1.4.4 Remarks on Further Families of Profiles 12 3.7 References. 37
1.5 References. 12 3.7.1 Incompressible Flow 37
1.5.1 Books 12 3.7.2 Compressible Flow 38
1.5.2 Comprehensive Reports 13
1.5.3 Specialised Reports 13 4. Special Problems
2 On Experimental Methods. Wind Tunnels and Corrections 4.1 Influence of Quality of Surface 40
4.1.1 Older Results 40
2.1 Some Details of Wind Tunnels used for Profile 4.1.2 Surface Roughness.
Measurements . 15 40
4.1.3 Standard Roughness 40
2.1.1 Gottingen Wind-tunnels 15 4.1.4 Isolated Disturbances.
2.1.2 Wind Tunnels of the Dn 16 42
4.1.5 Permissible Size of Grain and Critical
2.1.3 Wind Tunnels of the NACA 16
Height of Roughness . 44
2.1.4 British Wind-tunnels . 18 4.1.6 Waviness
2.1.5 Some Other Wind-tunnels 18 45
4.2 Problems of High Speed in Liquid Media:
2.2 On the Turbulence of Wind-tunnels. 18 Cavitation .
2.2.1 Degree of Turbulence and Scale of Turbu- 45
4.3 References. 46
lence . 18
4.3.1 Quality of Surface. 46
2.2.2 The Critical Reynolds Number for Tur- 4.3.2 Cavitation
bulence . 19 47
2.2.3 The Turbulence Factor 19 5 Profiles with Flaps
2.2.4 Influence of the Diameter of the Sphere. 5.1 Survey. 48
More Exact Definition of the Turbulence 5.2 Plain Flaps 48
Factor 19 5.3 Split Flaps
2.2.5 Comparison Between Hot-wire and 48
5.4 Slotted Flaps 48
Sphere Measurements . 20 5.5 Nose Flaps and Slats 49
2.3 General Remarks on Experimental Investi- 5.6 References.
gations 21 50
2.3.1 On Profile Measurements in Wind Tun- 6 Boundary Layer Control
nels . 21 6.1 Suction as a Means of Increasing the Lift 53
2.3.2 On Wind-tunnel Corrections . 21 6.2 Blowing as a Means of Increasing the Lift 55

6.3 Suction as a Means of Reducing Drag 56 9.3.2 Amplification and Transition

6.3.1 Keeping the Boundary Layer Laminar . 95
56 9.3.3 Keeping the Boundary Layer Laminar
6.3.2 Control of the Turbulent Boundary Layer 57 at Higher Reynolds Numbers
6.4 Pres8Ure and Power Requirements for Boundary 95
9.4 Calculation of the Profile Drag
Layer Control 96
58 9.4.1 Preliminary Remarks . ....
6.5 References. 96
59 9.4.2 Drag of the Flat Plate with and without
Boundary Layer Control . 96
7 The Theory of Wing Profiles I
9.4.3 Drag of an Arbitrary Profile . 97
Profile Shape and Pres8Ure Distribution in Inviscid 9.5 Calculation of Polars .
Incompressible Flow . 99
62 9.5.1 Calculation of the Maximum Lift 99
7.1 General Remarks . 62 9.5.2 Behaviour of the Pitching Moment
7.2 Camber Line and Velocity Distribution .
62 9.6 References .
7.2.1 Simple Special Cases 62
7.2.2 Various Types of Camber Line 63 10 The Theory of Wing Profiles IV
7.3 Thicknes8 Distribution and Velocity Distribu- Compressible Flow 103
tion 67 10.1 General Remarks . 103
7.3.1 Simple Special Cases 67 10.2 Relation between Speed and Pres8Ure 103
7.3.2 More General Thickness Distributions 68 10.3 Subsonic Flow . 104
7.3.3 Influence of a Sudden Change in Curva- 10.3.1 The PrandtlGlauert Rule 104
ture of the Profile Contour 70 10.3.2 Higher Approximations. 105
7.4 Cambered Profiles . 72 10.4 Mixed Subsonic and Supersonic Flows. 107
7.5 References. 72 10.4.1 Appearance of Shock Waves 107
10.4.2 Similarity Rules 108
8 The Theory of Wing Profiles II 10.5 Supersonic Flow 111
Numerical M et/wds 74 10.5.1 The Flow Field HI
8.1 The Flow Field 74 10.5.2 The Pressure Distribution in Supersonic
8.2 Calculation of the Pres8Ure Distribution for a Flow H2
Prescribed Shape of Profile . . 75 10.5.3 Approximate Formulas for the Forces
8.2.1 Velocity Distribution on a Thin Profile; on an Arbitrary Profile 113
Vortex Distribution 75 10.5.4 Approximate Formulas for Special Pro-
8.2.2 Velocity Distribution on a Symmetrical files, and Comparison with Wind-tunnel
Profile; Source Distribution and Addi- Measurements 113
tional Vortex Distribution 76 10.5.5 Exact Solution for the Flat Plate 114
8.2.3 Velocity Distribution on an Unsym- 10.6 References 116
metrical Profile of Finite Thickness and
Small Camber 11 Tables
8.2.4 Simple Formulas for Practical Calcula- 11.1 CoUection of Geometrical and Aerodynamic Data 120
tion 78 11.2 Ordinates, Slopes, and Velocity Distributions of
8.2.5 Forces and Moments 79 Camber Lines . 138
8.3 Calculation of the Profile Shape for a Prescribed 11.3 Profile Co-ordinates 141
Velocity Distribution . 80 11.4 Ordinates and Velocity Distributions (from Po-
8.3.1 Thin Profiles 81 tential Theory) of N ACA Profiles 160
8.3.2 Symmetrical Profile at Zero Incidence . 81 11.5 MeaBUred Force and Moment Coefficients 162
8.3.3 Unsymmetrical Profile at Incidence 82 11.6 Profiles with High-lift Devices . . . . . 176
8.4 Remarks on the Rigorous Methods of Conformal 11.7 Coefficients for the Determination of Theoretical
Mapping 83 Lift and Drag Coefficients 193
8.4.1 Older Solutions of the Second Main 11.8 Coefficients for Determining the Velocity Distri-
Problem 83 bution (Given the Co.ordinates) 194
8.4.2 Iteration without Intermediate Mapping 84 11.9 Coefficients for Determining the Co-ordinates
8.5 References. . . . . . . . . . . 85 (Given the Velocities) . 196

9 The Theory of Wing Profiles m 12 Catalogue of Theoretical and Experimental Results

V iSC0U8 Flow . 12.1 Pres8Ure Distributions of Camber Lines 198
9.1 Influence of Reynolds Number on Pres8Ure 12.2 Pres8Ure Distributions of Symmetrical Profiles 199
Distribution and Lift . 12.3 Pres8Ure Distributions of Cambered Profiles 210
9.2 Calculation of Boundary Layers 12.4 M eaBUred Pres8Ure Distributions 222
9.2.1 Introductory Remarks 12.4.1 For Incompressible Flow 222
9.2.2 Basic Equations. Momentum and Energy 12.4.2 For Compressible Flow 228
Theorems . _ . . . . . . . 12.5 Polars. 237
9.2.3 TRucKENBRoDT's Approximate 12.5.1 For Incompressible Flow 237
Procedure 12.5.2 For Compressible Flow 256
9.2.4 Effect of Compressibility. . . . . 12.5.3 With Cavitation 267
9.3 RemUs of Stability Calculations and Calcula-
List of Symbols 275
tion of the Critical Reynolds Number 93
9.3.1 The Critical Reynolds Number 93 Indexes 277

During the last fifty years fluid dynamics has become whole subject and can be informed on the questions of
indispensable in the solution of industrial problems, greatest importance. Unfortunately, little has been
particularly those associated with aviation. Technology has accomplished in this direction; the chief reason is that few
advanced so rapidly that, to meet its demands, research on workers have a real mastery of their field. Consequently,
a gigantic scale is necessary. A regrettable consequence of this book is most welcome, since it provides a clear and
this is that advances in the field of fluid dynamics have comprehensive survey of the subject of wing profiles. It is
become too numerous for one person to be able to survey highly desirable that similar books should be written on
them. There is therefore a pressing need for surveys of the other subjects.
various branches, so that a reader can obtain a view of the

Gottingen, ALBERT BETZ

October, 1956

Dr. Riegels's book was written with the needs of German a tendency to think of low-speed, two-dimensional flow as
workers in mind, yet it should appeal to a much wider an outdated topic. It is forgotten that the subject is still of
circle of readers. Our knowledge of a scientific subject is importance: it is continually required in the design of ship
never complete, but further advances in the subject of propellers, turbines, and compressors; and it is still of use
wing profiles are likely to be small-scale; therefore, a book for a wide variety of aircraft, ranging from gliders to model
that surveys all the main theories and discusses many of the aeroplanes.
experimental investigations should be most valuable. Not I wish to thank many of my colleagues at the Royal
the least useful part of the book is the large amount of Aircraft Establishment (not all of them German-born) for
tabular and graphical information on the geometrical and their ready help. It is a pleasure to express my gratitude to
aerodynamic characteristics of profiles. Mrs. W. T. Lord for performing the secretarial work so
In times when slenderness is such a desirable attribute competently.
of wings, and supersonic speeds are commonplace, there is

Farnborough, D. G. RANDALL

Feb-ruary, 1960


AVA Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt Gottingen. "Deutsche Luftfahrtforschung" ("Forsch-

In references to reports (often unpublished) ungsbericht ").
the first two figures denote the year when the UM Investigations and Communications in the
report appeared; for example, 41jAj15 means ZWB Series "Deutsche Luftfahrtforschung"
Report Aj15, produced 1941. ("Untersuchungen und Mitteilungen ").
KWI,MPI Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut; from 1947, Max ZFM Zeitschrift fiir Flugtechnik und Motor-
Planck-Institut fur Stromungsforschung, Luftschiff-Fahrt (Oldenbourg, Munich).
Gottingen. Lufo Zeitschrift fur Luftfahrtforschung (Olden-
Go. Mon. Monographs on Progress in German Aero- bourg, Munich).
nautical Research SInce 1939, Gottingen DVL Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fiir Luftfahrt.
(1946). General Editor: A. Betz. Unpublished. NACA National Advisory Committee for Aero-
Obtainable from the AVA on payment of nautics, Washington.
appropriate charge. RorTR
}NACA Technical Report.
DAL Deutsche Akademie der Luftfahrtforschung. or Rep
LGL Lilienthalgesellschaft fur Luftfahrtforschung. N or TN NACA Technical Note.
Jb.dDL Jahrbuch der deutschen Luftfahrtforschung WR NACA Wartime Report.
(Oldenbourg, Munich). RM NACA Research Memorandum.
ZWB Zentrale fur Wissenschaftliches Berichtwesen ARC Aeronautical Research Council, Ministry of
des Generalluftzeugmeisters. Aviation.
TB ZWB Technical Reports (" Technische R&M Reports and Memoranda, ARC.
Berichte"). CP Current Paper, ARC.
FB ZWB Research Reports, III the Series

1. The year is given in parentheses. Special Acknowledgment

2. The references at the end of each chapter are arranged Figures 3.20,3.21,3.22, 12.51a, 12.60, 12.75, 12.103, and
alphabetically (according to the names of the authors). the tables for the profile Go 625 at R = 21.1()4 and R =
Where an author has several works referred to, these are 6.3.104 have (by kind permission of the publishers) been
arranged in the order in which they appeared. taken from the book by F. W. SCHMITZ, "Aerodynamik
3. If an author is referred to in the text, this usually des Flugmodells" (second, enlarged edition), 160 pages, 92
means that a corresponding reference occurs in the list at figures, 5 tables, price 13 DM (Carl Lange, Duisburg).
the end of the chapter. If several works of one author are
mentioned, the year of publication is added when the
titles do not give sufficient indication.

1.1 Definitions. Scope of Book

ordinates of the upper or "suction" side (suffix u) and the
Every body moving through a fluid is subjected to a lower or "pressure" side (suffix l)
force. Of particular importance are those bodies for which
the component of force opposite to the direction of motion Xu = x - y(li sin y Yu = y(c) + y(l) cos Y ,
is small compared with the component of force normal to XI = X +
yet) sin y , YI = y(C f _ y(l) cos y ,(1.1)
the direction of motion. Bodies with this property are called
"wings" if the dimension in one direction, the" thickness", where tan y = dy(c) Idx. This is the method used for the
is substantially smaller than the dimensions in two direc- design of NACA profiles; it is the most usual one nowadays.
tions normal to each other and to the first direction, the Simple addition and subtraction of the camber line and
"chord" and the "span"; the direction of the chord is thickness distribution are usually sufficient for slightly
approximately that of the flow at infinity, the "free cambered profiles (small y):
stream". A section normal to the span is called a "wing
profile"-briefly, a "profile". We shall be mainly con- Xu =x , Yu = y(c) + y(l) ,
cerned with two-dimensional flow about a profile-in XI = X , YI = y(C) - y(l) (1.2)
others words, with flow about a wing of infinite span. The
wing is assumed to be moving with a constant speed V; if The co-ordinates x and yare generally divided by the chord,
we use a system of co-ordinates fixed with respect to the e, of the profile, the origin of co-ordinates lying at the
wing, the speed of the fluid at infinity is assumed to be V. leading edge. In addition to the co-ordinate system (x, y) a
second one (~, y) is often employed, in which the origin
1.2 Characteristic Geometrical Quantities

1.2.1 Thickness Distribution and Camber Line
The ordinates of the profile are measured from some

suitable axis, the x-axis. It is usual to regard the profile as ()
-elZ -cIt!
formed by superposition of a "thickness distribution"
y(t)(x), symmetrical about the x-axis, on a "camber line" Fig. 1.2. Usual co-ordinate systems
y(c)(x). The camber line, sometimes called" mean line" or
"skeleton line", has been defined in two ways. The older

lies at x = c/2, Y = and the co-ordinates are divided by
el2 instead of bye (see 'Figure 1.2). The following relation
holds between these two systemst:

c ~ x
~ = x- - , or - = 2- - 1 (1.3)
2 e/2 e
The x-axis is defined as the straight line joining the ends
of the camber line, and so it is possible that a few points in
the region of the nose of a cambered profile have a value of
Fig. 1.1. General definition of the camber line
x less than 0, or a value of ~ less than -(eI2); usually this
occurs only when the camber is large. To avoid it we use the
definition assumes that the complete profile is given; the
longest line joining two points of the profile as reference
camber line is then the line joining the centres of inscribed
axis in the theory of Chapters 7 and 8; this axis is obtained
circles (Figure 1.1). The second definiti(ln assumes that the
from the axis used above (the chord of the camber line)
two parts of the profile are separately given; the complete
by rotation through a small angle aR; in Table 11.1 this
profile is then formed by measuring the ordinates of the
angle is given for some common profiles. The chord of
thickness distribution from the camber line in a direction
normal to this line. These two definitions are approximately t The experimenter prefers to work in the region 0 ~ x ~ c;
the theorist, to make use of certain symmetrical properties of
equivalentt Using the second definition, we obtain for the the formulas, prefers -(cj2) ~ $ ~ (cj2). Both definitions are
t On the difference between the two definitions see BAUSCH. used in this book; when no confusion is possible, c is occasionally
set equal to 1, or (to avoid the decimal point) to 100.


the pressure side or the tangent at the traili~g edge on when the scale factors change, the following characteristic
the pressure side have been used as reference axes for the combinations of parameters are frequently used; they are
ordinates when the profile has large camber. For sym- designated by the quantity that is made dimensionless.
metrical profiles (or for thickness distributions) the axis of
symmetry is always used as the reference axis. (a) N ose radIUS: (10 = roe
t2' (1.7)

1.2.2 Parameters ope a t th e tralTmg ed ge:

(b) Sl' ET = tan
-1-'7:T (1.8)
For fixing the geometrical form with the help of a few te
data, the following parameters are suitable.
(a) For the camber line (Figure 1.3): (c) L eadmg edge coeffi clent:
. EL
tan 7:L
= -1-' (1.9)

(d) Radius of curvature at the maximum thickness:

) '1
Fig. 1.3. Geometrical parameters of the camber line
If the profile is designed empirically the parameters must
1. the ratio of the maximum camber,J, to the chord, be found graphically. To determine the camber line,
e-briefly, the "maximum camber", fie; inscribed circles are drawn and their centres joinedt
2. the position of maximum camber, XI, divided by
(Figure 1.1); the quantities t andf can then be measured.
the chord-briefly, the "position of maximum
For the determination of the nose radius, role, and the
camber", xlle.
leading edge coefficient, tan 7:L, the quantity y(t)/Vx is
(b) For the thickness distribution (Figure 1.4):
plotted against X (Figure 1.5). The slope at the trailing

Fig. 1.4. Geometrical parameters of the thickness distribution

1. the ratio of the maximum thickness, t, to the

chord-briefly, the "thickness ratio", tIc;
2. the position of maximum thickness, Xt, divided Fig. 1.5. The determination Fig. 1.6: The determination
of the position of maximum
by the chord-briefly, the "position of maximum of!! and tan <L
c thickness, ~
thickness", Xtl e ; c
3. the nose radius, referred to the chord, edge, tan 7:T, can be measureu sufficiently accurately if y(t l
is drawn with an enlarged scale near x = c. The pesition
~= lim {_! (d y (t)/dX)3} . (1.4)
of maximum thickness, Xt, is obt~ined as in Figure 1.6,
e ...-0 c d2 y(t) Idx 2 '
where the quantity J~ - y(t) is plotted against x. When
4. the slope at the trailing edge, tan 7:T = -dy(t)ldx Xt has been thus found, the radius of curvature at the
at X = c. In special cases it is useful to know: maximum thickness, rIle, is obtained by plotting
5. the leading edge coefficient,t (x - Xt)2

tan 7:L = lim (dy(t) _

x-o dx
(tI2) _ y(t) against x (Figure 1.7).


6. the radius of curvature at the maximum thickness, 1-./tJ

referred to the chord,
1 1 Fig. 1.7. The determination
at X=Xt. (1.6) of the radius of curvature at
Cd2y(t)ldx 2 the maximum thickness,.,
The parameters flc and tIc are generally regarded as
sca.le factors of an affine transformation. To have the -J(

remaining parameters in a form that remains constant In the construction of profiles by the NACA method it is
useful to know the initial slope of the camber line, because 11
t This quantity, which by its definition is limited to the thick-
ness distribution, is positive or negative when the nose is
the centre of the circle of curvature at the nose is assumed
respectively hyperbolic or elliptic. t For a refined method see BAUSCH.

c::::::::: -. c::::: :::::---.... c-- ~

5K 6K

7K 8K
9K 10K
c- -----.
C ~
c --......,.
C ~
C ~

c- ~
====-123 .~

242 ~
289 301
c:::::::. ~
3$ c;:::::. 342

~ ~
387 C ::::=:- ~
C~ r
420 449

--- ---
----=.. ~
CO C ~ Fig. 1.8. Survey of some

--- 564

- 593
610 r-

~62()- .. ....
Gottingen profiles

: c=:-==;:.: ,

~ ,c

...... -"

c: =====--
677 682
-. ~

708 71!
~ ~ ==----.
r ~

- 741


769 ~

to lie on this line; for NACA profiles it is usual to give the We end this section by showing how the nose radius is
initial slope of the camber line in addition to the nose determined from the representation of y as a function of cpo
radius; for a certain class of camber lines, with infinite If the profile is not pointe,d at the nose it can be described
slope at the leading edge, it is further agreed to give the in the region of the nose by an equation of the form
slope at x/c = 0005, and to use this for constructing the b b
profile nose. y = bVX + ... ;
hence, y' = 2 x-(1/2) and yN = -4 x-(3/2) I

1.2.3 Introduction of the Parametric Angle

In theoretical work it is convenient to introduce a
so that ~ = ~ or b = J ~.
2 If y is now plotted against cp

in. the neighbourhood of cp = 7l, the slope of this curve is

parametric angle, cp, in place of x by the relationship
1 dy dy dx b
-c -dcp = -dx -cdcp = --2 when cp = 7l.' since this slope is
c c
x = -2 + -2c cos m
or ; = -
coscp (1.11) proportional to the constant b, it is a measure of the nose
(see Chapter 7). Any profile can be represented by a
Fourier series 1.3 Experimentally Investigated Families of Profiles
1.3.1 Gottingen Profiles
y co "Gottingen" profiles are numbered approximately in the
E (a,. cos PCP + b. sin Pcp) ,
.-0 (1.12) order in which they were tested. Figure 1.8 is a survey of
the profiles described here; in general, the few profiles
c being the greatest chord of the profile; the cosine series have been preferred which form systematic groups with
represents the camber line, and the sine series represents common characteristics. To these belong the following.
the thickness distribution. (a) The symmetrical profiles: Go 409, 410, 459, 460.

f/c .. 0 002.5 0'05 0075 010 0'125 0'15 0'175
" .- -....
537 55a 579 576
005 ~

It29 51t1

- - '"
..... ..32
........ IfI'- 5'+5
- ....... I~- Ill'--
53& 555 ..33 5.. a 577 51t3 5.... 553
0'15 ..... -.... 0IIIIIIII ....... .........

~ 1-..... ~~ ~5 ~2 ~1I"i.:.:

~ ""':5 .,.:::
o'ao ~ ~ ~

~ ~ ~
Fig. 1.9. Survey of measured Joukowsky profiles

c <
(b) The profiles whose pressure side is predominantly 0005 2201i
straight: Go 436, 508, 564, 593; the series Go 622, 623, c:::: .:::::::
624, 625 (with thickness ratios tic = 0'08,012,0'16, 0009 l209
0,20). C
=- C- ::::-
(c) Profiles which are segments of circles.
1. With sharp nose and trailing edge: Go 608, 609, C -::=- L ~
0015 Z2TfJ
610, 708 (ratio of radius of circular arc to chord is 28,
245,19, 175, so that/Ie = 0045,0051,0066,0'071), C ==>
C ~
and Go 1K, 2K, 4K (with/Ie = 00385,00735,01475).
2. With nose and trailing edge rounded: Go 5K, 6K, C ~ C ~
7K, 8K, an affine series with thickness ratios tic =
0037, 0075, 0110, 01485; Go 9K, 10K, 11K, 12K, e::.
C 4
13K, an affine series with tic = 0'0245, 00385, 0'0745,
01110,01480; Go 14K, 15K, 16K, an affine series with c::. -- 'I201i

tic = 0'12, 0'15, 01815. (The K which follows the '1209
numbers signifies that measurements were carried out r

on these profiles in the presence of cavitation.)
(d) The American profiles: M6, identical with Go 677; '215
M12, identical with Go 676. L ~
(e) The Joukowsky profiles (Figure 1.9), which are shown '218
here because of their extraordinarily large maximum
cambers and thickness ratios. C ~'1221
The remaining profiles are mostly without systematic
behaviour, but, because of their special properties, they ~ -...
have proved to be of use for certain purposes. The ordinates 5206
of the profiles are collected together in Table 11.3. C. --.:


1.3.2 Four-figure NACA Profiles 5212
Figure 1.10 is a survey of typical profiles of this kind;
their designation is descriptive of the profile geometry, and (~
the figures have the following meaning [R460]. liZl/J

The first figure: the maximum camber as a percentage Fig. 1.10. Survey of four-
figure NACA profiles
of the chord. 5eZl

The second figure: the position of maximum camber in 1.3.3 Five-figure NACA Profiles
tenths of the chord. These profiles differ from the four-figure series by having
The third and fourth figures: the maximum thickness a camber line with a smaller value of the position of
as a percentage of the chord. maximum camber [R537]. In the designation of these
EXAMPLE: the profile NACA 4412 has a maximum camber profiles the first figure denotes an aerodynamic property,
of 4% at 40% of the chord, and a maximum and the last four figures again denote geometrical proper-
thickness of 12%. ties. For the profiles of the series beginning with 2 the
Thickness Distribution: Type Dl of Section 7.3; for this figures have the following meaning.
type the position of maximum thickness lies at 30% of the The first figure: 20/3 of the" lift coefficient at the ideal
chord. angle of incidence, ct" (see Section 3.l).
Camber Line: Type S2 of Section 7.2; the first two The second and third figures: twice the value of the
numbers, together with the preceding N ACA, define the position of maximum camber as a percentage of the
general behaviour of the camber line (in the example: chord.
NACA 44). Table 11.2 gives ordinates and aerodynamic The fourth and fifth figures: the maximum thickness as
characteristics of the camber lines NACA 62 to 65; those a percentage of the chord.
of the camber lines NACA 42 to 45 and NACA 22 to 25 can EXAMPLE: the profile N ACA 23018 has a ct of 03, its
be obtained from those of NACA 62 to 65 by affinely maximum camber lies at 15'% of the chord,
reducing, with. factors 4/6 and 2/6 respectively. and it has a maximum thickness of 18%.

c==: c==: c==: c: <:

2J05 2/105 2505 2505 2705
--- c::: -=--


-- -
2J09 2v09 2509 2509 2709

C ==- C- ==- C c c
2312 21/12 2512 2512 2772
C ::---
c ~
C ::::--
C ~
C ~

C C C ~ C ~
C ~
2318 ==--====-
21/18 2518

C ~ 2321
C ::> 21/21
c ~
c ~
c ~
c .e:::::. ~
c:: c:: ....
-- 1/'105

-- 1/505
c ==-

C c:::::::: '1509 '1709
'1309 '1'109 '1509
C ----........... C :::==---... I C" C .............. c: ---=....,.

'1512 1/712

I/J12 ''112 '1512
C C ::::--.... C :::;:.,. c ~ C

1/315 '1'115 '1515 '1715
C ----..",. c :---- c ::--.".. C --.......... C.
'1318 '1'118 '1518 '1618 '1718

C ~'1321
C ~'11121
C ~
----- '1521
C ,:::::::..

C ==- c:C === - e::: - c:C

==- ~ ....
--- 5305

............ c: ---
c: --...


5'109 5509 5509

c: <::::::: r- ~ c: >=......

---- ------

C ~
c- C -.......


~ r-
r- ~
c -......
8J18 5'118 6518 5818
~ ~5'121
C ~
C ~
C ~5721
I, .:::

23CW C :::::- Fig. 1.11. Survey of IIve-
(j)f2-(jJ llgure NACA prollles
c:: -. ~ c. c... :=:::::::-
2:m9 43C09 ------- 6:JXJ9 0012-64
\. C
c ~'

c.. -----


C ~ ..

~ c
~ ~ 63021

c.... ~

--=- c:
----- ~

22012 32012 42012
c. ~



Thickness Distribution: Type Dl of Section 7.3. moment at zero lift can be investigated; to this group
Camber Line: Type S4 of Section 7.2. belong, for example, the profiles 2Rl12 and 2R212 [R460].
The following small table gives the geometrical para- The first modifications to the thickness distribution
meters of the camber lines of this series. affect only the nose radius, and they are indicated by an
Camber line 210 220 230 240 250 appended capital letter: T (smaller nose radius, more
Maximum camber, pointed shape) ; or B (larger nose radius, bluffer shape).
fie = 0'0111 00154 00184 00208 00226 In the later modifications the position of maximum thick-
Position of maximum
camber, x/Ie = ness is also .systematically varied [R492]. For both the
0'05 010 015 020 0:25
four-figure and five-figure profiles these modifications are
The ordinates and the aerodynamic characteristics are described by the addition of two figures following a short
given in Table 11.2; Figure 12.2 shows the shapes and the horizontal dash; in the designation of such profiles the
pressure distributions. Modifications to this series for figures have the following meaning.
other ct
are made by affine transformation of the ordinates The first figure after the dash: a measure of the nose
of the camber line; examples of such modifications are the radius. In detail:
profiles whose first numbers are 3, 4 and 6 (the correspon-
ding ct
being 0'45, 0'6, and 09). A survey of these profiles 0, zero radius of curvature (pointed nose);
is given in Figure 1.11. 3, one-quarter of the normal radius of curvature;
The employment of a different camber line is indicated 6, normal radius of curvature;
by the third figure: if a 1 stands in this position the 9, three or more times the normal radius of curvature;
camber line of Type Sa (with fixed centre of pressure) has the "normal" radius of curvature is that belonging to
been used (see Section 7.2). the thickness distribution D1, role = 11 (tlc)2. .
The second figure after the dash: the position of maxi-
1.3.4 First Extension of the Four-figure and Five-figure mum thickness in tenths of the chord.
NACA Series EXAMPLE: the profile 0012-34 is symmetrical, it has 12%
Occasionally the extensions affect the camber line, but thickness ratio, its nose radius is one quarter
mostly they affect the thickness distribution. Some of the of the normal radius, and its position of
four-figure profiles have camber lines with a point of maximum thickness lies at 40% of the chord.
inflexion, so that systematic variations of the pitching Thickness Distribution: Type D2

1.3.5 Extension of the NACA Series by the DVL position of maximum camber, XI, equal to
The first extension involves changes in the thickness 035e; it has a thickness distribution with
distribution similar to those of Section 1.3.4, but the maximum thickness t = 012e, the nose radius
gradations in the variations of nose radius and position of is f-normal, the position of maximum thickness,
maximum thickness are refined. The following have been XI, is equal to 04e, and the slope at the trailing

in vestiga ted. edge is half the normal value.

(a) Normal nose radius, eo = roc/t2 = 11. The method of designation is purely geometrical and,
.i-normal nose radius, = 0825. as the example has shown, the series of figures gives
i-normal nose radius, = 055.
immediately the parameters necessary for the description
i-normal nose radius, = 0275. of the profile geometry (see Section 1.2). Figure 1.12 gives
(b) Position of maximum thickness: Xt/e = 035, 0'40, a survey of these profiles; for the ordinates see Table 11.3,
045,0'50. for the aerodynamic coefficients see Table 11.1, and for the
pressure distributions see Chapter 12.
The second extension involves, in addition, a change in
(the angle at the trailing edge) and in the corresponding
! Tp
parameter Ep = (tan Tp)/(t/c).
1.3.6 Extensions of the NACA Series with regard to the
Pressure Distribution. Laminar Profiles
Thickness Distribution: Type D 2 Camber Line: Series 1 to 6
Mostly Type S2.
The modem NACA profiles (see Figure 1.13) are recognis-
EXAMPLE: the profile 1 35 12-08254005 has a camber able by the altered arrangements of figures in the designa-
line with maximum camber f = OOlc, and tions. Camber lines and thickness distributions are so

=- c::::: =- c::::: ::>
Fig. 1.12. Survey of profiles
of the DVL series
co: :::::::=- C :::>
()()O12-1/ 40 00012-1/50
C ~ C ::>
QOO15-114O 00015-1/50
C ::::>
C :>
c::::: =- c::::: =- c:::: =-
00009 0825 35 ()()(J09-0825 40 00009-082545
co: ~ c ~ c: ...::;:>
O()()12-o82535 00012-()f]254O 00012-082545
C ;::::::>
C :>

<----.. . =-- c::::_--,~~~--==-:: c:::::

00009-0.5540 00009-0.5545 00(}()9-o.5550
c:::::: . ::::::> c::: :::> c:: :::::::>
00012-0.55 40 00012-0.5545 ()()o12-055 50
C ::::::> C ~ C ::>
txXJi5-055 40 00015-0.5545 00015-0.5550
c.. ::::>

c:::::: ---===-
00009-0275 40 00009-027545
c:::: ~ c::::::: :=>
00012-027540 00012-(}27550

c: :;:0-
c ==-
C---~- C---:::::::,- C---~
_ _ 63;615
631 015 6~-215
C :::::::::....
018 63,-418 63,-68

~ ~-221 ~
Fig. 1.13. Survey of JUodefll
c::: c: NACA profile series
64-006 64-206
c::::: --
C" :::-- c- ::----

c:: c::
65-rxJ6 65-206
c::::::: --
c::.. ====- c::::- ~ C- ::::----
65,~12 65,-212 65r412
C C" :::::-. c :::---.
65,~15 651 215 651 415
C =====-
65,-08 C~ c=:::::- 6~-418 ~
C ~ ~ ~
c::: ...-- C- ::>
66-fXJ6 66-206
c:::::: =-=- c:::: ~ C- ~
66-(x)9 66-209 67/-215
c:::::: -====- C ::::=-
66,-012 66,-212
C ::::::=::- C ::::::>- C- ::::::::-
~-015 ~-215
C :::::>-- C :::::>- 'C :::::>-
C ~ 66.-221
-::::::=- C- :::::::::=-
c:::::::: ===-
C :::::::=-
747A315 747A415
c: c ---........,...
c::::::: ==-
c::::: :::::-
B-H-12 11-H-09

designed that they have a prescribed pressure distribution EXAMPLE: the profile 64 3-018 belongs to the 6-series, the
at a certain value of 0 L. minimum pressure occurs at 40% of the chord,
This mode of procedure is suited to a study of the the profile is of laminar character for a range of
behaviour of the boundary layer; it is particularly helpful oL of extent JO L = 03, it is symmetrical, and
in the problem of reducing the drag of profiles, especially its thickneRs ratio is 18%.
at large Reynolds numbers; in addition, it facilitates. the (c) A figure following a comma has approximately the
design of profiles suitable for high speeds. The figures have same significance. It gives the extent of the range of 0 L
the following meaning. (in tenths) for which a favourable pressure gradient
The first figure: this characterises a definite series of exists on both sides of the profile; the profiles differ
profiles-I, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6; usually the prescribed pres- only trivially from those of (b).
sure distributions of each series have a common funda- EXAMPLE: the profile 64,3-418 a = 06 belongs to the
mental property. 6-series, the thickness distribution has mini-
The secondfigure: the position of minimum pressure in mum pressure at 40% of the chord, the pressure
/ tenths of the chort!. distribution is favourable in a range of 0 of
extent JOL = 03, 0 L at the ideal angle of
The first figure after the dash: the value of 0: in incidence (0:) is 0'4, the thickness ratio is
tenths; hence, a measure of the amount of camber.
18%, and the camber line is Type S6 with
The second and third figures after the dash: the thick- a = 06.
ness ratio.
(d) Changes in the thickness ratio are usually made by
EXAMPLE: the profile 64-208 belongs to the "NACA affine transformation of a profile that already exists in
6-series", the thickness distribution has the thickness distribution series; they are indicated by
minimum pressure at 40% of the chord, 0: the addition of the thickness ratio of the latter profile
in brackets.
(the lift coefficient at the ideal angle of inci-
dence) is 0'2, and the maximum thickness is EXAMPLE: the profiles 64(318)-419 and 64(318)-419
8%. belong to the 6-series, they have their pressure
Thickness Distribution: Calculated theoretically from minimum at 40% of the chord, the pressure
the prescribed pressure distribution. distribution is favourable (that is, the profiles
are of laminar character) in a range of 0 L of
Oamber Line: Type S5.
extent JO L = 03, ot
is 04, the thickness
In shape and in pressure distribution the profiles of the ratio is 19%, and the profiles are obtained by
I-series are similar in character to those of the DVL series affine transformation of profiles of thickness
described in Section 1.3.5. The profile series which begin ratio 18%.
with 2, 3, 4, 5 [L345] are no longer in use since the 6-series
(e) Employment of several camber lines is denoted by an
profiles have better properties [R824].
addition which gives details of all the components.
Extra numbers or letters are frequently added to the
basic arrangements if a more detailed designation is . {a = 06
EXAMPLE: the profile 64,3-418 a = 1.0
0: == 0.3}
0.1 has
the same thickness distribution as Example (c);
(a) The thickness distributions of the 6-series are generally
its camber line is formed by the addition of two
combined with camber lines that have either constant
camber lines, one of Type S6 (with ot equal to
pressure over the whole chord (camber line of Type S5
in Section 7.2) or constant pressure up to a certain
03) and one of Type S5 (with 0: equal to 0'1).

point Xa of the chord (the point where the minimum (f) Changes to the rear part of the profile are denoted by
pressure for the thickness distribution occurs, or a point the use of capital letters in place of the dash.
lying further back) after which the pressure decreases EXAMPLE: the profile 643 A 018 differs from that of
linearly (camber line of Type S6). When the pressure Example (b) by the contour's being straight for
distribution has the latter behaviour it is described by the last 20% of the chord.
adding "a = .... " to the profile designation; the
number to be inserted is the value of xa/c. If no such
addition to the profile designation exists this usually Series 7 and 8
means that Type S5 has been used. The profiles of the 7-series differ from those of the series
(b) An index after the second figure gives the extent of the just discussed by the possibility of a larger laminar
range of OL (in tenths) for which the smooth, sym- region on the pressure side. The last three figures of the
metrical profile is of laminar character (that is, for designation have the same significance as in the profiles of
which it has extremely small drag). the 6-series; the two figures after the" 7" give the positions

of minimum pressure on the suction and pressure sides. displacement of the position of maximum thickness, and
The capital letter placed between these two groups of hence a generalisation of this type of profile, is obtained
figures distinguishes the actual combination of thickness (following BETZ) by enlarging the radius of the eccentrically
distribution and camber line which possesses the properties placed circle to R = a(l + El + E2)' The new circle does
expressed by the figures; another possible combination of not touch the circle' = aetiji and, as a result, the trailing
thickness distribution and camber line with the same edge is not cusped but rounded. For vanishing camber the
properties would require a different capital letter. The circle corresponding to El = 0 transforms into an ellipse
camber line of such a profile is usually produced by addi- (with maximum thickness at 50% of the chord!). SCHLICHT-
tion of several basic camber lines. ING-ULRICH have performed the calculation for sym-
Up till now only a few profiles of the 7-series to which metrical profiles; for the shape of the profile they obtain
this method of designation has been applied are known: for

~:~ ct = 0763 }
NACA 747 A 315{: : ct = -0463
and 1] . - (I -
1) ' (1.15)
a = 04 ct = 0763 }
NACA 747 A 415 a = 07 ct = -0463 where k = 1 + El + i2 and N = k 2 + El:f - 2E 1k cos cp.
a = 10 ct = 01 With a as unit of length, the profile chord is obtained from
The basic thickness distribution NACA 747 A 015 has
minimum pressure at 40% of the chord on pressure and
suction sides; the cambered profiles built up on it have
and is given by
mi~imum pressures at 40% on the suction side and at 70%
e l l
on the pressure side. Some profiles of the 8-series have been -=2k+
a k- El
+k -
described and are designated by the letters A, B, C, D
[R947]; various superpositions of thickness distributions
Figure 1.14 shows the connection between El and E2 and the
and camber lines are used; in other respects the figures
thickness ratio and position of maximum thickness.
have the same meaning as in the 7-series.

1.4 Theoretically Developed Families 9C Profiles E,
1.4.1 Joukowsky Profiles and Generalisations
The best-known theoretical families of profiles are those
}'ig. 1.14. Relation of

of JOUKOWSKY and KARMAN-TREFFTZ; VON KARMAN and 6, and t, to ~ and ~

c c
BURGERS (see Section 1.5.1) and SCHRENK (see Section
1.5.3) have given excellent descriptions of. these families, ,
so that we can confine ourselves to a few remarks. As is
o ~~~~~~-~~-~;'~U~50~
O'ZO 0':5
well-known the profiles are derived by applying the -El
J oukowsky transformation,
Numerically, the position of maximum thickness (at which
ip = iiJI) is determined from

to a circle, which is eccentrically placed with respect to the

circle, = ae iii ann touches this circle; the first circle has a The thickness ratio, tic, can be obtained from Equations
radius of a(1 + El), a little greater than a. These profiles (1.15) and (1.16); from Equations (1.14) and (1.16)
have a cusped trailing edge (trailing edge angle equal to
zero), and their maximum thickness lies usually at a :~ = k + El + __1___ + (~) . (1.18) -
c (k + El) a q;~1
distance from the nose of from 23% to 27% of the chord.
Variation in the thickness of the prQfile is caused by a In addition to this generalisation, which affects the thick-
small displacement of the centre of the transformed circle ness distribution and the shape near the trailing edge, an
in the direction of the abscissa; camber (the camber line extension to other camber lines has been undertaken:
being a circular arc) is obtained by a small displacement of Joukowsky profiles with camber lines which, instead of
the centre in the direction of the ordinate. A rearward being circular arcs have points of inflexion, can be designed

and calculated (SCHMIDT); they do not have the dis- Here, h is the perpendicular distance of PI from the line
advantage of rapid movement of the centre of pressure, a drawn through T parallel to the free-stream direction, and
disadvantage to which the simple Joukowsky profiles are R = MT is the radius of the circle through PI and T. The
subject because the position of maximum camber lies so lift coefficient is given by
far back.
87& R
1.4.2 Karouin-Tretftz and Betz.-Keune Profiles
OL = -
sin (a + Po) , (1.24)

The Karman-Trefftz profiles differ from the Joukowsky

profiles by having a finite angle at th~ trailing edge; they where Po is equal to the angle MTN, and c denotes the
are derived by the same process as the Joukowsky profiles, profile chord. On this basis the same authors have obtained
but the transformation to be applied is a generalisation of this profile, the camber line having a
point of inflexion. To obtain a point of inflexion the value
z-ka C-a of lJI must be decreased near the trailing edge and must be
In =kln-- (1.19)
z+ka C+a

where k = 2 - (Tj7&). The form of this equation has led

BETZ and KEUNE to a very simple construction for the
profile shape and the velocity distribution. If the field of a
source-sink distribution is drawn and the equipotentials
and streamlines suitably numbered, then the values of
potential, <P, and stream-function, lJI, can be read off from
this network-in particular, the quantity

<P + i lJI = C In [ (C - a) / (C + a)] (1.20)

Jolg.1.15. Construction of the Karman-Trelftz profiles. The intersection of the
the constant 0 depends only on the manner of numbering. free-slream'direction (shown in the figure) with the transformed circle gives
I he position of the stagnation point on this circle
To be able to use the same source-sink network for both

sides of Equation (1.19), we write C* = kC; then,
increased near the nose; in addition, the function to be
superimposed must be regular outside the c~rcle C= aeiiF
o In z - ka = <P, + ilJl, = and must vanish at infinity. The doublet flow has just
I z+ ka these properties: the complex potential of a suitably
= k<P, + iklJl, = kOln C*-ka (1.21) orientated doublet is purely imagina~y, i,u, at the points
C*+ka C* = ka; by addition of this potential only the stream
function is increased or decreased (by an amount ,u). This
This means that if the source-sink network is regarded as a superposition then leads to ~ generalised mapping function,
system of curvilinear co-ordinates, and the co-ordinates
(<P, lJI) of a point PIon the circle 0 1 are read off (see z-ka C*-ka. ka
Figure 1.15), then P, the point on the profile corresponding In z + ka = kin C. + ka +~,u F" (1.25)
to PI, has the curvilinear co-ordinates (k<P, klJl) in the same
network. We see that the manner of numbering is of no Profile shape and velocity distribution can be constructed
importance since the constant 0 drops out. in a way similar to that described for the Karman-
For once we anticipate the results of Chapter 7: the Trefftz profiles. Investigation of the profile properties shows
determination of the velocity distribution still requires that the profile has a fixed centre of pressure if,u is chosen
so that
d; I= k2 I z + ka I IZ-kal (1.22) k (k 2 -1)
I d.. IC* + ka I IC*-ka I ,u 11 4 Po 1 +
2 k2 (1.26)

The various quantities appearing here can be measured If, instead of one singular point near the nose, several
from the drawing (see Figure 1.15) so that (allowing for the singular points are assumed to exist in the interior of the
change in velocity at infinity) the velocity at the point P profile, then (following VON MISES) a large number of
of the profile becomes special classes of profiles can be obtained in addition to
the ,Toukowsky and Karman-Trefftz profiles and their
w 2h NP I TPI generalisations; the number of free parameters is increased,
V = k2R NP TP and a diversity of profile shapes results.

1.4.3 The Hyperbola Family placed singular points A and B, we map one that passes
We shall now refer to a special family of profiles intro- through these points, we obtain profiles whose camber
duced by PIERCY, PIPER, and PRESTON, and treated in lines are circular arcs; as usual the upward displacement of
Germany by RINGLEB. The principle of generation of this the centre of the circle serves as a measure of the camber.
family is that the inversion of a branch of a hyperbola with We can obtain a point of inflexion in the camber lines, and
respect to a circle whose centre is the focus lying outside thereby more favourable pitching-moment behaviour, if,
the branch (or a point near to this) leads to contours instead of transforming a circle, we transform an ellipse
having the form of profiles. As we see from Figure 1.16, two passing through the two points A and B (Figure 1.17); as a
measure for the amount of inflexion we can use the angle
that this ellipse makes with the circle at the point B
(corresponding to the trailing edge).

1.4.4 Remarks on Further Families of Profiles

A simple approximation to the hyperbola profiles just
described is designated as Type Ds in Section 7.3.2
(following LOCK-PRESTON). The EO and EQ profiles, which
are built up from several parts and have algebraic equa-
tions, are also treated there.
Modern development of profiles tends to start from a
prescribed pressure or velocity distribution; the shape of
the profile is then determined by means of a theoretical
procedure (see Section 8.3).

1.5 References

Fig. 1.16. Formation of the symmetrical hyperbola profiles

1.5.1 Books
ABBOTT, J. H. and A. E. V. DOENHOFF: Theory of Wing Sec-
parameters are initially at our disposal: the trailing edge tions. McGraw Hill 1949.
angle of the profile, which is identical with the angle be- BETZ, A.: Applied Airfoil Theory; in Durand, Aerodynamic
tween the asymptotes of the hyperbola; and the profile Theory, Vol IV, Berlin 1934.
- Konforme Abbildung. Berlin 1948.
thickness, which is given by the distance E of the centre of - and R. SEIFERTH: Vntersuchung von Flugzeugmodellen im
inversion, 0, from the outer focus of the hyperbola. The Windkanal. Handb. d. Experimental-Physik, Bd. IV, 2,
position of maximum thickness and the nose radius depend Leipzig 1932.
on the choice of trailing edge angle and maximum thick- DONOVAN, A. F. and H. R. LAWRENCE: Aerodynamic Com.
ness. The profile shape can be further varied if curves ponents of Aircraft at Hig~ Speeds (Section A, Chapter 1).
Oxford 1957.
GLAUERT, H.: The Elements of Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory.
C.V.P. 1948.
HOERNER, S.: Aerodynamic Drag. Dayton, Ohio, 1951.
HOWARTH, L:: Modern Developments in Fluid Dynamics, High
Fig. 1.17. Generation of camber
and of a point of inflexion in
Speed Flow. Vols. I and II, Oxford 1953.
the hyperbola profiles KARMAN, T. v. and J. M. BURGERS: General Aerodynamic
Theory-Perfect Fluids; in Durand, Aerodynamic Theory,
Vol. II, Berlin 1934.
OSWATITSCH, K.: Translated by Kuerti, G.: Gas Dynamics.
Academic Press Inc. 1956.
deviating slightly from the hyperbola are subjected to this PRANDTL, L. and A. BETZ: Ergebnisse der Aerodynamischen
inversion process. The calculation of the velocity distribu- Versuchsanstalt, I-IV. Lfg., Miinchen 1921-1932.
tion is performed by conformal mapping of the exterior of - Vier Abhandlungen zur Hydro- und Aerodynamik. Got-
tingen 1927.
the profile into the exterior of the unit circle; this is possible
PRANDTL, L.: Fiihrer durch die Stromungslehre. 3. Aufiage,
by a chain of intermediate conformal mappings. Braunschweig 1949.
Starting from the plane containing the circle it is SAUER, R.: Einfiihrung in die theoretische Gasdynamik. 2. Auf-
possible to choose two more profile parameters, the lage, Berlin 1951.
maximum camber and the position of a point of inflexion SCHLICHTING, H.: Grenzschichttheorie. Karlsruhe 1958 and
London 1960 (English translation by J. Kestin).
in the camber line, by the following modifications. If,
SCHMITZ, F. W.: Aerodynamik des Flugmodells. 2. Aufi.,
instead of mapping a circle containing two symmetrically Duisburg 1952.

1.5.2 Comprehensive Reports Ed. I (1917), S. 148-163.

ABBOT, 1. H., A. E. v. DOENHOFF and L. S. STIVERS: Summary MUNK, M. and C. 1'0HLHAUSEN: Messungen an einfachen Flu-
of Airfoil Data. NACA Rep. No. 824 (1945). gelprofilen. Techn. Ber. d. Inspektion d. Fliegertruppen,
BEAVAN, J. A., R. F. SARGENT, R. J. NORTH and P. M. BUR- Bd. I (1917), S. 204-218.
ROWS: Measurements of Maximum Lift ori 26 Aerofoil Sec- MUNK, M.: Weitere Messungen an Fliigelprofilen. Techn. Ber.
tions at High Mach Number. R & M No. 2678 (1948). d. Inspektion d. ~'liegertruppen, Bd. I (1917), S. 204-218.
BUSEMANN, A.: Aerodynamische Flugelgestaltung. Der EinfluB MUNK, M. and E. HUCKEL: Weitere Gottinger Fliigelprofil-
der Machschen Zahl, Jahrb. 1941 dDL I, S. 1-7. untersuchungen. Techn. Ber. d. Inspektion d. Fhegertrup-
CAIDLL, J. F.: Summary of Section Data on Trailing Edge High pen, Bd. II (1918), S. 407-450.
Lift Devices. NACA RM L8D09 or NACA Rep. 938(1949). PANKHURST, R. C.: NPL-Aerofoil-Catalogue. C.P. 81 (1952).
FERRI, A.: Completed Tabulation in the United States of Tests PINKERTON, R. M. and H. GREENBERG: Aerodynamic Charac-
on 24 Airfoils at High Mach Numbers. (Derived from inter- teristics of a Large Number of Airfoils Tested in the Variable-
rupted work at Guidonia, Italy, in the 1.31 by 1.74 foot Density Wind Tunnel. NACA Rep. No. 628 (1938).
High Speed TunneL) NACA ACR No. L5E21, (1945) QUINN, J. H. ir.: Summary of Drag Characteristics of Practical
(Wartime Rep. No. LI43). Construction Wing Sections. NACA Rep. No. 910.
GOTHERT, B.: Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen an symmetri- STACK, J. and A. E. v. DOENHOFF: Tests of 16 Related Airfoils
schen Profilen mit verschiedenen Dickenverhii.ltnissen im at High Speeds. NACA Rep. No. 492 (1934).
DVL-Hochgeschwindigkeitskanal und Vergleich mit Unter- TOLLMIEN, W.: Grenzschichten. Go. Mon. B (1946).
suchungen in anderen Windkanii.len. FB 1505/1-5 und FB - Kompressible Stromung. Go. Mon. C (1946).
1506 (1959). WENZINGER, C. J. and F. M. ROGALLO: Resume of Airfoil Data
- Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen an Ptofilen gleicher Dik- on Slats and Flaps. NACA TN 690 (1939).
kenverteilung mit verschiedener Krummung im DVL- YOUNG, A. D.: A Review of Some Stalling Research. R & M
Hochgeschwindigkeits-Windkanal. FB 1910/1 bis 6 (1943). No. 2609 (1942).
- Widerstandsanstieg bei Profilen im Bereich hoher Unter-
schallgeschwindigkeiten. UM 1167 (1944) und Techn. Be-
richte (1944). 1.5.3 Specialised Reports
HILTON, W. F.: An Experimental Analysis of the Forces on BAUSCH, K.: Strenges Verfahren der Skelettliniellbestimmung
18 AerofoiIs at High Speeds. R & M No. 2058 (1946). fur Profile unbekannter Verwolbung. Techn. Berichte 11
JACOBS, E. N., K. E. WARD and R. M. PINKERTON: The (1944), S. 11-15.
Characteristics of 78 Related Airfoil Section from Tests in the BETZ, A.: Eine Verallgemeinerung der Joukowskyschen Flugel-
Variable Density Wind-Tunnel. NACA Rep. No. 460 (1933). abbildung. ZFM (1924), S. 100.
JACOBS, E. N. and R. M. PINKERTON: Tests in the Variable Den- BETZ, A. and F. KEUNE: Verallgemeinerte Karman-Trefftz-
sity Wind-Tunnel of Related Airfoils Having the Maximum Profile. Lufo 13 (1936) 336.
Camber Unusually Far Forward. NACA Rep. No. 537 (1935). DOUGLAS, 0.: A Series of Low Drag Aerofoils Embodying a New
JACOBS, E. N. and A. SHERMAN: Airfoil Section Characteristics Camber Line. R & M No. 2494 (1947).
as Affected by Variations of the Reynolds Number. NACA DUNCAN, W. J.: Aerofoils with Many Parameters. Aircraft
Rep. No. 586 (1937). Engineering 11.383 (1939).
JACOBS, E. N., R. M. PINKERTON and H. GREENBERG: Tests of GINZEL, J.: Krummungseigenschaften von Profilen. Lufo 14
Related Forward-Camber Airfoils in the Variable-Density (193.), S. 573-576.
Wind-Tunnel. NACA Rep. No. 610 (1937). GOLDSTEIN, S.: A Theory of Aerofoils of Small Thickness.
JACOBS, E. N., and 1. H. ABBOT: Airfoil Section Data Obtained CP 68-70 (1945).
in the NACA Variable Density Tunnel as Affected by GROTH: Modification of the NACA-System of Profile Enumera-
Support Interference and Other Corrections. NACA Rep. tion for Profiles with Small Trailing Edge Angles. Min. Airc.
No. 669 (1939). Prod., Volkenrode-Rep. No. AGD 1003 (1945).
JACOBS, E. N.: Preliminary Report on Laminar-Flow Airfoils HELMBOLD, H. Rand F. KEUNE: zur Profilforschung,
and New Methods Adopted for Airfoil and Boundary-Layer Teil I, II. Jufo (1943), S. 77-96.
Investigations. NACA-WR L-345 (1939). KARMAN, Th. v. and E. TREFFTZ: Profilstromung um gegebene
KNACKSTEDT: Prufung und Sichtung der bisher vorliegenden Tragflii.chenquerSchnitte. ZFM9 (1918), S. Ill.
Ergebnisse bei Stromungen mit hohen Geschwindigkeiten. KOSCHMIEDER, F. and A. W ALZ: zu einer Profilsyste-
FB 1147 (1939). matik. FB 1691 (1943).
KOSTER, H.: Zusammenstellung von Ergebnissen von Messun- LEHMANN and F. ZEUNERT: Beitrag zur Profilforschung. UM
gen an Luftschraubenprofilen in auslii.ndischen Windkanii.len. 7603 (1944).
UM 1241 (1944). LrGHTIDLL, M. J.: A New Method of Two-dimensional Aero-
KRUGER, W.: Hochauftrieb. UM 3025 (1943). dynamic Design. R & M No. 2112 (1945).
LOFTIN ir., L. K. and H. A. SMITH: Aerodynan::.ic Characteristics LOCK, C. N. H. and J. H. PRESTON: The New Type of Aerofoil
of 15 NACA Airfoil Sections at seven Reynolds Numbers Section, Aircraft Engineering 11 (1939), p. lin.
from 0.7.10 6 to 9.10 6 NACA TN 1945 (1949). PANKHURST, R. C.: Equations to Given Aerofoil Sections
LOFTIN ir., L. K. and H. A. SMITH: Two-Dimensional Aero- "Clark Y" and RAF 6. R & M No. 2130 (1944).
dynamic CharacteFistics of 34 Miscellaneous Airfoil Sections. PEARCY, H. H. and J. A. BEAVAN: Force and Pressure Coeffi-
NACA RM L8L08 (1949). cients up to Mach Number 087 on the Goldstein Roof Top
- and W. J. BURSNALL: The Effects of Variations in Reynolds Section 1442/1547. R & M No. 2346 (1946).
Number Between 3.10ti and 25.10 6 upon the Aerodynamic PIERCY, N. A. V., R. W. PIPER and J. H. PRESTON: A New
Characteristics of a Number of NACA 6-series Airfoil Sec- Family of Wing Profiles. Phil. Mag. 24 (1937), p. 425.
tions. NACA Rep. 964 (1950). PIERCY, N. A. V., R. W. PIPER and L.G. WHITEHEAD: The
MUNK, M. and E. HUCKEL: Systematische Messungen an Flu- . New Transformed Wing Sections. Aircraft Engineering
gelprofilen. Techn. Ber. ti. Inspektion d. ~'liegertruppen, (1938), pp. 339-343.

PIPER, R. W.: Extensions of the New Family of Wing Profiles. SCHRENK, 0.: Theoretisches iiber Joukowsky-Profile. Ergeb-
Phil. Mag. Ser. 7, Vol. 24 (1937), p. 1114. nisse AVA III, S. 13-16.
RINGLEB, F.: Beitrage zur Theorie der Tragfliigelprofile. FB SQUffiE, H. B.: A Family of Camber Lines for Subsonic Applica.
1496 und Jahrb. dDL I, S. 133-140. tions. C.P. 437 (1959).
ROGERS, E. W. E.: Observations on a Thin Cambered Aerofoil STACK, J.: Tests of Airfoils Designed to Delay the Compressi-
Beyond the Critical Mach Number. R & M No. 2432 (1950). bility Burble. NACA TN No. 976 (1944).
ROSSNER, G.: tJber eine Klasse von theoretischen Profilen mit Staff of H. S. T.: Measurements of Force Coefficients Oil Aero-
vier frei wahlbaren geometrischen Parametern. Jahrb. 1942 foil EC 1240 in the High Speed Tunnel at the NPL. R & M
dDL, S. I 142/59. No. 2246 (1940).
SCHLICHTING, H. and A. ULRICH: Zur Berechnung des Urn TANNER, L. H.: Curves Suitable for Families of Aerofoils with
schlages laminar/turbulent. LGL-Bericht S 10, S. 75-135 Variable Maximum Thickness Position, Nose Radius, Camber
und Jahrb. 1942 dDL I; S. 8. and Nose Droop. C.P. 358 (1957).
SCHMIDT, W.: Entwurf, Auftrieb, Moment und Druckverteilung TREFFTZ, E.: Graphische Konstruktion Joukowskyscher Trag-
eines Joukowsky-S-Profiles, .Jahrb. 1939 dDL I, S. 50 bis 54. flachen. ZFM 4 (1913), S. 130.

2.1. Some Details of Wind Tunnels used for Profile Degree of T'urbulence: :::::0,0024. Turbulence Factor: ::::: 116.
Measurements Balance: 3 and 6 component beam-balance; de-
scription in [AVA I, II].
2.1.1 Gattingen Wind. tunnels
Models: 02 m X 1 m rectangular wings; wing-tips 2 m x 2 m Wind tunnel of the MYA
usually blunt.
First Operated: 1908. Rebuilt in 1918; in operation again
Corrections: jet-boundary corrections (given in [AVA

in 1920.
quadratic, 196 m X 196 m, closed-throat
I-IVl); conversion of the measured
values to A = 00, with allowance for the

I test-section; from 1920, octagonal open-

jet with diameter of 12 m; from 1934,
lift distribution on the wing, by the

elliptical open-jet with axes 106 m and a = Ci - 418C L (a in degrees),
15 m. CD = CD - 0'066C L2
Contraction Ratio: at first 1: 1; from 1920, 1: 33; from
1934, 1 :3. 47 m x 7 in Wind. tunnel of the AVA
Maximum Speed: 10 m/sec; with nozzle (from 1920) First Operated: 1936.
30 m/sec.
Test Section: elliptical cross-section (minor axis 47 m,
Velocity Variation: (deviation from the mean value of the major axis 70 m); open jet, 85 m length;
velocity in the test section) ::::: 1%'. can be used at pressures of from 025 to 4
Turbulence Factor: :::::17 (before 1920). atmospheres.
Balance: 3 or 4 component balance, description in Contraction Ratio: 1: 3.
Maximum Speed:
Models: rectangular wings; span b = 100 m or
120 m, chord c = 020 m.
Pressure 20minute ContinuouB
Corrections:t the measured values are converted to bursts running
A = 00 by formulas for the additional
angle of incidence and the additional drag 1 atmosphere 59 m/sec 55 m/sec
4 atmospheres 38 m/sec 35 m/sec
(be in m 2).
025 atmospheres 96 m/sec 88 m/sec
a = Ci - (20'9c/b - 2'2bc)CL
(a in degrees),
CD= CD - (0'33c/b - 0'038be)CL2 , Degree of Turbulence: ::::: 0003.
which contain jet-boundary corrections
Turbulence Factor: :::::126 (1944), 14 (1940).
and corrections for the lift distribution on
the rectangular wing (see Section 2.3). Balance: 6-component counterpoise balance, oper-
ated by remote control. Description by
KLEIN. 225 m Wind. tunnel of the AVA
Models: rectangular wings, b = 40 m and.c =
First Operated: 1917.
08 m; wing-tips blunt, and with tip-
Test Section: circular cross-section of diameter 225 m; fairings of various types; maximum chord
length, 34 m; open jet. for wings with end-plates, 2-3 m.
Contraction Ratio: 1: 485. Corrections: conversion of measured values to A = 00,
Maximum Speed: 58 m/sec; in continuous running, 50 with allowance for the lift distribution on
m/sec. the wing, by the formulas
a = Ci - H8CL (a in degrees),
t See Sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.2. CD = CD - 0066CL 2

Jet-boundary correction is also required. Test SectilYTl: elliptical cross-section (minor axis 5 m,
The 4 m X 54 m wind-tunnel of the AVA major axis 7 m); open jet of length 9 m.
is identical with the one just described, CIYTitractilYTl Ratio: 1: 4.
except that it has a smaller nozzle.
Maximum Speed: 65 mJsec.
Test SectilYTl: elliptical cross-section (minor axis 4 m,
major axis 54 m); open jet, 75 m length. Velocity VariatilYTl: about 1'5%; on the major axis of the
ClYTitra.ctilYTl Ratio: 1: 45. elliptical cross-section about 0'5%.
Maximum Speed: Direction Variation: 0'5 on the jet axis.
Turbulence Factor: ~ 11.

Pressure 20minute Continuous Balance: 6-component counterpoise balance oper-

bursts running ated by remote control, with data-
1 atmosphere 74 m/sec 66 m/sec recording apparatus; described by
4 atmospheres 48 m/sec 42 m/sec KRAMER.
025 atmospheres 117 m/sec 104 m/sec Models: normal wings, 08 m X 40 m. Welded steel
skeleton with plaster surface (10 mm
Degree of Turbulence: ~00026. Turbulence Factor: ~1'21. thick), polished. Wing-tips rounded.

Models: normal rectangular wings, b = 3 m, CorrectilYTlS : jet-boundary correction and conversion to

c = 06 rn. A = 00. 27 m High-speed Wind-tunnel Cavitation Tunnel
First Operated: 1939.
First Operated: 1927.
Test SectilYTl: circular cross-section of 27 m diameter,
Cross-sectilYTl: rectangular, 006 m X 0161 m, closed-
and length of 27 m; closed-throat test-
throat test-section. Fluid used in experi-
ments: water.
Contraction Ratio: 1: 72.
Maximum Speed: 8 mJsec.
Balance: Maximum Speed: without models M = 093; with models
spring balance.
(c = 500 mm) M ~ 086.
Models: rectangular wings mounted on a revolving
plate, flush with the tunnel wall. Turbulence Factor: ~ 104.

Corrections: to allow for the effect of the walls, static Balance: 3-component counterpoise balance oper-
pressure and kinetic pressure are measured . ate,d by remote control; experimental
in a section at a distance of about three results (including pressure) given on paper
times the chord in front of the wing; these tape.
measurements, together with Bernoulli's Models: made from light alloy, either with 01 mm
equation and the equation of continuity, layer of plaster and lacquer (ground to
are used to convert the results for the flow required degree of fineness and polished)
about the profile and cavitation layer to or with a simple metallic surface.
free fluid. In addition, a deduction in the
angle of incidence must be made, because CorrectilYTls : (I) correction of free-stream velocity for
of the influence of the horizontal walls on constraint due to model; (2) correction for
the flow round the profile; this deduction additional constraint due to wake; (3)
is proportional to CL, and is given by jet-boundary correction (see GOTHERT).

L1a = ~ (iYCL 2.1.3 Wind Tunnels of the NACA

(c = wing chord, H = tunnel height). Variable-density Wind-tunnel (VDT)
First Operated: built 1923; rebuilt 1928 after destruction
by fire.
2.1.2 Wind Tunnels of the DVL
Test Section: circular cross-section of 5 ft diameter; 5 m x 7 m Wind Tunnel
closed-throat test-section; excess pressure
First Operated: end of 1934. up to 21 atmospheres [R416].

Maximum Speed: 72 ft/sec. Corrections: (1) jet-boundary and constraint correction

(slight ch~...QLReY!!Q!ds "!!llmber with
Velocity Variation: 05%.
/' ~gle~Li~idencel.; (2) supp~..:~_ inter-
Direction Variation: less than 025. ference (on the drag); (3) fbr direction of
Turbulence Factor: 264 [R558]. f~surement in normal position and
reversed position). Conversion of the
Balance: built 1929; 3-component balance for lift,
corrected value from A = 6 to A = 00 by
drag, and pitching moment.
the formulas
Models: normal rectangular wings, A = 6 (5 in X
30 in). Made from Dural or steel, to a = eX - 3580L (a in degrees),
accuracy of 0001 inches; highly polished. CD = CD - 00560L2
Corrections : (1) conversion to free air; (2) conversion to
infinite aspect-ratio, with allowance for
~ljfLdistribution o~-;tng;(3) Langley Two-dimensional Low-tmhulenee Tunnel (LTT)
support ~terlerenceTori drag and pitching First Operated: 1941.
moment); (4) allowance for the flow at the Test Section: closed-throat tunnel, rectangular cross-
tips of the rectangular wing (,.., =value section, of 3 ft width and 75 ft height
for model of finite span), [R824].
CLmu . = I-07('Lma%., Contraction Ratio: 1: 20.
Maximum Speed: 230 ft/sec.
dOL = 0.96 dC , Degree of Turbulence: ~ 00003.
da da
Balance: for moments only. Lift obtained from the
a= eX + 0'39CL (a in degrees), pressures on the roof and floor of the tunnel.
Drag from measurement of momentum
CD = CD + 0OOI6CL2 - 0'OOOI(t-6),
(t ~ 6)
Models: wooden models, mostly with chord of 2 ft;
where t is the maximum thickness of the for small 0 L, also with chord of 8 ft.
wing as a percentage ofthe chord; (5) the
Corrections: wall effect, and constraint correction
adjustment to effective
--------_._------ _
.. _... . - - .-. nUlll~e~
-_.. Reynolds - .

req~r~f!...!L('?.Q.rrection. of the drag coeffi.-

ci~~~_a.nq ma:iimiimlift~cQ~]jia~n.~Jor
wings with flaps deflected a further Langley Two-dimensional Low.turhulenee Pressure
approximate correction is required. See Tunnel (TDT)
[R586, 669]. First Operated: 1941.
Test Section: closed-throat tunnel with rectangular Full-seale Wind-tunnel (FST)
cross-sectibn (3 ft width and 75 ft height).
Pressure: variable, from 1 to 10 atmo-
First Operated: spring 1931. spheres [NI283].
Test Section: nozzle with parallel upper and lower walls
Contraction Ratio: 1: 17 6.
and semicircular side-walls; cross-section
Maximum Speed: 440 ft/sec at 1 atmosphere;
30 ft X 60 ft; open jet [R459].
330 ft/sec at 3 atmospheres;
Contraction Ratio: 1 :4,9.
Maximum Speed: 174 ft/sec.
230 ft/sec at 10 atmospheres .
Degree of Turbulence: increasing with speed, from ~00002
Turbulence Factor: 11. to 0001 [R940].
Degree of Turbulence: ~ 0003 [R558]. Balance: for moments only. Lift obtained from the
Balance: 6-component balance for three forces and pressures on the roof and floor 6f the
three moments; printing device gives tunnel. Drag from measurement of
simultaneous recording of all quantities. momentum loss.
Models: A =6 (6 ft X 36 ft to 8 ft X 48 ft). Made Models: normal models made from wood; chord of
of metal coated with aluminium skin 2 ft. Laminar profiles: 8 ft chord, for small
(0064 in thick) and lacquered. Wing-tips values of the lift. Reynolds number in
blunt; later, rounded semicircularly. usual experiments: 9.106 Maximum Rey-
Mounted on stings. nolds number: 60.106.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ - _._--_ ... ..... ... -


Corrections: wall effect and constraint correction Contraction Ratio: 1: 325.

[R824]. Maximum Speed: for intermittent running (20 min), 90
2.1.S.5 1 ft x st ft High.speed Tunnel, Ames Laboratory Degree of Turbulence: ~0004.
First Operated: 1944. Balance: 6-component balance; forces are measured
Test Section: closed-throat tunnel with rectangular singly; balance arranged to rotate viith
cross-section ofl ft X 31 ft. [R832, R947.] model.
Maximum Speed: M = 09. Models: rectangular wings, 025 m X 150 m; manu-
Models: 6 in chord. Manufactured from aluminium factured from wood.
Balance: none. Lift obtained from the pressures on High.speed Windtunnel in Guidonia
the roof and floor. Drag from measurement First Operated: 1939.
of momentum loss. Test Section: open-jet between plane walls. Rectangular
cross-section of 04 m X 054 m. Pressure in
2.1.4 British Windtunnels the test section: variable, from 01 to 1
2.I.41 CAT Compressed Air Tunnel (NPL) atmosphere.
First Operated: 1932.
Speed: 04 < M < 29.
Models: wings of 004 or 005 m chord, spanning
Test Section: pressurised tunnel, p :::;; 25 atmospheres.
the tunnel.
Open, circular section; closed return-
circuit. Nozzle diameter, 6 ft.
Contraction Ratio: 1: 36. 2.2 On the Turbulence of Wind Tunnels
Maximum Speed: 88 ft/sec. 2.2.1 Degree of Turbulence and Scale of Turbulence
Turbulence Factor: 2l. Deviations from the mean velocity occur to some extent
Models: rectangular wings, 8 in X 48 in; manu- in the test sections of all wind tunnels; these deviations
factured from aluminium, polished surface. (the disturbance velocities u', v', w', in the three co-
Corrections: jet-boundary and constraint correction, ordinate directions) exhibit large fluctuations. To obtain a
and correction for support interference on measure for these \ve define a degree of turbulence, T, of the
the drag. For conversion to A = CIJ, with wind tunnel; this is the ratio of the mean disturbance
allowance for the rectangular shape of the velocity to the mean flow velocity, V, so that
wing, the formulas to be used are
ex = ex - 355CL
CD = CD - 00555C L 2.
(ex in degree~), T IV
= -V
-3 r;;
\U'2 + -v'z + W'2
-) (2.1)

here, u'2 is the square of the disturbance velocity 'in the

2.l.U 20 in x 8 in High-speed Tunnel (NPL)
axial direction averaged over a time interval t, so that
First Operated: 1941.
Test Section: closed-throat tunnel with rectangular t

cross-section of 20 in X 8 in, and length of -u'Z = t1 I U'2 dt. (2.2)

64 in; provided with movable side-walls. o
Running time: 20 minutes. [R & M 2005,
v'2 and w'2 are the corresponding quantities in the two
co-ordinate directions normal to the axis. In the considera-
Maximum Speed': M = 094.
tion of wind-tunnel turbulence the last two quantities are
Models: 5 in chord. often assumed to be of the same order of magnitude as the
first; therefore, T can be taken as V u'2/V.
2.1.5 Some Other Wind. tunnels
Direct measurement of the degree of turbulence has Large Wind.tunnel of the Aerodyuauiic Institute of the become usual only in recent times.; the mean value of the
ETH in Ziirich
disturbance velocity is determined from the cooling of one
First Operated: 1936. hot wire. Suppose we use two hot wires to measure the
Test Section: open-jet or closed-throat; rectangular disturbance velocities UI' and U2' at two points in a cross-
cross-section with chamfered comers, section, and vary the distance (y) between them; we can
300 m wide and 210 m high. Adjustable then obtain a correlation coefficient from such measure-
diffusor. ments,

U'l .u/ a
F (y) = ---:::=---===- (2.3)
factor (t.f.), defined by the ratio

YU'lz YU / Z
I tf = R erlt. in free air
. . Rerlt . in the wind tunnel

By integration we obtain a length called the scale oj For" R erlt . in free air" he uses the value 385 . lOS (obtained
turbulence: from flight measurements, and corresponding to plq =
-022) ; for the denominator he uses a mean value obtained
'" from a number of measurements on spheres. If we now
L=fF(y).dy. (2.4) suppose that, to a first approximation, the critical Reynolds
number varies inversely with the turbulence, we can use
the turbulence factor to convert the experimental results
L can be regarded as a measure of the size of eddies;
for profiles in various wind-tunnels to an "effective
together with the degree of turbulence, it characterises the
Reynolds number" (corresponding to free air with very
state of turbulence in the wind tunnel.
low turbulence); the conversion formula is
2.2.2 The Critical Reynolds Number for Turbulence Rerr. = (t.f.)R, (2.5)
As a means of comparing the turbulence of various
where R = Vclv. This procedure has proved fairly
wind-tunnels PRANDTL has suggested the use of the critical
successful for the maximum lift coefficient (that is, for
Reynolds number of the sphere; this is the Reynolds
predicting the onset of separation); it has not proved
number at which a sudden sharp drop in the drag coefficient,
successful for other profile properties (in particular, not
CD, occurs, the drop being caused by a change in the type
for the drag).
of flow in the boundary layer; as the turbulence of the air
in the tunnel increases, the Reynolds number at which the
drop occurs becomes smaller. To define this number more
exactly, DRYDEN and KUETHE choose as critical Reynolds 2.2.4 Influence of the Diameter of the Sphere. More Exact
number that at which a CD of 03 is reached. HOERNER, Definition of the Turbulence Factor
in his measurements, uses the fact that an equally sudden Modern wind-tunnels possess very small turbulence (the
values of Rerlt . lie between 3.105 and 4 105); so it is not

O'I/C'O~ Co-oJ I
oc I
,., /
, '6
1 ,,;.'.1'

O'C q ~",.
.IL -0 1/'v ~-

o q--H---
Fig. 2.1. Deftnltlon of the critical
Reynolds number for a sphere J 8 ---n
t:Z ~

.1:6 W-
rise in pressure, p, on the rear part of the sphere (very J ., id
close to where the sting is attached) is associated with the
sudden drop in CD; this is another easily determined J '6
quantity that can be used to define the critical Reynolds /1
number. To obtain approximately the same value of 10 ItO .10 I/O 50 60 70 80 .90 fa
Rerlt. as given by CD = 03, plq (q being the kinetic iI(m/S)
pressure, -if! V2) is plotted against R and the value of R
Fig. 2.2. Measurement of Rerlt. (defined by ~ - 0) plotted against
corresponding to plq. = -022 read off. The latter value is velocity.
the one recommended by PLATT: HOERNER suggests that (1) Free nlr. (4) ),3 m tunnel;
plq be taken as zero; this leads to larger values for the (2) to (7) In AVA wind tunnels : (5) 225 III tunnel;
(2) low turbulence wind (6) 4 III x 5'4 m ~unnel;
critical Reynolds number (see Figure 2.1). tunnel;
(3) 036 m Elffeltunnel; (7) 47 m x 7 m tunnel.
2.2.3 The Turbulence Factor
To be able to compare the turbulence of wind tunnels sufficient simply to utilise mean values from a number
PLATT introduces a characteristic quantity, the turbulence of measurements on one sphere, because the value of

R erit . depends on the diameter, D, of the sphere, and on SEIFERTH proposes that, to characterise the turbulence,
the speed, V. This fact has been known for some time; it is the value of R erit . corresponding to a definite diameter of
I verified by measurements on spheres, which SEIFERTH the sphere, about 22 em, be chosen; as the measurements
performed in five Gottingen wind-tunnels in 1943/44. In .show, this suggestion leads to a well-defined parameter.

IJ-5 L (em)

\ 0020

0 c
12 V
~ ~ t:-......
"0 0010 0
"'k ~ --tf._ -
~. r---::::: ~~ J
J'8 d_
~ ~.,J i ' N 0005
I -r-

~~ 2 28
ef~ WUf I
J5 1/ '11/
J'" I?erl/ .10-5
!\\{1\ Fig. 2.5. Degree and scale of turbulence (shown respectively left and top right), from

"\1\ measurements made behind grids with the following meshwidths: (a) 2'45 em; (b)
127 em; (e) 0'64 em. Curve shown bottom right: wind tunnel measurements (for meaning
of symbols see Figure 2.2). Point (d), at the left end: from measnrements made behind a
8 12 15 21/\ 28
" 20
o (em)
grid 'in the 13 m tunnel (number 4); the right end is the value for rree air

The method is possible only for test sections in which a

Fig. 2.3. The measurements of Figure 2.2 plotted
sphere of this diameter does not occupy too large a part of
against diameter of sphere. (SEIFERTH)
the cross-section; it cannot be applied to small wind-
these measurements the pressure, p, on the rear part of the tunnels.
sphere is measured, and the criterion plq = 0 used to In Figure 2.4 R erlt . thus determined is plotted against
determine R erlt . For the critical Reynolds number in free the contraction ratio, 8 2/8 1, of some wind-tunnelst; it is
air a mean value of 4,11.105 (corresponding to plq = 0) seen that this ratio has a decisive influence on the turbu-
is taken; this is derived from the measurements of HOERNER lence of the wind tunnels.
and PLATT (after obviously erroneous measurements have'
been rejected). The dependence of R erit . on the speed, V, 2.2.5 Comparison Between Hot-wire and Sphere Measure-
DRYDEN has carried out hot-wire measurements
Rerif 10- behind grids in the presence of strong turbulence, and
compared his results with measurements on a sphere of
Fig. 2.4. Influence of the contraction 1
215 cm diameter (see Figure 2.5); the dependence on
ratio. ~, on Rcrlt. for Gattingen mesh size, which is present in the Figure, disappears if
wind-tunnels (for meaning of symbols
see Figure 2.2). S 1 and S I are res- ..;u'2 (D) 1/5 viu'2
peetlvely the cross-sectional areas of -V L ,instead of -V' is plotted against Rerit .
the settling chamber and of the nozzle.
J,51--t---\:--ii-----i----i The quantity L increases as the degree of turbulence, T,
~ = 0 gives the value for free air
decreases, reaching values up to 1 cm. Hot-wire measure-
ments made at Gottingen for the determination of the
degree of turbulence of the wind tunnels gave the following

for the 225 m tunnel viu'21V ~ 00024;

and on the diameter of the sphere, D, is reproducedt in for the 13 m tunnelt ~ 00009;
Figures 2.2 and 2.3. On the basis of these measurements
for the low-turbulence tunnel ~ 00002.
t In the computation of these experimental values II has been
taken as a constant, equal to 0,15.10-4 m2/sec. F. W. SCHMITZ t 8 2 is the cross-sectional area of the nozzle, 81 that of the
has made further measurements on the spheres, and has shown settling chamber.
that corrections are required to allow for the influence on II of t Since dismantled.
the temperature at the measured point. See the footnote in Section 2.3.1.

These values are in good agreement with the points ob- is found directly by measurement of the momentum lost
tained by DRYDEN; in Figure 2.5 a curve (lower right-hand in the wake. The theoretical foundations of this method
side) is drawn through them, and this curve can be easily have been given by BETZ, B. M. JONES, G. I. TAYLOR, and
extrapolated to pass through the point corresponding to (for high speeds) by GOTHERT: the practical applications
fre~ air; in this way a connection between hot-wire and are described by MUTTRAY, DOETSCH, SILVERSTEIN and
sphere measurements is demonstrated (see SEIFERTH). KATZOFF, GOETT, and others (see the references of Section
2.3 General Remarks 00 Experimeotallnvestigations In later times, wind-tunnels intended for profile measure-
2.3.1 On Profile Measurements in Wind Tunnels ments have been built by the NACA and at Gottinge,nt; in
these tunnels the wings are placed between plane walls in
At first, weighing was the only method of importance for
an attempt to produce two-dimensional flow. Disturbances
the experimental determination of force and moments
caused by the apparatus for measuring forces are largely
(see BETZ-SEIFERTH). Nearly all the 3 and 6 component
avoided in the American wind-tunnels LTT and TDT by
balances of the most important wind-tunnel8 have been
determining the lift from an integration of the pressures
exhaustively described; in Section 2.1 a reference is given
on the floor and on the roof of the wind tunnel; only the
to the appropriate place in the literature for the description
moments are still measured by weighing.
of each tunnel, and the type of balance is stated. In general,
the measurements have been carried out upon rectangular
2.3.2 On Wind-tunnel Corrections
wings of aspect ratio A = b2/S = 5 or 6. With the help of
known formulas for the conversion of wind-tunnel Because of the finite dimensions of the stream of air, the
measurements from one aspect ratio to another [AVA II], lift measured in a wind tunnel differs from that measured in
the measured values of forces and moments ca!l be con- air of infinite extent. In an open-jet tunnel the lift is
verted to A = 00, which corresponds to a wing of infinite smaller: in a closed-throat tunnel the lift is greater
span; the conversion formulas have been derived on the (assuming that the angle of incidence remains unchanged).
assumption of a constant lift coefficient, CL. The formulas However, following a proposal of PRANDTL, it is more
are: useful not to apply the necessary correction to the lift, but
rather to correct tIre angle of incidence and the drag
(a) for the angle of incidence (in radians), coefficient at constant CL (the procedure that is used in the
conversion from one aspect ratio to another).
a=a The most important correction, a correction for the
induced downwash on the wing, depends on the lift
coefficient (C L), on the ratio of wing area (S) to the cross-
(b) for the drag coefficient, sectional area of the jet (So), and on a factor that allows
- CL 2 for the influence both of the shape of the cross-section and
CD = CD - :rr:A (1 +T2); (2.6b) of the wing span ..The latter factor is written (}a in the
correction for the angle of incidence, and () D in the correc-
here, ~ and {)D denote values measured at an aspect tion for the drag; many Authors have calculated it (under
ratio A. In this form the correction formulas (originally the assumptions of potential theory), and the most diverse
derived for an elliptical distribution of lift) contain cross-sectional shapes and spans have been considered.
factors, (1 +
TIl and (1 +
T2), which allow for the actual RIEGELS has given a comprehensive summary of such
lift-distribution. The following table for rectangular wings results for incompressible flow, in which other kinds of
is taken from GLAUERT; it is assumed that dd~L has its correction are also considered (camber corrections,
constraint corrections, etc.); LUDWIEG is engaged on a
theoretical value of 2:rr:. supplement, a corresponding summary for compressible
A 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 flows.
0'122 0145 0163 0183 0'201 0216 0228
To show the order of magnitude of the correction first
0'026 0037 0046 0055 0.064 0,072 0-080 mentioned, we give the values for the circular jet (worked

The increased accuracy of weighing and the close t A two-dimensional low-turbulence windtunnel was built
at Reyershausen near G6ttingen during the war; the test cross.
approach to uniform flow in modern wind-tunnels mean section was 15 m X 3 m, and the speed was 90 m/sec. Measure-
that variations in the details of model manufacture, in the ments concerning its velocity distribution and state of turbulence

quality of the model surface, in the type of suspension were made, but it was then dismantled without having served its
used, and in the shape of the wing-tips, now produce purpose-the carrying out of profile measurements. This
!) 'detectable effects. Al a result, the profile drag (that is, the tunnel (with a smaller test-section) has since been rebuilt in
Giittingen; the deg ree of turbulence is small (00004), the cross-
part of the drag due to friction) is no longer obtained by section is 035 m X 150 m, and the speed is 40 m/sec; it was first

. ~,;ghing follow,d hy ,ubt=tion of th, vo,"" d"'g, hut operated in 1955. '

out by PRANDTL); in terms of the wing span, b, and the jet usual type; at each point of the chord they have a radius
diameter, D, there results equal to half the local thickness. Neither kind of tip is
entirely satisfactory: because of the complicated vortex
15=1+- -
+ 5- (b)8
+ ... ;(2.7) formation, wings that are blunt at the tips give too large
values for the measured drag coefficient (whrn the lift
coefficient is close to zero); on the other hand, too large
the correction for angle of incidence is values in the upper range of CLare found when" normal"
tip-fairings are used.
Aa = -15 CL
- -, (2.8)
8 So
(J.(J060-"-"-""''---'---'''1 -'--'L--r-'Y-I Fig. 2.7. Drag correction

and for the drag 4 COm'" I ~ I Ifor Interference from

, , 'model support in the
(2.9) f-.j-',-+'-+-+--1i--i?""'~V:--++_-+It--+:--1: VDT (from [R669

Q y+ I i i i
For normal profiles of 1 m span and with A equal to 5, in I. :'-t I!:,
the Gottingen 225 m wind-tunnel, the angle of incidence ... v 1 I! it
o NO 020 0:30 - tic 050
and the drag coefficient corrected for jet-boundary effects
are given by
From measurements in the 4 m X 54 m tunnel of the
a = aM - 036CL (a in degrees),
AVA, REGENSCHEIT is able to show that both these dis-
CD = CDjJf - 0OO635CL2 ; advantages can be overcome to a certain extent by using
the uncorrected, measured values are designated by the a particular type of tip-fairing. This tip-fairing is of the
. same form as the normal one up to the position of maximum
suffix M. For normal profiles (06 m X 3 m) in the elliptic
jet of the Gottingen 4 m X 54 m wind-tunnel, thickness; from this point on it is elliptic (the minor semi-
axis being half the local thickness, and the major semi-axis
a =:; aM - 064CL (a in degrees), being half the maximum thickness). Measurements of the
CD = CDjJf - 00112CL2. drag of wings with such tip-fairings are fairly close to the
true values (Figure 12.74).
Further corrections may be necessary because of support The means of suspension of the wing automatically
interference (see Section 2.3.3). introduces errors; this can be seen, for example, from the
measurements of momentum loss shown in Figure 4.8.
2.3.3 InHuences of Wing-tips and Supports JACOBS and ABBOTT [R669] give corrections that should be
All the earlier profile measurements made by the AVA appli~d to the drag to allow for support interference. They
and by the NACA have been carried out on wings with are applicable to the measurements made in the NACA
blunt tips, but measurements in the DVL wind-tunnel variable-density wind-tuI).nel from 1931 to 1939, and are
show that considerable differences in. the experimental reproduced in Figure 2.7.
values arise, depending on whether the ~ngs are blunt at
2.3.4 ln1Iuence of Turbulence in the Air
In Section 2.2 the problem of turbulence in wind tunnels
5 has been very thoroughly treated, because the state of
Fig. 2.6. Values of CL max
~, for the profile-series NACA turbulence of the air-stream has a decisive influence on the

11 ....... 24 with: (a) blunt tips; (b) formation of the boundary layer; this in turn affects the
~ r(~, rounded tips. Wind tunnel:
DVL 5 m x '1 m. Effective drag and, above all, the maximum lift. When measurements
Reynoldsnumber: approxi- made on models are applied to free air of low turbulence it
--t- mately 3.10'.
1.f, is, therefore, essential to take the origin of the measure-
{}08 01(1 016 0'20 0'211 ments into account. Both the American VDT aI).d the
-tic first 2 m X 2 m tunnel of the Gottingen Institute for Model
Tests have a particularly high degree of turbulence;
the tips or are rounded (that is, fitted with tip-fairings).
consequently, the maximum lift coefficients measured in
These measurements have been carried out at a Reynolds
these tunnels are not usually attained in free air, and the
number of 2.7.106 ; for this reason the drag coefficients are
measurements should not be applied to free-flight models
smaller than previous results. In Figure 2.6 CLmax .' for the
(even if the Reynolds numbers seem to lie in the correct
NACA profiles 2409 to 2421, is plotted against thickness; range); instead, later measurements made 'in low-turbu-
this example shows how the thickness changes the effect lence wind-tunnels should be applied. The results of
of rounded tips. The tip-fairings employed here are of the SCHMITZ are of interest here.

Attention is drawn to a source of errors of a special kind GOTHERT, B.: Windkanalkorrekturen bei hohen Unterschall-
geschwindig keiten. LGL-Bericht 127 (1940), S. 114 und
which has up till now received little attention; sometimes
Jahrb. 1941 dDL, S. 1684/691.
it can exert a considerable influence upon the measured HOERNER, S.: Vel'suche mit Kugeln betreffend Kennzahl, Tur-
maximum lift since it causes a change in th'e state of the bulenz und Oberfiachenbeschaffenheit. Lufo 12 (1935), 42
boundary layer. Suppose that the wires used to measure bis 54.
the drag component, which are fastened to points on the - Aerodynamic Drag, Dayton, Ohio, ,1951. (
JACOBS, E. N. and J. H. ABBOTT: The NACA Variable-density
leading edge of the wing, do not both run parallel to the
Wind Tunnel. NACA Rep. 416 (1932).
free-stream direction to two points in front of the wing, JONES, B. M.: The Measurement of Profile Drag by the Pitot-
but are brought together in V-form to a single point; the Traverse Method. R & M No. 1688 (1936).
effect is the same as if a "turbulence wire" were stretched KLEIN, M.: Windkanalwaagen. Mon. D2 1.1.
in front of the wing, parallel to the leading edge; as a result KRAlIIER, M.: Der5 X 7 m-Windkanalder DVL. Lufo 12 (1935),
there is transition of the laminar boundary layer to a S.181-187.
- Elektrisch gesteuerte Laufgewichtswaage fiir hohe MeB-
turbulent one, 'and an apparent increase in the values of genauigkeit und Fernaufzeichnung der MeBwerte, Z. VDI
CLm . . : The measurements on some G6ttingen profiles 80 (1936), S. 141. '
(from Profile 456 to Profile 592, but there are exceptions) LOCK, C. N. H., W. F. HILTON and S. GOLDSTEIN: Determina-
have been made in the presence of such a V-shaped wire- tion of Profile Drag at High Speeds by a Pitot Traverse
Method. R & M No. 1971 (1940).
suspension, and therefore require certain corrections; this
LUDWIEG, H.: Windkanalkorrekturen bei kompressibler Stro-
is particularly true of the CL maz . results. mung. Mon. D3 4.2 (1946).
MATT, H.: Aufbau und Strahleigenschaften des DVL-Hochge-
schwindigkeitswindkanals. LGL-Bericht 127 (1940) und
2.4 References Mon. D12.1.
ACKERET, J.: Experimentelle lind theoretische Untersuchungen - EinfluB verschiedener Windkanalaufhangungen auf die
iiber Hohlraumbildung (Kavitation) im Wasser. Techn. aerodynamischen Beiwerte von Fliigeln, LGL-Bericht 156
Mech. und Thermodynaniik 1 (1930), S. 1-22 u. 63-72. (1942).
- Das Institut fiir Aerodynamik des neuen Maschinenlabo- PLATT, R. C.: Turbulence Factors of NACA Wind-Tunnels as
ratoriums der E.T.H. Mitt. Inst. fiir Aerodynamik, Ziirich, Determined by Sphere Tests. NACA Rep. 558 (1936).
Nr. 8 (1943). ' PRANDTL, L.: Der Luftwiderstand von Kugeln. Nachrichten
BETZ, A.: Eine Methode zur direkten Bestimmung des Profil- der Gessellschaft der Wissenschaften, Math.-Phys.-Klasse
widerstandes. ZFM (1925). 1914.
- and R. SEIFERTH: Untersuchung von Flugzeugmodellen - Die Bedeutung von Modellversuchen fiir die Luftschiffahrt
im Windkanal. Handb. d. Experimental-Physik, Bd. IV, 2 und Flugtechnik und die Einrichtungen fiir solche Versuche
(1932). in Gottingen. Z. VDI 1909, S. 1711.
DOENHOFF, A. E. v. and F. T. ABBOTT jr.: The Langley Two - Tragftiigeltheorie II. Mitt. Nachr. d. Kgl. Ges. d. Wiss.
dimensional Low-turbulence Pressure Tunnel. NACA TN Gottingen, Math.-Phys. Kl. 1919, S. lO7-137. Wiederab-
No. 1283 (1947). druck in: Vier Abhandlungen zur Hydrodynamik und
DOETSCH, H.: Profilwiderstandsmesilungen im groBen Wind- Aerodynamik, Gottingen 1927.
kanal der DVL. Lufo 14 (1937), S. 173. REGENSCHEIT, B.: Untersuchungen iiber den EinfluB der Rand-
DRYDEN, H. L. and A. M. KUETHE: Effect of Turbulence in kappenform auf die TragfliigelmeBergebnisse. Techn. Ber.
Wind-Tunnel Measurements. NACA Rep. 342 (1930). d. ZWB. Bd. 11 (1944), S. 113.
DRYDEN, H. L., C. B. SCHUBAUER, W. C. MOCK, Jr. and RIEGELS, F.: Windkanalkorrekturen bei inkompressibler Stro-
H. K. SKRAMSTAD: Measurements of Intensity- and Scale of mung. Mon. D3 4.1 (1946).
Wind-Tunnel Turbulence and their Relation to the Critical SEIFERTH, R.: Messung der Kanalturbulenz und ihr Zusammen-
Reynolds Number of Spheres. NACA Rep. 581 (1937). hang mit der Hitzdrahtmessung. Mon. Dl 4.2 (1946).
DRYDEN, H. L. and L. H. ABBOTT: The Design of Low Tur- 'SCHLICHTING, H.: EinfluB der Turbulenz und der Reynolds-
bulence Windtunnels. NACA TN 1755 (1948) und R 940 Bchen Zahl auf die Tragfiiigeleigenschaften. Ringbuch der
(1949). Luftfahrttechnik I A 1 (1937).
FAGE, A.: Experiments on a Sphere at Critical Reynolds Num- SCHMITZ, F. W.: Zur Aerodynamik der kleinen Reynoldszahlen.
bers. R & M No. 1766 (1936). Jahrb. 1953 der WGL, S. 149-165.
FERRI, A.: La Galleria Ultrasonora di Guidonia. Atti di SCHUBAUER, G. B. and H. L. DRYDEN: The Effect of Turbulence
Guidonia No. 15, (1939) and Aircraft Engineering 12 (1940), on the Drag of Flat Plates. NACA Rep. 546 (1935).
p.302-305. SILVERSTEIN, A.: Scale Effect on Clark Y Airfoil Characteristics
- Influenza del N'umerodi Reynolds ai Grandi Numeri di from NACA Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests. NACA Rep. 502
Mach. Atti di Guidonia .No. 67-69 (1942). (1934).
DE FRANCE, S. I.: The NACA Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel. NACA TAYLOR, G., I. : The Determination of Drag by the Pitot-Traverse
Rep. 459 (1933). Method. R & M No. 1808 (1937).
GLAUERT, H.: see Section 1.5.1. WEINIG, F.: Berechnung der Profilbeiwerte aus den Beiwerten
GOETT, H. 1.: Experimental Investigations of the Momentum des Modellfliigels. FB 1666 (1942).
Method for Determining Profile Drag. NACA Rep. 660 WINTER, H.: 'Oberdruckkanal der Aerodynamischen Ver-
(1938). suchsanstalt Gottingen. Jb. 1937 dDL und Luftwissen 3
GOTHERT, B.: Widerstandsbestimmung bei hohen Unterschall- (1936), S. 237. .
geschwindigkeiten aus Impulsverlustmessungen. Jb. 1941 ZOBEL, TH.: Fortschritte in der optischen StromungsmeBsung.
dDL I, S. 148. FB 1934 (1944) und DAL Nr. 5008/44. '

3.1 Characteristic Aerodynamic Quantities Drag and lift are to be regarded as components of the
The force on a moving wing is proportional to the area, total force, R = V L2 +D2, in the direction of the free
S, of the wing (or, in the two-dimensional case we are stream and normal to this direction respectively (see Figure
considering, to the chord, c, of the profile) and to the 3.1). If the total force is resolved in the direction of the
kinetic pressure, q = (e/2) V2 (where e is the density of the
fluid). Consequently, it is usual to give the drag, D, and
the lift, L, in the form of dimensionless coefficients: Fig. 3.1. Resolution of total
aerodynamic force (R) into
D '0 L L' drag (D) and Iift (L). or into
OD = qS' --
- qS' (3.1) tangential Ilnd normal forces
(respectively Nand T)

in wind tunnels these coefficients are measured for various

values of the angle of incidence, 0; (the angle made by the
profile with the free-stream direction).
For symmetrical profiles the axis of symmetry is always
used in the definition of angle of incidence, but various
possibilities exist for cambered profiles (see Section 1.2.1). chord and in a direction normal to the chord the respective
From the aerodynamic point of view the following angles components are called the tangential force (T) and the
of incidence are of particular interest: normal force (N), and the respective coefficients are
written as
(a) the angle of incidence at zero lift, o;c~_o' or, more I

briefly, 0;0; N
ON=-' (3.4)
(b) the ideal angle of incidence, 0;*; this is the angle of qS
incidence (for cambered profiles) at which the flow does If 0; is the angle between the direction fixed with respect to
J.. not turn abruptly round the leading or trailing edges the profile and the direction of the free stream, then the
of the camber line, but attaches smoothly and leaves formulas connecting the coefficients are
smoothly; in theoretical work 0;* is sometimes called
the" design angle of incidence "t. For further remarks OT =,-OL sin 0; + OD cos o;} (3.5)
see Sections and 8.2.5. ON = 0 L cos 0; + 0 D sin 0;

According to theory, a simple relation exists between for small values of 0; these become
lift coefficient and angle of incidence,
OL = dOL. ( )
TaSIn 0; -0;0. (3.2)
In addition to these forces we are interested in the
Experimental results confirm this equation for. small pitching moment of the total force with respect to a fixed
angles of incidence, In which range the relationship is point of the profile-for example, the leading edge
linear, being (suffix l); we write
(3.3) (M)z = (Om)zqSc; (3.7)
it is taken to be positive if its effect is to increase thfJ angle
Because of viscous effects the constant value for the lift- of incidence. The total force, R (resulting from the lift, L,
curve slope, df:, is less than the theoretical value. It is not
and the drag, D), cuts the line chosen as reference axis in
a point at a distance h from the leading edge; the reference
possible to find a similar simple theoretical relation for the axis is a line fixed with respect to the profile, examples
drag coefficient, 0 D. being the chord and the free-stream direction at zero lift.
t The German expression for a* is "der Anstellwinkel des Hence, we can write
sto.l3freien Eintritts", "the angle of incidence of shockfree
attachment" . (M)z = -h(L coso: + D sin a) = -hN. (3.8)

The point (at a distance h from the leading edge) that is equation of the envelope is

[. +,g}~2Yr
the intersection of the profile chord and the line of action
of the total force is called the centre of pressure of the
profile; its position is given by

h (Om)z
c= - (3.9)

In general, this value varies considerably with the angle of

_ . (d;:)
- -2c
I .. sm2y y
[* C(d;:)l. ].
+ 2 (d~L) sm2y ,
incidence, 0:; but for a symmetrical profile (that is, for a
profile with a straight camber line) the centre of pressure the envelope is called the metacentric parabola. Its axis is parallel
lies at one quarter of the chord from the leading edge, a to the y* axis; its apex, A, lies at
theoretical result which is well confirmed by experiment
(see Equation 8.44 and Figures 3.19 to 3.23). . (dOm )
da I
According to theory a simple relation exists between the xl = -c dOL cos 2y,
moment coefficient and the angle of incidence: (~)
1 (dO m) . and its focus, F, at
(Om)l = 2 do: Ism 2(0: - 0:0 - y); (3.10)
dOm ) dO m)
( ~l (~ I .
here, y is an angle shown in Figure 3.2; its significance XF =
-c - - - cos 2y ..
YF = --c - - - sm 2y.
appears in the following discussion. (d~L) , (d~L)
L Fig. 3.2. Definition of y and z We see that the distance between the focus and the point to
which the moment is referred is
dOm )
( da I
c (d~L)'
and that the straight line joining these two points is inclined
at an angle 2y to the free stream direction at zero lift.
If we now refer the moment of the lift force to the focus of the
lift parabola we obtain for the arm
Additional theory. In inviscid flow D = 0; since the lift is then dO m )
normal to the free stream direction, M = -hL. The angle of c ( da I sin 2y
Zp = - - - - - - - - ,
incidence is now measured from the freestream direction at zero 2 (dOL) sin aln
lift and, since D = 0, it is written with the suffix "in" (inviscid o' da
dOL. m
flow). Then OL = - d sm aln and (Om)l = -21 (dO-d ) x and for the moment coefficient referred to F
ain aln' I
sin 2 (at?! - y); for the arm of the moment (the perpendicular
distance, z, of the line of action of the lift from the point to (Om)P = dam ) Ism
21 (dO .
which the moment is referred) we find
(Om)P is, therefore, independent of angle of incidence.

sin 2(atn - y). The method by which the behaviour of the moment has
sinaln been obtained is strictly valid for inviscid flow only;
but the assumptions made concern only the dependence
Choose coordinates x* and y* with origin at the point to which of OL and (Om)/ on O:in. According to measurement,
the moment is referred; let the x* axis be parallel to the free OL and (Om)! differ from the theoretical values; therefore,
;';, stream direction at zero lift, and the y* axis be normal to this the focus almost always lies at a point different from that
Ii direction. The line of action of the lift cuts the x* axis at the just determined, and the moment with respect to this
point h = zjcos aln, and the equation of this line is

I x* + y* tan aln = _ z _ ;
cos aln
point is not exactly constant. Nevertheless, even in
viscous flow, a point exists referred to which the moment is
approximately independent of angle of incidence; this is

true for every profile in a certain (sometimes very limited)
( tan aln (k, say) occurs as a parameter here. The family of lines of

action F(x*, y*, k) = has an envelope whose equation is range of 0 L. The point is called the aerodynamic centre
(a.c.) of the profile or, so~etimes, the neutral point of the
c" of
by_~t~ 1b.t_n F ~ 0 =d_O_k_=_O. The
profile; it corresponds to the focus of the lift parabola in
, 26

inviscid flow, and in general lies very close to the point on

the chord which is at a distance of one quarter of the chord
from the leading edge.

3.2.2 Normal Range of Angle of Incidence

Extensive investigations of profiles have been carried
out in the wind tunnel of the old Gottingen Institute for
If the moment is measured with respect to some point
Model Tests (MVA); the results are published in the
(x, y) then the position of the aerodynamic centre (suffix a)
"Technical Reports" of the first world war (see Section
can be obtained from the relation
l.5.2). The Reynolds number is usually about 7 .1()4 and,
although these old measurements have long ceased to have
(Om)a = Om + (xa - x) ON _ (Ya - ~ OT. (3.11)
C c any value for the aircraft constructor, they have great
interest today precisely because of the small Reynolds
If the dependence of Om, OL, and OD on a is known, then
number. For example, they are useful in estimating the
the required values (xa, Ya, and (Om)a), can be obtained by
characteristics of free-flight models and for determining
using this equati9n three times: when 0 L = 0; when 0 L is
the best possible setting of turbine blades. Some of the
close to its maximum; and when 0 L lies somewhere be-
experimental results for such ,profiles are reproduced in the
tween these two valuest. From its definition (Om)a should
Tables of Section 1l.5 and in the Figures of Section 12.5.1 ;
be approximately constant over the whole range of angle of
before they are used the remarks in Section 2.3.4 should be
incidence (up to separation).
After the 225 m tunnel of the AVA at Gottingen had
3.2 Review of Experimental Results
been put into operation measurements on profiles were
0 0
3.2.1 Angle of Incidence Ranging from 0 to 360 made exclusively in this tunnel, mostly at Reynolds
.?A knowledge of the forces and moments occurring at all numbers of about 4.105 Since 1937 measurements have
possible angles of incidence is highly desirablet(for example, also been carried out at higher Reynolds numbers in the
in problems concerning helicopters and variable-pitch large wind-tunnel of the AVA; in extreme cases the value
,propellers). In Figure 12.105a measurements for the R = 7.106 has been reached. Details of a selection of the
profilefNACA 0012 between plane walls are reproduced; profiles investigated in these tunnels are included in this
these give an indication of the forces and moments to be book; the ordinates are given in the Tables of Section 1l.3,
expected at other free-stream conditionsjil and the measured force and moment coefficients in the
In addition, measurements on rectangular wings of Tables of Section 11.5. In the original publications the
aspect ratio 5 are shown in Figures 12.51b, 12.61, and reference point for the moment is the leading edge or,
12.72b; the profiles are flat and cambered plates, and the more accurately, the point of the profile chord which lies

-EJJ.i!E055 50 2'J~ -E1]g.12-o-5550 1'ZC::=:-- -E:ff10 12-06550 o-51::=>-

Z 1-2 12,

*0 ao *0 '0

Fig. 3.3 Induence of trailing edge angle on CL(a) and CL(Cm). Wind tunnel: DVL 2.7 m

two profiles Go 420 and Go 623. Although the assumption on the perpendicular from the leading edge (the coefficient,
of two-dimensional flow made elsewhere in this book does (Omh, is positive when the tendency is to decrease the
not hold here and a conversion to A = 00 would have angle of incidence!); for the profiles Go 758 and beyond,
little meaning, these measurements should be regarded as a the reference point lies at one quarter of the chord from
welcome addition to our knowledge. the leading edge (the coefficient, Om, is positive when the
tendency is to increase the angle of incidence); the latter
t Instead of the three values of CL proposed here the NACA definition is here used throughout (that is, for the older
(see [R537]) determine the aerodynamic centre and the cor-
responding moment by using Equation (3.11) twice (when profiles as well). In the figures and tables, jet-boundary
CL = 0; and when CL = C~, C~ being close to CLm,x) and by corrections have been applied, and the conversion to
A = 00 has been performed with allowance for the effect
making ~~; have the measured value at CL = O. of the lift distribution on the wing (see Section 2.3).

The Gottingen profile Go 398 (with its maximum thick- After verification of the properties of the NACA 24 and
ness at 30% of the chord) has proved particularly favour- 230 series by measurements in the 5 m X 7 m wind-tunnel
able (this profile is approximately the same as the Clark Y of the DVL (DOETSCH), an extensive programme was
profile); its thickness distribution is, therefore, the basis of carried out in this tunnel to determine the effect of changes
the extensive systematic measurements made by the NACA in the thickness distribution (in particular, the effect of
in the VDT (see Section 7.3.2, Type D l ). These measure- varying the nose radius and the position of maximum
ments, carried out at the high effective Reynolds number thickness); the results of these measurements can be found
of 8 .106 [R460], have led to a number of standard profiles in the collection of data of Table 11.1 and also in Table 11.5.
(in particular, the 24 and 230 series) with distinctive The investigations, carried out at a Reynolds number of
properties. Although later measurements in low-turbulence 2'7.106, demonstrate the favourable influence on the drag
wind-tunnels of the DVL and the NACA reveal a number both of a rearward displacement of the maximum thickness

Lt ,-
t R'" '1.I0~ R=IH.l0~
A I/'\.
08 / I'- 19H17a
- / rz:;;; r---'
1/ _f...-- ~~ 1/ ~

/II V V /"
I II ./ ~
tJ.1 IIV II1/
o If/', , 11 16"

11" 16 ~

R :J.6II.1it R=H.tiI
/...--..... /" V
n ~61S
6II'17Y / ai~ /
08 1\
~. FLat Plate
/; FLat Plate
\ 1/11
/~ / V ~

jj 7J
I( If
,. ,. 11" /6.
M" 0 ,. rot...a..
Fig. 3.4a, b. Dependence of lift coefficient on Reynold. number, for typical proflles
(SCHMITZ). Wind tunnel: Cologne

of deficiencies in these results, such a systematic investiga- from the normal value of 30% of the chord and of a
tion gives considerable insight into the influences of decrease in nose radius from the normal value role =
.thickness, camber, and position of maximum camber. 11 (t/e)2; it is found possible to obtain significant laminar
The deficiencies are removed to a certain extent by the effects (that is, to keep the boundry layer laminar longer
application of corrections (in. particular, for the maximum than is usual with "normal" profiles). Unfortunately,
lift (C Lm.. ) and the minimum drag (CD m1n ) [R669]) and undesirable changes frequently occur in' the lift-curve
by new measurements in low-turbulence wind-tunnels slope and in the behaviour of the moment; they are
[R 824]. Because of the existence of later measurements, caused by the unfavourable movement of the transition
we do not reproduce the old experimental results, but point on profiles of this type. These changes are eliminated
simply refer to the literature. only when the trailing edge angle is made smaller (Figure

3.3). The resulting profile (or, better, pressure distribution) t

with increasing thickness ratio (to 1J = 09 when c- = 023)
is close to that which the NACA take as a basis in a sys-
tematic investigation, carried out at about the same time (Figure 3.5). According to potential theory the value of
in the low-turbulence wind-tunnels LTT and TDT; the
pressure distributions were prescribed and the correspond-
df: should become larger 'than 2n as the thickness in-
ing profiles designed by theoretical methods. At high creases (see Section 8.2.5), but the relatively thick bound-
Reynolds numbers the drags are lower than those of the ary layer causes 1J to decrease as the thickness- increases.
earlier profiles, and the remaining profile properties are also
satisfactory. The results of these later measurements are 4!it (or in degmsJ
given in the Figures of Chapter 12 and in Table 11.1. The t r-r-.-r-r..--r-r-,-,
Reynolds numbers for the measurements are 3.106 , 6.106 , 012 ~!_-'+---tl_+-!,
and 9.106 ; each profile is measured with and without a
split-flap deflection of 60 [R824]. Some models have
been investigated at Reynolds numbers of from 0,7.106
upwards [N1945, R964], the high value of 5.107 being
reached. Most models have been measured both with a
smooth surface and with "standard roughness" (see
Section 4.1.3).

3.3 Behaviour of the Lift

3.3.1 Lift-curve Slope IHI8

The theoretical value for the lift-curve slope of the flat

f}06 Jill

. dOL
P1ate IS a;; . ra d'lans, or dOLO
= 2n, 1'f Ct IS. measured ill Ta = .11 012 11 11 smoolh

NACA 65 -s.,.,.
-- - --
if Ct is measured in degrees. We introduce an efficiency '(aullh
factor, 1J, by the relation f}{J6 ~r-J 11

OIZ 1I J! 11

(3.12) 0/0
NACA 66. Series -- ~,

006 I I I I
For the Gottingen flat-plate measurements (Figure 3.4b), 8 12 16 -flc 2'
the value 1J = 1 is very nearly reached, but the measured
value becomes smaller as the Reynolds number decreases,
and falls to 1J = 084 when R = 42.104.
The behaviour of 1J for the cambered plate is anomalous Fig. 3.S. ([; (a in degrees) as a Fig. 3.6. Influence of Mach
function of thickness ratio. 'for dCL
(Figures 3.4a and b); although 1J increases theoretically by various profile ~eries. Wind tunnel:
number on (i';" for sym-

a factor of only [1 + k( f)2], if{ is small, the measurements LTT. Reynolds number: 6'10' metrical NACA proilies. Wind
tunnel: DVr. 2'7 m

on, for example, Go 417 a for 0 L < 06, give the high valuet
The later profiles with small nose radius and maximum
1J :::::; 1'38, corresponding to df: = 28n; this value is thickness lying further back display a somewhat different
behaviour; because of the favourable pressure distribution
alm<Jst independent of Reynolds number from R = 42.104 the boundary layer remains very thin even in the turbulent
up to R = 42.10s. For 0 L > 0'6, 1J certainly decreases region; turbulent separation does not occur until near the
with increasing OLand is soon less than 1. trailing edge, so that the influence of viscosity is con-
The usual profiles of finite thickness, with maximum siderably smaller. At Reynolds numbers above 6.106 ,
thickness at about 30% of the chord, have a poor value of therefore,1J continues to increase with thickness and reaches
1J in the sub-critical region, but 1J increases with the Rey- values up to about 107. However, if the rear part of the
nolds number and reaches values of about 09 in the super- profile bulges too much (large trailing edge angle), as in
critical region, at a Reynolds number of 4 . lOS. At Reynolds profiles investigated by the DVL and in those of the NACA
numbers of the order of 106 , and with not too large a I-series, the unfavourable pressure distribution causes a
thickness ratio, 1J becomes almost equal to 1. For a constant thicker boundary layer, and hence a decrease in 1J; for
Reynolds number (say, R = 6.106 ) a fall is detectable such profiles an increase in camber leads to improvement.
t This high value results from separation on the pressure side, In general, the factor 1J decreases considerably with
the expected suction not being realised. Reynolds number at high 0 L values, the cause being the

large increase in boundary layer thickness. The influence number increases still further are caused by the appearance
of" standard roughness" of the surface (see Section 4.1.3) of shocks and their interaction with the boundary layer.
on the lift-curve slope is shown in Figure 3.5. When the Mach number is greater than unity, but not
From the Prandtl-Glauert rule (see Section 10.3) df: large compared with unity then, if the flow is wholly
supersonic and the angle of incidence is small, a linear
increases with Mach number as . / 1 _; this is weli behaviour is agai~ observed; according to a well-confirmed
v1-M2 dOL . 4 .
confirmed for profiles of small and moderate thickness, until theory da then takes the value (M2 _ 1)1/2 (see SectIon
the critical Mach number is reached, but considerable 1O.5.3).
deviations occur at higher Mach numbers and 0 1, values
(Figures 3.6 and 3.7). As the Mach number increases there 3.3.2 Angle of Zero Lift
20 The angle of zero lift for the flat plate is independent of

doc lL-o_
,,, Reynolds number but, for a cambered plate, a small
decrease with increasing Reynolds number is detectable
15 H.i (Figure 3.8); the effect of Reynolds number is most

11 i ,/ ! I r/at lute
0-2 iI' I
i o t--- I

\ /~1 t
~ 60''11711
NACA 61t, A 212

- 1 I
1 !f Go 625
:1 I I ~ I
4 Q.o 1'v/ -12 0
2 6 8 105 2 'f 6 8 10 6
: I

o ,~
, ,
/tl Io'ig. 3.8. Angle of Incidence at zero lift, as a function of Reynolds


---- ~\
-4 tl~
:' I
marked on cambered, thick profiles. ao is always relatively
small for sub-critical Reynolds numbers, but it jumps to a
large negative value when the critical Reynolds number is
c,..Oj :l./
o ;iI t Iy'*qog
r: q-o I~I
, joJ 05 1 10-7
J {)'9
, \ J\ -2
I1cr/~- I-'

o 0-2
'v ~M

- o
0\1 ~S

Mcrit~ f--'1
1 10.7

f \ 0-9

Fig. 3.7. Influence of Mach number on d;;' for the NACA 230
series. Wind tunnel: DVL 27 m t
~,.().I5 a.-o f\
is initially a considerable rise, then a fall, and finally
another rise. As the camber is increased, the measured

values of diaL cease to show the theoretical increase with

~ ~s
Herit; .~
(}07 I


-z .-
Mach number, and OL no longer behaves linearly with a. Fig. 3.9. Angle of Incidence for zero 11ft, as a function of
Mach number (for the 230-serle.)
. . . II
Th e mitia arge'mcrease m
. dOL
a;;' which occurs when t he
exceeded (that is, when there is transition to turbulent
critical Mach number is exceeded, is predicted by more flow in the boundary layer); it then rises with increasing
accurate theory, but the changes occurring as the Mach Reynolds number to an almost constant value. This value


is essentially dependent only on the camber for medium By a combination of suitable thickness and camber
and high Reynolds numbers; it is almost completely distributions, it is possible to design profiles for which at
independent of the profile thickness (see Table 11.1).
Deviations from the theoretical angle of zero lift usually lie
t Ct,-D rt- atI-- jQ:oi--i

between IO%, the actual amount depending on the type


of camber line; for the camber line which has a constant o ~':\ 11
N ) .. __ 'l.~V\ H
~ ~ 10.1 ....r,2 UUf --'fh., I
velocity deviations of -25% are found. I--- '001
w- -- --c::o:::- ...
--t-~11021 _
The angle of zero lift does not change rapidly with Mach
number until shocks appear; the change then depends very
much on the profile shape. The behaviour with increasing
Mach number is usually as follows: there is a small

T r..:::..::.
b2 =r ~:



1-.4-- --l=--=- ' - -


" fM

decrease in ao, until a Mach number of about 0;8 is
reached; the decrease is then usually followed by a sudden,
t 1'1; 1-' 'Qj;, --
~t a
t--~t-;,..(H ht 6
large rise. For the NACA 230-series (Figure 3.9) only a
small dependence on Mach number is detectable until far
beyond the critical Mach number. When the Mach number
I-.. 'tJlQI

-::; -..... " ... li r--- ~ ~
'"::::0::: ~z ~ \l
~' I
::-::-- t--....
is greater than 08 the large changes already mentioned
'I;; ,, 3 ~ j ,\
appear, and they increase with thickness. Figure 3.10 is a i\: r--- R::- ~ 17 11'
comparison of the variation of angle of zero lift with o --00+ t-... ~,U
tL 2

, '~ ~
Mach number for three profiles of various shapes [R947]; 06 0-7 O~ O~ 06 07 O~

1 Fig. 3.11. a plotted against M at constant CL. Profile series:
x 3512 - 0'55 40 (with various values of maximum camber).

Dashed lines: PrandtlGlimert rule

remains almost constant as the Mach number increases, up

-1Z I to a value of M between 085 and 09 (NACA 836DllO and

3.4 Maximum Lift
-().+. There is generally a considerable variation of maximum
003 fM -M lift with Reynolds number. Figure 3.12 shows a small
selection from the large amount of material in Table 11.1.
Fig. 3.10. a.(M) for some modem profiles.

I NAJ230~~ V vrJ
with a flap deflection of _6, the profile having a fairly I N1~-Zr2
large atshows approximately the same variation as the

other two profiles with no flap deflection. I ~

V i--'" ,,);t~ lLrlJ.;-
For a fixed, supersonic Mach number the angle of zero
lift decreases as the square of the thickness ratio; this is
shown in Section 10.5.4 for the profile whose suction side
is a circular arc and whose pressure side is straight. ao

..... / ........
..... - - 'j",J
increases with Mach number in supersonic flow.
I NACA 65-oh6 j
3.3.3 Effect of Increase in Mach Number on the Relation Flut Plate
between Lift and Angle of Incidence
Because of the large irregularities as sonic speed is - 6 81r1 2
approached (from below), diagrams of the behaviour of
a a
either angle of incidence for constant L or L for constant Fig. 3.12. lIIaxlmum 11ft as a function of Reynolds number, for selected
angle of incidence are frequently used in addition to
d~L and ao. An example of the first type
For sub-critical flow only very small lifts are reached
diagrams for of
throughout (the cambered plate forming an exception):
diagram is given in Figure 3.11; according to the Prandtl- after the critical Reynolds number is passed, aLm&x.
Glauert rule the curves of a against M should be ellipses, increases very rapidly at first; when the super-critical
and these are also drawn in the diagram; the ellipses have state is reached its growth is again slow, and this behaviour
zero slope when M = 0, and infinite slope at a = 0, M = 1. often continues up to high Reynolds numbers, but is

sometimes disturbed by a temporary fall. In general, the values in the Reynolds-number range R = 2.104 to
maximum lift increases with camber. R = 6.10 7 The drag of the flat plate is wholly skin-
For a fixed Reynolds number OLmax ., when plotted friction drag and agrees with theoretical predictions: on
against thickness, shows pronounced maxima, the position the other hand, the camber~d plate (in a super-critical
of these maxima depending on the profile series being stream) is almost completely independent of Reynolds
investigated; for profiles whose maximum thickness lies at number at ex = 0 (that is, the drag is predominantly
t form drag). For cambered profiles of finite thickness both
about 30% of the chord they are usually close to - = 012. types of drag occur, and a strong dependence on Reynolds
If the maximum thickness lies further back, the maxima number...~ec?~~~_~_p~!lnt::~~~. is veryhigh in sub-
occur at higher values of the thickness ratio (~ = 0.16); for critical flow because the contribution of the form drag is
high; when the critical Reynolds number is exceeded the
the NACA 66-series OL mas has a high, constant value drag falls suddenly, because the boundary layer is no
longer laminar when it separates; the region of separated
in the range of ~c from 015 to 0'21, provided that the
flow is then considerably smaller, since the turbulent
Reynolds number is high (9.106 ). boundary layer remains attached for longer. Therefore, a
The influence of nose radius on the maximum lift is turbulent boundary layer is desirable in this region of
quite large (see Figure 5.2). For the DVL series (R = Reynolds number (usually beyond R = 105 ); the effect is
2'7.106 ) 0 L max ., with normal thickness ratios of 12% and to reduce the drag, because flow that would otherwise have
15%, shows the following behaviour as the nose radius separated stays attached, and so the form drag contribu-
is decreased: from the normal value of nose radius down to tion is reduced/For normal profile shapes transition of the
one half this value there is a slight fall; but, when the nose boundary layer usually occurs in the first third of the
radius has become one quarter the normal value, OLmas . profile chord; this is true of the four-figure NACA profiles
has sunk to almost one half of its initial value. (shown together with Gottingen profiles in Figure 3.13) in
Other factors affect the behaviour of 0 L max. : both the the range of Reynolds number between 105 and 106 }Vith
state of turbulence of the air and the quality of the surface increasing Reynolds number the skin-friction drag be~ ,.
have a decisive influence (see Sections 2.3.4: and 4.1). CQm~~ m~eimportant. A glance at the theoretical curves
for the flat pl~te (Figure 9.15) shows that large reductions
in drag are obtainable at higher Reynolds numbers, if it is
3.5 Profile Drag
possible to increase the length of laminar boundary layer
3.5.1 Incompressible Flow. Minimum Drag (that is, to displace rearwards the point of transition).
The minimum drag of a profile occurs at vanishing lift With a suitable pressure distribution or profile shape it is
(OL = 0) for symmetrical profiles and, generally, at the possible to achieve these reductions, as measurements in
ideal angle of incidence for cambered profiles (that is, all wind-tunnels of sufficiently low turbulence have shown.
when 0 L = Ot). Figure 3.13 gives a survey of experimental In Figure 3.13 are also plotted the drag coefficients of some


X Wr
r- G55Z5 (ZO/.)
~~ Z
" ~k 1'\
N50(lZ,t%, I/D- -," ..;< :./ZZ (6 NACA 5.Jmo)-+ZZ
Z 0016
............. ~~.hz1)-+ZO
~ ~lOlZ
t.w -:..:::.:: I; 0009 / 55; -+18
(}01 t-Withtw.
k~<~'5(215r 115


...... "'
...... ......

~lz~ t-
-- -

..77 f--.~
kGii 780~I--'"riot Plute

" r'~)J
0-001 4 Q..-;
6 c>~
5 '?~
If " ~,

It 5 6 10' Z 5 6 10 1 Z

Fig. 3.13. Minimum drag coefficient as a function of Reynolds number for some profiles
(tw, turbulent wire; LB 24, Japanese profile)

characteristic profiles for which the point of transition has 3.5.2 Incompressiltle Flow. Dependence on Lift Coeffi-
been displaced rearwards to 60% of the chord. It must be cient
emphasised that these profiles, though favourable at high Figure 12.66 and Tables 11.5 contain measured polars for
Reynolds numbers, may have higher drag coefficients at Joukowsky profiles at R = 4.105 An important feature
low Reynolds numbers than profiles with a maximum (which is true of all profiles) is that the effect of camber,
thickness at 30% of the chord; this is because the large provided it is small, consists simply in a shift of the whole
pressure-rise behind the minimum pressure gives rise to polar to a higher value of 0 L; more radical changes in the
laminar separation, and so produces an increase in the shape of the polar occur only when the camber is large
form drag. (above 10%); these become more noticeable with increas-
The behaviour of the. drag coefficient as a function of ing thickness.
thickness and camber, at constant Reynolds number, is of There is no basic change in this behaviour at higher
interest. Measurements carried out at a Reynolds number Reynolds numbers. For laminar profiles, the region of
of 4.105 on Joukowsky profiles lead to the approximate minimum drag is shifted in the same way.
formula The point of transition moves forward suddenly when
oL exceeds a certain value, and so the laminar region is
aDmin. = 0'004,6 + 0044 -c + generally sharply delimited; for example, almost all
measurements on the profiles of the NACA 6-series show
this. The width of the region increases considerably with
thickness; in particular, its upper limit moves to higher

this has been derived by a careful study of the results in aL values. For thickness ratios c~ ~ 012, the width of the
. t f
t he regIOn - < 0'25, - < 011. We see that the drag aL region with minimum drag is usually less than.10L =
c c 01. The measurements show clearly that this region
coefficient increases as the first power of the thickness becomes smaller as the Reynolds number increases; this
ratio, but as the third power of the camber. Corresponding is confirmed by an investigation of the profile NACA
approximate formulas for other profiles and Reynolds 65(421)-420 carried out up to very high Reynolds numbers
numbers can be easily derived from Table 11.1. This table (up to R = 35.106 ) [R824]. Once the laminar region has
shows that, at a Reynolds number of 6.106 , the approxi- ended, a steep rise in the drag occurs (usually very soon),
mately linear rise with thickness ratio is still valid. For the an effect that becomes more noticeable as the Reynolds
four and five figure NACA profiles we have, approximately, number is increased. It is interesting that exactly the
opposite behaviour is observed with the usual four and
t five figure NACA profiles (with maximum thickness at
aDmin = 00038 + 0016 - for R
= 6.106, -
< 015;
30% of the chord): the drag decreases with increasing
Reynolds number at the higher 0 L values. If we were to
and for the NACA 66-series we have examine the range of OL in which the drag is small, we
would find that, in contrast to the laminar profiles, these
t t
aDmin.= 00026 + 0'007 - for R
= 6.106, -
< 015. profiles show a broadehing of the region with increasing
Reynolds number. If the position of maximum thickness
With increasing thickness ratio, terms of higher order is moved still further forward, the drag coefficient remains
appear and these soon become dominant. For example, approximately constant up to very high 0 L values (see, for
HOERNER (see Section 1.5.1) gives the following formula: example, the profile Go 769, Figure 12.88).

aDmin = 1 + 2 ~ + 60 (~)4, 3.5.3 Compressiltle Flow

(OD) flat plate C C The behaviour of the drag, as the free-stream speed
which is derived from older measurements for 3 .106 ~
increases and approaches the speed of sound, is of particular
t importance. The diagrams in Figures 3.14 to 3.18 show the
R ~ 8.106 and - < 05. characteristic behaviour of 0 D with Mach number for three
The measured NACA profiles have small camber, and a profile series. In the first the position of maximum thick-
dependence of drag on camber is barely detectable. When ness is normal (at 30% of the chord), and in the second the
the position of maximum thickness is moved back, a position of maximum thickness is varied (in both these
decrease in drag is noticed; as the Reynolds number is series the profiles are symmetrical); the third is a series of
increased this decrease is initially more pronounced, but at cambered profiles with maximum thickness at 40% of the
very high Reynolds numbers (from 2.107 to 5.107 ) chord. Each figure corresponds either to a constant value
instability of the boundary layer leads to transition and of 0 L or to a constant value of a. Further results for the
the drag again increases. NACA series 1, 6, and 8 are contained in the figures of

NACA 000 f/.-1-1 JO !!ACA 000 flc-f.f JO

(}D* a- -0 (}D* = a-z"
(}O.J (}(J.J

(}flZ (}QZ

to to ~c- ()M

t t '6
(}Qf (}(Jf
(}Q09 (}(JOS
(}OO6 (}Q06
0007 (}(J07
(}006 (}006
If o

(}(J05 3. 6 /}7 Od OdS

.+ Ih

NACA 000 tlc- 1-1

a- _4
(JO. =
!!ACA 000 f/c-1-1 JO
a- _5

(}(J3 003

(}OZ (}O2

to CO
t t
(}Ot (}Of
OQ09 (}Q{)g c-
(}Q06 (}(J08

0007 (}(J07

(}OO6 (}Q06
oj .+ f)- QI}
.+ I u,

:Fig. 3.14. Drag coefficient as a function of Mach number for various combinations of angle of Incidence and thickness
ratio (maximum thickness at 30% of the chord). Wind tunnel: DVL 2'7 m

NACA2JO tic ::~ NACA 2.10 tic r= NACA ZJO tic
c;.-O =~ Cl.-(}Z ~ CI- (}+

002 !Z

t t
001 001
~ Hr;n
0008 f/c-OfZ eli! f/c-045

: ~c-0.f5 (}()08


o O~ (J.+ Q6 06 (}7 ...!! M fM5 0 (}J (J.+ IJ6 06 (}7 ..!!H fM5 0 O~O" IJ6 06 fJ'1

Fig. 3.15. As above, but for the 230-serles at various values of CL (DVL)

NACA 00012-065 lit NACA 00012-06$xt NACA 00012-o'65xt

~ CL-O ~I= LL-02 t= C;.(l/I

()(}2 02


0111 01
()(}OB 009
(}QOO '8 008
()(}06 ruua
ruuu 1-1- ~
.~ 110"
0-005 1105

o .j . .f-:fo IN (}O R:(}8.5 O'J:-f l; !-'6 In IN 5 o oJ
Fr'0"wv '5 '0 07 (}O R:015f Fig. 3.16 a-c
1J.00l 'QIJJ
''Ole r~!.c
NACA 0OO12-/~ 40 NACA 00012 (t/C)3 40 NACA 00012-(tIC)' 40
I-t- (ZaO I- (Za4 f--- a_6

(}02 02 D2


()(}f '01 1- '"
(}QO7 '00, flJ7
(}QO6 I'IIW fJ06
-.. M /of
o R=-(}8.5 -3.+ o t=
5 (}7 0 .~- ~. Ftq-15 0:J_4 07 (}8 j::f0-85
'0 01
'0 't- '0 Fig. 3.17 a-c

NACA (.1512-065 40 NACA f.1512-05540 NACA fJ512-05' 110

1=1= C-02
I=~ q-aq.

()(}Z 02 '02


i 4"
(}Of 01 'Ot
(}o09 -fXJ9
(}Qo.'8 -1lJ8 -0"" 1-6

()(}O5 0
'- ",
(}Oo+- .fJD/t tIJ
:'J:t -5 ~'6 t-,(}7 ()8
-f- R'1N5
1=Fp"5 0_"J:'4 07 ()8 \:ro-05 '5_ -0 0-8
tIi Fig. 3.18 a-c

Fig. 3.16. As above, but for various positions of maximum thickness Fig. 3.17. As above, but for various values of nose radius
(see Equation (1.7
Fig. 3.18. As above, but for various cambers, with half-normal nose radius and maximum thickness at 40% of the chord

Chapter 12. For profiles with normal position of maximum position of maximum thickness moves rearward" (see
thickness, the sharp rise in drag usually begins soon after Table ILl).
the critical Mach number is exceeded; this Mach number Figure 3.19 shows the position of the centre of pressure
becomes higher as the thickness decreases, because the on some symmetrical profiles at high angles of incidence
disturbance velocities are smaller. For profiles whose IN3241]. For s~all Reynolds numbers, Figures 3.20 to
maximum thickness lies further back, the critical Mach 3.23 show measured positions of centre of pressure; we see
number can often be considerably exceeded without a
)/0'/ p/O'/e ~5
consequent rise in drag. For the first class of profiles the c
Mach number at which the drag rise begins becomes lower
as the angle of incidence (or CL) increases; but, if the
thickness lies further back and the nose radius is suitably .'3. 105
chosen, the Mach number at which the rise begins is 168.10t. ~ .
practically the same for a small CL as for a fairly high 0 L.
The reason is that the shocks on a profile of the latter class I:-'-..t
:d!'cI R -*"2.10"
interact with a boundary layer which is thin and usually 002
subjected to a favourable pressure gradient, so that it is
not likely to separate (see Section 10.4.1).

3.6 Moment Coefficient, Centre of Pressure, and o 8"

Aerodynamic Centre Fig. 3.20. Movement of centre of pressure at
3.6.1 Incompressible Flow various Reynolds numbers, for the flat plate. Wind
tunnel: Cologne (SCIDIlTZ)
At a fixed, not too small, Reynolds number the moment
coefficient at a = cco, Omo' is proportional to the camber. At .11c
a Reynolds number of 6 .106 the four and five figure N ACA tiii*17a
profiles show a very slight increase of Omo with thickness, +

but the Omo values of the 6-series are practically inde-

pendent of thickness and position of maximum thickness.
~ Ib
For symmetrical profiles the aerodynamic centre usually
~ ~ .
lies at 025c, but on the cambered four and five figure
profiles it moves forward as the thickness increases (for
~'"::' .~~
-- ~.r

example, at R = 6.106 , to about 023c when -

= 024).
" -
Fig. 3.21. As above, but for the cambered plate Go 714a (ScmnTz)
C that for flat and cambered plates the Reynolds number

i ",- .. -p "- ...

influence remains small, but that for profiles with thickness
a considerable influence is apparent. At higher Reynolds
D' .. ,
numbers the influence of Reynolds number usually becomes
..' II
insignificant .

~ ..
--. .......,_. .1./ 3.6.2 Compressible Flow

The influence of Mach n.umber on :g; is shown in

M =05
R ",7'3.10'
_ ... -
Figures 3.24 and 3.25; at first the coefficients increase
slightly with :Mach number, and then there is a fall. For
- _ .. _- 64 -018
1 J
I mcrease
some profil es t he mltla . 0 f dOm . conSl'd'erable,
but, after the critical Mach number is exceeded, the fall is
all the greater. This fall is sometimes followed by a further
Fig. 3.19. Position of centre of pressure of NACA proflles rise. The position of aerodynamic centre should theoretic-
In contrast, the NACA profiles of the 6-series show a ally be independent of Mach number. Nevertheless, a
rearward movement to a value of between O'27c and 0'28c slight forward displacement of the aerodynamic centre is
when : = 021'' this movement becomes smaller as the .
observe d ,correspon di ng to t he lnltla . dOm
... l'mcrease m dOL' The

h - -. R - z.t 10 r--~ ...
t \ \\ \ 0062.5
A-5 ~ -6+,10 ~.;
.::"" (J,

0-8 \\ -+- = 1-05'. 10fi

- 1'68 , 10fi
\\ \ -0- =.J. 10fi "-- 1'Z

fr~ or:".~-. ~ "

.... -
1'_. +~

r-o- . -r '\
i'~ 1 .J. 0'8
o n. I
~ ... ~ ._.'
J I\"~\
\ \
llL 0-6
I \ 11
! R ~ \ 0'.

-16 0
Fig. 3.22. As above, but for the profile Go 625 (SCHJIIlTZ) Fig. 3.23. 0 ..(0 L) for the profile
NACA 66,2-215 (a - 0'6).
Wind tunnel: CAT
-00. -ooz o --C'm


de' t .0-09

(}16 "c



0", iN O-t
-.- :;1
~.o-4 ~~ UL
- M


I ~I
00. -0-2
0- '3'2

0'2 (}4 (}O6 08 10 ide..
dCi . i1 I I
Fig. 3.24. Position of aero

r -i\'.r'
- ~.

~\ ~:
-00 0-2 iN 06 fO
dynamic cen tre as a function of
~ -1>4
Mach number, for the symmetri
cal NACA series. Wind tunnel:
DVL 2'7 m
-01 ,


explanation lies in the development of the boundary layer: -(){]


because of the increasing Mach number, this is subjected to I ~

a pressure distribution similar to that of a thicker profile,
and the result is a forward movement of the aerodynamic dC'..
.1 dlL J-r-n
centre. If the Mach number is so high that shocks occur, 0-2 I .qe
the movement of the shocks along the chord determines M" !
whether the aerodynamic centre moves forwards or
backwards, as an examination of the appropriate pressure
distributions confirms. From Figure 3.25 we see that this
forward and backward movement of the aerodynamic
0-2 0 .. 06
r--V . I
I'fJ . ..
,- ~


centre is different for each profile and for each CL value, so
that general remarks are not possible; in a particular case "'1
all that can be done is to use the behaviour of the moment
for a suitable profile which has been experimentally Fig. 3.25. As above, but for the 230-series
investigated (see, for example, Figures 12.133 ff).


3.7 References - Preliminary Report on Laminar 'Flow Airfoils and New

Methods Adopted for Airfoil and Boundary Layer Investiga.
3.7.1 Incompressible Flow tions. NACA ACR, 1939 (Wartime Rep. L-345).
BREFORD, M.: Messungen am Originalfitigel des Baumusters JONES, R. and D. H. WILLIAMS: The Profile Drag of Aerofoils
P 51 "Mustang". FB 1224/2 (1943). at High Reynolds Numbers in the Compressed AirTunnel.
- and K. VOLEZ: Messungen an zwei Laminarprofilen bei R & M No. 1804 (1937).
hohen Reynoldszahlen. UM 2100 (1944). KELLY, I. A.: Effects of Modifications to the LeadingEdge
BUSSMANN, K.: Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchun Region on the Stalling Characteristics of the NACA 631-012
gen an Laminarprofilen. FB 1709/1 (1942). Airfoil Section. NACA TN 2228 (1950).
-Messungen am Laminarprofil P 51 "Mustang". FB 1724 KOSIN, R. and W. LEHMANN: Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklung
(1943). von Profilen fUr hohe Flugzeuggeschwindigkeiten. Jahrb.
CLEARY, H. E.: The Effects of Reynolds Number on the Appli. 1941 dDL I, S. 11-17.
cation of NACA 16-Airfoil Characteristics to Propeller KRAEMER, K.: Untersuchung eines Tragfliigelprofils im Wind
Design. NACA TN 2591 (1952). kanal bei unter und tiberkritischen Reynoldszahlen. AVA.
CRITzos, C. C., H. H. HEYSON and R. W. BOSWINKLE jr.: Bericht 58-01 (1958).
Aerodynamic Characteristics of NACA 0012 Airfoil Section KUMBRUCH, H.: Mitteilungen aus der Gottinger Modellver
at Angles of Attack from 0 to 180. NACA TN 3361 (1955). suchsanstalt fiir Aerodynamik. III. Folge. 1. Ahnlichkeits.
DOENHOFF, A. E. v. and N. TETER'vIN: Investigation of the versuche an Fliigelprofilen. ZFM 10 (1919), S. 93-109.
! Variation of Lift Coefficient with Reynolds Number at a LIPPISCH, A.: Profile fiir Flugmodelle. Thermik 4. Jahrg. (1951)
Moderate Angle of Attack on a Lowdrag Airfoil. NACA CB, M 54 und M 73.
1942 (Wartime Rep. No. L-661). LOFTIN jr. and K. S. COHEN: Aerodynamic Characteristics of a
DOETSCH, H. and M. KRAMER: Profilwiderstandsmessungen im' Number of Modified N ACA Four.Digit.Series Airfoil Sections.
graJ3en Windkanal der DVL. Jahrb, 1937 dDL I, S. 59 und NACA TN 1591 (1948).
Lufo 14 (1937) S. 173. - Theoretical and Experimental Data for a Number of NACA
- Systematische Profiluntersuchungen im groBen Windkanal 6ASeries Airfoil Sections ..NACA Rep. 903 (1948).
der DVL. Lufo 14 (1937) S. 480. - and W. I. BURSNALL: The Effects of Variations in Reynolds
DOETSCH, H. and A. PASCHKE: Druckverteilungsmessungen Number between 30 X 106 and 250 X 106 upon the Aero
und Wagungen an den Profilen NACA 23009, 23012 und dynamic Characteristics of a Number of NACA 6-Series
23018 ohne und mit Spreizklappe im 5 X 7 mWindkanal der Airfoil Sections. NACA Rep. 964 (1950).
DVL. FB 1095 (1939). - Aerodynamic Section Characteristics at High Angles of
DOETSCH, H.: Untersuchungen an einigen Profilen mit gerin. Attack. NACA TN 3241 (1954).
gem Widerstand im Bereich kleiner caWerte. Jahrb. 1940 L6sSL, E. v. : Profilwiderstandsverminderung durch kiinstlichen
dDL I, S. 54-57. Druckanstieg im Umschlaggebiet. Techn. Ber. ZWB (1943)
- Versuche an Tragfltigelprofilen des North.American "Mu S. 211-212 u. S. 367-368.
stang". FB 1712/1 und 2 (1943). MCCULLOUGH, G. B. and W. M_ HAIRE: LowSpeed Character.
- Bericht tiber das Fachgebiet Profile vor dem SonderausschuB istics of Four Cambered 10PercentThick NACA Airfoil
"WindkaniUe". UM 1190 (1944). Sections. NACA TN 2177 (1950).
FAGE, A. and W. S. WALKER: Experiments on Laminarf1ow MUESl\IANN, G.: Messungen und Grenzschichtbeobachtungen an
Aerofoil EQH 1260 in the William Froude National Tank affin verdickten Geblaseprofilen in Abhangigkeit von der
and the 13 ft. x 9 ft. and the 9 ft. X 7 ft. Windtunnel at the Reynoldszahl. ZFW 7 (1959), S. 253-264.
N.P.L. R & M No. 2165 (1942). MUTTRAY, H.: tJber die Abhangigkeit des Profilwiderstandes
FRANKE, A. and F. WEINIG: Der neutrale Momentenbezugs. vom Auftrieb. Lufo, S. 165-173.
punkt. Lufo 14 (1937), S. 486. - Zuschrift zu dem Bericht von H. Doetsch: Profilwider.
GOETT, H. J. and W. K. BULLIVANT: Tests ofNACA 0009,0012 standsmessungen im groBen Windkanal der DVL. Lufo 14'
and 0018 Airfoils in the Full Scale Tunnel. NACA Rep. 647 (1937), S. 371/2.
(1939). NAUMANN, N.: Messungen eines Profils im Anstellwinkelbereich
HOLSTEIN, H. and A. DONEIS: Messungen an einem Laminar Obis 360. Jahrb. 1940 dDL I, S. 51-53.
profil mit extremer Rticklage des Druckminimums. FB 1522 NOVOTNY and BERGEN: Windkanalmessungen an drei Recht.
(194] ). eckfliigeln. Dreikomponentenmessungen an Profilen von
- Messungen zur Laminarhaltung der Reibungsschicht an 21, 22 und 25% Dicke und Untersuchung tiber den EinfluB
einem Tragfltigel mit Profil NACA oo12-t14. FB 1654 (1942). von Storkorpem auf der Fliigelsaugseite. AVA 43/W/07.
- and A. DoNEIS: Messungen an vier aus der Ellipse ent PETERSON, R. F.: The BoundaryLayer and Stalling Character
standenen Laminarprofilen verschiedener Wolbung. FB 1716 istics of the NACA 64AOlO Airfoil Section. NACA TN 2235
(1942). (1950).
JACOBS, E. N. and W. E. CLAY: Characteristics of the NACA QUICK, A. W.: Einige Bemerkungen tiber Laminarprofile und
23012 Airfoil from Tests in the FullScale and Variable. tiber das Verhalten der laminal'en Grenzschicht unier dem
Density Tunnels. NACA Rep. 530 (1935). EinfluB von Storkorpern. Nachtrag zum LGLBericht 141.
- and R. M. PINKERTON: Tests of NACA Airfoils in the RELF, E. F., R. JONES and A. H. BELL: Tests of Six Aerofoil
Variable.Density Wind Tunnel, Series 230. NACA TN No. Sections at Various Reynolds Numbers in the Compressed
576 (1936). Airtunnel. R & M No. 1706 (1936).
- and A. SHERMAN: Airfoil Section Characteristics as affected
by Variations of the Reynolds Number. NACA Rep. 586 SALTER, C., C. J. MILES and R. OWEN: Tests on a Glas II Wing
(1937). without Suction in the Compressed Air Tunnel. R & M No.
JACOBS E. N. and R. V. RHODE: Airfoil Section Characteristics 2540 (1948).
as Applied to the Prediction of Air Forces and their Dis- SCHLICHTING, H. and K. BUSSMANN: Messungen an Laminar
- tribution on Wings. NACA Rep. 631 (1938). profilen. LGL 149, S. 17-20.

.1 SCHMITZ, F. W.: Zur Aerodynamik der kleinen Reynoldsschen gleich mit Ergebnissen in mittleren Windkanalen der DVL.
Zahlen. Jahrb. 1953 d. WGL. Braunschweig 1954. FB 1329 (1940).
SERBY, I. E., M. B. MORGAN and E. R. COPPER: Flight Test - Profilmessungen im DVL-Hochgeschwindigkeits-Windkanal
on the Profile Drag of 14% and 25% Thick Wings. R & M an symmetrischen NACA-Profilen mit verschiedenen Dicken-
1826 (1937). verhaltnissen. FB 1490 (1941). \
SILVERSTEIN, A.: Scale Effect on Clark Y Airfoil Characteristics - Druckverteilungsschaubilder und Impulsverlustschaubilder
from NACA Wind-Tunnel Tests. NACA Rep. 502 (1934). fur das Profil NACA 00018-1, 1-30. FB 1505.
- and I. V. BECKER: Determination of Boundary-Layer - Profilmessungen im DVL-Hochgeschwindigkeits-Windkanal.
Transition on Three Symmetrical Airfoils in the NACA LGL 156 (1942).
Full-Scale Wind Tunnel. NACA Rep. 637 (1939). - Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen an einem Flugel sehr klei-
SMITH, H. A. and R. F. SCHAFER: Aerodynamic Characteristics ner Abmessungen im DVL-Hochgeschwindigkeits-Wind-
at Reynolds Numbers of 3.106 and 6.106 of three Airfoil kana!. LGL 156 (1942).
Sections Formed by Cutting off Various Amounts from the GOTHERT, B.: Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen am Heinkel-
Rear Portion of the NACA 0012 Airfoil Section. NACA TN Profil 0 00 12-0,715 36,6 im DVL-Hochgeschwindigkeits-
2074 (1950). Windkanal. DVL-Bericht J 900/6 (1942).
SWATY, F.: Untersuchungen uber die Beeinfiussung der Bei- - Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen am Messerschmitt-Profil
zahlen des Profils NACA 0018 durch Kiirzungen an der Me 23513-1,130 im DVL-Hochgeschwindigkeits-Wind-
Profilhinterkante. FB 1349 und Jahrb. 1940 dDL I, S. 58- kanal, DVL-Bericht J 900/17 (1942).
61. - Profilmessungen bei hohen Unterschallgeschwindigkeiten.
WALZ, A.: Messungen an zwei 13, 6% dicken Profilen mit klei- UM 1229/1 und 2 (1944).
nem Hinterkantenwinkel im groBen AVA-Kanal. UM 3092 - Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen am Profil Me 1 25 12-
(1944). 0,82540. UM 1234/1, 2 (1944).
WILLIAMS, D. H. and A. F. BROWN: Experiments on an - Hochgesr.:hwindigkeitsmessungen an Profilen del' Reihe
Elliptic Cylinder in the Compressed Air Tunnel. R & M No. NACA 230 mit verschiedenen Dickenverhaltnissen (9, 12,
1817 (1937). 15%). UM 1259/1 bis 3 und UM 1260/1 bis 3 (1944).
YOUNG, A. D.: A Review of Some Stalling Research. R & M - Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen am Mustang-Profil 1,6 50
No. 2609 (1951). 13,6-0825 39. UM 1282/1 (1944).
- Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen an Luftschraubenprofilen
der RAF-Reihe mit verschiedenen Dickenverhaltnissen (6
und 9%). UM 1321/1 a und Ib (1944).
3.7.2 Compressible Flow GRAHAM, D. J.: High Speed Tests of an Airfoil Section Cambered
ACKERET, J., F. FELDMANN and N. ROTT: Untersuchungen an to have Critical Mach Numbers Higher than those Attain-
VerdichtungsstoBen und Grenzschichten in schnell beweg able with a Uniform-load Mean Line. NACA TN 1396 (1947).
ten Gasen. Mitt. ETH Zurich Nr. 10 (1946). - G. E. NITZBERG and R. T. OLSON: A Systematic Investiga-
BEAVAN, J. A. and G. A. M. HYDE: Compressibility Increase tion of Pressure Distributions at High Speeds over Five
of Lift and Moment on EC 1250 for Low Speed () L = 017. Representative NACA Low-Drag and Conventional Airfoil
R & M No. 2055 (1942). Sections. NACA Rep. 832 (1945).
BUSEMANN, A.: Profilmessungen bei Geschwindigkeiten nahe - The Development of Cambered Airfoil Sections having
del' Schallgeschwindigkeit. Jahrb. b. WGL 1928, S. 95. Favourable Lift Characteristics at Supercritica! Mach Num-
- and O. W ALCHNER: Profileigenschaften bei Uberschallgesch. bers. NACA Rep. 947 (1949).
windigkeit. Forschung auf dem Gebiete des Ingenieurwesens HAMILTON, W. T. and W. H. NELSON: Summary Report on the
4 (1933), S. 87. High-Speed Characteristics of Six Model Wings having
BRYSON jr., A. E.: An Experimental Investigation of Transonic NACA 65-Series SectioI}s. NACA Rep. 877 (1947).
Flow past Two-Dimensional Wedge and Circular-Arc Sections HELMBOLD, H. B.: Einige Ergebnisse aus der aerodynamischen
using a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer. NACA TN 2560 Industrie-Forschung. DAL (1942).
(1951). - Physikalische Erscheinungen in der kompressiblen Unter-
FERRI, A.: Aluni Resultati Experimentali. Atti di Guidonia schallstromung. LGL 156 (1942), S. 170/174.
Nr. 17 (1939). - Flugelprofile bei hohen Geschwindigkeiten. UM 2502 (1944).
FROSSEL, W.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen del' kompressib- HOERNER, S.: EinfiuB del' Kompressibilitat auf den Wider-
len Stromung an und in der Nahe einer gewolbten Wand. stand. UM 7810 (1944).
UM 6608, 6611, 6622 (1944) und Mitt. d. MPI fur Stromungs- HOLDER, D. W., A. CHINEREK and R. I. NORTH: Pressure
forschung Nr. 4 (1951). Measurements in a Supersonic Tunnel on a Two-Dimensional
FURLONG, G. Ch. and J. E. FITZPATRICK: Effects of Mach Aerofoil of RAE 104 Section. CP 62 (1951).
Number and Reynolds Number on the Maximum Lift Coef KNAPPE, 0.: Schnellkanalversuche an einem symmetrischen
ficient of a Wing of NACA 230-series Airfoil Sections. NACA Klappenfiugel. Jahrb. 1941 dDL I, S. 96-100.
MR No. L6F04 (1946) and TN No. 1299. - Schnellkanalversuche an Profilen und Flugzeugmodellen
GAULT, D. E.: Correlation of Low Speed Airfoil-Section Stalling und ihre fiugtechnische Auswertung. LGL 156 (1942),
Characteristics with Reynolds Number and Airfoil Geometry. S.128-132.
NACA TN 3963 (1957). MAxI, R. L. and L. W. HUNTON: An Investigation at Subsonic
GOLDSTEIN, S., W. F. HAMILTON and C. F. COWDREY: Tests of Speeds of Several Modifications to the Leading-Edge
a New Aerofoil in the H.S.T. at the N.P.L. R & M No. Region of the NACA 64AOI0 Airfoil Section Designed to
2246 (1940). Increase Maximum Lift. NACA TN 3871 (1956).
GOTHERT, B.: Messungen am Profil NACA 0015-64 im Hoch- NAU1\1ANN, A.: Messungen am Profil23OO8-64 und 23012-64
geschwindigkeits-Windkanal der DVL. FB 1247 (1940). im kompressiblen Unterschallbereich. Bericht d. Aerodyna-
- Messungen am Profil NACA 0015-64 mit verschiedenen mischen fustituts d. TH.Aachen.
Tiefen im DVL-Hochgeschwindigkeits-Windkanal und Ver- NITZBERG, G. E. and S. M. CRANDALL: A Comparative Examina-

tion of Some Measurements of Airfoil Section Lift and Drag NACA TN 665 (1938).
at Supercritical Speeds. NACA TN 2825 (1952). STACK, J.: Tests of Airfoils Designed to Delay the Compressi-
PEARCEY, H. H. and J. A. BEAVAN: Profile Drag Measurements bility Burble. NACA Rep. 763 (1943).
at Compressibility Speeds on three Aerofoils having Spanwise STAFF OF H. S. T.: Measurements of Force Coefficients on Aero-
Wires or Grooves. R & M No. 2252 (1943). foil EC 1240 in the High Speed Tunnel at the N.P.L. R & M
- Force and PreBBure Coefficients up to Mach Number 087 on No. 2246 (1940) .
the Goldstein Roof Top Section 1442/1547. R & M 2346 STIVERS, Louis S. jr.: Effects of Subsonic Mach Number on
(1946). the Forces and Pressure Distributions on four NACA 64A-
ROGERS, E. W. E.: Observations on a Thin Cambered Aerofoil Airfoil Sections at Angles of Attack as High as 28. NACA
Beyond the Critical Mach Number. R & M No. 2432 (1950). TN 3162 (1954).
STACK, J. and A. E. v. DOENHOFF: Tests of 16 Related Airfoils SUMMERS, I. L. and S. L. TREON: The Effects of Amount and
at High Speeds. NACA Rep. 492 (1934). Type of Camber on the Variation with Mach Number of the
STACK, J., W. F. LINDSAY and R. E. LrrrEL: The Compressibility Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 10-Percent-Thick NACA
Burble and the Effects of Compressibility on PreBBureS and 64 A-Series Airfoil Se<'ltion. NAC TN 2096 (1950).
Forces Acting on an Airfoil. NACA Rep. 646 (1938). z..u.OVCIK, I. A. and E. P. LUKE: Some Flight Measurements of
STACK, J. and W. F. LINDSAY: Tests of N-85, N-86 and N87 PreBBure-Distribution and Boundary-Layer Characteristics
Airfoil Sections in the llinch High Speed Wind-Tunnel. in the Presence of Shock. NACA RM L8C22 (1948).

4.1 Influeuce of Quality of Surface 26.106 (Figure 4.4:) shows how the effect of roughness
4.1.1 Older Results varies with the place on the chord at which it occurs.
The quality of the surface has a large effect on the profile Figure 4.5 shows the influence of the height of the rough-
properties. From an old AVA measurement (Figure 12.63), ness when this occurs at the nose; in this experiment there
at the relatively small Reynolds number of 63. lOS, we is only a strip of granular roughness along the leading edge.
can see the main effects caused by a surface which is not When such a strip (made from a carborundum layer of a
smooth: a considerable increase in: drag; and, usually, a certain grain size) is placed at a certain point of the chord,
decrease in maximum lift. The roughening for this measure- this is practically equivalent to making this point the
ment was rather coarse: it was produced by a wire net of point of transition (certainly for the Reynolds numbers of
05 mm gauge, with 38 square meshes in a length of 10 most interest today). The flow past profiles with roughness
em; the net was soldered on to a wing of sheet metal, the over the whole surface obeys the laws of turbulent flow over
profile being Go 449. According to this measurement the a rough wall, and so the aerodynamic characteristics do
suction side is very sensitive to roughness; this is generally not change with increasing Reynolds number; however,
true, the nose of the profile being particularly sensitive. profiles with rough strips on an otherwise smooth surface
Figure 4.1 illustrates the effects of various amounts of show a continual decrease of the drag with increasing
coarse roughness on the suction side for the profile NACA Reynolds number (Figure 4.6). The" standard roughness"
0012 at a Reynolds number of 5 .106 The same behaviour applied at the nose consists of a carborundum layer with a
occurs at higher Reynolds numbers, as will be shown. grain size of 028 mm, which covers between 5 and 10%
of the surface in the region 0 ~ x ~ 0'08e, on the suction
4.1.2 Surface Roughness and the pressure sides. To investigate the effect of such
DOETSCH has investigated the effect of the roughness
roughness in modern NACA measurements (where it is
caused by paint on some industrially manufactured wings; used to control transition), the profile characteristics have
the profiles are mostly those of the NACA 24-series, and been measured in the LTT, usually at a Reynolds number
the range of span is fairly large. DOETSCH obtains the of 6.106 , both with a smooth surface and with standard
following result: an increase in drag over that of an ideal roughness at the nose; the chord of the rectangular wings
smooth wing is found in the Reynolds number range of used in these measurements is 2 ft. Results of this kind can
4 .106 to 107 A J u 288 wing shows an increase of 46%, an be found in the figures of Chapter 12. It is not difficult to
He 177 wing 60%, an Me 109B wing 50%, and an FW 190 see from these measure~ents that roughness, at first sight
wing 33% ; the wings are all painted with camouflage paint, seemingly insignificant, can completely counteract any
and no priming has been used; the average height of
roughness is about 0019 mm (Ju 288), 0014 mm (He 179), 16
and 0007 mm (FW 190). Figure 4.2 shows the results from
the measurement of momentum loss along the span of the
I ./ ~
FW 190 wing. A Mustang wing (including armament), t tI
V ~moofh

"'r---- II/I-'"",,,
measured at the same time, gives an increase in sectional 12
drag of 41 % over the ideal smooth value; the latter value is 5.1rr
actually obtained over large parts of the span, and is very ~ . . ..: K I
small, CD being 00044. The effect of various kinds of ,/ ~at.10o
surface at high Reynolds numbers can be clearly seen from
Figure 4.3. Further information on the effects of surface 1/
roughness has been obtained from flat-plate measurements
(see Section 4.1.5).
"r- f....
-ct.-5 0
4.1.3 Standard Roughness Fill. 4.1. NACA 0012 with I--
various amounts of coarse
We have already mentioned that roughness near the roughness on the suction side.
Reynolds number: 5.10'
profile nose is especially harmful. An example at R = (}()2

0 0
R .J, '10 6 i 5 . 106 16 '106 i 7 . 106
1- OZ
- I
- CDI ~ofl
L 1.

\ 2200
'I ..
\ ~ ---~n
- '0
l \
\'" ... I i
*650 ~ 661~
--r- -I
Fig. 4.2. Dis~ribution of thickness and sectional drag coetllcient of an actual FW 190 wing with camouflage paint but without priming_
Roughness height: kmax. - 0'006 to 0-008 mm. Profiles: NACA 24series. Wind tunnel: DVL 5 m x 7 m

. j.-+ ~ ~
~~ pig:::; I!'
~V ~ - r"'"
/V ,/ ~ 0
~; .j
~ ,..-
- - If ~
if ti08

t 0+
/ { I

f- - If:
0., I: - '"- ~.~~ rt1 III
o o !
:\ 'i
\ c\.~
1:1"1 .. ~
... \\ /
r\e ,.,. ........ II
-08 roo
0{)0. 0-008 .,. 0 (}QQ. 0-008 ,. ..I
-"0 -"0 j
R -25.10' -1,2
R a 15.10'
Fig. 4.3. Drag of the proftle 65(,,1)-420, o ~ (}QQ8 tHJ1Z tHJ16 (}OZO (}oZ. poZ6 -8" O 8" 16" Z.
a = 1, for R = 15 10' (right) and 25 10' (left).
Wing chord: i-54 m. Wind tunnel: TDT. 0:
-co _CIt

production model with camouflage paint, not Fig. 4.4. Polars for the profile 63( ... )-422, for various positions of roughness.
ftnished. x : production model with camouftage
paint, highly polished, +: camouflage paint, Strips of roughness at ~ = : 0-3 (+); 0'2 (x); 0~-05 (0); smooth (0). Wind
not finished. 0: primed, lacquered, polished. tunnel: TDT. Reynolds number: 26_10'. Chord: 0-915 m
aerodynamically smooth

1-6 ~ favourable influence that the profile shape has on the


- drag; as the lift coefficient increases, roughness certainly
leads to considerably increased drags; and the maximum
lift generally suffers a large reduction. The lift-curve slope
of a profile with standard roughness decreases with
!1 .If increasing thickness (Figure 3.5), and sometimes the angle
o I of zero lift and the moment are noticeably influenced as
well. Drag measurements on wings in their original
\ \\. I construction, with various types of nose, confirm the above
\~ If
.\ experimental results (Figure 4.7).
," .
4.1.4 Isolated Disturbances
-1:2 O 8" 16 Z.
0 0:00'# 1J{}08 0<J12 IJ{}f6 (J020 0-02+ 1J{}20 -8 Isolated disturbances on a surface on which laminar flow
-CO' -'" exists produce transition of the boundary layer in a region
Flg.4.5. PoJars for the profile 63( ... )-422, with various types of roughness at the which extends rearwards; the region is conical at first,
nose. Smooth (0); shellac (+). Size of grain: 0'051 mm (x); 0'0102 mm (0);
0'028 mm (0). Reynolds number: 26.10'. Chord 0'915 m. Wind tunnel: TDT with an angle of 140 to 18, but then broadens more

20 Z'O

t t
1'Z Ai 'P" ~

VI 1/
-- -

,- "'
o . o 7
~ L'\. I
I"::: :-..... ......
....... ~. - ro
-OB -OB ro-'
Fig. 4.6. PoJars for the prodie 63(11.)-422 (moditled), with standard roughness at the nose.
Reynolds number: 6.10' (0); 14.10' (x); 26.10' (0). Wind tunnel; TDT. Chord: 0'915 m


(}()O* I---!---+--I---!---+-\ O{)o+

~~2~-~-~--4---+--+- fHJ()Z

o 04 02 0:3 f}5 - L biZ -
Fig. 4.7. Actual FW wing with smoothly polished metal-surface (without paint). Fig. 4.8. Sectional drag coefticlent and position of
Profile: NACA 2415. Reynolds number: 10'4 10'. Wind tunnel: DVL 5 m x 7 m. point of transition. In the vicinity of an isolsted
(1) Front spar (FS) at 30% of the chord. (2) FS at 30% of the chord; de-Icing slot disturbance (suspension wire). Wind tunnel: 5m x 7m
(DS) at 27% of the chord, on the suction side. (3) FS at 10% of the profile chord. (4) DVL. Reynolds number: 2,7.10'
FS at 10% of the chord; DS at 4% of the chord, on the suction side. (5) FS at 10%
of the chord; DS at 2 % of the chord on the suction side and 8 % of the chord on the
pressure slde

Naturally, there is particular interest in the question

~ i ~
a ......'a what additional drag is to be expected from the very varied
! isolated disturbances occurr,ing in practice in an already
turbulent boundary layer. Among many measurements
ad 777
Co which have been made in attempts to answer this question,
t /~~ ~.
the systematic investigations of WIEGHARDT and TILL-
OZ MANN lIil'e particularly worth mentioning, because they
~.i I l---
~1-1 permit a direct application to isolated roughness elements
. -t-'" )!f::::-1--' .1-0
on an arbitrary profile in the region where the boundary
1 '
(}If layer is turbulent. A coefficient for the additional drag,
0 01 02 OJ 0+ 0-5 (}6
-o/e LlCD = ~~, has been introduced, whereS is the maximum
t '- ~"1: ---1....-""-'- .
1 1Zo_
x croBs-sectional area (normal to the flow direction) of the
(}8 ~-1~ ~ go protuberance causing the disturbance, and ij is the average
, -I kinetic pressure over the height, k, of the protuberance, so
I I 6
~ 3" that

0 04 Q-Z 0:1 {H O. (}6

u(y) is the velocity distribution in the boundary layer on a
Fig. 4.9. Effect of coarse, Isolated disturbances (two small flat plate (see Section 9.2). If the disturbances are caused
plates, 22 mm square) at various distances from the nOBe.
Proflle: Go 777. Chord: 0-6 m. Wind tunnel: 4 m x 5-4 m not by protuberances but by indentations, then ij is the
AVA. Reynolds number: 2-3_10' (see also Figure 12.91) average of the kinetic pressure at the outer edge of the
boundary layer and S is the plan area of the indentation.
rapidly. Figure 4.8 shows how the drag changes in the The ratio of the height of the protuberance (or depth of the
neighbourhood of such a point; in this case the disturbance indentation) to the boundary layer thickness at the
is produced by the suspension wire of the model. Figure disturbance is very important in detennining the effect of
4.9 shows an example of the influence of isolated dis- the disturbance; the investigations of WIEGHARDT and
turbances on the lift and drag coefficients at various angles TILLMANN have an advantage over others, since this
of incidence. quantity is considered in every case.

SJt 10J
:'1-2x f0 4

l\ 1.1

0001 10 , 2 II 56 '10' 2 J'" 6 J1I56810' 2 JI/'

I -R=~

Fig. 4.10. Skin-friction drag of rough plates. k" height of roughness (sand); If, momentum thickness; 0" drag coefficient for one side
of plate

10'Z * <:-
symm. protTle liirlvrbllnce III ric-IN
HtH If 2..1<(}7 "
6 Tani: : -22rR(xJ!'~ l r-... t--.,
6 + k-O:2.5mm}
0 - 09mm flol plole
t ro'
r- t-

.. -07mm
'" --symm.ProlileLBt
flc' OLr, (J.; O
10'J ~~. . Oislvr611nce IIII/C=o./
b .... fo- i---" f-o
OVL: Circv/llr lire profile " o t:: i"""'"
Z r, -(}5c 'fJ1f
Oislvr611nce 01 1ft -(HS
6 61(J5 2 + 6 610' Z + "
6 610 1 Z 10' Z * 6 610 ' 2 + 6 610'
o 0-1 O~ 0-3 (# 05
R(K) R/c) -iL
Fig. 4.11. Critical disturbance height, referred to Fig. 4.12. Critical disturbance height Fig. 4.13. Flight measurements for
length of boundary layer; R = Vx. Flat plate and referred to chord; R _ Ve. Disturbance' various qualities of surface, Profile:
symmetrical profile (.)
NACA 66 (215) - 1 (14'5). 0: factory
in front third of a 15 % thick profile made, with camouflage paint, 0:
smoothed. 0: waviness reduced, ~:
visible waves 6lled up, surface waxed.
[R 824]

4.1.5 Permissible Size of Grain and Critical Height of The relationships are rather more favourable if the
Roughness boundary layer is not turbulent; we then speak of a
We now investigate the effect of surface roughness on critical roughness height, and understand by this the
the skin-friction drag of flat plates. Figure 4.10 (from roughness height that just induces transition. Some
measurements by PRANDTL and SCHLICHTING) shows that examples of the behaviour of this quantity with Reynolds
the skin-friction drag of the plate deviates from the curve
corresponding to a smooth surface, and becomes constant (a)
from a certain Reynolds number onwards, this number
depending on the grain size. From this it follows that, at a
._- ".,

given Reynolds number, the skin-friction drag of a plate
with a rough surface is the same as that of a smooth plate,
provided that the grain size is below a certain permissible
0Q01Z t
value; in other words, the surface can be regarded as

"aerodynamically smooth" if the grain size is below a

permissible value. According to SCHLICHTING the permis- ()(J(}(}f

sible grain size is given approximately by ()(J(J(

-1""'0 -
-- b
'II or kperm, ~ 100. 0 .
kperm , ~ 100 V' c R' -()(J(J( .".."
0 0Q8 016 8-2+ 032 (}+O QJ,6 __ Sic fJ6+

these results come from measurements on flat plates but, (b)

to a first approximation, similar results are found for' Q.OOZO,",
profiles with finite thickness.
uodt2 t

6. :,,- l- S 8 1--
b:>a: ~ ~ ~ l\

0 \' ~ r-- .h [", l1"\ ~ ~b

~ !'\ ~ IA .~
.~. ~
() 8 0

Fig. 4.14. Drag coefll.cient of wings with various types of
waviness (see Figure 4.15).
- 1'0; C' = 0'2 }
Model 5: NACA 66 (215)-116 { a L at CL _ 01. Fig. 4.15. Deviations, Lly,
from the design profile shape, on an actual wing.
a = 0'6; C1- -0'1
(a) Model 5: waviness at the profile nos~ on both sides, (b) Model 6: consider
Model 6: NACA 66 (215)-116 at CL - 0'15. able waviness over the whole chord [R910j. Dashed curves: design values of
Model 8: NACA 66 (21115)-116 at CL .. 01 the pressure side (upper curve) and the suction side (lower curve)


number are shown in Figures 4.11 and 4.12; the measure- parabolic nose with continuous curvature at the join
ments have been made on isolated disturbances ([R824 causes the behaviour expected of lI. laminar profile: small
(Figure 19)] ; DOETSCH; YOUNG; TANI). New measurements drag for small lift-coefficients, as in polar (c).
and calculations by TANI and DRYDEN give the ratio of Profiles with a discontinuity in curvature are very
roughness height to the displacement thickness at the sensitive to changes in Reynolds number, because of the
disturbance; they confirm that, for profiles with a favour- large influence of the discontinuity on the onset of transi-
able pressure gradient, there is approximately the same tion.
dependence on the critical Reynolds number as for the
flat plate. 4.2 Problems of High Speed in Liquid Media:
4.1.6 ~a~e8S
In an incompressible medium the pressure falls when the
Free-flight measurements on a modern profile (Figure free-stream speed increases; the smallest pressure that can
4.13) show that the effect of flight roughness is sometimes occur in a liquid is the vapour pressure of the liquid (if we
insignificant compared with the effect of surface waviness. ignore the possibility of delay in boiling). When the liquid
Figure 4.14 shows the behaviour of OD with Reynolds boils, cavities filled with vapour occur; this phenomenon,
number for profiles with various tyPes of waviness (see known as "cavitation", occurs on ship propellers when in
Figure 4.15): model 8 is largely free from waviness; in the rapid motion, and also in water turbines; decreased
efficiency and, sometimes, corrosive effects are associated
O ~ with it. In the flow about a profile the smallest pressures
/ occur on the surface and so, if cavitation occurs, it starts
/l=3.m t
from the surface; the flow separates from the profile and
forms a free surface (of constant pressure), which encloses
o-g the region of cavitation. This region extends to various
,; a
L.- Fig. 4.16. Drag coefficient as a
distances in the direction of flow; it ends in a turbulent
V ....,...-1- function of aL: (a) with a
./ mixing region of liquid and vapour, where a sudden
o-c discontinuity in curvature that
./ !/ b causes a large disturbance; (b)
with a discontinuity in curva
increase in pressure takes place.
0002 (}ciJff......'O-010 00111 ture that does not cause a The state of cavitation is characterised by the" cavita-
, .... r-..l) -Co
large disturbance; (c) without
tion number",
-0 -.. I\~ discontinuitl!: in curvature
(DOETSCH) p - Pv.
o(N a=---,
neighbourhood of the nose of model 5 and, especially, of in particular, this characterises the magnitude of the
model 6, considerable waviness exists, which leads to an cavitation region. p is the pressure in the undisturbed
increase in the drag. flow, Pv is the vapour pressure of the liquid (dependent on
Similar effects (changes in the pressure distribution, the temperature), and q is the kinetic pressure of the
which lead to premature transition) can also occur when a undisturbed flow. The cavitation number is defined more
profile has a discontinuity in curvature at a certain point accurately if, instead of Pv; the actual pressure in the region
(see DOETSCH). From Section 7.3.3 we see that the velocity of cavitation (pc) is introduced. pc is the same as pv only
distribution possesses a point of inflexion and that ,a for liquids in which no gas is present; for liquids with gas
relatively large variation of the velocity occurs in the region present (for example, water containing air) pc is greater
of this point. Figure 4.16 shows that this behaviour than pv (REICHARDT).
can lead to transition. By rounding off the nose of a If we wish to avoid cavitation on profiles we must 'be
circular arc profile (~ = 0.1) with another circular arc, familiar with the manner of its formation and with its
effect on the profile polars at various cavitation-numbers.
of radius OOlc (the two parts having the same slope at the Measurements on profiles with normal position of maximum
join), a discontinuity in curvature is obtained; the radius thickness show that the lift falls with decreasing ca,.vita-
of curvature changes from ~ = 001 to eII = 26. The tion number. It is found that shapes whose maximum
c c thickness lies further forward are unfavourable because of
behaviour of polar (a) shows that the expected forward the high minimum pressure and the consequent premature
movement of the point of transition (the existence of which occurrence of cavitation. Profiles with a uniform pressure
is confirmed by direct measurement) produces a consider- dIstribution are favourable; the circular segment profile
able increase in drag. Polar (b) corresponds to a smaller (whose maximum thickness occurs at half the chord) has a
nose radius, and hence to a still greater discontinuity in pressure distribution of approximately this type.
curvature; the influence of this is masked to a certain Measurements of forces on profiles show three typical
extent by the sharp drop in ptessure at the nose. Only a forms of cavitation (see Figure 4.17).

1. cavitation on the suction side which starts from the A theoretical treatment of cavitation is difficult, but the
leading edge-this occurs if the front stagnation point following results have been obtained. For completely
lies on the pressure side, so that the flow accelerates developed cavitation on the suction side BETZ found that
round the nose from the pressure side and the point of the shape of the suction side (hence, in general, the profile
minimum pressure lies very far forward; thickness) is unimportant. For profiles with a flat pressure-
2. cavitation which starts approximately from the position side the theory gives
of maximum thickness when the profile is at the ideal
angle of incidence or when the front stagnation point
lies on the suction side;
3. cavitation on the pressure side which starts from the
leading edge-this occurs if the front stagnation point the first term is the lift coefficient (according to KIRCH-
lies on the suction side, so that the flow accelerates round HOFF'S theory) of a flat plate at a small angle of incidence,
the nose from the suction side. a, the flow having separated; the second term allows for the
Measurements by W ALCHNER of lift and drag coefficients fact that the dominant pressure on the suction side is not
of circular segment profiles at various cavitation-numbers that of the undisturbed flow, but the vapour pressure,
are reproduced in Figures 12.150 to 12.152. The points are which is smaller than the undisturbed pressure. If we take
not experimental points, but have been obtained by the skin-friction drag (G/ ) into account, the drag coefficient

Measurements confirm these theoretical estimates only if

the whole suction side is covered by a cavitation layer;
otherwise, the profile properties are worse than the
theoretical predictions.
If cavitation starts from the middle of the suction side
(a phenomenon that can occur simultaneously with
Fig. 4.17. Dependence of lift coefficient, CL, on the cavitation number, for
cavitation on the pressure side) there is a similarity rule
three different types of cavitation: for profiles of different thickness ratios (HELMBOLD);
(1) suctionside cavitation starting from the leading edge;
(2) suctlonside cavitation starting from about halfchOrd;
thickness ratio, angle of incidence, and cavitation number
(3) pressure.ide cavitation starting from the leading edge. must be small quantities whose squares are negligible. The
- - - start of cavitation on circular segment prolUe.
- - start of cavitation on improved profile
rule states that the same condition of cavitation exists on
two similar profiles of thickness ratios i l and i2 if the
respective angles of incidence and cavitation number are
averaging the experimental values; points corresponding to proportional to i1 and i2; this follows because, under the
the same angle of incidence are designated by the same stated conditions, the disturbance pressures vary linearly
symbol. The figures show that considerable falls in lift are with thickness ratio. For the lift coefficient, GL, it follows
associated with a decrease in cavitation number. From the that, at the same cavitation number, the values of GL for
appended diagrams we can see how the extent of the two similar profiles of different thickness ratios i l and i2
cavitation region depends on angle of incidence and are proportional to i l and i2 respectively; accordingly,
cavitation number. Further measurements have been made with a suitable plotting, a collapse of experimental results
on circular segment profiles with suitable rounding of the for profiles of different thickness ratios but of similar shape
leading and trailing edges (from which the profiles Go 5K can be obtained. As the experimental results show (Figures
to 16K have been derived); these measurements show that 12.162 to 12.164), the rule is well confirmed.
such rounding can considerably increase the region free
from cavitation (Figures 12.153 ff). For the original
circular segment profiles, cavitation is unavoidable if
IJ < 5 ~; the smallest cavitation number compatible with 4.3 References
flow free from cavitation is given by
.IJ ~ 4 c~ for profiles 4.3.1 Quality of Surface
t ABBOTT, T. F. and H. R. TURNER: The Effects of Roughness
5K to 13K and by IJ ~
3 - for profiles 14K to 16K. At
c at High Reynolds Numbers on the Lift and Drag Character-
small cavitation numbers the diminution of the pressure- istics of Three Thick Airfoils. NACA ACR No. IAH21 (1944)
side cavitation is also noteworthy; it has almost completely ALLEN, H. J.: Notes on the Effect of Surface Distortion on the
vanished for the profiles Go 14K to 16K (intended to be Drag and Critical Mach Number of Airfoils. NACA ACR
used on propeller hubs) in the range of positive lift. No. 3129 (1943).

BRASLOW, A. L.: Investigation of Effects of Various Camouflage SCHERBARTH, K.: Grenzschichtmessungen hinter einer punkt-
Paints and Painting Procedures on the Drag Characteristics formigen Storung in laminarer Stromung. Jahrb. 1942
of an NACA 65(421)-420 a = 1.0 Airfoil Section. NACA dDL I, S. 51-52.
CB No. L4Gl7, 1944 (WR L141). SCHLICHTING, H.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Rau-
- and E. C. KNOX: Simplified Method for Determination of higkeitsproblem. Ing.-Arch. 7 (1936), S l.
Critical Height of Distributed Roughness Particles for - Grenzschichttheorie, Verlag Braun 1951 and London 1955
Boundary-Layer-Transition of Mach Numbers from 0 to 5. (English translation).
NACA TN 4363 (1958). TANI, J., R. HAMA and S. MITUISI: On the Permissible Rough-
DOENHOFF, A. E. andE.A. HORTON: A Low-Speed Experimental ness in the Laminar Boundary Layer. Rep. Aer. Res. Inst.
Investigation of the Effect of a Sandpaper Type of Roughness Tokyo No. 199 (1940).
on Boundary-Layer-Transition. NACA Rep. 1349 (1958). - On the Effect of a Single Roughness Element on Boundary-
DOETSCH, H.: Einige Versuche tiber den EinfluJ3 von Ober- layer Transition. Rep. Inst. Sci. Techn. Tokyo 8 (1954),
flachenstorungen auf die Profileigenschaften insbesondere p. 125/133.
auf den Profilwiderstand im Schnellflug. Jahrb. 1939 dDL I, TILLMANN, W.: Neue Widerstandsmessungen an Oberflachen-
S. 88 und LGL II7. storungen in der turbulenten Reibungsschicht. Forschungs-
- Profilwiderstandsmessungen an Modellfltigeln in serien- hefte f. Schiffstechnik I (1953), S. 81-88.
mal3iger Glattblechbauweise. FB 1731 (1943). WIEGHARDT, K.: Zum Reibungswiderstand rauher Platten.
- Versuche an zwei Modellfltigeln in Blechbauweise mit Lami- UM 6612 (1944).
narprofilen. FB 1855 (1943). - Erhohung des turbulenten Reibungswiderstandes durch
- V"ber den Einflu13 von Oberflachenstorungen auf den Wider- Oberflachenstorungen. Forschungs-Hefte f. Schiffstechnik I
stand der Tragfltigel. UM 1233 (1944), LGL-Bericht 176/1 (1953), S. 65-8l.
und 179a (1944). WILLIAlIIS, D. H. and A. F. BROWN: Tests on RAF 34 Negative
DRYDEN, H. L.: Review of Published Data on the Effect of at Incidences and of the Effect of Surface Roughness on RAF
Roughness on Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow. 34 with Split Flap in the Compressed Air-tunnel. R & l\I No.
J. Aer. Sci. 20 (1953), pp. 477/482. 1772 (1937).
GOTHERT, B.: Einflu13 von Einzelrauhigkeiten auf den Wider- YOUNG, A. D.: Surface Finish and Performance. Aircr. Eng.,
stand von Tragfltigelprofilen. UM 1480 (1945). Sept. 1939.
GRAY, V. H. and U. W. GLAHN: Aerodynamic Effects Caused by ZALOVCIK, J. A.: Profile-Drag Coefficients of Conventional and
Icing of an Unswept NACA 65AOO4 Airfoil. NACA TN 4155 Low-Drag Airfoils as Obtained in Flight. NACA-ACR
(1958). No. L4E31 (1944) WR L139.
HOERNER, S.: Einflu13 der Oberflachenrauhigkeit auf die aero-
dynamischen Eigenschaften der Luftfahrtzeuge. Ringbuch
der deutschen Luftfahrtforschung, Teil IA (1937) 9. 4.3.2 Cavitation
HOLSTEIN, H.: Versuche an einer parallel angestromten ebenen
Platte tiber den Rauhigkeitseinflu13 auf den Umschlag lami- BETZ, A.: Einflu13 der Kavitation auf die Leistung von Schiffs
nar/turbulent. UM 3110 (1944). schrauben. Verh. 3. Int. Kongr. Techn. Mech., Stockholm,
HOOKER, R. W.: The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils Teill, S. 411. Stockholm 1931.
as Affected by Surface Roughness. NACA TN 457 (1933). HELlIIBOLD, H. B.: Erorterungsbeitrag tiber Kavitation. Hydro-
HOOD, M. J.: The Effects of some Common Surface Irregularities mechanische Probleme des Schiffsantriebes, Hamburg (1932),
on Wing Drag. NACA TN No. 695, 1939. S.338.
JONES, R. and D. H. WILLIAMS: The Effect of Surface Rough- MARTYRER, E.: Kraftmessungen an Widerstandskorpern and
ness on the Characteristics of the Aerofoils NACA 0012 and Fliigelprofilen im Wasserstrom bei Kavitation. Hydro.
RAF 34. R & M 1708 (1936). mechanische Probleme des SchiffSlantriebes, HamburgischE!
KRAEMER, K.: Die Wirkung von Stolperdrahten auf den Grenz- Schiffsbau-Versuchsanstalt, 1932, S. 268.
schichtumschlag. Jahrb. 1959 d. Wiss. Ges. Luftf. NUlIIACHI, F.: Profilmessungen bei Kavitation. 1. Mitt.: Kraft
KRETZ, P.: Profilwiderstandsmessungen an rauhen Flachen. FB messungen an vier Profilen bei Hohlsog. VDI-Forschung II

1456 (1941). (1940), S. 303.
- and A. WANNER: Profilwiderstandsmessungen an Gleitflug- - 3. Mitt.: Kraftmessung an Spaltfltigelprofilen bei Kavitation,
zeugen. FB 1212 (1940) und Jahrb. 1941 dDL., S. I 111/19. Werft, Reederei, Hafen 22 (1941), S.295.
LOFTIN, L. K.: Effects of Specific Types of Surface Roughness - Summary Report on the Research of Cavitation Pheno-
I on Boundary-layer Transition. NACA ACR L5J29a (1945) mena Obtained Hitherto by our Institute.
WRL-48 Rep. Inst. High Speed lVlech. Tohoku Uitiv. 4 (1954),
PRANDTL, L. and A. BETZ: Ergebnisse der Aerodynamischen p. 159/17l.
Versuchsanstalt zu Gottingen. R. Oldenbourg_ Mtinchen, REICHARDT, H.: Kavitationskanale. Gottinger Monographie,
III. Lieferung (1927). Teil D1 3.2 (1946).
PRANDTL, L. and H. SCHLICHTING: Das Widerstandsgesetz WALCHNER, 0.: Profilmessungen bei Kavitation. Hydromecha-
rauher Platten. Werft, Reederei, Hafen 15 (1934). nische Probleme des Schiffsantriebes, Hamburgische Schiffs
RUNKEL: Profilwiderstand- und Grenzschichtmessung an einem bau-Versuchsanstalt, 1932, S. 256.
NACA 23012-Profil bei glattem und rauhem Anstrich. - Bericht tiber Profilmessungen bei Kavitation. Nicht ver
UM 3507 (1943). offentlichter Bericht des KWI, Gottingen 1934.

, "


5.1 Survey increases with thickness ratio, but so do the flap deflection
The simplest method of increasing the maximum lift of a and tne size of flap required to produce the prescribed
profile is to increase the profile camber by deflection of a maximum value of OL. An additional camber is. more
flap. The possible ways of fitting a flap on to a profile are effective on thin profiles than on thick ones. The shape of
numerous, and the effects on the profile properties are the front part of the profile has an important effect on the
extraordinarily varied. The principal arrangements are: efficiency of a split flap; this can be seen from Figure 5.2,
1. plain flaps;
2. split flaps; 22
3. slotted and double-slotted flaps;
4. nose flaps; .......
in addition, the most diverse combinations of these
arrangements are used. Since the representation of the
t /
/ r-?

experimental results in diagrams would take too much 18
space, the reader is referred to Table 11.6 (a survey of the
results) and, for more detail, to the literature (see Section
5.6). The influence of Reynolds number can be estimated

f-"" I--.
f..n. ........,

from the table, but hardly any profiles with flaps have been
investigated over a large Reynolds number range. Some If 7
brief remarks about the resultst follow. Fig. 0.1. Effect of an [I
"!nslgnlftcant" gap of 12
0'0032 c at a plain ftap
5.2 Plain Flaps (ftap chord being 20%
of wing chord). Profile: 1-0
The maximum lift depends essentially upon the ratio of Clark Y. Aspect ratio:
6. Reynolds number:
the flap chord, c1)' to the profile chord, c, as well as upon 0'61.10'. [R938)
the flap deflection, 1]. Ratios ~/c that lie in the range 02 08
o 20 110 80 -11 100
to 025 are favourable when 1] is about 60; the increased
maximum lift rises with thickness. For laminar profiles
the range of OLin which the drag is small can be displaced in Which are plotted the results of a large number of
to higher OL values by small flap-deflections (a small oLm... measurements on profiles with split flaps, for
camber has the same effect). As with all flaps it is essential various values of thickness, position of maximum thick-
that the unavoidable gap between wing and flap be kept as ness, and nose radius; the results are plotted against the
small as possible; otherwise losses in lift cannot be avoided t ,-
(see Figure 5.1). The increase in the moment coefficient parameter -2 I~
(.10 m ) is proportional to the increase in the lift coefficient c '" Xt
Table 11.6 and many diagrams of Chapter 12 conhin
(.10 L ), and is in fair agreement with the theoretical value;
further numerical results. The theoretical behaviour of the
the normal forces and hinge moments also agree well with
moment is not so easily predicted as for plain flaps.
theoretical predictions (see [R634]). Section 12.4 contains
some pressure distributions on wings with flaps.
5.4 Slotted Flaps
5.3 Split Flaps A still higher lift--coefficient can be obtained by the use
of a slotted flap, but the geometrical shape of the slot
With a split flap the suction side of the profile remains
must be carefully considered if the desired increase is to
unaltered, but on the pressure side a downward flap-
be realised; for this reason it is difficult to give definite rules
deflection is possible at the rear. The effect is similar to that
for the best position of the flap. Sharp edges at the begin-
of a plain flap, but considerably more marked. OL maJ:.
ning of the slot are to be avoided as much as possible on thick
t The published experimental results are usually for wings of profiles, but thin profiles are less sensitive in this respect. If
finite span, and only in rare cases for two-dimensional flow. the suction side is bent round at the trailing edge in the


lL_ 08 ,
, ...
. I-
t O'

NA~ (N
5 .
-- --:On -- ,~
V a
~. . O'C



~! ~. Fig. 5.3. Increase in C Lmax. from nose dap on various prodles, as a function
/ of the nose radius (see Equation (1.7. (0): without spilt dap. (~): with split
/ ftap; S!c - 1)'2; '1 - 60. [FB1948]
1 ." rOil!.

- 2cXt

Fig. 5.2. Spllt-dap measurements for the NACA 6-series (fuIllihe, !c - 0'06

to 0'21), and the DVL series (dashed line, ~ - 0'09 to 0'18, ~ ~ 0'3 to 0'5).
1'V c c
O~I __________LI__________ ~I~ ________ ~I~ ________ ~' ~Ieaningofsymbols: (0) 63-series; (0) 64-series; (~) 65-series; (x) 66-series
o 0'01 002 (}OJ (}O~

direction of the upper side of the flap, there is often a improve the value of OLmax.; with a suitable arrangement
favourable effect. Numerous results for wings with slotted an increase in maximum lift coefficient, LlOLmax ., of between
flaps are shown in Table 11.6. The use of a double-slotted 06 and 07 is obtained. The additional use of a split flap
flap can produce a further increase in maximum lift- then produces a further increase, so that in the most
r coefficient, but this is realised in practice only at the expense favourable case OL max. is increased from 07 (without flaps)

I of a considerable increase in constructional weight.

5.5 Nose Flaps and Slats

to 22 (with nose flap and split flap). According to the
existing measurements the most favourable angle between
nose flap and wing chord is about 130. With decreasing
Profiles with small nose-radius have very small maximum flap-chord, and especially with increasing nose radius (see
lift. W. KRUGER recommends the use of a nose flap to Equation (1. 7)), the effect diminishes (see Figure 5.3). The

Ci. L' ~
~1J.~0'2 t 4' \ \.
c /. \ \
7-0 10
'J \
t 08
v: 1
/ I /
1/ I
,I / 1\
0/1 0/1 II
/ \
I I /'
/ I
7 ;
il II Ii .17
-02 -0,2 1/ I
o ,.. 0'02 o
,..0'02 -1/ o 8 12 - a 20

Fig. 5.4. Cbaraeteristica of a doublewedge prollle (~- 0'0423; wedge angie - 5'1; circular arc Calred In Crom 0'425 .. ~ .. 0'575) with nose flaps oCchords

~- 012 and 0'25. - - with no dedection, '1 - 0'. - - - with deflection. '1 .. 30 (~ = 0'12). _. -. -with deflection,'1 - 30' (~ .. 0'25). [N2018].
Reynolds number: 5'8.10'. Mach number: 0'17

remaining aerodynaInic coefficients change less than, for foil with 20% Plain Flap in the N.P.L. 13 ft. x 9 ft. Wind-
example, when a split flap is used. This flap arrangement is Tunnel. R & M No. 2412 (1946).
CluNE, R. M. and R. W. HOLTZCLAW: Wind Tunnel Investiga.
of importance for the take-off of aircraft having supersonic tion of the Effects of Profile Modification and Tabs on the
profiles (with pointed noses); Figure 5.4 shows the aero- Characteristics of Ailerons on a Low.Drag Airfoil. NACA
dynaInic coefficients of such a profile. Rep. 803 (1944).
For profiles with normal nose radius, retractable slats. CuNNING. R. W., N. GREGORY and W. S. WALKER: An Investiga.
can be recommended as a means of increasing CLm... tion of the Use of an Auxiliary Slot to Reestablish Laminar
Flow on Low.Drag Airfoils. R & M No. 2742 (1950).
Measurements on a profile, NACA 23012, equipped with DAVIDSON, J. M.: The Jet Flap. J. Roy. Aeron. Soc. 60 (1956),
them [L-261] show that LlCLmax . = 05 and that the cor- pp.25-50.
responding angle of incidence is increased by between eight DOETSCH, H. and M. KRAMER: Der Maximalauftrieb der Profil
and ten degrees; for further experimental results see reme NACA 24 mit Spreizklappe, Oberflachenrauhigkeit und
Stordraht, FB 642.
Table 11.6. DOETSCH, H. and G. KONIG: UnteJ;Suchung an einem Normal.
flugel NACA 1242 mit Spaltruder und verschiedenen Spalt.
formen. FB 762.
5.6 References - and A. PASCHKE, Druckverteilungsmessungen und Wagun.
gen an den Profilen NACA 23009, 23012 und 23018 ohne
ABBOTT,!. H. and H. SREENBERG: Tests in the VariableDen. und mit Spreizklappe. FB 1095 (1939).
sity WindTunnel of the NACA 23012 Airfoil with Plain and DUSCHIK, F.: WindTunnel Investigations of an NACA 23021
Split Flaps. NACA Rep_ 661 (1939). Airfoil with Two Arrangements of a 40PercentChord Slot
ABBOTT,!. H.: lift and Drag Characteristics of a Low.Drag Air ted Flap. NACA TN 728, 1939.
foil with Slotted Flap Sub:tnitted by Curtiss Wright Corpora. FISCHEL, J. and J. M. RIEBE: WindTunnel Investigation of
tion. NACA MR, Dec. 2, 1941. an NACA 23021 Airfoil with a 032AirfoilChord Double
- and H. R. TURNER jr.: Lift and Drag Tests of Three Airfoil Slotted Flap. NACA ARR UJ05 (1944) WR L7.
Models with Fowler Flaps Submitted by Consolidated FULLMER, F. J., jr.: Wind. Tunnel Investigation of NACA
Aircraft Corporation. NACA MR, Dec. 29, 1941. 66 (215)216, 66, 1-212, and 651-212 Airfoils with 020Air
- Tests of Four Models Representing Intermediate SectionS foil Chord Split Flaps. NACA CB UGlO (1944). WR Ll40;
of the XB33 Airplane Including Sections with Slotted - TwoDimensional WindTunnel Investigation of the NACA
Flat and Ailerons. NACA MR, June 4,1942. 641-012 Airfoil Equipped with two Types of Leading Edge
AMES, Mrr.TON B., jr.: Wind Tunnel Investigation of Two Air Flap. NACA TN 1277 (1947).
foils with 25PercentChord Gwinn and Plain Flaps. NACA. GAMBUCCI, B. J.: Section Characteristics of the NACA 0006
TN 763, 1940. Airfoil with Leading Edge and Trailing.Edge Flaps. NACA
BOGDONOFF, S. M.: Tests of Two Models Representing Inter TN 3797 (1956).
mediate Inboard and Outboard Wing Sections of the XB36 GLAUERT, H.: Theoretical Relationships for an Airfoil with
Airplane. NACA MR, Jan. 7,1943. Hinged Flap. R & M No. 1095 (1927).
- WindTunnel Investigation of a Low Drag Airfoil Section
GOTHERT, B.: Ruderwirkung bei hohen Unterschallgeschwin.
with a Double Slotted Flap. NACA ACR 2130 (1943). digkeiten. LGL 156 (1942), S. 51.
BRASLOW, A. L. and L. K. LOFTIN, jr.: TwoDimensional
- Unterbrecherwirkung bei hohen Unterschallgeschwindig.
WindTunnel Investigation of an Approximately 14Percent kehen. LGL 156 (1942), S. 64.
Thick NACA 66Series.Type Airfoil Section with a Double
GOTHERT, R.: Systematische Untersuchungen an Fliigeln mit
Slotted Flap. NACA TN 1110, 1946.
Klappen und Hilfsklappell. Jahrb. 1940 dDL I, S. 278/307.
BRYANT, L. W., A. S. HALLIDAY and A. S. BATSON: TwoDimen-
sional Control Characteristics. R & M No. 2730. HANDLEY PAGE: Aeron. Journal (1921), p. 270.
CAHILL, J. F.: Aerodynamic Tests of an NACA 66 (215)116, HARRIS, TH. A.: WindTunnel Investigation of an NACA 23012
a = 06 Airfoil with a 025 c Slotted Flap for the Fleetwings Airfoil with Two Arrangements of a WideChord Slotted
XA39 Airplane. NACA MR UK21, 1944. Flap. NACA TN 715 (1939).
- Aerodynamic Data for a Wing Section of the Republic - and P. E. PURSER: WindTunnel Investigation of an NACA
XF12 Airplane Equipped with a Double Slotted Flap. NACA 23012 Airfoil with Two Sizes of Balanced Split Flap. NACA
L6A08a, 1946 (Wartime Rep. L.544). ACR, Nov. 1940.
- TwoDimensional WindTunnel Investigation of Four Types - and R. S. SWANSON: Wind Tunnel Tests of an NACA 23021
of High Lift Flap on NACA 65-210 Airfoil Sectiqn. NACA Airfoil Equipped with a Slotted Extensible and a Plain
TN 1191, 1947. Extensible Flap. NACA TN 782 (1940).
- and ST. RACISZ: WindTunnel Development of Optimum - and J. G. LOWRY: Pressure Distribution over an NACA
DoubleSlotted.Flap Configurations for Seven Thin NACA 23021 Airfoil with a Slotted and a Split Flap. NA.CA Rep.
Airfoil Sections. NACA RM L7B17 1947. 718 (1941).
- WindTunnel Investigation of Seven Thin NACA Airfoil - and 1. G. RECANT: WindTunnel Investigation of NACA
Sections to Determine Optimum Double.Slotted.Flap con 23012, and 23030 Airfoils. Equipped with 40Percent
figurations. NACA TN 1545, 1948. Chord Double Slotted Flaps. NACA Rep. 723 (1941).
- W. J. UNDERWOOD, R. J. NUBER and G. A. CHEESMAN: - and J. G. LOWRY: Pressure Distribution over an NACA
Aerodynamic Forces and Loadings on Symmetrical Cir- 23012 Airfoil with a Fixed Slot and a Slotted Flap. NACA
cular Arc Airfoils with Plain LeadingEdge and Plain Rep. 732 (1942).
Trailing.Edge I laps. NACA.Rep. 1146 (1953). HILTON, W. F. and A. E. KNOWLER: Lift, Drag and Pitching
CHEERS, E., W. S. WALKER and C. R. TAYLOR: TwoDimen Moment Coefficients on an EC 1240 Tailplane.Elevator at
sional Tests on a 15% Thick- Symmetrical Roof.Top Aero High Speeds. R & M No. 2227 (1943).


HOLTZCLAW, R. W. and Y. WEISMANN: Wind-Tunnel Investiga- PLATT, R. C.: Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Wing with
tion of the Effects of Slot Shape and Flap Locations on the Fowler Flaps Including Flap Loads, Downwash, and Cal-
Characteristics of Low-Drag Airfoils Equipped with a culated Effect on Take-off. NACA Rep. 534 (1935).
025-Chord Slotted Flap. NACA WR A80 (1944). - Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wings with Cambered Ex-
v. HOLST, E.: Der rotierende Fliigel als Mittel zur Hochauf- ternal-Airfoil Flaps, Including Lateral Control with a Full-
triebserzeugung. Jahrb. (1941) dDL I, S. 372. Span Flap. NACA Rep. 541 (1935).
JACOBS, E. N. and R. M. PINKERTON: Pressure Distribution over - and I. H. ABBOTT: Aerodynamic Characteristics of NACA
a Symmetrical Airfoil Section with Trailing Edge Flap. NACA 23012 and 23021 Airfoils with 20-Percent-Chord External-
Rep. 360 (1930). Airfoil Flaps of NACA 23012 Section.. NACA Rep. 573
JACOBS, E. N.: Tapered Wings, Tip Stalling, and Preliminary (1936).
Results from Tests of the Stall-Control Flap. NACA ACR, - and J. A. SHORTAL: Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wings
Nov. 1937. with Ordinary Ailerons and Full-Span External Airfoil
KOSTER, H.: Messungen am Profil 0 00 12-0,55 45 mit Spreiz- Flaps. NACA Rep. 603 (1937).
und Nasenspreizklappe. UM 1317 (1944). PURSER, P. E., J. FISCHEL and J. M. RIEBE: Wind-Tunnel
- Untersuchungen am Profil NACA 0 00 12-0,55 45 mit Investigation of an NACA 23012 Airfoil with a 030-Airfoil-
Nasenspreizklappe. UM 1363 (1944). Chord Double Slotted Flap. NACA ARR 3LIO (1943)
KNAPPE, 0.: Schnellkanalversuche an einem symmetrischen WR L-469.
Klappenfiiigel. Jahrb. (1941) dDL I, S. 96/100. PuRSER, P. E. and H. S. JOHNSON: Effect of Trailing Edge
- Schnellkanalversuche an Profilen und Flugzeugmodellen Modification on Pitching-Moment Characteristics of Air-
und ihre fiugtechnische Auswertung. LGL 156 (1942), foils. NACA CB L4I30, (1944) WR L-664.
S. 128/132. QUINN, J. H. jr.: Tests of the NACA 641 A212 Airfoil Section
KRAMER, M.: Steigfiugklappen. FB 1576 (1942). with a Slat, a Double SIJtted Flap, and Boundary-Layer
KRUGER, W.: V'ber eine neue Moglichkeit der Steigerung des Control by Suction. NACA TN 1293 (1947).
Hochstauftriebes von Hochgeschwindigkeitsprofilen. UM RACISZ, ST. F.: Investigation of NACA 65(1l2)Alll (Approx),
3049 (1943). Airfoil with 035-Chord Slotted Flap at Reynolds Numbers
- Syetematische Windkanalmessungen -an einem Laminar- up to 25 Millions. NACA TN 1463 (1947).
fiiigel mit Nasenklappe. FB 1948 (1944). RECANT, I. G.: Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA 23030
- Windkanalmessungen an einem abgeanderten Mustang- Airfoil with Various Arrangements of Slotted Flaps. NACA
Profil mit Nasenklappe. Kraft- und Druckverteilungsmes- TN 755 (1940).
sungen. UM 3153 (1944). REGENSCHEIT, B.: Versuche an einem Fliigel mit einem Rotor.
KUCHEIIIANN, D.: Dreikomponentenmessungen an einem Fliigel FB 826.
mit rotierendem Hilfsfiiigel. FB 1513 (1944). ROGALLO, F. M. and B. S. SPANO: Wind-Tunnel Investig&tion
- Auftrieb und Widerstand eines rotierenden Fliigels. FB 1651 of an NACA 23012 Airfoil with 30-Percent-Chord Venetian-
(1942). Blind Flaps. NACA Rep. 742 (1942).
LEMME, H. G.: Kraftmessungen und Druckverteilungen an ROSE, L. M. and I. M. ALTMANN: Low-Speed Investigation of a
einem Fliigel mit Knicknase, VorHiigel, Wolbungs- und Thin, Faired, Double-Wedge Airfoil Section with Nose-Flaps
Spreizklappe. FB 1676 (1942). of Various Chords. NACA TN 2018 (1950).
- Kraftmessungen und Druckverteilungsmessdngen an einem ROSE, L. M. and I. M. ALTMAN: Low-Speed Investigation of a
Rechteckfliigel mit Spaltknicknase, Wolbungs- und Spreiz. Thin, Faired, Double-Wedge Airfoil Section with Nose Flap.
klappe oder Rollklappe. FB 1676/2 (1943). NACA TN 2172 (1950).
- Kraftmessungen und Druckverteilungsmessungen an einem ScmLLER, M.: Windkanaluntersuch unglin an einem Fliigel mit
Rechteckfliigel mit Doppelknicknase. FB 1676/3 (1944). Klappenfliigeln und Vorfliigel. Fi3 543.
LOFTIN, L. K., jr. and F. J. RICE jr.: Two-Dimensional Wind- SCHRENK, 0.: Kritischer tlberblick iiber Auslandsuntersuchun-
Tunnel Investigation of Two NACA Low-Drag Airfoil Sec- gen zur Hochauftriebserzeugung. Jb. 1939 dDL I, S. 79.
tions Equipped with Slotted Flaps and a Plain NACA Low- SCHULDENFREI, M. J.: Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA
Drag Airfoil Section for XF6U-l Airplane. NACA MR L5Lll, 23012 Airfoil with a Handley Page Slot and Two Flap
(1946). Arrangements. NACA ARR, Febr. 1942 WR L-261.
LOWRY, J. G.: Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA 23012 SEIFERTH, R.: Neuere Messungen an Hochauftriebsfliigeln.
Airfoil with Several Arrangements of Slotted Flap with Ex- Jahrb. 1939 dDL I, S. 84-87.
tended Lips. NACA TN 808 (1941). SHAW, R. A.: Changes in Control Characteristics with Changes
NONWEILER, T.: Maximum Lift Data for Symmetrical Wings. in Flow Pattern at High Subsonic Speeds: Tests on an EC
Aircr. Eng. XXVII (1955) No. 311, p. 2. 1250 Aerofoil with 25% Concave Flap. R & M No. 2436
- Flaps, Slots and other High-lift Aids. Aircr. Eng. XXVII (1949).
(1955) No. 311, p. 2. SHERMAN, A. and T. A. HARRIS: The Effect of Equal Pressure
- The Design of Wing Sections, Aircr. Eng., July 1956. Fixed Slots on the Characteristics of a Clark Y;Airfoil.
NACA TN 507 (1934).
NOYES, R. W.: Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Wing with a Trailing
Edge Auxiliary Airfoil Used as a Flap. NACA TN 524 (1935).
Flight and Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Measurements of the
NUBER, R. J. and F. J. RICE jr.: Lift Tests of a 01536 c Thick Maximum Lift of an Airplane. NACA Rep. 618 (1938).
Douglas Airfoil Section of NACA 7Series Type Equipped SIVELLS, I. C. and S. H. SPOONER: Investigation in the Langley
with a Lateral-Control Device for Use with a Fullspan 19-Foot Pressure Tunnel of Two Wings of NACA 65-210
Double-Slotted Flap on the C-74 Airplane. NACA MR and 64-210 Airfoil Sections with Various Type Flaps. NACA
L5C24a (1945). Rep. 642 (1949).
PETRIKAT, K.: Untersuchungen an festen und selbsttatig off- STAUFER: Windkanalmessungen an einem Fliigel mit Doppel-
nenden Fliigeln. Jahrb. 1940 dDL I, S. 248-264. spaltklappe. Jahrb. 1940 dDL I, S. 245.

_ Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Clark Y Wing Having Split Flaps

SWANSON, R. S. and M. J. SCHULDENFREI: WindTunnel In-
with Gaps. NACA TN 650 (1938).
vestigation of an NACA 23012 Airfoil with Two Sizes of _ Pressure Distribution over an NACA 23012 Airfoil with an
Balanced Split Flaps. NACA ACR, Febr. 1941. NACA 23012 External-Airfoil Flap. NACA Rep. 614 (1938)_
UNDERWOOD, W. J. and F. T. ABBOTT jr.: Tests of NACA _ and W. B. ANDERSON: Pressure Distribution over Airfoils
66.2-116, a = 06 Airfoil Section Fitted with Pressure
with Fowler Flaps. NACA Rep. 620 (1938).
Balanced and Slotted Flaps for the Wing of the XP63 Air- _ and J. B. DELANO: Pressure Distribution over an NACA
plane. NACA MR, May 23, 1942. 23012 Airfoil with a Slotted and a Plain Flap. NACA Rep.
VISCONTI, F.: WindTunnel Investigation of Air Loads over
a Double Slotted Flap on the NACA 65 (216)-215, a = 08 633 (1938).
._ and TH. A. HARRIS: A Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an
Airfoil Section. NACA RM L7A30 (1947). NACA 23012 Airfoil with Various Arrangements of Slotted
W ALZ, A.: Messungen am Laminarprofil 2315 BIS mit Ab-
saugung in der Nahe der Profilnase ohne und mit Nasen- Flaps. NACA Rep. 664 (1939).
_ Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA 23021 Airfoil with
spreizklappe. UM 3195 (1944). Various Arrangements of Slotted Flaps. NACA Rep. 667
_ Messungen iiber die Querruderwirksamkeit an einem 15%
dicken Profil mit 60% Dickenriicklage und kleinem Hinter- (1939).
_ Wind-Tunnel Investigation of NACA 2"3012, 23021 and
kantenwinkel. UM 3121 (1944). 23030 Airfoils with Various Sizes of Split Flap. NACA Rep.
WEICK, F. E. and TH. A. HARRIS: The Aerodynamic Character-
istics of a Model Wing Having a Split Flap Deflected Down- 668 (1939). '
_ Wind-Tunnel Investigations of an NACA 23021 Airfoil with
ward and Moved to the Rear. NACA TN 422 (1932).
Various Arrangements of Slotted Flaps. NACA Rep. 677
WEICK, F. E. and J. A. SHORTAL: The Effect of Multiple Fixed
Slots and a Trailing Edge Flap on the Lift and Drag of a (1939).
-and W. E. GAUVAlN: Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an
Clark Y Airfoil. NACA RIp. 427 (1932). NACA 23012 Airfoil with a Slotted Flap and Three Types of
WEICK, F. E. and M. J. BAMBER: Wind-Tunnel Tests of a
Clark Y Wing with a Narrow-Auxiliary Airfoil in Different Auxiliary Flap. NACA Rep. 679 (1939).
_ and B. S. SPANO: Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA
Positions. NACA Rep. 428 (1932). 23012 Airfoil with Various Arrangements of VenetianBlind
WEICK, F. E. and C. R. PLATT: Wind-Tunnel Tests on a Model
Wing with Fowler Flap and Specially Developed Leading Flaps. NACA Rep. 689 (1940).
WILLIAMS, D. H., A. F. BROWN and E. SMYTH: Tests of Aero-
Edge Slot. NACA TN 459 (1933). foils RAF 69 and RAF 89, with and without Split Flaps, in
WEICK, F. E. and R. SANDERS: Wind-Tunnel Tests on Com-
the Compressed Air-Tunnel. R & M No. 1717 (1936).
binations of a Wing with Fixed Auxiliary Airfoils Having
WILLIAMS, D. H. and A. F. BROWN: Tests of RAF 34 at Nega-
Various Chords and Profiles. NACA Rep. 472 (1933).
tive Incidences and of the Effect of Surface Roughness of
WENZINGER, C. J_: Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Ordinary and
RAF 34 with Split Flap in the Compressed Air Tunnel.
Split Flaps on Airfoils of Different Profile. NACA Rep. 554
R & M No. 1772 (1937).
(1936). WYSOCKI: Windkanaluntersuchungen an Fliigeln mit Klappen,
_ Pressure Distribution over an Airfoil Section with a Flap
Vorfiiigeln und Bremsen. FB 1655 (1942).
and Tab. NACA Rep. 574 (1936).

6.1 Suction as a Means of Increasing the Lift is used (negative when the pressure is less than the free-
Only a limited increase in lift can be obtained by stream pressure).
arrangements of flaps; to gain a further increase. the The older experiments on boundary-layer suction (by
distribution of energy in the boundary layer must be con- BETZ, ACKERET, and SCHRENK) were concerned with the
trolled by suitable means. This can be done by sucking generation of high lift, in conformity with the state of
away the fluid in the boundary layer near the wall (this aircraft development at that time. For practical application
fluid is deficient in energy) or by blowing out air in the it seemed advantageous to use a wing with a flap and apply
direction of flow-that is, by bringing in additional energy suction at the flap; this arrangement has been more
(see Section 6.2). It is customary to use a dimensionless accurately investigated by SCHRENK and REGENSCHEIT,
coefficient for Q, the amount sucked away or blown out, and they obtain better results by sucking through two
called the volume-flow-rate coefficient, slots, one slot lying in front of and the other behind the flap
(Figure 6.1). In this way maximum lift coefficients, OLmu .,
CQ =Q/VS (6.1) greater than 35 are obtained, and the volume-flow-rate
(where S is the area of the part of the wing surface affected). coefficient has a practical value (cQ < 002). The suction
For the required suction or blowing pressure, P" the aircraft of the AVA (AF1 and AF2) have been tested in
coefficient flight by STUPER; an increase in OLm&J:. of about 15 is
obtained (from 0 L au.. = 26 without suction to 0 L maI. =
(6.2) 41 with suction); suction is applied at a flap, the value of
cQ being 002.
From Figure 6.1 it is seen that the behaviour of 0Lmaz.
with increasing CQ is usually as follows: at first there is a
R .17.10' sharp rise in OLmu ., up to a value of about 3; a relatively
small increase follows, despite the application of a large
amount of suction. From theoretical calculations of the
point of separation of the turbulent boundary layer it is
found that, in the range of CQ corresponding to the steep
rise in OLmaz ., there is n~ danger of separation before the
point at which suction is applied (that is, before the flap);
consequently, in this range the only purpose of suction is to
'L...., guide the flow past the flap and to keep the flow attached
t despite the adverse pressure gradient existing on the suc-
tion side of the flap. In the range of CQ corresponding to the
shallow rise in OLm (that is, for values of OLmaz . greater

than 3), the adverse pressure gradient on the front part of

the profile is so great that a danger of separation exists
before the point at which suction is applied; with suction,
R .1'7.10' separation is prevented by a reduction in the pressure
gradient on the front part of the profile, the reduction
NACA 23015 being produced by the sink effect of the suction; the
:E-.. ~ reduction in the pressure gradient has a noticeable effect
only . at large values of CQ, so that small increases in 0 L mal:.
0-01 -c 0-03 0-10 _ tic 0'20
reqwre a relatively large amount of suction.
The influence of profile thickness has been investigated
Fig. 6.1. Suction behind a flap, on profiles with hinged and split
flaps (a, - geometrical angle of incidence). (AVA) by REGENSCHEIT for the profile series NACA 230 at a
Fig. 6.2. CL maz . as a function of profile thickness, for various Reynolds number of 1,7.106 (Figure 6.2). If the volume-
volume-f1owrate coefficients. (A VA) flow-rate coefficient is kept constant, OLmu . at first

R - fHJ.10'-13.1O'

-OC oo 300

Fig. 6.3. Intluence of position Fig. 6.4. CLmax. correspond Fig. 6.5. Intluence of nose Fig. 6.6. Intluence of nose
of suction slot on the cQ ing to the most favourable radius Q (see Equation (1.7 radius on the increase in
necessary for a certain in PQsltion of suction slot. on the most favourable C Lmax" when the suction
crease in C Lmax. Profile: NACA 23015 position of suction slot (with slot Is at the most favourable
split tlap): position (no tlap-detlection)
(a) for Increasing CLmax. ;
(b) for increasmg aCL mu .

increases with thickness ratio; it reaches its greatest value application of this result on profiles with a flap there
at a definite thickness ratio (dependent on cQ). Profiles must be a further suction slot in either the riddle or the
without suction behave similarly. For the still practical forward part of the profile so that the behaviour of 0 Lmax.
value CQ = 002, the favourable thickness ratio lies with CQ can be improved near OL max = 30. Using the
between 015 and 020. W ALZ has investigated theoretically first of these arrangements QUINN has been able to increase
and experimentally the influence of the position of a single the lift of a wing with a double-slotted flap from OLmax =
suction slot; the profiles have a split flap but no plain
35 to 0 Lmax. = 368 when CQ = 0024, and to 0 Lmax. = 416
flap; the results are shown in Figures 6.3 to 6.6. From these
investigations and from further measurements by REGEN- when CQ = 004.
SCHEIT and EHLERS it appears that there are two places on According to REGENSCHEIT, the other favourable posi-
the profile where suction is most advantageously applied. tion for a suction slot is the trailing edge of the profile.
One of these favourable positions lies at the point where, Removal of portions of the boundary layer is then of no
at the required value of 0 L max ., separation would occur in importance; the change in the flow is caused only by the
the absence of suction; separation is prevented by remov- sink effect of the suction, and can therefore be treated by
ing from the boundary layer fluid which is deficient in potential theory.' Figures 6.7 and 6.8 come from theoretical
energy. According to a proposal of W ALZ, for the practical calculations by EHLE~S for the flat plate; they show the


15 f--.j--...j...,.&---1---+--+

0. 915
1-+-+---r'OJ-"""'::=+--"""'=--+ 09SO
o 00
0~~~iO~1~0~'0z~01.~===oj'0===Oj'0:5==~J~ 001 ~OZ OOJ OO~ 005 0'06
- clil _cQ

Fig. 6.7. Intluence of position of Ruction slot on the increase In lift obtained Fig. 6.8. Intluence of width of suction slot. for suction at the trailing edge.
for a given volumetlowrate coetllcient. Flat plate (theoretical) Flat plate (theoretical)

hence, it seems that trailing edge suction is particularly

suitable for control purposes, a possibility that has been
investigated by THWAITES.
These investigations demonstrate the rather small
influence of the shape and width of the suction slot on the
effectiveness of suction, apart from trailing edge suction.
No systematic measurements on the influence of Reynolds
number exist; it might be expected that the required
amounts of suction and power decreases as the Reynolds
number increased (because of the decrease in boundary
layer thickness), but this has not been confirmed by the
American measurements made up till now.
-- - sic 00168
- slc-QoOl
-10 _-1-_ _.1.-_---1 6.2 Blowing as a Means of Increasing the Lift
Fig. 6.9. aL plotted against a for Fig. 6.10. Control by auction at tbe Following older, more tentative experiments, SCHWIER
r various cQ. for suction at tbe trailing tralllni edge
! edge
has investigated an arrangement for blowing, which is fitted
I. to a profile with a slotted flap; air is blown out over the
Ii very large effectiveness of a suction slot at the trailing
flap throllgh a slot at the trailing edge. The results are
equally as good as and sometimes better than those obtained
edge with small values of CQ. These calculations and the
f experimental investigations of REGENSCHEIT confirm that
with the corresponding arrangement using suction and a
plain flap (Figures 6.11 and 6.12).
suction at the trailing edge, with a suitable shape of slot, However, the measurements for small values of the
can produce an increase in the lift, no change in the volume-flow-rate coefficient usually show only a tiny
angle of incidence being required; LlOL is of the order of 1 change in lift (assuming the angle of incidence is kept
(see Figures 6.9 and 6.10). The particular advantage of this constant). The lift increases rapidly with CQ only if CQ is
system is that a value of OL m... can easily be reached at large (greater than 001); this is because the air blown out
which the pressure gradient on the front of the profile has a favourable effect on the outer flow only if it has
would have led to separation in the absence of suction; approximately the same speed as the flow. Clearly, the

i a0-6-fJ.8.'10' Cq'
) (('pl.
1.0 0020-
/ 0015-
10 --J-l,<--~

"-t I II
/V _0

2'0 I

V 0003 sic 0006



t t----+-+-__+_---I
t .-.- 'q- _
C- .. ,

003 010 - tic 02'0

Figs. 6.11 and 6.12. Blowing behind a lIap. on prolIles with a hinged lIap Fig. 6.1S. InlIuence of
(a, - geometrical angle of Incidence). (AVA) wid tb of blowing slot

To reduce the technical difficulties, suction through a

number of slots has been tried as a means of keeping the
boundary layer laminar. It has even been found possible to
make the boundary layer stay laminar by a special design
of profile, which leads to a pressure distribution favourable
right to the trailing edge (with the exception of the slot
itself); this is illustrated in Figure 6.16 (GOLDSTEIN).
HOLSTEIN and, independently, ACKERET, RAS, and
PFENNINGER were the first to demonstrate that gains in
performance can be realised which are of practical value,
but that the number and position of the simultaneously
operated suction slots must be carefully chosen. Some of
these results are quoted in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1. Measurements by HOLSTEIN on the Karman-Trefftz

Profile 0015, with Suction to Keep the Boundary Layer Laminar;
R = 1,6.106

With suction at (Cp)mID. (see Equation (6.6a))

'---"- -fO--'----'
Fig. 6.14. Control by blow- Fig. 6.15. Control by blow- CL suction. "', upper; Percentage
Ing over a rounded traWng Ing against the dow direc- l.lower. reduction.
edge. Blowing CIln be tion. Blowing can be per- lOSCD lOS,C D l()4.cQ lOS.Cp
performed on either the formed on either the suction Open slot at
suction side (a) or the side (a) or the pressure side x/c = CD Cp
pressure side (b). (AVA) (b). (AVA) 1-
0 675 04", 5-40 33 5'85 20 13
0 675 0'4u 04l 4-23 59 494 37 27
value of CQ required to produce a certain inc,rease in 0 675 04",0& 512 59 584 24 13
oL max.
becomes smaller as the width of the slot decreases 009 785 03", 0'00 07", 495 118 630 37 20
0'09 785 04l06l 670 44 7-10 15 10
(that is, as the blowing speed increases). In contrast to 0'23 735 02", 04", 06", 4'52 9-4 564 38 23
suction the value of CQ required to produce a certain in-
crease in lift is always dependent on the width of the slot:
0'23 735 I 0'4l0'61 634 40 6'70 14 9

the narrower the slot, the more effective the blowing;

however, the required pressure and power Op)8CQ) In all these tests a result of fundamental significance is
increase (see Figure 6.13). obtained: it is possible to increase the length of laminar
Another form of blowing that results in an increase in boundary layer by suction only if the suction slot lies in
OLmax ., but which does not directly influence the boundary
layer, is the blowing of a jet of air out of the profile on the
pressure side (a proposal of BETZ). This produces an effect
similar to that of a split flap [UM 3192] ; the necessary value w"] /~~~~
of cQ is relatively high (Figures 6.14 and 6.15). --
V: /,d'/ \'
6.3 Suction as a Means of Reducing Drag
'0 ,
r _0_

__ __
Without sudiM
With tutti", I----t--
6.3.1 Keeping the Boundary Layer Laminar
Suction is frequently used to keep the boundary layer
- - ~!l
Theory ~ ~~
laminar; the present state of the theory on this subject is
II '"'/
described in Chapter 9. Theoretical work usually assumes 1-/1
continuous suction, which can be easily visualised physic-
ally; it is of great practical interest, being theoretically the
most efficient form of suction. With continuous suction
(for example, on a flat plate) gains in performance of 50%
and more are possible, the gains being particularly large at
Flg.6.16. Protlle with a sl1ctlon slot. the pressurp rise being displaced
high Reynolds numbers. rearwards to the slot; designed by Grlftlth (see GOLDSTEIN)

the original laminar boundary layer (it is then certainly

possible, even with an adverse pressure gradient). Once
the boundary layer has become turbulent it seems im-
posible to bring it back to a laminar state by suction (in
agreement with older measurements by GERBER). In-
vestigations on the effect of the number of suction slots
6.17. CLplotted against
(which Includes power I
and the distances between them lead to the important consumed In turbine) at several
result that, as the Reynolds number increases, so also does Revnolds numbers, for a 'V
laminar suction profile designed
the number of suction slots necessary to achieve worth-
while gains. The exhaustive measurements show that
considerable reductions can be obtained with relatively
by Pfenninger. Profile with 12
Blots on the suction side and 10
on the pressure side. C~ - 0'105;
/ R -1-5.10 6

[,0 6 r---1'Z 106
small amounts of suction if the number of slots is suf- t _ 0'019'' (see

DO - 1'04 0'2 to- t--
C ..
ficiently large (see also Figure 6.17). Equation (1.7; no co-
In the present stage of technology the manufacture of a ordinates available. Total cQ In I"'
wing with a large number of suction slots (or, better still,
the realisation of continuous suction) w011.ld be extra-
all cases less than 0'0016. Wind
tunnel: Zurich V 0-002- 000'1
ordinarily difficult; however, the large gains in performance
predicted by theory for continuous suction provide a
strong stimulus to look for solutions of this technical drag by keeping the boundary layer laminar. We can
problem. Some progress has already been made: of obtain either a reduction in the form drag by sucking
particular interest are successful experiments (RASPET) away the boundary layer in the region of the trailing edge,
with a specially designed sailplane; and, above all, the 'Or a reduction in the turbulent skin-friction drag by
results obtained by BRASLOW and others [R1025] on a blowing away the more slowly moving air (following a
wing with a porous surface made from sintered bronze proposal by BETZ). The latter case has yet to be investi-
(Figure 6.18). gated, but results exist for the former one.
Suction applied to the boundary layer at higher Mach In the region behind a suction slot the thinning of the
numbers is of particular importance; this is confirmed by boundary layer (when this is not kept laminar) always
one of the first experiments in this field, carried out by increases the skin-friction drag and decreases the form
REGENSCHEIT; the results are shown in Figure 6.19. drag; the nearer the suction slot is to the trailing edge, the
less is the disadvantage of the increased skin-friction drag;
the gains in performance are expected to be largest if the
6.3.2 Control of the Turbulent Boundary Layer suction slot can be placed at the trailing edge. Measure-
The technical difficulties of an attempt to reduce the ments by WALZ [FB 1611] on the profile NACA 23015 at the
drag by controlling a turbulent boundary layer are small Reynolds number of ()'8.1 06 show a gain in per-
expected to be smaller than in an attempt to reduce the formance of about 7% for an arrangement in which the

0000 o'AOtO

Mlnoul sudion 111 010'----.-----
t ~R -20.10 6

t-- R - ;.10 6
, R .1-1-1'2.10'

.---:: ....... :.:-- I-'" --- ~
.---.- ..

0002 H
-I---~ -- 1---

0001 -~
--- 1----
_c 001

-~ Fig. 6.19. Reduction In drag of
o 0000, OOO/M (}0012 0{}016 _ c~ (}0020 profile by suction at higher Mach
.numbers. Profile: circular arc with
FIg. 6.18. Drag of the proftle NACA 64A010 with porous surface. at CL - 0, as a function rounded leading edge. Reynolds num-
of volume-Bow-rate coelllclent, cQ. Wind tunnel: TDT. Reynolds number: 5'9.10' (0); ber: 11.10' to 1'2.10'. (AVA)
12 10' (0); 19'8.10' (<. Full line is total drag. Dashed line Is portion of drag arising trom
suction; (C,,), - 132
suction slot is at approximately 95% of the chord (OL:::: 0). and can be written as
REGENSCHEIT [FB 1550] has carried out other measure-
PI (VI)2 cQ2
ments, at R = 2'2.106 , with an arrangement in which a. q= V = (kslc)2'
suction slot is placed exactly at the trailing edge, the
opening of the slot lying on the suction side (Figure 6.20). The factor k (0 ~ k ~ 1) appears in this expression because
the width of the slot, s, is not wholly effective; the loss in
20 - - . - - , . - - - y - - - - . ,
efficiency is caused by separation at the sharp edges of the
-C~A~I~ entrance; in the suction measurements carried out in
Gottingen k is usually between 03 and 05.
If the sucked air is blown out in the free-stream direction
1-0 ---i--ii---rt---\ with a velocity Vb, then the power, P" required for the suc-
~I tion is given by
f Fig. 6.20. Improvement of polars by
suction at the trailing edge.
CDtot. = CD + cQ[l - (C.),]
p. = -Qps + Q ~ Vb 2

[(~r - (OP)4] ~ vaS.

= CQ (6.4)

In contrast to the results of WALZ a gain in performance To decide whether suction, when it is used to reduce
occurs only for values of 0 L greater than 04; at 0 L = 1 it drag; does result in a. saving of power, we must consider
amounts to roughly 25% (referred to OD). The arrangement the sum of the power required to overcome the drag,
of the suction slot at the trailing edge has the great
VD = OD ~V3S, and the power required for the suction;
advantage that an increase in OLma>. can be achieved at
take-off and landing with the same suction slot. the sum is
Although the control of the turbulent boundary layer
as a method for drag reduction still seems problematic at P = {OD + cQ [(~r - (Op).]} ~ V3S. (6.5)
low lift coefficients, it is undoubtedly of considerable
We now introduce the power-consumption coefficient,Op;
importance at larger values of OL, and so is suitable for
this is defined by
improving polars. The suction is particularly effective if the
slot is placed immediately behind the nose (or the suction
peak), and is supported by an independent slot in the OD+CQ [(~r -(Op).]=OP. (6.6)
middle of the wing; this is demonstrated in Figure 6.21.
It can be verified that 0 p has a minimum w)1en Vb = V
(see SCHRENK), so that

6.4 Pressure and Power Requirements for Boundary (6.680)

Layer Control
In a report on suction measurements it is customary to
give the requisite suction pressure, pa, in a dimensionless
form by referring it to the kinetic pressure q according to t
Equation (6.2); Pa is the pressure necessary to draw the ~
sucked air into the interior of the wing. The separate
Fig. 6.21. Improve-
portions of PB are the static pressure, P, in the outside flow ment of poiars by
at the point of suction (in general, lower than the free suction through two V
independent slots, one Ni
stream pressure), and the loss in pressure, PI, caused when at the nose and one
the sucked air is drawn through the slot into the interior of near the middle of the
the wing. Hence, we have chord (at ! - 0'51).
N! V
[N2041]. The corres- /"
(Op), = P,q = E.q + l!1.
(6.280) ponding values of vol-
ume-flow-rate coel\l
cients are denoted by
(fa 1/

The sucked air moves into the interior of the wing with a C9N and CQM. (0): I
small speed, because of t1!e generally large cross-section of
without suction, R-
5,8.10'. (0): CQN - 0.'1 II
0'0065, cQ.v =0'0115,
the interior; hence, the "slot loss" is approximately equal R=41.10'.(O): CQN /
to the kinetic pressure formed with the speed in the slot, - 0'0038, cQAf - O'OmlO,
V R = 0'8.10'. Protlle: o
S3,-012 o 000'1 0008 0012 0015
VI = cQ kslc' -to

In the analysis of drag measurements for profiles with GAINER, TH. G.: Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Investigation to
boundary layer control it is usually assumed that Cp has Determine the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Rectangular
this minimum value; it is occasionally referred to as the Wing Equipped with a Full-Span and an Inboard Half-Span
Jet.Augmented Flap Deflected 55. NASA MEMO 1-27-59L
total drag coefficient (C Dtot )' (1959).
In the practical application of boundary layer control to GERBER, A.: Untersuchungen iiber Grenzschichtabsaugung.
an aircraft, additional losses (increasing rapidly with cQ) Mitteilungen aus dem Institut fiir Aerodynamik der E.T.H.
Ziirich Nr. 6 (1938).
arise in the ducting and the pump; these pipe losses can be
GLAUERT, M. B.: The Design of Suction Aerofoils with a Very
essentially greater than the power required to suck the air Large CL-range. R & M No. 2111 (1945).
into the interior of the wing (particularly for large values - W. S. WALKER and W. G. RAYMER: WindTunnel Tests on
of cQ). When values of (Cp )8 obtained from wind-tunnel Thick Suction Aerofoil with a Single Slot. R & M No. 2646
measurements are used in calculations, the calculations (1947). .
GoLDSTEIN, S.: Low-drag and Suction Airfoils. J. Aer-on. Sci.,
have meaning only if cQ is very small (for example, when
15 (1948), pp. 189-214.
the suction is used to reduce drag). For further estimates GREGORY, N. and W. S. WALKER: Further Wind-Tunnel Tests
of the pressure and power requirements on an aircraft with on a 36% Symmetrical Suction Aerofoil with a Movable
boundary layer control the reader is referred to the ex- Flap. R & M No. 2287 (1946).
haustive work of KRUGER. GREGORY, N., W. S. WALKER and W. G. RAYMER: Wind-Tunnel
Tests on the 30% Symmetrical Griffith Aerofoil with
Ejection of Air at the Slots. R & M No. 2475 (1946).
GREGORY, N.: Note on Sir Geoffrey Taylor's Criterion for the
Rate of Boundary Layer Suction at a Velocity Discontinuity.
R & M No. 2496 (1947).
6.5 References - Further Observations on the Boundary Layer Theory of
Suction Aerofoils. R & M No. 2577 (1948).
- Addendum to ARC 10854 (Tests on GIas II). ARC 11797.
ACKERET, J.: Grenzschichtabsaugung. Z. VDI 35 (1926) 1153.
- W. S. WALKER and A. N. DEVEREUX: Wind-Tunnel Tests
- M. RAS and W. PENNINGER: Verhinderung des Turbulent-
on the 30% Symmetrical Griffith Aerofoil with Distributed
werdens einer Reibungsschicht durch Absaugung. Naturw.
(1941), S. 622. Suction over the Nose. R & M No. 2647 (1948).
- and A. R. CURTIS: A Comparison of Three Thick, Symmetri-
BAMBER, M. J.: Wind-Tunnel Tests on Airfoil Boundary Layer
cal, Multi-slot Suction Aerofoils. C. P. 20 (1950).
Control Using a Backward.opening Slot. NACA Rep. No. 385
(1931). - R. C. PANKHURST and W. S. WALKER: WindTunnel Tests
on the Prevention of Boundary-layer Separation by Dis-
BEAVAN, J. A . : Note on Reynolds and Mach Number Effects
tributed Suction at the Rear of a Thick Aerofoil. R & M
on the Pressure Distribution on the Tail of EC 1250. R & M
No. 2252 (1943). No. 2788 (1950).
BETZ, A.: Die Wirkungsweise von unterteilten Fliigelprofilen. - and W. S. WALKER: Wind-Tunnel Tests on the NACA 63
Berichte und Abhandlungen der WGL (1922), Heft 6. A 009 Aerofoil with Distributed Suction over the Nose.
R & M No. 2900 (1955).
- Beeinflussung der Reibungsschicht und ihre praktische
Verwertung. Schriften der Deutschen Akademie der Luft- HOLSTEIN, H.: Auftriebsmessungen an einem Fliigel mit Ab-
fahrtforschung, Heft 49 (1941). saugung durch DiiSenwirkung. FB 1253 (1940).
- Neue Ergebnisse der Auftriebsbeeinflussung von Fliigeln. HOLSTEIN, H.: Messung zur Laminarhaltung der Grenzschicht
DAL 1047 (1942). durch Absaugl!lng an einem Tragfliigel. LGL S 10 (1941),
Exp. and Theoret. Studies of Area Suction for the Control HOLSTEIN, H. and A. DONEIS: Messungen an einem Laminar-
of the Laminar Boundary Layer on an NACA 64AOlO Air- profil mit extremer Riicklage des DruckminimuIns. FB 1522
foil. NACA Rep. 1025 (1951). (1941).
CHEERS, F. and O. DOUGLAS: Tests on a Glauert Nose-suction - Messungen zur Laminarhaltung der Reibungsschicht durch
Aerofoil in the N.P.L. 4-ft. No.2 Wind-Tunnel. R & M No. Absaugen an einem Tragfliigel mit dem Profil NACA
2356 (1947). 0012-64. FB 1654 (1942).
CHEERS, F., W. G. RAYMER and O. DOUGLAS: Tests on a HORTON, E. A., S. F. RACISZ and N. 1. PARADISO: Investiga-
'Lighthill' Nose-suction Aerofoil in the N.P.L. 4-ft. No. 2 tion of Boundary-Layer Control to Improve the Lift and
Wind-Tunnel. R & M No. 2355 (1951). Drag Characteristics of the NACA 652-415 Airfoil Section
DANNENBERG, R. and WEIBERG, J.: Effect of Type of Porous with Double-Slotted and Plain Flaps. NACA TN 2149 (1950).
Surface and Suction Velocity Distribution on Characteristics KNIGHT, M. and M. J. BAMBER: Wind-tunnel Tests on.Airfoil
of a 10'5% thick Airfoil with Distributed Suction over the Boundary Layer Control Using a Backward Opening Slot.
Nose. NACA TN 3093 (1953). NACA TN No. 323 (1929).
DOENHOFF, A. E. v. and LOFl'IN, L. K.: Pre~nt Status of KRUGER, H.: tlber den EinfluB der Absaugung auf die Lage
Research on Boundary-Layer Control. J. Aeron. Sci. 16 der Umschlagstelle an Tragfliigelprofilen. Ing.-Arch., 19. Bd.
(1949), p. 7~9. (1951), S. 384-387.
EHLERS, F. and W. SCHWIER: Blasversuche an einem Fliigel KRUGER, W.: Rechnerische und experimentelle Untersuchung
, mit Spaltklappe. FB 1247 (1940). zur Frage des Forderleistungsbedarfes von Flugzeugen mit
:! EHLERS, F.: tlber die Anderung des Auftriebes und der Druck- Grenzschichtbeeinfiussung. FB 1618 (1942).
verteilung an Absaugefliigeln durch. Senkenwirkung. AVA- - Windkanalmessungen am Absaugeklappenfliigel 23012 mit
Bericht 45/Wf15 (1945). Vorfliigel. FB 1623 (1942).

1_. . . .~

LACIDIANN, G. V.: Boundary Layer Control. J. Roy. Aero. Soc. - Untersuchungen an einem Fliigel mit Hinterkantenabsau-
59 (1955), pp. 163-198 und Jahrb. 1953 d. Wiss. Ges. Luftf., gung. FB 1594 (1942).
S.132-143. - Absaugeklappenfliigel 23009: FB 1555; 23012: FB 1543;
- Grenzschichtsteuerung in der Praxis. Z. Flugwiss. 4 (1956), 23015: FB 1591; 23018: FB 1639 (1942).
S.9-14. - Versuche zur Verringerung des Tragfliigelwiderstandes durch
LIGHTHILL, M. J.: A Theoretical Discussion of Wings with selbsttatige Absaugung. FB 1673 (1942).
Leading Edge Suction. R & M No. 2162 (1945). - Versuche an einem Fliigel mit einer Klappe geringer Tiefe
LOFTIN, L. K. and D. L. BURROWS: Investigations Relating to und selbsttatiger Absaugung. UM 3053 (1943).
the Extension of Laminar Flow by Means of Boundary. - Versuche iiber eine neue stromungstechnische Steuerung.
Layer Suction throtlgh Slots. NACA TN 1961 (1949). UM 3104 (1944).
MCCULLOUGH, G. B. and D. E. GAULT: An Experimental In - Messungen am Absaugeklappenfliigel NACA 23015 mit 10
vestigation of the NACA 631-012 Airfoil Section with und 15% Klappentiefe. FB 1763 (1943)-und 43015: FB
Leading.Edge and Midchord Suction Slots. NACA TN 2041 1763/2 (1944).
(1950). - Eine neue Anwendung der Absaugung zur Steigerung des
PANKHURST, R. C., W. G. RAYMER and A. N. DEVEREUX: Auftriebes eines Tragfliigels. FB 1474 (1941).
Wind Tunnel Tests of the Stalling Properties of an 8% Thick - Absaugung in der Flugtechnik. Jahrbuch 1952 der Wissen.
Symmetrical Section with Uniformly Distributed Nose Suc schaftlichen Gesellschaft fiir Luftfahrt, Braunschweig 1953.
tion. R & M No. 2666 (1946). RICHARDS, E. J., W. S. WALKER and R. J. GREENING: An
PANKHURST, R. C. and N. GREGORY: Power Requirements for Aerofoil Designed to give Laminar Flow over the Whole
Distributed Suction for Increasing Maximum Lift. C. P. 82 Surface with Boundary Layer Suction. R & M No. 2263
(1948). (1943).
PEARCEY, H. H. and E. W. E. ROGERS: The Effect of Com RICHARDS, E. J.: Tests 011 a Griffith Aerofoil in the 13 ft. x 9 ft.
pressibility on the Performance of a Griffith Aerofoil. R & M Wind-Tunnel. Part I-Wind-Tunnel Technique and Interim
No. 2511 (1.946). Note. R & M No. 2148 (1944).
PFENNINGER, W.: Untersuchungen iiber Reibungsverminde. RICHARDS, E. J., W. S. WALKER and J. R. GREENING: 13 ft. x
rungen an Tragfiiigeln, insbesondere mit Hilfe von Grenz- 9 ft. Wind-Tunnel Tests on a Griffith Aerofuil. Part II
schichtabsaugung. Mitteilg. a. d. Inst. 'f. Aerodynamik - Effect of Concavity on Drag. R & M No. 2148 (1944).
E.T.H. Zurich Nr. 13 (1946). -and W. S. WALKER: 13ft. X 9ft. Wind-Tunnel Tests on a
- Experiments on a Laminar Suction Airfoil of 17 Percent Griffith Aerofoil. Part III-The Effect of Wide Slots and
Thickness. Journ. Aeron. Sci. 16 (1949), pp. 227-236. of Premature Transition to Turbulence. R & M No. 2148
PRESTON, J. H.: The Boundary Layer Flow over a Permeable (1944).
Surface through which Suction is Applied. R & M No. 2244. -13 ft. X 9 ft. Wind-Tunnel Tests on a Griffith Aerofoil
- W. S. WALKER and C. R. TAYLOR: The Effect on Drag of the Part IV-Lift, Drag, Pitching Moments and Velocity
Ejection of Air from Backward Facing Slots on a 16'2% Distributions. R & M No. 2148 (1944).
Griffith Aerofoil. R & M No. 2108 (1946). - W. S. WALKER and C. R. TAYLOR: Wind-Tunnel Tests on
PRETSCH, J.: Die Leistungsersparnis durch Grenzschichtab- a 30% Suction Wing (Replacing 8473). R & M No. 2149
saugung beim Schleppen einer ebenen Platte. UM 3048 (1945).
(1943). - and C. H. BURGE: An Aerofoil Designed to Give Laminar
- Umschlagbeginn und Absaugung. Jahrb. 1942 I, S. 1/7. Flow over the Whole Surface with Boundary.LayerSuction.
QUINN, J. H. jr.: Tests of the NACA 653-018 Airfoil Section R & M No. 2263 (HI49).
with Boundary-layer Control by Suction. NACA CB No. REID, E. G. and M. J. BAMBER: Preliminary Investigation on
L4HI0 (1944) WR L-209. Boundary Layer ~ontrol by Means of Suction and Pressure
- Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Boundary.layer Control by with the U.S.A. 27 Airfoil. NACA TN No. 286 (1928).
Suction on the NACA 653-418, a = 10 Airfoil Section SCHLICHTING, H.: Die Grenzschicht an der ebenen Platte mit
with a 029 Airfoilchord Double Slotted Flap. NACA TN Absaugen und Ausblasen. Lufo 19 (1940), S. 293.
No. 1071, 1946. - Die Grenzschicht mit Absaugung und Ausblasen. Lufo 19
- Tests of the NACA 641A212 Airfoil Section with a Slat, a (1942), S. 179.
Double Slotted Flap, and Boundary-layer Control by Suc - Berechnung der' laminaren Grenzschicht mit Absaugung.
tion. NACA TN No. 1293, 1947. LGL 141 (1941), S. 14-17 und DLG. Arch. 16 (1948), S. 201.
RASPET, A.: Boundary-layer Studies on a Sailplane. Aer. Eng. - and K. BUSSMANN: Exakte Losungen fiir die laminare
Rev. 11 (1952) 52. Grenzschicht mit Absaugung und Ausblasen. Schriften d.
REGENSCHEIT, B.: Hochauftriebsversuche mit Absaugeklap- DAL Bd. 7B (1943), Heft 2, S. 25-69.
penfliigeln. Bericht A 64 der LGL (1938). SCHRENK, 0.: Tragfiiigel mit Grenzschichtabsaugung. Lufo 2
- and O. SCHRENK: Versuche mit Absaugefliigeln ver- (1928), S. 49 und 5 (1931), S. 634.
schiedener Profilwolbung und Wolbungslage. FB 1061 (1939). - Versuche mit Absaugefliigeln. Lufo 9 (1935), S. 10.
- Systematische Untersuchungen von Absaugeklappenfliigeln. - and F. EHLERS: Spaltklappenfliigel mit Absaug1.Ulg an der
Messungen an den Profilen 23015,23018, 6215 g, 6218 Hinterkante des Hauptfliigels. FB 1064 (1938).
g. FB 1221 (1940). . - Grenzschichtabsaugung. Luftwissen 7 (1940), S. 409.
- Versuche zur Widerstandsverringerung eines Fliigels bei SCHWARTZBERG, M. A. and A. L. BRASLOW: Experimental Study
hoher Machscher Zahl durch Absaugung der hinter dem Ge- of the Effects of Finite Surface Disturbances and Angle
biet unstetiger Verdichtung abgelosten Grenzschicht. FB of Attack on the Laminar Boundary Layer of an NACA
1424 (1941). 64 A 010 Airfoil with Area Suction. NACA TN 2796 (1952).
- Messungen mit und ohne Knicknase an einem Absauge. SCHWIER, W.: Fremde Arbeiten iiber Absaugung und Ausblasen.
klappenfliigel NACA 23015. FB 1312 (1941). LGL A 64 (1938).
- Versuche zur Verringerung des Tragfiiigelwiderstandes durch - Versuche zur Auftriebssteigerung durch Ausblasen von Luft
Hinterkantenabsaugung. FB 1550 (1942). an einem symmetrischen Profil mit Wolbungsklappe groBer

Tiefe. FB 1462 (1941J. - On the Design of Aerofoils for which the Lift is Independent
- Auftriebsinderung durch Ausblasen von Luft. FB 1481 of the Incidence. R & M No. 2612 (1947).
(1941). - The Production of Lift Indepepdently of Incidence. J. Roy.
- Absaugeversuche an einem Fliigel mit einem Querruder ge Aer. Soc. 52 (1948), pp. 117/24.
ringer Tiefe. FB 1579 (1941). ULRICH, A.: Theoretische Untersuchungen iiber die Wider-
- Ausblaseversuche zur Auftriebssteigerung an einem Fliigel standsersparnis durch Laminarerhaltung mit Absaugung.
von 9% Dicke mit Vorfliigel und Klappe. FB 1622 (1942). Schriften d. DAL 8B (1944) Heft 2.
- Versuche zur Auftriebssteigerung durch Ausblasen von Luft
W ALZ, A.: Messungen zur ErhOhung der tl'berziehsicherheit
an einem Proill von 12% Dicke mit verschiedenen Klappen.
durch Absaugung im vorderen Profilteil (Messungen am Pro-
formen. FB 1658 (1942).
fil 0012 und zusammenfassende Auswertung friiherer Mes-
- Versuche tiber Widerstandsinderungen eines Tragtliigels
sungen). AVA-Bericht 45/W/14 (1945).
beim Ausblasen von erwirmter Luft. FB 1783 (1943).
- Theoretisches zur Absaugung der Reibungsschioht. FB 1775
- Blasversuche zur Auftriebssteigerung am Profil 23015 mit
verschiedenen Klappenformen. FB 1865 (1943).
- Versuche mit Reibungsschichtabsaugung an einem Fliigel-
- Anderung von Auftrieb und Widerstand eines Tragtliigels
profil NACA 23015 bei verschiedenen Lagen des Absauge-
bei Luftaustritt auf der Fliigelsaugseite. UM 3064 (1943).
schlitzes lings Fliigeltiefe. FB 1611 (1942).
- Auftriebsinderung durch einen auf der Fliigeldruckseite aus-
geblasenen Lnftstrahl. UM 3192 (1944). WIEGHARDT, K.: tl'ber das Ausblasen von Warmluft fiir Ent-
SPENCE, D. A.: The Lift Coefficient of a Thin Jet Flapped Wing. eiser. KWI-Bericht (1943).
Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 238 (1956), pp. 46-68 and J. WILLIAMS, J.: Some Investigations of the Stalling Properties of
Aeron. Sci. 23 (1956), pp. 92-94. Some Thin Nose-suction Aerofoils. R & M No. 2693 (1952).
STUPER, J.: Messungen und Flugerfahrungen an zwei Absauge- - Some Improvements in the Design of Thick Suction Aero-
tlugzeugen. FB 1821 (1942). foils. C.P. 31 (1950).
THwAITES, B.: A Theoretical Discussion of High-Lift Aerofoils - An Analysis of Aerodynamic Data on Blowing over Trailing
with Leading-edge Porous Suction. R & M No. 2242 (1946). Edge Flaps for Increasing Lift. C. P. No. 209 (1955).


Profile Shape and Pressure Distribution in Inviscid the profile, the length of this region being a small
Incompressible Flow percentage of the chord;
7.1 General Remarks (C) experimental pressure distributions.
The velocity distribution on the surface of a profile is The velocity or pressure distributions for camber lines
primarily determined by the distribution of curvature. given in Section 7.2 and Chapters 11 and 12 are of type (A);
In inviscid incompressible flow the velocities can theoretic- those for thickness distributions in symmetrical flow
ally be found for an arbitrary contour (see Section 8.2). If (0: = 0) given in Section 7.3 are also of type (A); those for
the flow is not initially regarded as inviscid, the velocity symmetrical profiles at incidence or for cambered profiles
distribution can often be calculated theoretically (see in Chapter 12 are mostly of type (B). For a comparison
Section 9.1) by correcting for viscous effects, although the between theory and experiment see Figure 12.27. Theoreti-
necessary calculations are more lengthy. A calculation is cal pressure distributions on profiles with flaps are much
always possible if the flow has not separated from the more difficult to obtain, because of the occurrence of
profile; it can frequently be carried out even if this require- separation; experimental results, type (C), have usually
ment is not met. been chosen for these. Figures 12.35 and 12.36 compare
Suppose the speed of the free stream is V and its pressure theoretical and experimental pressure distributions on
is poo; let the speed at a point on the profile contour be w profiles with flaps at small and large lift coefficients, with
and the pressure there be p. The pressure coefficient, Cp , is and without separation.
defined as the difference between the pressure on the profile In compressible flow at subsonic speed the pressures
and the free-stream pressure (.dp) divided by the kinetic
pressure q,where q = ie V2; it is given by Bernoulli's increase by a factor v' 1, ,to a first approximation;
equation as they vary more rapidly as the speed of sound is approached,
and if this is locally exceeded significant deviations from
the simple rule are observed (see Section 10.3); the pressure
distribution is also considerably altered, a feature that is
The corresponding relationship for compressible flow is treated in more tletail in Section 10.4. In Chapter 12,
derived in Section 10.2. pressure distributions at these Mach numbers are ex-
Direct measurements of the pressure distribution, made perimental results from'wind tunnels (that is, of type (C)).
by small pressure holes bored in the profile surface, show If the free-stream speed is sufficiently greater than the
that the theoretical distribution is accurate enough for speed of sound then the pressure distributions can again be
practical purposes, provided that the influence of viscosity determined theoretically with good accuracy, except for a
has been allowed for (see Section 9.1). The theoretical small region on the upper side of the profile near the trailing
values for inviscid flow provide a good basis for comparison edge (see Figures 12.48 and 12.49).
of profiles; at small angles of incidence or for small lift
coefficients, they are usually quantitatively satisfactory as
7.2 Camber Line and Velocity Distribution
The pressure distributions given in Chapter 12 can be
divided into three classes: We first consider inviscid incompressible flow. In the
theoretical results of this and the next two sections the
(A) pressure distributions calculated on potential theory
upper and lower signs refer to the upper and lower sides of
for inviscid incompressible flow, which agree approxi-
the profile respectively.
mately with experiment only at small lift coefficients
and for moderately thick profiles;
(B) pressure distributions calculated theoretically, with 7.2.1 Simple Special Cases
an allowance for the effect of viscosity, which agree If the free-stream speed is V then, from Section,
well with experiment except in a region at the rear of we find for the local speed, w:

(a) on the surface of a flat plate at an angle of incidence a, Type 8 1 : Birnbaum-Glauert camber lines.
The special cases (a) to (c) of Section 7.2.1 are known as
V =cosasina V;-=-;
-x- (0 ~ z ~ c); (7.2)
the Birnbaum-Glauert basic distributions. Other camber
lines can be derived from these by linear superposition.
We can easily obtain further special camber lines from the
if the angle of incidence is small, following series (which does not include a term containing
the angle of incidence):
-- (7.3)
V z

where ~=--l. (7.8)
(b) on a circular arc of small camber f, whose contour is c
given by the equation
HELMBOLD and KEUNE have systematically investigated
!!... =
4{ !!.... (1 - ~-)
c c c
(0 ~ z ~ c), (7.4)
such camber lines. With the notation employed here and
with retention of the first three terms only, this camber
line may be written
at the ideal angle of incidence,

- I
10= 1 8 - Vz ( z)
- I-- (7.5)
z( z) ( + z+ (Z)2 )
= 4 -Icc- 1- -!: 1 llC
- 12 -C
V c c c
O~-~l. (7.9)
- c -

(c) on a profile with a point of inflexion, whose contour is

given by the equation From Section 8.2.1 the velocity distribution is given by

V c
-W= 1 8 - Vz ( z)

(where h is assumed small), at the ideal angle of

X (do + d1 : + dl (:)2). (7.10)

z) Vz ( z)

where do = 1 - "4 11'

-W= 1 = j24
= -k- ( 1 - 2- - 1 - - .(7.7)
V 5 c c c c
3 1
d 1 = "211 - "2 l2'

7.2.2 Various Types of Camber Line

Some common camber lines are now described, and, From Section 8.2.5 we obtain for the angle of incidence at
where possible, the corresponding velocity distributions are zero lift, ao, the ideal angle of incidence, a*, and the
given. moment coefficient at 0 L = 0, Omo:
Of the two purely geometrical parameters, maximum
camber (flc) and position of maximum camber (:tlc), the
first is usually regarded as an affine scale-factor. F?r (7.11 )
further parameters, aerodynamic quantities are ge~erally
used: the lift coefficient at the ideal angle of incidence,
Ot-the "design OL" (see Sections 3.1 and; and
the moment coefficient referred to a point fixed with (7.12)
respect to the profile-for example, the aerodynamic
centre (Section 3.1). Other important quantities are the
ideal angle of incidence, a*, and the angle of incidence at (7.13)
which the lift vanishes, ao.
/ w


Type 8 2 : a well-known camber line, that of the four- Here,

figure NACA profiles, which consists of two parabolic arcs e
t = tan
2' 2 (1 + cos rp) = x,
having continuous slope at their join;
2 (1 + cos rpll = Xl (7.16)

= i_I
(2XIe~_ (~)2
) (1 am indebted to Dr. G. JUNGCLAUS for the derivation
of Equations (7.15), (7.18), and (7.4:1).) The velocity
distributions corresponding to positions of maximum
x camber x/Ie = 02, 03, 04:, 05, 06, and 07 are given in
for O;:;! c;:;! 21,
Fignre 12.1 and in Table 11.2; the maximum camber,j, is
(7.14:) equal to 006e. Results for smaller values of the maximum
[(1 _ 2 x ) + 2 x _.x _
y(c) camber can be obtained by affinely reducing the velocitie::;
-= f 1
e e (1 - 21)1 lIe in proportion to the maximum camber. A discontinuity in
curvature exists at the point where the two parabolas join.

Type 8 3 : consists of two cubics, which are joined to-

gether without a discontinuity in curvature,
with Xl = :xtle.
The corresponding velocity distribution is

w f cosa(Sin9'-=-~J)+sina(I-COS9')
V e .
sm 9'
V 1 +
(cos 9'1 - cos 9')2
16 (1 cos 9'1)'
;(7.15) (7.17)

where the positive sign is to be taken for 9'1 ~ 9' ~

(211: - 9'1) and the negative sign for -flJl ~ 9' ~ 9'1, and

kl. k2, and 9' are chosen so that a prescribed value for ot
results and (Om}a = O. Hence, camber lines of this type
have a fixed centre of pressure. The numerical values of
the constants are:

Table 7.1

010 015 020 025


013 0217 0318 (H41

CL/(fJc) 19 14'3 12'5 11
1: 1 /CL 173'3 5262 21-73 10-64
1:2/1:1 7-64 6770 303 1355

The velocity distribution is


where a = k2/kl' and

b = 1 for lPl ~ lP ~ 2Jt - lPb
is XI = Xl (1 - J~). kl (and hence f) is usually chosen
so that a prescribed value of at results. The numerical
b = a for -!pI ~ lP ~ lPl. values are
The abbreviations are defined by Equation (7.16); J* is
given by Ta.ble 7.2

"'I 006 010 020 025

(1~:.')' {G M! p'+p,),,-
%1 ()0()68 01260 02025 0'2900 0'3910
CL*/<J/c ) 26'9 19'6 16" 14-5 113
J'=- kl/CL" 1206 172-l 1\3'2 22'13 1077

The velocity distribution comes from Equation (7.18), if a

~ PI tl ( ~ PI + PI}l is put equal to zero.
- (I-a) [ (1 + tll)1 + 1 + til + Type 8 5 : this has a special analytical representation, and
possesses the property that the pressure distribution is
constant over the whole chord. If the prescribed velocity
+ (: PI + PI + 2P3) tan- l il + distribution is written in the form

1.0 aL*
y-=IT (7.20)

the equation of the camber line is

L* [(1 - x-)
= -a -
4" c
In ( 1 - x-)

+ -xc z]
In -c . (7.21)

Type 8 6 : the pressure distribution is constant up to a

certain point of the chord, x = ac; it decreases linearly
until it becomes zero at a point given by x = be, and it
then remains zero up to the trailing edge [1-345]. The
velocity distribution may be written
Type 8 4 : this is another well-known NACA camber line
o ;;! C ;;! a,
(Figure 12.2). The front part consists of a cubic with a 1.0
-= (7.22)
monotonically increasing radius of curvature; this is v
joined to a straight line, which forms the rear part. The
ordinates are given by the equations x
1 b ;;! - ;;! 1.

The equation of the camber line is

- = -61
kI x I 3
1- -C
for x 1S- -C S- 1. (7.19)

Here, x = Xl is a point lying a little behind the position of

maximum camber, X = XI; the relation between Xl and XI
; ~



g= - b 1 a [al (! lna- ~)
(! ~) 1 lnb-
For the angle of incidence at zero lift, <XQ, the ideal angle of
incidence, a*, and the moment coefficient (referred to the
leading edge) at CL = 0, (Cmoh, there results

b-a 2
1 [1
h = + - - -(I-a)1 In (I-a)-

- ~ (I-b)1 In (I-b)+

1 1
+-(I-b)I--(I-a)1 ] +g.
4 4

The ideal angle of incidence, a*, is given by

Special Case: if we put a. = 1, 'JI = (n + 1), and

m. = ~ (1 + n) ,the separate terms of the equation lead
f n(I _~)
The camber lines for which b = 1 are the most popular at to camber lines identical with those given by KAW ALKI.
the present time; the formulas then simplify; for b = 1, These are characterised by the fact that all derivatives
a = 1, they reduce to those of Type S5. Table 11.2 gives higher than the first vanish at the trailing edge. If we
numerical values for b = 1 and a = 0,01,02, 03, 04, 05, +
write 2x/c = 1 cos p, the velocity distribution becomes
06,07, 08, 09, and 1; Figure 12.2 shows some examples.

Type 87: this camber line has the equation

w c (n
1) 1. 3. 5.... (2n - 1) X
V f (1 -XI)
2. 4. 6. . .. n

. (n - 1) . 2
X [ -smq;>+(n+2)sm q;>-

(n - I)(n - 2) . <.b +
If the terms beyond 'JI = 5 are ignored, the velocity - (n +
2)(n +
3) sm "'t'
distribution is (from Section
(n - I)(n - 2)(n - 3) . 4 ]
+ (n + 2)(n + 3)(n + 4) sm q;> - . .. .

; =1m V: (1 - : ) [co + c
1 (1 - :) + Table 7.3 gives characteristic aerodynamic quantities for
some values of n.

+ CI (1 - :)' + (1 - :)' J;
c3 (7.26)
.- 3
Table 7.3

6 7

where "'lIe 0370 03313 03012 02770 0257

oJ.(f/c) 12-46 12S. 1329 1372 14-15
(C.)./(I/c) _ 1-870 - 1-4106 - 1-423 - 1288 - 1-180
g/(//c) 1-'64 1367 1296 1249 1-212

Figure 12.1 gives the ordinates and velocity distribution!

for n = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.

Type 8 8 : the flat plate with a point of discontinuity. 7.3 Thickness Distribution and Velocity Distribution
The equation of this camber line is
7.3.1 Simple Special Cases

(a) The ellipse of thickness ratio tie is given by

= AXl (1 -..:.)
for ~ X
C -'
~ 1.
~: X =-
+ -e2 cos91 y= ~ sin 91; (7.31)

where Ais a function obi (the position of the discontinuity)
and of the jump in local angle of incidence, 'YJ (flap deflec-
~.. tion). A is given by the velocity distribution is

A= VI + 4X1(I -
2X1(I -
tan2 'YJ
tan 'YJ
- 1
cos a sin 91 + sin a (l-cos91) . (7.32)
(for 1'YJ1 ~ n/2, A ~ 'YJ).
From Equation (8.21) the velocity distribution is
(7.29) VSin 191 + y
(~ cos~

(b) The symmetrical circular arc section of thickness ratio

; = F (A, Xl) [cos a { 1 - ~ (- 91lt + In I:~ +: I+ tie = l' is given by

+ n (1 - Xl) t } + t sin a] ' (7.30) 2y

=_! -1'2 +
2 l'
_1_ (I + 1'2)2_41'2 :J:1I
2 't'

_ 2x , J(7-'3)
where :J:=--I
where 911, t, and t1 have been defined by Equation (7.16). e
t > 0 for the upper side and t < 0 for the lower side; t1 is
always greater than zero. The function F(A, Xl) is given by at IX = 0 it has the velocity distribution

IEquation 7.34,*
For small thickness ratios the circular arcs can be
replaced by parabolic arcs:

(for 'YJ n/2 F = 1). z
= '2 + 2
costp , y= 2t (I-cos 2 tp) . (7.35)

*Equation 7.34

1 21'Z In (I+i)[(I+1'2)1_41'2i+(I-1'2)(I+1'2)1_4T2:J:1l]
n 1 + 1'2 z
(I-:J:) [(1 + 1'2)2 + 4 1'2 + (1-1'2) (I + 1'2)1- 4T2z 2 ]

The velocity distribution can be derived either from 7.3.2 More General Thickness Distributionst
Equation (7.35) or by linearising Equation (7.34); it
has the simple form Type Dl: the NACA standard profile, of which the
ordinates (Table 11.3) are given by

v 1+ 4T[ 1 + (xc -"2
---;- 1) c-x]
In - x - . (7.36) yll) = 5t (0.2969 Vz - 0'1260x - 0'3516x 2 +

Infinitely large velocities are predicted at the leading

+ 02843z3-010l5z&)
and trailing edges when linearised theory is used to
determine the flow over a circular arc section (un-
cambered and at zero incidence); the singularities are
of the form log C, and for practical purposes they
become unimportant at a very small distance from the and the geometrical parameters by
points of infinite velocity.
(c) The contour of the symmetrical Joukowsky profile has -Xtc = 03, III = 0'27, eo = 1'1, er.,= -1'26.
the approximate equation
It has the following velocity distribution when ex = 0:
c e .
x =2 (1 + cos9'). y =2 Sln9' (1- cos 9') ; (7.37)

the velocity distribution is

1Equation 7. 38 1-
when e = 0 this reduces to the velocity distribution for
the fiat plate. Results obtained by using this approxi- ..4- -
1 {a
- -o
1 + Y;; 1- x
-a1ln - - - -
mate equation are in very good agreement with the -n 2Y;; I-yx x
exact values; the velocity distribution shows small
deviations from that calc)llated by means of exact
conformal mapping (see below) if the thickness ratio is - ( I-X) ,
2 az 1 + x In - x - -
too large (tIc> 02); this is primarily because the

(-2I + + I-X)
linearised equation for the body, Equation (7.37), is no
longer in good agreement with the exact equation. - 3aa x x 2 In --x- -
The parametric representation for the shape of the
symmetrical generalised Joukowsky profile (Equations
(1.14) and (1.15 comes from exact conformal trans-
formation: the velocity distribution for zero angle of
1 I
- 4a, ( 3" + 2' x + Xl
+ z3in - x - ,
incidence is

w _ N (~)
-V = 2 sin 9' --;::===~====:::::::::- (7.39)
y (N _1)2 + 4k 2 sinZ9'
t For simplicity c is set equal to unity in this section;
for the meaning of the symbols see Section 1.4.1. x and Xt represent : and ~ respectively.
c c

-Equation 7.38

cos a [ (1 + +) sin 9' -7 sin 29' ] + sin a (1- cos 9') (1- 2 +cos 9' )
VSin Z 9'+ :: (C089'-C0829')2

Type D2: profiles with various positions of maximum The slope is given by
. thickness can be obtained by joining two curves together
(without a discontinuity in curvature); the equation of t 1
such a profile is y' = '2 y;- [1 + 3 (al -1) x + 5 (aa- all x 2
y, = 5 t (ao y;- + a l x + a2x 2 + as x3) 0 ~ x ~ Xtl
+ 7 (as - as) x3 + 9 (a, - as) x'
= 5 t [0'002 + d l (I-x) + d s X (7.42)
+ 11 (as - a,) X5 -13 a5x6] (7.44)
X (1 - X)2 + da (1 - X)3J Xt ~ x ~ 1.

When ex = 0 the velocity distribution is

The slope at the trailing edge, BT, is related to the position
of maximum thickness, Xt, by the equation
224 - 542 Xt + 12 3Xt 2
1 - 0'878xt
+C3x3+C 4z4+C 5 x5)] YI +1 y'2 , (7.45)

The parameters of this thickn~ss distribution are given in

Table 7.4; the coefficients in Equation (7.42) can be where
obtained in terms of the parameters; they are given by

Cs =


eo Xt - -Xt- ,
2as xt 3 = 02 - 0'15 Y2

d s (1 - Xe)2 = 0294 - 2d l (1 - Xt),

If a3, a4, and as are zero then, when the profile is at an

angle of incidence ex,
Ta.ble 7.4

z, = 0'2 0'3 Q-4 0'5 ()O6

" II.
aT =
Wv = Y1 ( (1 + .i. 1I-V;
cos a + y; In
0 0 'L = 14'5812 92034
1 + y'2 n
6'333 4'7696 4'4750
3 ()O2711 8'3625 4'1259 1'9357 ()O8366 0'8843
6 1-1 2-1438 -49516 -2-4616 --3'0964 -2'7063
9 3-3 -697 --8'38 -&90 --8'86 -7'97

Type Da: the symmetrical profile

X [1 + ~ (Y' + 4x(i-xJ In ~ ~~
(0~x~1). (7.43) - ~ (..'+0'" + ""'J] }; (7.46)

where Profiles designated EQH or EOH are composed of three

curves; the rear part is a hyperbola. The formulas are

= VO (1- x) + D (I-x)2 XI ;::;! X ;::;! 1,

. . . (7.51)
Type D4: the symmetrical profile
in which b4 = 0 for EOH profiles.
x (1 - x) . t 1 - 2xt The camber lines with which these thickness distribu-
y(l) =a 1 b Wlth a = - 22; b = 2 ' (7.4:7)
+x Xt Xt tions are usually combined are those of Equation (7.9)'
with Z2 = O.
The position of maximum thickness is variable (it depends
on b), the contour has no point of inflexion, and the slopes
at the leading and trailing edges are finite. When ex = 0 the 7.3.3 In1luence of a Sudden Change in Curvature of the
velocity distribution is Profile Contour

w 1 { 1 a [ I+b
V = VI + y'2 1 +:n; (1 + bX)2 1 + - b- X Engineers and designers often approximate a curve of
high order by simple curves (for example, straight lines or
parabolas); they usually ensure that the change from one
X In(I+b)+(l-2x-bx l )ln x x+ bx ]}.(7.4:8) curve to another occurs so that the function and its first
derivative are continuous, but higher derivatives are
frequently not made continuous. Profiles are occasionally
designed by joining curves together in this manner. For
Finally, we give some other thickness distributions, for example, DOETSCH has investigated a symmetrical circular
which the velocity distributions have been calculated but arc section the front part of which is replaced by a parabola;
for which no simple algebraic formulas exist. the curvature is made continuous at the join, but the third
derivative is not continuous, so that the curvature has a
"kink". The camber line" of the four-figure NAOA profiles
Type D5: a simple approximation for the contour of the provides another example (see Section 7.2.2). It is com-
hyperbola profile (see Section 1.4:.3) is posed of two parabolas; at the join the curvature is not
continuous, so that the curvature has a "jump". The
y(I) = k (1- x) V(l + b) x - bx l . (7.4:9) questions arise, what effects such discontinuities have on
the velocity and pressure distributions, and how the result-
ant changes in these distributions affect the boundary
layer. These questions have been investigated many times
Type D6: profiles designated EO or EQ (R & M No. 4:726, and the answers are now clear. It is shown below that a
No. 4978) are constructed by joining two curves together. jump in the curvature leads to a point of inflexion in the
The front part of the profile is an ellipse and the rear part velocity distribution, the slope at the point of inflexion
is either a cubic (EO) or a quartic (EQ). The formulas for being infinite; and even a kink in the curvature manifests
the two curves are itself in a slight concavity in the pressure distribution.
The latter behaviour has been confirmed both theoretically
and experimentally for the symmetrical circular .arc
y(l) = VAx- Bx2 o ;::;! x ;::;! Xl'
section with a parabolic nose (see Figure 12.3).
(7.50) Let us consider a jump in curvature, at which the radius
= bo + btx+ bzXI + bax3 + b,x' Xl;::;! x ;::;! 1, of curvature changes from Rl to R 2 ; let the x axis lie along
the tangent at the point of discontinuity, and_assume that,
in which b4 = 0 for EO profiles. in the neighbourhood of this point, the contour is given by

Y= 2R
+ a3 z3 + a,x' + .... (x < 0),

Y=-R +aa z3 +a,x'+ .... (x>O).

2 2
I (7.52)

used with caution; this is especially true if, as a result of its
previous development, the boundary layer at the join is
expected to be sensitive to pressure rises.
We must emphasise that the point of inflexion (with
infinite slope) in the velocity distribution occurs only on
the contour itself; at an arbitrarily small distance from the
wall no singularity of this nature exists. To investigate
By an approximate calculation BETZ has been able to show this, BETZ has considered the simple example represented
that the velocity in the neighbourhood of such a point in Figure 7.1. Far away from the singular point the
may be written in the form velocity, V, is parallel to the straight section of the wall; on
the circular arcs of radius +R and -R the velocity is
respectively greater and smaller than V; it is equal to Vat

x = for reasons of symmetry. At a point (x, y) near the

where W 0 is the velocity at x = 0, and F(x) is a regular

function that can be determined only when the exact
shape of the contour is known. A point of inflexion exists
at x = 0, the slope being infinite there. =xln V(a+x)2+ y 2V(s-x)2+ y 2
Special Case: a semi-infinite body with a semi-circular x2 + yi
nose. The equation of the body is S (a _X)I + yl
+ X)2 + y2 +
y = VI- x0 2 for -1 ~
Y= 1 for

~ 0,
0, I (7.54)
- In

+!I (tan-1

s: x _ tan- a!I x_ 2 tan-

1 1 ;).

. . . (7.56)
x being measured from the join; the velocity distribution,
calculated by the method of Section 8.2.2, is the symbols are explained in the figure. The behaviour of
the velocity is shown for various values of the distance
W 3 ,/-- x 1 +YI-x2 from the wall. Although the point of inflexion and the
- = - y l - x2 --In-';''''':---
V 2 n Ixl infinite slope do not appear to be dangerous, since the
for-l ~ x ~ 0,

3 x 1 +YI-x2
=-- In Kli In 2!::..
2 nYl- x2 x (7.55)
s V
for o~x ~ 1,

( sin-1 ~-~)
x 2
for 1 ~ x ~ co.
-1-5 -1 -0,5 05 1
-- x

Figure 12.4 shows that the pressure distribution has a

point of inflexion at x = 0, the slope being infinite there.
Similar results are obtained by exact conformal mapping
of special profiles with a prescribed behaviour of curvature.
Examples are: profiles consisting of three circular arcs;
and profiles consisting of two semi-circles joined by two
parallel straight lines. The latter have been investigated by
SCHMIEDEN; his results are reproduced in Figure 12.5. Fig. 7.1. Behaviour of the velocity
distribution in the neighbourhood of a
The boundary layer often reacts very strongly to sudden discontinuity of curvature according
rises in pressure, and the preceding example suggests that to potential theory (BETZ)
contours formed from a combination of curves should be

slope is finite at an arbitrarily small distance from the KAWALKI, K. H.: Theoretische Untersuchungen von Schnell
wall, the total fluctuation of the velocity in the neighbour- flugprofilen, die aus Ellipsenprofilen entwickelt sind. FB
1224/1 und 2 (1940).
hood of such a point is considerable. It is advisable not to KOCHANOWSKY, W.: Zur Berechnung del' Druckverteilung tiber
expose sensitive boundary layers to such fluctuations. den Umfang beliebig geformter Fitigelschnitte. Jahrb. 1937
dDL I, S. 58.
7.4 Cambered Profiles - Weitere Ergebnisse von Druckverteilungsrechnungen tiber
den Umfang beliebig geformter Fltigelschnitte. Jahrb. 1938
For small camber, camber lines and thickness distribu- dDL I, S. 82.
tions can be additively superimposed: the corresponding KOPPENFELS, W. Y.: Ebene Potentialstromung langs einer
velocity-distributions can then also be additively super- glatten Wand mit stiickweise stetiger Krtimmung. Lufo 17
(1940), S. 189-195.
imposed, to a good approximation. Even if the cambered
LEHlIIANN and F. ZEUNERT: Beitrage zur Profilforschung.
profiles have not been constructed by simple superposition, UM 7603 (1944).
the velocity distributions can still be thus determined LEMME, H. G.: Kraftmessungen und Druckverteilungsmessun.
provided that co-ordinates with the longest chord as gen an einem Rechteckfltigel mit Spalt.Knicknase, Wol
abscissa are used in the calculation (as required in the bungs. und Spreizklappe odcr Rollklappe. FB 1676/2 (1943).
theoretical treatment in Section 8.2.3). Theoretical - Kraftmessungen t1nd Druckverteilungsmessungen an einem
Rechteckfltigel mit Doppel.Knicknase. FB 1676/3 (1944).
pressure distributions on some profiles, with allowance for PANKHURST, R. C. and H. B. SQUIRE: Calculated Pressure
viscous effects, are given in Figures 12.7 ff, for various lift Distributions for the RAE 100-104 Aerofoil Sections.
coefficients; these distributions have been calculated by C.P. 80 (1950).
the method described in Section 9.1. In Section 12.4 PATTERSON, E. W. and A. L. BRASLOW: Ordinates and Theoreti
experimental pressure distributions are reproduced, in cal PressureDistribution Data for NACA 6 and 6ASeries
Airfoil Sections with Thicknesses from 2 to 21 and from 2 to
which the influence of various arrangements of flaps can be 15 per cent Chord, Respectively. NACA TX 4322 (1958).
examined. The regions of separated flow are prominent; PIERCY, N. A. V., R. W. PIPER and L. G. WHITEHEAD: The
they are recognisable by the pressure's becoming suddenly New Transformed Wing Sections. Aircraft Engineering 10
constant. (1938), p. 339.
PIPER, R. W.: Extensions of the New Family of Wing Profiles.
Phil. Mag. Ser. 7 (1937), p. 1114.
7.5 References PINKERTON, R. M.: Calculated and Measured Pressure Distribu
.ALLEN, H. J.: Calculation of the Chordwise Load Distribution tions over the Midspan flection of the NACA 4412 Airfoil.
over Airfoil Sections with Plain, Split or Serially Hinged NACA Rep. No. 563 (1936).
Trailing Edge Flaps. NACA Rep. 634 !1938). - The Variation with Reynolds Number of Pressure Distribu
BETZ, A.: Verlauf der Stromungsgeschwindigkeit in der Nach tion over an Airfoil Section. NACA Rep. No. 613 (1937).
barschaft einer Wand im Fall einer unstetigen Kriimmungs- RIEGELS, F. and J. LIESE: Druckverteilungskatalog. FB 1884
anderung. Lufo 19 (1942), S. 129-131. (1944).
DOETSCH, H. and A. PASCHKE: Druckverteilungsmes8ungen RIEGELS, F.: Umstromungsproblem bei inkompressiblen
und Wagungen an den Prqfilen NACA 23009, 23012 und Potentialstromungen I, II. Ing. Arch. 16 (1948), S. 373, 17
23018 ohne und mit Spreizklappe im 5 X 7 mWindkanaI (1949), S. 94 und Berichtigung 18 (1950), S. 321.
der DVL. FB 1095 (1939). ROSSNER, G.: nber eine Klasse von theoretischen Profilen mit
DOETSCH, H.: Untersuchungen an einigen Profilen mit ge vier frei wahlbaren geOlpetrischen Parametern. Jahrb. 1942
ringem Widerstand im Bereich kleiner ca-Werte. Jahrb. 1940 dDL I, S. 142.
dDL I, S. 54-57. SCHLICHTING, H. and A. ULRICH: Zur Berechnung des Urn
FI;UGGELoTZ, J. and F. KEUNE: Druckverteilungen an Kar- schlages laminar/turbulent. Jahrb. 1942 dDL I, S. 8-35.
man-TrefFtz-Profilen bei hohen Auftriebsziffem. Jahrb. 1938 SCHMIDT, W.: Entwurf, Auftrieb, Moment und Druckverteilung
dDL I, S. 39. eines JoukowskyS.Profiles. Jahrb. 1939 dDL I, S. 50-54.
FLUGGELoTZ, J. and I. GINZEL: Die ebene Stromung um ein SCHlIfIEDEN, S.: Die konforme Abbildullg von Tragfliigeln mit
geknicktes Profil mit Spalt. Jahrb. 1939 dDL, I S. 55/66. Kriimmungssingularitaten. Jahrb. 194:2 dDL I, S. 106-10.
GLAUERT, H.: A Theory of Thin Aerofoils. R & M No. 910 SCHRENK, 0.: Druck- und Geschwindigkeitsverteilung langs der
(1924). Fltigeltiefe fiir verschiedene Flugzustande. Ringbuch der
- Theoretical Relationships for an Aerofoil with Hinged Flap. Luftfahrttechnik, I A 11 (1938).
R & M No. 1095 (1927). - and A. W ALZ : Theoretische Verfahren zur Berechnung
HARRIS, A. TH. and G. J. LOWRY: Pressure Distribution over von Druck und Geschwindigkeitsverteilungen. Jahrb. 1939
an NACA 23012 Airfoil with a Fixed Slot and a Slotted Flap. dDL I, S. 29. .
NACA Rep. 732 (1942). TRwAlTES, B.: A Method of Aerofoil Design. I, II R & M No.
HELMBOLD, H. B. and F. KEUNE: Beitrage zur Profilforschung 2166 und 2167 (1945).
II, III. Lufo 20 (1943), S. 82. a
- A New Family of Low Drag Wings with Improved L-ranges.
JACOBS, E. N.: Preliminary Report on Laminar Flow Airfoils R & M No. 2292 (1945).
and New Methods Adopted for Airfoil and Boundary Layer W ALZ, A.: t1>ertragung gemessener Druckverteilungen auf be
Investigation. NACAWR 345 (1939). liebige Anstellwinkel. Lufo 16 (1939), S. 121-128.
- N ..EASTlIIAN and R. M. PINKERTON; Pressure Distribution - Potentialtheoretisch gerechnete Druckverteilungen diinner
over a Symmetrical Airfoil Section with Trailing Edge Flap. symmetrischer Profile mit heruntergeklappter Nase und Auf
NACA Rep. 360 (1930). triebsklappe. FB 1170 (1940).
WANNER, A. and P. KRETZ: Druckverteilungs. und Profil.
widel'8tandsmessungen im Flug an den Profilen NACA NACA 23012 ExternalAirfoil Flap. NACA Rep. No. 614
23012 und Go 549. Jahrb. 1941 dDL I, S. 111-119.
WENZlNGER, C. J.: Pressure Distribution over an Airfoil Sec.
- and B. J. DELANO: Pressure Distribution over an NACA
tion with a Flap and Tab. NACA Rep. No. 574 (1936). 23012 Airfoil with a Slotted and a Plain Flap. NACA Rep.
No. 633 (1938).
- Pressure Distribution over an NACA 23012 Airfoil with an




Numerical Methods The former method has remained limited to special
profile families. The method of TREFFTZ for the construc-
8.1 The Flow Field tion of Joukowsky profiles has become well-known; in an
Two-dimensional incompressible flow about a profile can extension of this RUDEN describes a graphical procedure
be treated as potential flow throughout most of the field; (later simplified by PERES) for the determination of the
the only exceptions are small regions very close to the velocity vector at an arbitrary point, P, of the flow field.
profile in which viscous effects dominate (see Section 9.2). The construction requires no auxiliary lines, the magnitude
It is therefore possible to determine most of the flow field of the velocity being determined from the following quan-
theoretically, so that experiments are necessary only in tities (the notation is that of Figure 1.15): the distance
special cases (for example, when the effect of large regions PO of P, the point being considered, from 0, the origin;
of separated flow is to be investigated). If we continue to the distance PM between P and M, the centre of the
ignore changes in density, the inviscid flow about a profile transformed circle; the distance P N between P and N, the
at normal speeds (those compared with which the speed singular point near the nose; and the distance PS between
of sound, a, is very large) is governed by the equations of P and S, the front stagnation point on the transformed
continuity circle. We find that

divw = 0, (8.1) (PO)S. (PS)

v (PM)2. (PN)
and irrotationality
The direction of this velocity makes an angle {} with the
free-stream direction, where
curlw = O. (8.2)
{} = <;. N P S + 2 <;. MPO. (8.6)
A velocity potential, (/J, and a stream function, ':1', can be
introduced by means of the equations
SCHRENK and WALZ have extended the graphical method of
RUDEN to Karman-Trefftz and Betz-Keune profiles; the
effect of a change in.profile shape can be found from their
o(/J 0':1' o(/J 0':1' results. The advantage of all these methods is that they
ox - oy - --=--- ='10, (8.3)
s' oy ox y can be used to determine the whole flow field, including the
immediate neighbourhood of the profile.
If we are interested only in the flow at some distance
from the profile we can obtain information much more
where '10:1: and 'lOy are the components ofw. It follows that quickly by placing sources, sinks, and vortices along the
both (/J and ':1' satisfy Laplace's equ,ation: chord, and determining the flow field from these singu-
larities. At very large distances isolated singularities
V2(/J = 0; V2':1' = o. (8.4) usually suffice; at distances of from a quarter or a half of
. the profile chord to about four times the profile chord, it is
more accurate to place suitable distribution!l of sources,
This differential equation has been treated by the most sinks, and vortices along the chord. For profiles of zero
diverse mathematical methods. If an accurate knowledge thickness vortex distributions alone are sufficient. WEINIG
of the flow in the immediate neighbourhood of the profile has calculated the fields of the vortex distributions for the
is required, the method of conformal transformation is the flat plate at incidence, for profiles whose camber line is a
most appropriate one. The flow at larger distances is more circular are, and for profiles whose camber line has a point
easily determined if the profile is replaced by source and +
of inflexion. The theory uses the function log ('10:1: i'lOy) =
vortex distributions, or simply by isolated singularities log '10 - iv: for profiles with small camber this has the
(sources and sinks, and vortices). advantage that both log '10 and)l (the angle made by the

free-stream direction with the tangent to the profile) are Methods involving the use of singularities are simple, but
usually small, so that log w = log (1 Llw) ~ Llw gives + unfortunately they do not give the velocity distribution on
the disturbance velocity directly; here, the disturbance an arbitrary profile to the required accuracy. BIRNBAUM
velocity is the deviation from the free-stream velocity and GLAUERT were able to solve this problem only for the
divided by the magnitude of this velocity. KEUNE (1938) special case of a "thin" profile: lat!lr, RIEGELS gave a
has coJilstructed similar fields, in which, as usual, the suitable solution for profiles of finite thickness; the results
complex velocity (wz + iwy) is used. of this extended theory are presented in Section 8.2.
For profiles of finite thickness PISTOLESI and KEUNE
have developed simple methods of calculation that use
source and sink distributions in addition to vortex dis- 8.2 Calculation of the Pressure Distribution for a
tributions. KEUNE'S method involves the construction of Prescribed Shape of Profilet
networks representing the flow fields of certain hasic
distributions (as in the method for thin profiles); these are 8.2.1 Velocity Distribution on a Thin Profile; Vortex
immediately applicable to other cases. PISTOLESI chooses Distribution
the same form for both the vortex distribution and the Vortex Distribution on a Straight Line of Length c
source and sink distribution:
Suppose vortices are distributed along the x axis from
x = 0 to x = c. This vortex distribution, rex), induces

= V ( ao cos "2 + 1a" sin n8

8 velocities, Wy, normal to the x axis; if Wy is positive when
Q) )

, c-x = - cos 8; its direction is upwards, then

= _1_
J -.:r,--(x_')_ ax'.

He considers a combination of the two distributions,

When the normal velocity is prescribed this is an integral
I' iq; by using complex variable notation for the velocity
equation for the circulation rex). If in place of x we
components, he arrives at the simple result
introduce a parametric angle, rp, by the relation

2w.. sin 8 1 c
V = -aocosh82-cos81 + x = "2 (1 + cosrp) , (8.12)

the required vortex,distribution can be shown to be


- L (a" sin n81 + b" cos n(1) . ~I, (8.8)


2 w,.
- --a
V -
( 1-
cosh e
sinh e 2
cos 8 1
+ - cot ~) drp'; (8.13)

sinel the second term in the brackets ensures that at x = c (that

is, at rp = 0) the Kutta condition is satisfied, so that
+ bo cosh e 2- cos 8 1
I' = 0. there. Corresponding solutions in x have also been
given. If the Kutta condition is not satisfied (that is, if
- L (a" cos ne1 - b.. sin nell . ~I. (8.9) rex) tends to infinity both when x approaches c as well as
when x approaches 0) then
e1 and e2 can be determined from d1 and d2, where d1 and
de are respectively the distances of P, the point being
considered, from L (leading edge) and T (trailing edge),
the end points of the line of singularities that replaces the I' (x) = -
f c
w (x') Ilx' (c-x')
~ ~
ax'; (8.14)
profile; the relations are o

1\. as - d l = 2c cos e l , aa + d l = 2c cosh8:a. (8.10) t "The second main problem of profile theory. "


From this, with the help of Equation (8.13), we can derive

if the vortex strength vanishes at x = c, we have the distribution of circulation along an arbitrarily cambered

-J V-
y(x) = - -
x' dx'
- - , --,-, (8.15) .
c-x x-x
Yc =_ ~ _1_
c sm IP 2 :It
dy(c) (cot IP' -IP -
d IP' 2
o o

which corresponds to Equation (8.13). IP') dIP' (8.20)

- cot"2 Flat and Cambered Plates (Camber Lines)

We can obtain the flow past camber lines (bodies of No assumption at all about the vortex strength at the
zero thickness) in a simple way by superimposing a parallel leading edge has been made in the derivation of this
flow (of speed V) on the flow produced by a vortex equation. In general, infinitely large velocities occur at the
distribution. The vortices are distributed along a straight leading edge; by superimposing a term containing angle of
line having the direction of the parallel flow; but, if we incidence (see Equation (8.18 it is always possible to make
suppose that the parallel flow makes a small angle a with the vortex strength zero at the leading edge; the angle of
the x axis, it is sufficiently accurate to regard the vortices incidence necessary to do this is called the "ideal" angle
as distribute.d along this axis. Suppose that the chord lies of incidence (see Section 3.1).
along the x axis, and that Wy is the normal component of Because the camber has been assumed small the
the velocity induced on the x axis by the vortex distribu- corresponding velocity distribution along the chord can be
tion. The surface boundary condition may be written obtained by linear superposition; it is

W, + V sin a dy(c)
(8.16) w = V Yj /2 yc/ 2 ; (8.21)
Veosa = d;-
the upper and lower signs refer respectively to the upper
If a is small this may be linearised to and lower sides of the plate.

W dy(c)
-'+a=~-, (8.17}
V dx 8.2.2 Velocity Distribution on a Symmetrical Profile;
Source Distribution and Additional Vortex
where y(C) denotes the ordinate of the plate at station x. Distribution
For the flat plate that coincides with the part of the x axis Consider a syinmetrical profile whose contour, y = y(t)(x),
-.1 lying between x = 0 and x = c, dx = 0, so that Wy = makes a small angl~ almost everywhere with the x axis.
l Suppose the flow is symmetrical, with a free-stream speed
-a V; from this, with the help of Equation (8.13), we of V cos a. The profile can be replaced by a distribution of
\ obtain the familiar expression for the distribution of sources along the x axis, q,(x), where
Ii circulation along a flat plate,
1 - coslP IP
Yj = 2 Va. = 2 Va tan -2 = q, (x) = 2 V cos a dx ; (8.22)

- SllllP

V c-x
-x- (8.18) this source distribution induces a velocity WZI along the x
axis, where

From Equations (8.17) and (8.12) we find that, for plates c

of small camber at zero incidence, 1
Wz,= - - 2
f -q,(x') ,
, - - dx. (8.23)
:It x-x
W = V !:y(C) = V dy(c) dIP
, 'dx dIP dx
The approximation is not satisfactory if the angle between
2Y 1 dy(c) the x axis and the tangent _to the profile is large; in
= - -c- sin IP ---a:;p particular, it breaks down at the nose of the profile. We

can circumvent this difficulty by resolving along the body

contour the sum of the free-stream velocity and the yv = - -2 Vaina ~-x
disturbance velocity in the x direction; we find that n x

1 dyl/) y(I) dx'
10 = (V cos a +10%,) .1 . (8.24) (8.25)
dx' - 2x'(c - x') x' - x .
Y1 + (dy/dx)2 o

Equations (8.18), (8.22), and (8.25) give the source and

It has been proved that the velocity distribution thus vortex distributions that replace a symmetrical profile at
obtained agrees with that obtainEld by exact conformal an angle of incidence a. The contributions to the velocity
mapping, when the latter is expanded in powers of a from these distributions are as follows:
thickness parameter and the linear terms only are retained
(RIEGELS). W%t = (Yt/2); W%B from Equation (8.23);
If the flow is not symmetrical (a =1= 0) further considera- Wzv = (Yv/2). (8.26)
tion is necessary, since a free-stream velocity component
V sin a appears in the boundary conditions. The surface If the velocity on the x axis is resolved along the profile
boundary condition requires that the flow direction at contour and the tangential component of the free-stream
each point of the profile coincide with the slope of the velocity is added to the above contributions, there results
contour, and so we must distribute additional singularities for the velocity:
along the x axis, in order to induce an additional down-
wash, .:1wl/; this downwash must compound with the IEquation 8.271.
tangential velocity from the vortex distribution (yt) of the
flat plate to give a resultant velocity having the direction In terms of q; this equation is
of the profile contour. Here it must be remembered that
the downwash induced by the vortex distribution of the IEquation 8.27al
flat plate is constant only along the x axis, and that its
magnitude changes as the distance, y, from the x axis
increases. The conditions can be fulfilled by means of an 8.2.3 Velocity Distribution on an Unsymmetrical Profile
additional vortex distribution along the x axis, Yv, which or Finite Thickness and Small Camber
induces a correction velocity of just the right amount; Yv The technique that we used in the previous section for
is given by the determination of the influence of angle of incidence can

- Equation 8.27

=J1+ 1 [
[dy(t)] 2 cos a
{ 1
1- ~
f c
ay(I) _dx_'_}
dx' x' - x
dx 0

sin a V_c-_x_ {I _~fC(_dY_(') __Y:--(I}_) (8.27)

x n ax' 2x'(c - x')

-Equation 8.27a


1 . 2 1
[ cosa { sin q; - -c -
q;' - q;

+ 2
sin a (l-cosq;) { 1 - - ; - -
c Sin q; 2n
f (--+-.


q;' SIn q;'




i obviously be applied to bodies whose mean line is not show that, if b. = 0, the usual theory of thin profiles
straight. If, however, we consider only profiles with small results: using Equation (8.30) with Equation (8.29) we
find that, for small ~;,
camber (in practice, the camber of most profiles is small),
the contribution of the additional term proportional to
sin ex can be neglected. Unsymmetrical body shapes
y = y(x) (more exactly: y = yu(x) for the upper surface,
and y = yz(x) for the lower surface) can be regarded as w
-V = I +
L va.
cosvrp-I rp
+atan- , (8.31)
having been formed by a superposition of symmetrical sinrp 2
profile shapes y(t) on cambered plates y(c) :
this being the expression familiar from the theory of thin
y = y(c) y(t) = yu + yz
"'--_"'-- yu - yz profiles (see DURAND II, p. 41). The term that is singular at
2 2 the leading edge can be written separately if we split the
or, in terms of rp, series up into its even and odd terms; we find that
'y(rp) + y(-rp) + y(rp) - y(-rp)
y ()
rp = 2 2 w .. cos 2vrp-l
1+ L2va2.
In the calculation of the corresponding velocity contribu-
tions along the x axis a contribution due to the camber, cos (2v -I)rp - cosrp
+ L1

Wxc = !yc, where Yc is given by Equation (8.20), must (2v- 1) a2,_1

be added to those listed in Equation (8.26). It is now
possible to write down an equation corresponding to
+ (a-a)tan~, (8.32)
Equation (8.28), in which both y(t) and the ordinate, y, of
the cambered, thick profile appear:

!Equation 8.29!- where ex*, the ideal angle of incidence, is given by

8.2.4 Simpler Formulas for Practical Calculation

In the further development of these fundamental parts
a* = .....Y' (2v -1) ~,-l.

of the theory it is convenient to write y as a Fourier series:

For bodies of finite thickness (b. "# 0) Equations (8.30)
and (8.29), after some manipulation, lead to
Cr2 = ; (a. cos vrp + b. sin vrp). (8.30)
The cosine series represents the camber distribution, and IEquation 8.34!"
the sine series the thickness distribution. We can easily

-Equation 8.29

-- Equation 8.34

w { cos a (sinrp + L va. cos vrp + LV b. sin vrp - L va.) + sin a (1- cosrp) (1 + L {Jp cos p,rp)}
_ _ _ _ _ _ _~l____~===l~=;~7===~l===;~==~===7--~--~o-----
Vsin2rp + (L v b, cos vrp - L va. sin Vrp)2

where {Jo =f vb"1


For an exact calculation from this equation the contour distribution (the difference between the velocities
must be given in the form of a Fourier series. This can be 1.Ovl + y'2 on the upper and lower sides of the axis) is
avoided by using a suitable approximate procedure: if we
are given the ordinates at certain fixed values of x we can
replace the Fourier series by a finite series whose terms F (q;) F (2n-q;) }
consist of products of the ordinates with certain fixed y(q;)=V { sinq; - sin (2n-q;)
coefficients; the fixed values of x are given by t

F(q;) + F. (2n-q;)
nn) .
="21 ( 1 + cos 11 (8.35)

The velocity distribution is

1.0 (Xn) 1 [0 cos a D sin a]; (8.36)

y (q;) = ~
{cosa [i:.
vay(cos vq; -1)J +
-V = ye" + (dy/dqJ)2
N-l N-l
0= la,,1 + L A_x2y",IJl L 8",,, x2Ym(c) ,
... -1 111_1

An integration along the chord gives the force normal to
D= Ib,,1 + L B_ x 2Ym(C). the free-stream direction:

c n
The upper and lower signs refer to the upper and lower sides
of the profile respectively. ~: denotes the slope of the profile
L = (! V I y(x)dx = V I y (q;) sinq;dq;;
o o
with respect to the parametric angle; we can easily obtain
this by plotting y against q; or it is important only near
the nose. 2N is the total number of fixed points at which its coefficient is
the ordinates Ym (on the suction side) and Y2N-m (on the
pressure side) are prescribed; Ym(t) and Ym(C) are given by

an, Cn, A mn , 8 mn , and Bmn are fixed coefficients, which

can be tabulated for arbitrary values of N; they are given The following formulas are obtained by the use of an
in Table 11.8 for N = 12. If we wish to shorten the approximate procedure (TRUCKENBRODT): the lift-curve
labour of calculation, we can calculate the values at the slope is given by
points n = 2, 4, 6, .... and introduce the intennediate

+- f
points (those in the series n = 1, 3, 5, ... ) after, ifnecessary. n
dOL ( 2 y(I) (q;) )
- =2n 1 -.-dq;
da. n SInq;
8.2.5 Forces and Moments
To determine the force and moment exerted on the body
we require the vortex distribution along the x axis in
Fourier form. Let the numerator of the right-hand side of
Equation (8.34) be denoted by F(q;); then the vortex
N-l :\
t For practical reasons x and y are here referred to a. chord of = 2n (
1 + ~A",X2Ym(t); (8.39)
unity (c = 1).

the angle of incidence at zero lift by 2V

where q (q: = - - .-
L'" 1
vb. cos l'q:>;

CXO = - -
f" y(c)(q:
- . - - dq:>=
SIn q:>
va. the positive sense of the moment is clockwise, if the flow is
assumed to come from the left; the coefficient is
=L B". X2Ym(C); (8.40) (Cm)=~=
(! I

and, from the theory of thin profiles

angle of incidence by
(y(t) = 0), the ideal
~ [-a 1 + 2..tva.-a( 1 + 2b 1 + 2~ b 2. ) } (8.43)

a* = -
- -.-
y(C) (q: dq:> d~~:h can be written in the form

ao N-l
= L (2 v -1) a~._l = L E"..X2Ym(C); (8.41)
1 (
1 1 d(Cm),
--= --
dOL 4
1 + -n2 I+2cosq:>-2cos2q:>
. y(t)(q:dq:>

the corresponding lift coefficient is

CL*= 2n(a* - CXO) =4f y(.C)(q:>_) dm 2
sm q:>
'" N-l

! = -4n L
pat. = IF". X2Ym(c).

! The moment at zero lift is

When calculating the moment we must remember that
the source distribution, as well as the vortex distribution,
makes a contribution. If we refer the moment to the point " 2cosq:>-cos2q:> n '"

x = 0, then "the contribution from the source distribution
has the value
Cmo= -
'y(cf (q: dq:> =- L

LI(Mh = (! V sin a fq
(x) x dx; =
D". X2Ym(c). (8.45)

so that, for the total moment referred to the point x = 0, Numerical values of Am, B m, etc are given in Table 11.7.
! we have

(Mh =- (! V f[
y(x) - aq(x) ]x dx 8.3 Calculation of the Profile Shape for a Prescribed
Velocity Distributiont

=- (! V ~ [f" y (q: (1 + cosq: sinq:> dq:> -

The problem described in the title has been solved
approximately by RIEGELS (1943) on the same basis as in
the preceding sections: by use of the method of singularities.
,. The process is based on relations that are the converse of
.those derived in the previous section. A convenient
- a fq(q:Cosq:>sinq:>dq:>].
t "The first main problem of profile theory. "


approximate method has been given by TRUCKENBRODT. symmetrical profile, y(t), at zero incidence, the direction of
We shall describe only the results necessary for practical its chord coinciding with the free-stream direction. Such a
application. velocity distribution can be written W = V W2, where +
W2 denotes the disturbance velocity associated with the
thickness distribution. A stagnation point occurs at the
8.3.1 Thin Profiles leading edge of the profile (that is, W must vanish there).
Suppose the velocities on the upper and lower sides of the We can think of the distribution of W2 as induced by a
chord are different from one another at each point, but source distribution assumed to lie along the chord; since
that they satisfy the relation W = V WI, where the the normal velocity on the surface of the profile must be
upper and lower signs refer to the upper and lower sides zero, E,quation (8.24) represents an integul equation for
respectively; this corresponds to the camber line of a the slope of the upper side.
profile at a certain angle of incidence, a. For the flow to ThiS equation becomes
leave the trailing edge smoothly WI must vanish there. We
can regard the distribution of WI as induced by a vortex
distribution assumed to lie along the chord. From the
condition that the normal velocity vanish on the camber
dr' ~-~j[; Vl+(dt7-}
line we obtain the following formula for the slope of the
camber line, dx' by using Equations (8.11), (8.17), and
V x' (c-x')

By an approximate procedure the solution can be obtained

= a _ 2.
WI (x')
as a finite series (if we approximate the distribution of w
by a finite series). If yet) is written in the form
here, y(e) denotes the ordinate of the camber line, and a the y') = -
L 1
b. sin vcp, (8.51)
angle of incidence (both being measured from the chord).
Let gee) denote the prescribed velocity distribution, so that
this ensures that the profile is closed at both the leading
g(e)=V= V-I; (w) (8.47)
(cp = 31:) and trailing (cp = 0) edges. After some manipula-
tion we obtain

_, '1 dy(t) N-l

if gm represents the value of g at the point Xm, then the Y.. = - - d =~a".J".. (8.52)
local angle of incidence oi the camber line, a(e), is given by c ,cp ". ~l
the following finite series:
The quantity 1m is the value off, the velocity function, at
the point x = xm; I is given by
a(e) = ~ d"p". + dN lim (g sin cp) ; (8.48)
", .. 1 9''''''
f=~; -1, where ~= JI + (~~r (8.53)
the ordinate of the camber line at the point Xn is

The factor ~ is important only at points of large curvature

N-l (at the profile nose); elsewhere it is negligible.
Yn (c)
~ d".,.g". + dN .. lim (g sin cp).
= "..1 (8.49) For the pth stage of the approximate procedure w~ have

I ( = ~ (f I (D)+ ~ 1. (8.54)
'" '" '"(( -

The fixed coefficients dm and dmn are given in Table 1l.9a.

8.3.2 Symmetrical Profile at Zero Incidence

where ~".(( =
V (-".

1 +

Y". a".
(f>-I) )2

Suppose the velocities on the upper and lower sides of

the chord are the same at each point; this corresponds to a and I".(D) = (;)".-1.

To convert the velocity on the surface to that in the

am and am'll are constants; they are given in Table 11.9b
for N = 12. In the execution of the iterative procedure it direction of the chord we must multiply the former by a
is an advantage if amn vanishes whenever (m - n) is even. factor '" where ,,= vI + (dy/dx)2. The factor is of
To calculate the zero approximation, we put "m(O) = 1, so importance only at points where the profile curvature is
that f m can be immediately obtained from the prescribed large; it is the thickness distribution that produces such
velocity distribution. The values are then inserted into points, and hence the influence of the camber line can be
Equation (8.52), and the profile slope, fin'(O), is determined neglected at such points, so that y may be replaced by y(t).
at the points n = 1, 3, .... With the help of Equations With this simplification the thickness distribution can be
(8.54) and (8.53) the values offm(i) for the same points are calculated immediately, if the velocity distribution in
easily calculated, and these are inserted into Equation +
Section 8.3.2, w, is put equal to !(wu wz) ;fis then given
(8.52); this gives the first approximation, fin' (1) , at the by
points n = 2,4, .... The succeeding approximations are
obtained similarly. In order that the approximation should
converge rapidly, it is advisable to calculate values at
I =!!.... Wu + WI _ 1.
2 V
the leading edge (YN) and at the trailing edge (yo). Once
the behaviour of fi'(p) is known the desired profile
ordinates can be obtained by an integration with respect The iteration procedure described in Section 8.3.2 gives
the profile slope as a function of p; the ordinates fi(t) of the
In addition to this iterative solution we can also derive a thickness distribution are then obtained by integration.
We suppose first that W3, which depends only on the thick-

solution from the Fourier representation, which allows an
immediate calculation of the profile ordinates; we obtain ness distribution, is known; the shape of the camber line
and the local angle of incidence can then be calculated as
described in Section 8.3.1. There the required velocity
y(l) 1 f '.,
-4- t (p ) sm p In 1
- e= n - C O S p-p
( ')
1 - cos (p + p') ,
dp. (8.55)
distribution is denoted by Wi; for Wi we must now write

For numerical evaluation this solution can be replaced by

t the following finite series:

I1 (8.56)
so that Equation (8.47) becomes

" Wu - WI (8.60)
9 = - - - - +Llg,
I. 2 V
! TRUCKENBRODT has given the coefficients bmn for N = 12.

Llg=-a,,-. (8.61)
8.3.3 Unsymmetrical Profile at Incidence
Suppose the velocities on the upper and lower sides of the We first put Llg = 0; then, carrying out the calculatioI
chord are different at each point; we can then write described in Section 8.3.1, we find that



The additional velocity component aW3 arises if the body

lim (g sin p) = [Wu ;- WI \ ! ddy(t) \.] _ ; (8.62
~" c P ~-"
of finite thickness is at an angle of incidence a. If the
velocity distribution on the upper surface is denoted by here, the factor " is taken from the calculation for th
Wu and that on the lower surface by Wz, then thickness distribution. From Equations (8.48) and (8.49
we can obtain the local angle of incidence, ale), and th
ordinates, y(e), of the camber line. The previously neglecte.
velocity component W3 is determined by using Equatio
WI + aWa = -Wu-WI
2 . (8.58) (8.27); TRUCKENBRODT has shown that the influence (

this term, which is produced by the incidence of the thick- into a circle. Almost all the authors do the second stage by
ness distribution, can be considered simply as an additional an iterative procedure, in which the imaginary part of an
change in the camber line; the corresponding change in the analytic function is determined from a knowledge of the
local angle of incidence is found to be real part. Both MULLER and VON KARMAN and TREFFTZ
use the convenient method of harmonic analysis for this;

Lfa = y(t) cp)

-a lim ( - tan -2 =
[2 dy(t)]
a - -d . (8.63)
the reader is referred to DURAND for a description of the
_" c c cp '1'=,.
and GARRICK determine the imaginary part, without
The total local angle of incidence, a, obtained from the sum using harmonic analysis, by direct evaluation of the
a = ale) +
Lfa, is Poisson integral

a = [1 -2 -
(8.64) -
e (cp) = - 2x
1 f
-, -,-
cp - cp -,
'P (cp ) cot - 2 - - dcp . (8.69)
c dcp '1'=,. o

We find that the change in the ordinates of the camber line Here e = p - 8; it is the angular difference between the
IS vectors of two points connected by the mapping function,
one on the approximately circular figure (C', with angular
Lfy(e) = -a(1 - cos cp) ( Jf-- + [
dy(t)] ); coordinate 8), and one on the circle (C, with angular
smcp dcp '1'=" coordinate p); this is illustrated in Figure 8.1. C' and
log WI = 'P are known functions of the angle 8, since C'
is the distance from the point chosen as centre of the
and, at the points n = P.. N, we have circle to the point on the approximately circular figure,
and so C' can be obtained graphically. If we write p' ~ 8
and use 'P(8) as the distribution function in Equation
(8.69), we can find a first approximation, e(l); from this we
obtain an improved value of p, p(l) = 8 e(l); e(2) is +
where the ,constants, Pn. and qn, have been calculated for formed from 'P(p(l) in the same way, and an iteration
N = 12, and are'given in Table 11.9c. The three parts, procedure carried out until successive approximations
y(t), y(e), and Lfy(e), must be combined to give the required cease to differ significantly.
ordinates: The idea sketched here has been used by the authors as a
method of calculation. In an extension by WALZ it is made
y = y(t) y(c) LJy(c). (8.67) the basis of a graphical procedure, by which even irregular
contours (for example, profiles with flaps and dead-water
regions) can be mapped into a circle; the graphical aids
8.4 Remarks on the Rigorous Methods of Conformal are used mainly in the construction of the approximately
Mapping circular figure and in the evaluation of the Poisson integral.
8.4.1 Older Solutions of the Second Main Prohlem
Mathematical methods for the conformal mapping of
, ~

the exterior of a given profile (lying in the z plane) into the ,- ...
exterior of the unit circle (lying in the Cplane) are based on ./

'the mapping function I

, I



("Riemann's Mapping Theorem"). In the familiar pro-

DORF, and THEODORSEN, the given profile is mapped into /
an ap'proximately circular figure by using a known
mapping function (for example, that of the Joukowsky
transformation or that of the Karman-Trefftz tranSforma-
--- -'
tion); this figure is then transformed by another procedure Fig. 8.1. Mapping the approximately circular ftgure Into the circle (C)

BETZ and KEUXE treat the first problem with the help of a Here, (jim = n;;(m = 0, 1, ... , 2N); amn and pmn are
network based on the source-sink flow field; the second
problem is solved with the aid of a suitably numbered constants that can be calculated once and for all,
network. For normal profiles the iteration converges
rapidly, and only a few steps are necessaryt. In the
a",.. = 1 1 - (_1)"'+" X
determination of the velocity distribution the derivative of
the mapping function is required; this can be obtained in
p",,. = I 4N
terms of distances between certain points, as described in n (m+n) n (m-n) )
Section 8.1. X ( cot 2N cot 2N ; (8.72)
We end this brief description of other procedures that
use potential theory by referring to some later work.
RINGLEB and ROSSXER have been able to represent more 2N is the number of values of cpo
general types of profiles by a combination of known WITTICH realises that, with the help of this representa-
mapping functions; the significance of the methods used tion, the function that maps the profile into the circle can
can be easily understood intuitively. THEODORSEN, be obtained by iteration from a simple initial approxima-
GOLDSTEIN, LIGHTHILL, THWAITES, and others have tion, and that an intermediate mapping into an approxi-
succeeded in obtaining solutions of the first and second mately circular figure is unnecessary. This idea leads him
main problems in a different way: they have treated the to a representation of the mapping in the form of an
mapping problem analytically; there is then little need for integral equation for x(<ji),
intuitive assumptions about the form of certain functions,
but the mathematical analysis cannot be described as x (qi) = ao + 2a cos ;p - 2 b sin qi -

8.4..2 Iteration without Intermediate Mapping -


f (x (qi) cot
2 dqi'; (8.73)
The procedure of Theodorsen requires the evaluation of n