AEROFOIL SECTIONS
RESULTS FROM WINDTUNNEL INVESTIGATIONS
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS
D. G. RANDALL
LONDON
BUTTERWORTHS
1961
 ~
~ .....J' (
K '"51'2;,
TL!74 A4 R513
liiiiillllil 0020084290
English Translation
1,+ ~
\~'
Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd.
1961
~
Made and printed by offset in Great Britain by ,..)""
William Clowes and Sons, Limited, London and Beccles
t>

\~
i __
~..,i 0I0i
>
i
I
~
,j;
U
'J
~
.. .;i
,""" ) t
LIST OF CONTENTS
During the last fifty years fluid dynamics has become whole subject and can be informed on the questions of
indispensable in the solution of industrial problems, greatest importance. Unfortunately, little has been
particularly those associated with aviation. Technology has accomplished in this direction; the chief reason is that few
advanced so rapidly that, to meet its demands, research on workers have a real mastery of their field. Consequently,
a gigantic scale is necessary. A regrettable consequence of this book is most welcome, since it provides a clear and
this is that advances in the field of fluid dynamics have comprehensive survey of the subject of wing profiles. It is
become too numerous for one person to be able to survey highly desirable that similar books should be written on
them. There is therefore a pressing need for surveys of the other subjects.
various branches, so that a reader can obtain a view of the
Dr. Riegels's book was written with the needs of German a tendency to think of lowspeed, twodimensional flow as
workers in mind, yet it should appeal to a much wider an outdated topic. It is forgotten that the subject is still of
circle of readers. Our knowledge of a scientific subject is importance: it is continually required in the design of ship
never complete, but further advances in the subject of propellers, turbines, and compressors; and it is still of use
wing profiles are likely to be smallscale; therefore, a book for a wide variety of aircraft, ranging from gliders to model
that surveys all the main theories and discusses many of the aeroplanes.
experimental investigations should be most valuable. Not I wish to thank many of my colleagues at the Royal
the least useful part of the book is the large amount of Aircraft Establishment (not all of them Germanborn) for
tabular and graphical information on the geometrical and their ready help. It is a pleasure to express my gratitude to
aerodynamic characteristics of profiles. Mrs. W. T. Lord for performing the secretarial work so
In times when slenderness is such a desirable attribute competently.
of wings, and supersonic speeds are commonplace, there is
Farnborough, D. G. RANDALL
February, 1960
4
rI
ABBREVIATIONS
~.e
1.2.1 Thickness Distribution and Camber Line
The ordinates of the profile are measured from some
c
J
suitable axis, the xaxis. It is usual to regard the profile as ()
elZ cIt!
()
formed by superposition of a "thickness distribution"
y(t)(x), symmetrical about the xaxis, on a "camber line" Fig. 1.2. Usual coordinate systems
y(c)(x). The camber line, sometimes called" mean line" or
"skeleton line", has been defined in two ways. The older
lies at x = c/2, Y = and the coordinates are divided by
el2 instead of bye (see 'Figure 1.2). The following relation
holds between these two systemst:
c ~ x
~ = x  , or  = 2  1 (1.3)
2 e/2 e
The xaxis is defined as the straight line joining the ends
of the camber line, and so it is possible that a few points in
the region of the nose of a cambered profile have a value of
Fig. 1.1. General definition of the camber line
x less than 0, or a value of ~ less than (eI2); usually this
occurs only when the camber is large. To avoid it we use the
definition assumes that the complete profile is given; the
longest line joining two points of the profile as reference
camber line is then the line joining the centres of inscribed
axis in the theory of Chapters 7 and 8; this axis is obtained
circles (Figure 1.1). The second definiti(ln assumes that the
from the axis used above (the chord of the camber line)
two parts of the profile are separately given; the complete
by rotation through a small angle aR; in Table 11.1 this
profile is then formed by measuring the ordinates of the
angle is given for some common profiles. The chord of
thickness distribution from the camber line in a direction
normal to this line. These two definitions are approximately t The experimenter prefers to work in the region 0 ~ x ~ c;
the theorist, to make use of certain symmetrical properties of
equivalentt Using the second definition, we obtain for the the formulas, prefers (cj2) ~ $ ~ (cj2). Both definitions are
t On the difference between the two definitions see BAUSCH. used in this book; when no confusion is possible, c is occasionally
set equal to 1, or (to avoid the decimal point) to 100.
'.
.;.
t
the pressure side or the tangent at the traili~g edge on when the scale factors change, the following characteristic
the pressure side have been used as reference axes for the combinations of parameters are frequently used; they are
ordinates when the profile has large camber. For sym designated by the quantity that is made dimensionless.
metrical profiles (or for thickness distributions) the axis of
symmetry is always used as the reference axis. (a) N ose radIUS: (10 = roe
t2' (1.7)
(xxli
,I
remaining parameters in a form that remains constant In the construction of profiles by the NACA method it is
useful to know the initial slope of the camber line, because 11
t This quantity, which by its definition is limited to the thick
ness distribution, is positive or negative when the nose is
the centre of the circle of curvature at the nose is assumed
respectively hyperbolic or elliptic. t For a refined method see BAUSCH.
1.3 EXPERIMENTALLY INVESTIGATED FAMILIES OF PROFILES 3

7K 8K
9K 10K
c:::
11K
c .
C ~
13K
c ......,.
14K
C ~
15K
C ~
16K
c;:::::.
c ~
====123 .~
c::.
227
.....,.,
~
242 ~
289 301
c:::::::. ~
3$ c;:::::. 342

~ ~
387 C ::::=: ~
~
=====
417a
C~ r
436
409
~
420 449
~
 
=.. ~
CO C ~ Fig. 1.8. Survey of some
~
459
549
==
608
c
==
 564
===
609
508
C
 593
610 r
C
~62() .. ....
535
::....
Gottingen profiles
: c=:==;:.: ,
~
c::::::
652
~ ,c
C

176
623
~.~
C'i~'
!
c
6241
.."..
...... "
c: =====
625_
677 682
~
. ~
~
~
708 71!
~ ~ ==.
r ~
C
~
 741
766
771
C
C

~
744
767
"\~
\
~
746
769 ~
758
~.
to lie on this line; for NACA profiles it is usual to give the We end this section by showing how the nose radius is
initial slope of the camber line in addition to the nose determined from the representation of y as a function of cpo
radius; for a certain class of camber lines, with infinite If the profile is not pointe,d at the nose it can be described
slope at the leading edge, it is further agreed to give the in the region of the nose by an equation of the form
slope at x/c = 0005, and to use this for constructing the b b
profile nose. y = bVX + ... ;
hence, y' = 2 x(1/2) and yN = 4 x(3/2) I

f/c .. 0 002.5 0'05 0075 010 0'125 0'15 0'175
tic
" . ....
537 55a 579 576
005 ~
0'10
It29 51t1
...
580
  '"
431
..... ..32
~
603
........ IfI' 5'+5
.........
 ....... I~ Ill'
53& 555 ..33 5.. a 577 51t3 5.... 553
0'15 ..... .... 0IIIIIIII ....... .........
~ 1..... ~~ ~5 ~2 ~1I"i.:.:
556
0'25
~ ""':5 .,.:::
o'ao ~ ~ ~
0'35
~ ~ ~
Fig. 1.9. Survey of measured Joukowsky profiles
c <
(b) The profiles whose pressure side is predominantly 0005 2201i
straight: Go 436, 508, 564, 593; the series Go 622, 623, c:::: .:::::::
624, 625 (with thickness ratios tic = 0'08,012,0'16, 0009 l209
0,20). C
0012
= C ::::
22fl
(c) Profiles which are segments of circles.
1. With sharp nose and trailing edge: Go 608, 609, C ::= L ~
0015 Z2TfJ
610, 708 (ratio of radius of circular arc to chord is 28,
245,19, 175, so that/Ie = 0045,0051,0066,0'071), C ==>
0018
C ~
2218
and Go 1K, 2K, 4K (with/Ie = 00385,00735,01475).
2. With nose and trailing edge rounded: Go 5K, 6K, C ~ C ~
2221
7K, 8K, an affine series with thickness ratios tic =
0037, 0075, 0110, 01485; Go 9K, 10K, 11K, 12K, e::.
C 4
13K, an affine series with tic = 0'0245, 00385, 0'0745,
01110,01480; Go 14K, 15K, 16K, an affine series with c::.  'I201i

tic = 0'12, 0'15, 01815. (The K which follows the '1209
numbers signifies that measurements were carried out r

'212
on these profiles in the presence of cavitation.)
C
(d) The American profiles: M6, identical with Go 677; '215
M12, identical with Go 676. L ~
(e) The Joukowsky profiles (Figure 1.9), which are shown '218
here because of their extraordinarily large maximum
cambers and thickness ratios. C ~'1221
The remaining profiles are mostly without systematic
behaviour, but, because of their special properties, they ~ ...
have proved to be of use for certain purposes. The ordinates 5206
of the profiles are collected together in Table 11.3. C. .:

ol09
r

1.3.2 Fourfigure NACA Profiles 5212
Figure 1.10 is a survey of typical profiles of this kind;
r
their designation is descriptive of the profile geometry, and (~
the figures have the following meaning [R460]. liZl/J
C~
The first figure: the maximum camber as a percentage Fig. 1.10. Survey of four
figure NACA profiles
of the chord. 5eZl
1.3 EXPERIMENTALLY INVESTIGATED FAMILIES OF PROFILES 5
The second figure: the position of maximum camber in 1.3.3 Fivefigure NACA Profiles
tenths of the chord. These profiles differ from the fourfigure series by having
The third and fourth figures: the maximum thickness a camber line with a smaller value of the position of
as a percentage of the chord. maximum camber [R537]. In the designation of these
EXAMPLE: the profile NACA 4412 has a maximum camber profiles the first figure denotes an aerodynamic property,
of 4% at 40% of the chord, and a maximum and the last four figures again denote geometrical proper
thickness of 12%. ties. For the profiles of the series beginning with 2 the
Thickness Distribution: Type Dl of Section 7.3; for this figures have the following meaning.
type the position of maximum thickness lies at 30% of the The first figure: 20/3 of the" lift coefficient at the ideal
chord. angle of incidence, ct" (see Section 3.l).
Camber Line: Type S2 of Section 7.2; the first two The second and third figures: twice the value of the
numbers, together with the preceding N ACA, define the position of maximum camber as a percentage of the
general behaviour of the camber line (in the example: chord.
NACA 44). Table 11.2 gives ordinates and aerodynamic The fourth and fifth figures: the maximum thickness as
characteristics of the camber lines NACA 62 to 65; those a percentage of the chord.
of the camber lines NACA 42 to 45 and NACA 22 to 25 can EXAMPLE: the profile N ACA 23018 has a ct of 03, its
be obtained from those of NACA 62 to 65 by affinely maximum camber lies at 15'% of the chord,
reducing, with. factors 4/6 and 2/6 respectively. and it has a maximum thickness of 18%.

C C
 
C
2J09 2v09 2509 2509 2709
C == C == C c c
2312 21/12 2512 2512 2772

C ::
2315
c ~
21/15
C ::::
l51S
C ~
2515
C ~
2715
C C C ~ C ~
2518
C ~
2718
======
2318 ======
21/18 2518
C ~ 2321
C ::> 21/21
c ~
2521
c ~
2521
c ~
c .e:::::. ~
c:: c:: ....

'1305
c::::::::
 1/'105
 1/505
c ==
'1505
c
1/705
.....

C c:::::::: '1509 '1709
'1309 '1'109 '1509
C ........... C :::==... I C" C .............. c: =....,.

'1512 1/712

I/J12 ''112 '1512
C C ::::.... C :::;:.,. c ~ C

1/315 '1'115 '1515 '1715
'1515
C ..",. c : c ::.".. C .......... C.
'1318 '1'118 '1518 '1618 '1718
C ~'1321
C ~'11121
C ~
'1521
C
 '1521
C ,:::::::..
'1721

c:
5505
............ c: 

5505
c: ...
6705
670!}

5'109 5509 5509

830!}
c: <::::::: r ~ c: >=......
 
5712

6512
C ~
8J12
~
8"2
r
5512
c C .......

5715
~ r
8'115
r ~
6515
c
5515
c ......
6718
8J18 5'118 6518 5818
'j
~ ~5'121
C ~
5521
C ~
5521
C ~5721
5321
6
1. NOMENCLATURE. GEOMETRY. SURVEY
r
I, .:::

I!
23CW C ::::: Fig. 1.11. Survey of IIve
(j)f2(jJ llgure NACA prollles
c:: . ~ c. c... :=:::::::
2:m9 43C09  6:JXJ9 001264
()
\. C
c ~'
.....
23012
2305
c:::
c.. 
~
43012
43015
c::=....
~
6:XJ12
c:::
C
c::::
"::::::::>
CO!265

23O!233
~
C ~ ..
23018
~
43018
~ c
2301234
=.
~
2301264
~ ~ 63021
c.... ~
21012
= c:
C.
 ~
~

22012 32012 42012
C

23012
c. ~
33012
c:::::::

43012
C
C
24012

25012
c::::

34012
~
44012
~64021
Thickness Distribution: Type Dl of Section 7.3. moment at zero lift can be investigated; to this group
Camber Line: Type S4 of Section 7.2. belong, for example, the profiles 2Rl12 and 2R212 [R460].
The following small table gives the geometrical para The first modifications to the thickness distribution
meters of the camber lines of this series. affect only the nose radius, and they are indicated by an
Camber line 210 220 230 240 250 appended capital letter: T (smaller nose radius, more
Maximum camber, pointed shape) ; or B (larger nose radius, bluffer shape).
fie = 0'0111 00154 00184 00208 00226 In the later modifications the position of maximum thick
Position of maximum
camber, x/Ie = ness is also .systematically varied [R492]. For both the
0'05 010 015 020 0:25
fourfigure and fivefigure profiles these modifications are
The ordinates and the aerodynamic characteristics are described by the addition of two figures following a short
given in Table 11.2; Figure 12.2 shows the shapes and the horizontal dash; in the designation of such profiles the
pressure distributions. Modifications to this series for figures have the following meaning.
other ct
are made by affine transformation of the ordinates The first figure after the dash: a measure of the nose
of the camber line; examples of such modifications are the radius. In detail:
profiles whose first numbers are 3, 4 and 6 (the correspon
ding ct
being 0'45, 0'6, and 09). A survey of these profiles 0, zero radius of curvature (pointed nose);
is given in Figure 1.11. 3, onequarter of the normal radius of curvature;
The employment of a different camber line is indicated 6, normal radius of curvature;
by the third figure: if a 1 stands in this position the 9, three or more times the normal radius of curvature;
camber line of Type Sa (with fixed centre of pressure) has the "normal" radius of curvature is that belonging to
been used (see Section 7.2). the thickness distribution D1, role = 11 (tlc)2. .
The second figure after the dash: the position of maxi
1.3.4 First Extension of the Fourfigure and Fivefigure mum thickness in tenths of the chord.
NACA Series EXAMPLE: the profile 001234 is symmetrical, it has 12%
Occasionally the extensions affect the camber line, but thickness ratio, its nose radius is one quarter
mostly they affect the thickness distribution. Some of the of the normal radius, and its position of
fourfigure profiles have camber lines with a point of maximum thickness lies at 40% of the chord.
inflexion, so that systematic variations of the pitching Thickness Distribution: Type D2
1.3 EXPERIMENTALLY INVESTIGATED FAMILIES OF PROFILES 7
1.3.5 Extension of the NACA Series by the DVL position of maximum camber, XI, equal to
The first extension involves changes in the thickness 035e; it has a thickness distribution with
distribution similar to those of Section 1.3.4, but the maximum thickness t = 012e, the nose radius
gradations in the variations of nose radius and position of is fnormal, the position of maximum thickness,
maximum thickness are refined. The following have been XI, is equal to 04e, and the slope at the trailing
(a) Normal nose radius, eo = roc/t2 = 11. The method of designation is purely geometrical and,
.inormal nose radius, = 0825. as the example has shown, the series of figures gives
inormal nose radius, = 055.
immediately the parameters necessary for the description
inormal nose radius, = 0275. of the profile geometry (see Section 1.2). Figure 1.12 gives
(b) Position of maximum thickness: Xt/e = 035, 0'40, a survey of these profiles; for the ordinates see Table 11.3,
045,0'50. for the aerodynamic coefficients see Table 11.1, and for the
pressure distributions see Chapter 12.
The second extension involves, in addition, a change in
(the angle at the trailing edge) and in the corresponding
! Tp
parameter Ep = (tan Tp)/(t/c).
1.3.6 Extensions of the NACA Series with regard to the
Pressure Distribution. Laminar Profiles
Thickness Distribution: Type D 2 Camber Line: 1.3.6.1 Series 1 to 6
Mostly Type S2.
The modem NACA profiles (see Figure 1.13) are recognis
EXAMPLE: the profile 1 35 1208254005 has a camber able by the altered arrangements of figures in the designa
line with maximum camber f = OOlc, and tions. Camber lines and thickness distributions are so
c:::
000091/40
= c::::: = c::::: ::>
000091150
Fig. 1.12. Survey of profiles
of the DVL series
00009"45
co: :::::::= C :::>
()()O121/ 40 000121/50
C ~ C ::>
QOO15114O 000151/50
C ::::>
000181/40
C :>
000181150
J
c::::: = c::::: = c:::: =
00009 0825 35 ()()(J090825 40 00009082545
co: ~ c ~ c: ...::;:>
O()()12o82535 00012()f]254O 00012082545
C ;::::::>
00015082545
C :>
00018082545
c:::::: ===
000090275 40 00009027545
c:::: ~ c::::::: :=>
00012027540 00012(}27550
8 1. NOMENCLATURE. GEOMETRY. SURVEY
<
6:)206
c::
6:)209
c: :;:0
63,~12
c;_=_.
63,212
c ==
63,412
C~ C:::::::, C~
_ _ 63;615
~
631 015 6~215
C :::::::::....
~~
C:::::=63f
018 63,418 63,68
~ ~221 ~
Fig. 1.13. Survey of JUodefll
c::: c: NACA profile series
64006 64206
c::
64(}()9
c::::: 
64209
C" ::: c ::
64,212
C::::::
64215
c=:::>
~64,221
c:: c::
65rxJ6 65206
c::
65()()9
c::::::: 
65209
c::.. ==== c:::: ~ C ::::
65,~12 65,212 65r412
C C" :::::. c :::.
====
65,~15 651 215 651 415
C =====
65,08 C~ c=::::: 6~418 ~
C ~ ~ ~
c::: ... C ::>
67/015
66fXJ6 66206
c:::::: == c:::: ~ C ~
66(x)9 66209 67/215
c:::::: ==== C ::::=
66,012 66,212
C ::::::=:: C ::::::> C ::::::::
66,415
~015 ~215
C :::::> C :::::> 'C :::::>
66,418
~
66,018
C ~ 66.221
::::::= C :::::::::=
c:::::::: ===
64A310
C :::::::=
747A015
C
747A315 747A415
c: c ........,...
c::::::: ==
8360110
c::::: :::::
8478110
====
BH12 11H09
1.3 EXPERIMENTALLY INVESTIGATED FAMILIES OF PROFILES 9
designed that they have a prescribed pressure distribution EXAMPLE: the profile 64 3018 belongs to the 6series, the
at a certain value of 0 L. minimum pressure occurs at 40% of the chord,
This mode of procedure is suited to a study of the the profile is of laminar character for a range of
behaviour of the boundary layer; it is particularly helpful oL of extent JO L = 03, it is symmetrical, and
in the problem of reducing the drag of profiles, especially its thickneRs ratio is 18%.
at large Reynolds numbers; in addition, it facilitates. the (c) A figure following a comma has approximately the
design of profiles suitable for high speeds. The figures have same significance. It gives the extent of the range of 0 L
the following meaning. (in tenths) for which a favourable pressure gradient
The first figure: this characterises a definite series of exists on both sides of the profile; the profiles differ
profilesI, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6; usually the prescribed pres only trivially from those of (b).
sure distributions of each series have a common funda EXAMPLE: the profile 64,3418 a = 06 belongs to the
mental property. 6series, the thickness distribution has mini
The secondfigure: the position of minimum pressure in mum pressure at 40% of the chord, the pressure
/ tenths of the chort!. distribution is favourable in a range of 0 of
extent JOL = 03, 0 L at the ideal angle of
The first figure after the dash: the value of 0: in incidence (0:) is 0'4, the thickness ratio is
tenths; hence, a measure of the amount of camber.
18%, and the camber line is Type S6 with
The second and third figures after the dash: the thick a = 06.
ness ratio.
(d) Changes in the thickness ratio are usually made by
EXAMPLE: the profile 64208 belongs to the "NACA affine transformation of a profile that already exists in
6series", the thickness distribution has the thickness distribution series; they are indicated by
minimum pressure at 40% of the chord, 0: the addition of the thickness ratio of the latter profile
in brackets.
(the lift coefficient at the ideal angle of inci
dence) is 0'2, and the maximum thickness is EXAMPLE: the profiles 64(318)419 and 64(318)419
8%. belong to the 6series, they have their pressure
Thickness Distribution: Calculated theoretically from minimum at 40% of the chord, the pressure
the prescribed pressure distribution. distribution is favourable (that is, the profiles
are of laminar character) in a range of 0 L of
Oamber Line: Type S5.
extent JO L = 03, ot
is 04, the thickness
In shape and in pressure distribution the profiles of the ratio is 19%, and the profiles are obtained by
Iseries are similar in character to those of the DVL series affine transformation of profiles of thickness
described in Section 1.3.5. The profile series which begin ratio 18%.
with 2, 3, 4, 5 [L345] are no longer in use since the 6series
(e) Employment of several camber lines is denoted by an
profiles have better properties [R824].
addition which gives details of all the components.
Extra numbers or letters are frequently added to the
basic arrangements if a more detailed designation is . {a = 06
EXAMPLE: the profile 64,3418 a = 1.0
ot
0: == 0.3}
0.1 has
required.
the same thickness distribution as Example (c);
(a) The thickness distributions of the 6series are generally
its camber line is formed by the addition of two
combined with camber lines that have either constant
camber lines, one of Type S6 (with ot equal to
pressure over the whole chord (camber line of Type S5
in Section 7.2) or constant pressure up to a certain
03) and one of Type S5 (with 0: equal to 0'1).
point Xa of the chord (the point where the minimum (f) Changes to the rear part of the profile are denoted by
pressure for the thickness distribution occurs, or a point the use of capital letters in place of the dash.
lying further back) after which the pressure decreases EXAMPLE: the profile 643 A 018 differs from that of
linearly (camber line of Type S6). When the pressure Example (b) by the contour's being straight for
distribution has the latter behaviour it is described by the last 20% of the chord.
adding "a = .... " to the profile designation; the
number to be inserted is the value of xa/c. If no such
addition to the profile designation exists this usually 1.3.6.2 Series 7 and 8
means that Type S5 has been used. The profiles of the 7series differ from those of the series
(b) An index after the second figure gives the extent of the just discussed by the possibility of a larger laminar
range of OL (in tenths) for which the smooth, sym region on the pressure side. The last three figures of the
metrical profile is of laminar character (that is, for designation have the same significance as in the profiles of
which it has extremely small drag). the 6series; the two figures after the" 7" give the positions
10 1. NOMENCLATURE. GEOMETRY. SURVEY
of minimum pressure on the suction and pressure sides. displacement of the position of maximum thickness, and
The capital letter placed between these two groups of hence a generalisation of this type of profile, is obtained
figures distinguishes the actual combination of thickness (following BETZ) by enlarging the radius of the eccentrically
distribution and camber line which possesses the properties placed circle to R = a(l + El + E2)' The new circle does
expressed by the figures; another possible combination of not touch the circle' = aetiji and, as a result, the trailing
thickness distribution and camber line with the same edge is not cusped but rounded. For vanishing camber the
properties would require a different capital letter. The circle corresponding to El = 0 transforms into an ellipse
camber line of such a profile is usually produced by addi (with maximum thickness at 50% of the chord!). SCHLICHT
tion of several basic camber lines. INGULRICH have performed the calculation for sym
Up till now only a few profiles of the 7series to which metrical profiles; for the shape of the profile they obtain
this method of designation has been applied are known: for
example,
(1.14)
~:~ ct = 0763 }
NACA 747 A 315{: : ct = 0463
and 1] .  (I 
;=ksIn'P
N
1) ' (1.15)
a = 04 ct = 0763 }
NACA 747 A 415 a = 07 ct = 0463 where k = 1 + El + i2 and N = k 2 + El:f  2E 1k cos cp.
{
a = 10 ct = 01 With a as unit of length, the profile chord is obtained from
The basic thickness distribution NACA 747 A 015 has
minimum pressure at 40% of the chord on pressure and
suction sides; the cambered profiles built up on it have
and is given by
mi~imum pressures at 40% on the suction side and at 70%
e l l
on the pressure side. Some profiles of the 8series have been =2k+
a k El
+k 
+El
(1.16)
described and are designated by the letters A, B, C, D
[R947]; various superpositions of thickness distributions
Figure 1.14 shows the connection between El and E2 and the
and camber lines are used; in other respects the figures
thickness ratio and position of maximum thickness.
have the same meaning as in the 7series.
OZO'r"'7'=~rr'r....,
'.//./0
0"5t''oot:7t""""':+~::11
1.4 Theoretically Developed Families 9C Profiles E,
1.4.1 Joukowsky Profiles and Generalisations
The bestknown theoretical families of profiles are those
t o.to't""""tt"'t"''C'7'''I''r''''t1
}'ig. 1.14. Relation of
and calculated (SCHMIDT); they do not have the dis Here, h is the perpendicular distance of PI from the line
advantage of rapid movement of the centre of pressure, a drawn through T parallel to the freestream direction, and
disadvantage to which the simple Joukowsky profiles are R = MT is the radius of the circle through PI and T. The
subject because the position of maximum camber lies so lift coefficient is given by
far back.
87& R
1.4.2 KarouinTretftz and Betz.Keune Profiles
OL = 
k

c
sin (a + Po) , (1.24)
~
sides of Equation (1.19), we write C* = kC; then,
increased near the nose; in addition, the function to be
superimposed must be regular outside the c~rcle C= aeiiF
o In z  ka = <P, + ilJl, = and must vanish at infinity. The doublet flow has just
I z+ ka these properties: the complex potential of a suitably
= k<P, + iklJl, = kOln C*ka (1.21) orientated doublet is purely imagina~y, i,u, at the points
C*+ka C* = ka; by addition of this potential only the stream
function is increased or decreased (by an amount ,u). This
This means that if the sourcesink network is regarded as a superposition then leads to ~ generalised mapping function,
system of curvilinear coordinates, and the coordinates
(<P, lJI) of a point PIon the circle 0 1 are read off (see zka C*ka. ka
Figure 1.15), then P, the point on the profile corresponding In z + ka = kin C. + ka +~,u F" (1.25)
to PI, has the curvilinear coordinates (k<P, klJl) in the same
network. We see that the manner of numbering is of no Profile shape and velocity distribution can be constructed
importance since the constant 0 drops out. in a way similar to that described for the Karman
For once we anticipate the results of Chapter 7: the Trefftz profiles. Investigation of the profile properties shows
determination of the velocity distribution still requires that the profile has a fixed centre of pressure if,u is chosen
so that
d; I= k2 I z + ka I IZkal (1.22) k (k 2 1)
I d.. IC* + ka I IC*ka I ,u 11 4 Po 1 +
2 k2 (1.26)
The various quantities appearing here can be measured If, instead of one singular point near the nose, several
from the drawing (see Figure 1.15) so that (allowing for the singular points are assumed to exist in the interior of the
change in velocity at infinity) the velocity at the point P profile, then (following VON MISES) a large number of
of the profile becomes special classes of profiles can be obtained in addition to
the ,Toukowsky and KarmanTrefftz profiles and their
w 2h NP I TPI generalisations; the number of free parameters is increased,
(1.23)
V = k2R NP TP and a diversity of profile shapes results.
12 1. NOMENCLATURE. GEO~IETRY. SURVEY
1.4.3 The Hyperbola Family placed singular points A and B, we map one that passes
We shall now refer to a special family of profiles intro through these points, we obtain profiles whose camber
duced by PIERCY, PIPER, and PRESTON, and treated in lines are circular arcs; as usual the upward displacement of
Germany by RINGLEB. The principle of generation of this the centre of the circle serves as a measure of the camber.
family is that the inversion of a branch of a hyperbola with We can obtain a point of inflexion in the camber lines, and
respect to a circle whose centre is the focus lying outside thereby more favourable pitchingmoment behaviour, if,
the branch (or a point near to this) leads to contours instead of transforming a circle, we transform an ellipse
having the form of profiles. As we see from Figure 1.16, two passing through the two points A and B (Figure 1.17); as a
measure for the amount of inflexion we can use the angle
that this ellipse makes with the circle at the point B
(corresponding to the trailing edge).
1.5 References
PIPER, R. W.: Extensions of the New Family of Wing Profiles. SCHRENK, 0.: Theoretisches iiber JoukowskyProfile. Ergeb
Phil. Mag. Ser. 7, Vol. 24 (1937), p. 1114. nisse AVA III, S. 1316.
RINGLEB, F.: Beitrage zur Theorie der Tragfliigelprofile. FB SQUffiE, H. B.: A Family of Camber Lines for Subsonic Applica.
1496 und Jahrb. dDL I, S. 133140. tions. C.P. 437 (1959).
ROGERS, E. W. E.: Observations on a Thin Cambered Aerofoil STACK, J.: Tests of Airfoils Designed to Delay the Compressi
Beyond the Critical Mach Number. R & M No. 2432 (1950). bility Burble. NACA TN No. 976 (1944).
ROSSNER, G.: tJber eine Klasse von theoretischen Profilen mit Staff of H. S. T.: Measurements of Force Coefficients Oil Aero
vier frei wahlbaren geometrischen Parametern. Jahrb. 1942 foil EC 1240 in the High Speed Tunnel at the NPL. R & M
dDL, S. I 142/59. No. 2246 (1940).
SCHLICHTING, H. and A. ULRICH: Zur Berechnung des Urn TANNER, L. H.: Curves Suitable for Families of Aerofoils with
schlages laminar/turbulent. LGLBericht S 10, S. 75135 Variable Maximum Thickness Position, Nose Radius, Camber
und Jahrb. 1942 dDL I; S. 8. and Nose Droop. C.P. 358 (1957).
SCHMIDT, W.: Entwurf, Auftrieb, Moment und Druckverteilung TREFFTZ, E.: Graphische Konstruktion Joukowskyscher Trag
eines JoukowskySProfiles, .Jahrb. 1939 dDL I, S. 50 bis 54. flachen. ZFM 4 (1913), S. 130.
2. ON EXPERIMENTAL METHODS.
WIND TUNNELS AND CORRECTIONS
2.1. Some Details of Wind Tunnels used for Profile Degree of T'urbulence: :::::0,0024. Turbulence Factor: ::::: 116.
Measurements Balance: 3 and 6 component beambalance; de
scription in [AVA I, II].
2.1.1 Gattingen Wind. tunnels
Models: 02 m X 1 m rectangular wings; wingtips
2.1.1.1 2 m x 2 m Wind tunnel of the MYA
usually blunt.
First Operated: 1908. Rebuilt in 1918; in operation again
Corrections: jetboundary corrections (given in [AVA
I
"
Crosssection:
in 1920.
quadratic, 196 m X 196 m, closedthroat
IIVl); conversion of the measured
values to A = 00, with allowance for the
I
elliptical openjet with axes 106 m and a = Ci  418C L (a in degrees),
15 m. CD = CD  0'066C L2
Contraction Ratio: at first 1: 1; from 1920, 1: 33; from
1934, 1 :3. 2.1.1.3 47 m x 7 in Wind. tunnel of the AVA
Maximum Speed: 10 m/sec; with nozzle (from 1920) First Operated: 1936.
30 m/sec.
Test Section: elliptical crosssection (minor axis 47 m,
Velocity Variation: (deviation from the mean value of the major axis 70 m); open jet, 85 m length;
velocity in the test section) ::::: 1%'. can be used at pressures of from 025 to 4
Turbulence Factor: :::::17 (before 1920). atmospheres.
Balance: 3 or 4 component balance, description in Contraction Ratio: 1: 3.
[AVA II].
Maximum Speed:
Models: rectangular wings; span b = 100 m or
120 m, chord c = 020 m.
Pressure 20minute ContinuouB
Corrections:t the measured values are converted to bursts running
A = 00 by formulas for the additional
angle of incidence and the additional drag 1 atmosphere 59 m/sec 55 m/sec
4 atmospheres 38 m/sec 35 m/sec
(be in m 2).
025 atmospheres 96 m/sec 88 m/sec
a = Ci  (20'9c/b  2'2bc)CL
(a in degrees),
CD= CD  (0'33c/b  0'038be)CL2 , Degree of Turbulence: ::::: 0003.
which contain jetboundary corrections
Turbulence Factor: :::::126 (1944), 14 (1940).
and corrections for the lift distribution on
the rectangular wing (see Section 2.3). Balance: 6component counterpoise balance, oper
ated by remote control. Description by
KLEIN.
2.1.1.2 225 m Wind. tunnel of the AVA
Models: rectangular wings, b = 40 m and.c =
First Operated: 1917.
08 m; wingtips blunt, and with tip
Test Section: circular crosssection of diameter 225 m; fairings of various types; maximum chord
length, 34 m; open jet. for wings with endplates, 23 m.
Contraction Ratio: 1: 485. Corrections: conversion of measured values to A = 00,
Maximum Speed: 58 m/sec; in continuous running, 50 with allowance for the lift distribution on
m/sec. the wing, by the formulas
a = Ci  H8CL (a in degrees),
t See Sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.2. CD = CD  0066CL 2
16 2. ON EXPERIMENTAL METHODS. WIND TUNNELS AND CORRECTIONS
Jetboundary correction is also required. Test SectilYTl: elliptical crosssection (minor axis 5 m,
The 4 m X 54 m windtunnel of the AVA major axis 7 m); open jet of length 9 m.
is identical with the one just described, CIYTitractilYTl Ratio: 1: 4.
except that it has a smaller nozzle.
Maximum Speed: 65 mJsec.
Test SectilYTl: elliptical crosssection (minor axis 4 m,
major axis 54 m); open jet, 75 m length. Velocity VariatilYTl: about 1'5%; on the major axis of the
ClYTitra.ctilYTl Ratio: 1: 45. elliptical crosssection about 0'5%.
Maximum Speed: Direction Variation: 0'5 on the jet axis.
Turbulence Factor: ~ 11.
Corrections: to allow for the effect of the walls, static Balance: 3component counterpoise balance oper
pressure and kinetic pressure are measured . ate,d by remote control; experimental
in a section at a distance of about three results (including pressure) given on paper
times the chord in front of the wing; these tape.
measurements, together with Bernoulli's Models: made from light alloy, either with 01 mm
equation and the equation of continuity, layer of plaster and lacquer (ground to
are used to convert the results for the flow required degree of fineness and polished)
about the profile and cavitation layer to or with a simple metallic surface.
free fluid. In addition, a deduction in the
angle of incidence must be made, because CorrectilYTls : (I) correction of freestream velocity for
of the influence of the horizontal walls on constraint due to model; (2) correction for
the flow round the profile; this deduction additional constraint due to wake; (3)
is proportional to CL, and is given by jetboundary correction (see GOTHERT).
U'l .u/ a
F (y) = :::==== (2.3)
factor (t.f.), defined by the ratio
YU'lz YU / Z
I tf = R erlt. in free air
. . Rerlt . in the wind tunnel
.
By integration we obtain a length called the scale oj For" R erlt . in free air" he uses the value 385 . lOS (obtained
turbulence: from flight measurements, and corresponding to plq =
022) ; for the denominator he uses a mean value obtained
'" from a number of measurements on spheres. If we now
L=fF(y).dy. (2.4) suppose that, to a first approximation, the critical Reynolds
o
number varies inversely with the turbulence, we can use
the turbulence factor to convert the experimental results
L can be regarded as a measure of the size of eddies;
for profiles in various windtunnels to an "effective
together with the degree of turbulence, it characterises the
Reynolds number" (corresponding to free air with very
state of turbulence in the wind tunnel.
low turbulence); the conversion formula is
2.2.2 The Critical Reynolds Number for Turbulence Rerr. = (t.f.)R, (2.5)
As a means of comparing the turbulence of various
where R = Vclv. This procedure has proved fairly
windtunnels PRANDTL has suggested the use of the critical
successful for the maximum lift coefficient (that is, for
Reynolds number of the sphere; this is the Reynolds
predicting the onset of separation); it has not proved
number at which a sudden sharp drop in the drag coefficient,
successful for other profile properties (in particular, not
CD, occurs, the drop being caused by a change in the type
for the drag).
of flow in the boundary layer; as the turbulence of the air
in the tunnel increases, the Reynolds number at which the
drop occurs becomes smaller. To define this number more
exactly, DRYDEN and KUETHE choose as critical Reynolds 2.2.4 Influence of the Diameter of the Sphere. More Exact
number that at which a CD of 03 is reached. HOERNER, Definition of the Turbulence Factor
in his measurements, uses the fact that an equally sudden Modern windtunnels possess very small turbulence (the
values of Rerlt . lie between 3.105 and 4 105); so it is not
O'I/C'O~ CooJ I
5
oc I
I
I
,., /
.IL
, '6
1 ,,;.'.1'
~/
O'C q ~",.
J....
.IL 0 1/'v ~
o qH
Fig. 2.1. Deftnltlon of the critical
Reynolds number for a sphere J 8 n
.6_
/
At'!..
t:Z ~
O'C
.1:6 W
rise in pressure, p, on the rear part of the sphere (very J ., id
close to where the sting is attached) is associated with the
sudden drop in CD; this is another easily determined J '6
I(jf
quantity that can be used to define the critical Reynolds /1
.1.0
number. To obtain approximately the same value of 10 ItO .10 I/O 50 60 70 80 .90 fa
Rerlt. as given by CD = 03, plq (q being the kinetic iI(m/S)
pressure, if! V2) is plotted against R and the value of R
Fig. 2.2. Measurement of Rerlt. (defined by ~  0) plotted against
corresponding to plq. = 022 read off. The latter value is velocity.
the one recommended by PLATT: HOERNER suggests that (1) Free nlr. (4) ),3 m tunnel;
plq be taken as zero; this leads to larger values for the (2) to (7) In AVA wind tunnels : (5) 225 III tunnel;
(2) low turbulence wind (6) 4 III x 5'4 m ~unnel;
critical Reynolds number (see Figure 2.1). tunnel;
(3) 036 m Elffeltunnel; (7) 47 m x 7 m tunnel.
(SEIFERTU)
2.2.3 The Turbulence Factor
To be able to compare the turbulence of wind tunnels sufficient simply to utilise mean values from a number
PLATT introduces a characteristic quantity, the turbulence of measurements on one sphere, because the value of
20 2. ON EXPERIMENTAL METHODS. WIND TUNNELS AND CORRECTIONS
R erit . depends on the diameter, D, of the sphere, and on SEIFERTH proposes that, to characterise the turbulence,
the speed, V. This fact has been known for some time; it is the value of R erit . corresponding to a definite diameter of
I verified by measurements on spheres, which SEIFERTH the sphere, about 22 em, be chosen; as the measurements
n
I,
performed in five Gottingen windtunnels in 1943/44. In .show, this suggestion leads to a welldefined parameter.
Rcrir105
IJ5 L (em)
\ 0020
v;:r
210
~
0 c
12 V
0015
~
~ ~ t:......
!
of,
"0 0010 0
if
"'k ~ tf._ 
~. r::::: ~~ J
J'8 d_
~ ~.,J i ' N 0005
I r
J'5
~~ 2 28
ef~ WUf I
J5 1/ '11/
J'" I?erl/ .105
!\\{1\ Fig. 2.5. Degree and scale of turbulence (shown respectively left and top right), from
J.Q
"\1\ measurements made behind grids with the following meshwidths: (a) 2'45 em; (b)
127 em; (e) 0'64 em. Curve shown bottom right: wind tunnel measurements (for meaning
of symbols see Figure 2.2). Point (d), at the left end: from measnrements made behind a
8 12 15 21/\ 28
" 20
o (em)
grid 'in the 13 m tunnel (number 4); the right end is the value for rree air
These values are in good agreement with the points ob is found directly by measurement of the momentum lost
tained by DRYDEN; in Figure 2.5 a curve (lower righthand in the wake. The theoretical foundations of this method
side) is drawn through them, and this curve can be easily have been given by BETZ, B. M. JONES, G. I. TAYLOR, and
extrapolated to pass through the point corresponding to (for high speeds) by GOTHERT: the practical applications
fre~ air; in this way a connection between hotwire and are described by MUTTRAY, DOETSCH, SILVERSTEIN and
sphere measurements is demonstrated (see SEIFERTH). KATZOFF, GOETT, and others (see the references of Section
2.4).
2.3 General Remarks 00 Experimeotallnvestigations In later times, windtunnels intended for profile measure
2.3.1 On Profile Measurements in Wind Tunnels ments have been built by the NACA and at Gottinge,nt; in
these tunnels the wings are placed between plane walls in
At first, weighing was the only method of importance for
an attempt to produce twodimensional flow. Disturbances
the experimental determination of force and moments
caused by the apparatus for measuring forces are largely
(see BETZSEIFERTH). Nearly all the 3 and 6 component
avoided in the American windtunnels LTT and TDT by
balances of the most important windtunnel8 have been
determining the lift from an integration of the pressures
exhaustively described; in Section 2.1 a reference is given
on the floor and on the roof of the wind tunnel; only the
to the appropriate place in the literature for the description
moments are still measured by weighing.
of each tunnel, and the type of balance is stated. In general,
the measurements have been carried out upon rectangular
2.3.2 On Windtunnel Corrections
wings of aspect ratio A = b2/S = 5 or 6. With the help of
known formulas for the conversion of windtunnel Because of the finite dimensions of the stream of air, the
measurements from one aspect ratio to another [AVA II], lift measured in a wind tunnel differs from that measured in
the measured values of forces and moments ca!l be con air of infinite extent. In an openjet tunnel the lift is
verted to A = 00, which corresponds to a wing of infinite smaller: in a closedthroat tunnel the lift is greater
span; the conversion formulas have been derived on the (assuming that the angle of incidence remains unchanged).
assumption of a constant lift coefficient, CL. The formulas However, following a proposal of PRANDTL, it is more
are: useful not to apply the necessary correction to the lift, but
rather to correct tIre angle of incidence and the drag
(a) for the angle of incidence (in radians), coefficient at constant CL (the procedure that is used in the
conversion from one aspect ratio to another).
a=a The most important correction, a correction for the
(2.6a)
induced downwash on the wing, depends on the lift
coefficient (C L), on the ratio of wing area (S) to the cross
(b) for the drag coefficient, sectional area of the jet (So), and on a factor that allows
 CL 2 for the influence both of the shape of the crosssection and
CD = CD  :rr:A (1 +T2); (2.6b) of the wing span ..The latter factor is written (}a in the
correction for the angle of incidence, and () D in the correc
here, ~ and {)D denote values measured at an aspect tion for the drag; many Authors have calculated it (under
ratio A. In this form the correction formulas (originally the assumptions of potential theory), and the most diverse
derived for an elliptical distribution of lift) contain crosssectional shapes and spans have been considered.
factors, (1 +
TIl and (1 +
T2), which allow for the actual RIEGELS has given a comprehensive summary of such
liftdistribution. The following table for rectangular wings results for incompressible flow, in which other kinds of
is taken from GLAUERT; it is assumed that dd~L has its correction are also considered (camber corrections,
constraint corrections, etc.); LUDWIEG is engaged on a
theoretical value of 2:rr:. supplement, a corresponding summary for compressible
A 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 flows.
0'122 0145 0163 0183 0'201 0216 0228
To show the order of magnitude of the correction first
0'026 0037 0046 0055 0.064 0,072 0080 mentioned, we give the values for the circular jet (worked
The increased accuracy of weighing and the close t A twodimensional lowturbulence windtunnel was built
at Reyershausen near G6ttingen during the war; the test cross.
approach to uniform flow in modern windtunnels mean section was 15 m X 3 m, and the speed was 90 m/sec. Measure
that variations in the details of model manufacture, in the ments concerning its velocity distribution and state of turbulence
'
quality of the model surface, in the type of suspension were made, but it was then dismantled without having served its
used, and in the shape of the wingtips, now produce purposethe carrying out of profile measurements. This
!) 'detectable effects. Al a result, the profile drag (that is, the tunnel (with a smaller testsection) has since been rebuilt in
Giittingen; the deg ree of turbulence is small (00004), the cross
part of the drag due to friction) is no longer obtained by section is 035 m X 150 m, and the speed is 40 m/sec; it was first
L
. ~,;ghing follow,d hy ,ubt=tion of th, vo,"" d"'g, hut operated in 1955. '
22 2. ON EXPERIMENTAL METHODS. WIND TUNNELS AND CORRECTIONS
out by PRANDTL); in terms of the wing span, b, and the jet usual type; at each point of the chord they have a radius
diameter, D, there results equal to half the local thickness. Neither kind of tip is
entirely satisfactory: because of the complicated vortex
3
15=1+ 
16
(b)4
D
+ 5 (b)8
64

D
+ ... ;(2.7) formation, wings that are blunt at the tips give too large
values for the measured drag coefficient (whrn the lift
coefficient is close to zero); on the other hand, too large
the correction for angle of incidence is values in the upper range of CLare found when" normal"
tipfairings are used.
S
Aa = 15 CL
 , (2.8)
8 So
(J.(J060""""''''''1 ''Lr'YI Fig. 2.7. Drag correction
I,
~O~fff~~~fffT~f'I
Q y+ I i i i
For normal profiles of 1 m span and with A equal to 5, in I. :'t I!:,
the Gottingen 225 m windtunnel, the angle of incidence ... v 1 I! it
o NO 020 0:30  tic 050
and the drag coefficient corrected for jetboundary effects
are given by
From measurements in the 4 m X 54 m tunnel of the
a = aM  036CL (a in degrees),
AVA, REGENSCHEIT is able to show that both these dis
CD = CDjJf  0OO635CL2 ; advantages can be overcome to a certain extent by using
the uncorrected, measured values are designated by the a particular type of tipfairing. This tipfairing is of the
. same form as the normal one up to the position of maximum
suffix M. For normal profiles (06 m X 3 m) in the elliptic
jet of the Gottingen 4 m X 54 m windtunnel, thickness; from this point on it is elliptic (the minor semi
axis being half the local thickness, and the major semiaxis
a =:; aM  064CL (a in degrees), being half the maximum thickness). Measurements of the
CD = CDjJf  00112CL2. drag of wings with such tipfairings are fairly close to the
true values (Figure 12.74).
Further corrections may be necessary because of support The means of suspension of the wing automatically
interference (see Section 2.3.3). introduces errors; this can be seen, for example, from the
measurements of momentum loss shown in Figure 4.8.
2.3.3 InHuences of Wingtips and Supports JACOBS and ABBOTT [R669] give corrections that should be
All the earlier profile measurements made by the AVA appli~d to the drag to allow for support interference. They
and by the NACA have been carried out on wings with are applicable to the measurements made in the NACA
blunt tips, but measurements in the DVL windtunnel variabledensity windtuI).nel from 1931 to 1939, and are
show that considerable differences in. the experimental reproduced in Figure 2.7.
values arise, depending on whether the ~ngs are blunt at
2.3.4 ln1Iuence of Turbulence in the Air
In Section 2.2 the problem of turbulence in wind tunnels
5 has been very thoroughly treated, because the state of
Fig. 2.6. Values of CL max
~, for the profileseries NACA turbulence of the airstream has a decisive influence on the
K
11 ....... 24 with: (a) blunt tips; (b) formation of the boundary layer; this in turn affects the
12
~ r(~, rounded tips. Wind tunnel:
DVL 5 m x '1 m. Effective drag and, above all, the maximum lift. When measurements
Reynoldsnumber: approxi made on models are applied to free air of low turbulence it
t mately 3.10'.
1.f, is, therefore, essential to take the origin of the measure
{}08 01(1 016 0'20 0'211 ments into account. Both the American VDT aI).d the
tic first 2 m X 2 m tunnel of the Gottingen Institute for Model
Tests have a particularly high degree of turbulence;
the tips or are rounded (that is, fitted with tipfairings).
consequently, the maximum lift coefficients measured in
These measurements have been carried out at a Reynolds
these tunnels are not usually attained in free air, and the
number of 2.7.106 ; for this reason the drag coefficients are
measurements should not be applied to freeflight models
smaller than previous results. In Figure 2.6 CLmax .' for the
(even if the Reynolds numbers seem to lie in the correct
NACA profiles 2409 to 2421, is plotted against thickness; range); instead, later measurements made 'in lowturbu
this example shows how the thickness changes the effect lence windtunnels should be applied. The results of
of rounded tips. The tipfairings employed here are of the SCHMITZ are of interest here.
2.4 REFERENCES 23
Attention is drawn to a source of errors of a special kind GOTHERT, B.: Windkanalkorrekturen bei hohen Unterschall
geschwindig keiten. LGLBericht 127 (1940), S. 114 und
which has up till now received little attention; sometimes
Jahrb. 1941 dDL, S. 1684/691.
it can exert a considerable influence upon the measured HOERNER, S.: Vel'suche mit Kugeln betreffend Kennzahl, Tur
maximum lift since it causes a change in th'e state of the bulenz und Oberfiachenbeschaffenheit. Lufo 12 (1935), 42
boundary layer. Suppose that the wires used to measure bis 54.
the drag component, which are fastened to points on the  Aerodynamic Drag, Dayton, Ohio, ,1951. (
JACOBS, E. N. and J. H. ABBOTT: The NACA Variabledensity
leading edge of the wing, do not both run parallel to the
Wind Tunnel. NACA Rep. 416 (1932).
freestream direction to two points in front of the wing, JONES, B. M.: The Measurement of Profile Drag by the Pitot
but are brought together in Vform to a single point; the Traverse Method. R & M No. 1688 (1936).
effect is the same as if a "turbulence wire" were stretched KLEIN, M.: Windkanalwaagen. Mon. D2 1.1.
in front of the wing, parallel to the leading edge; as a result KRAlIIER, M.: Der5 X 7 mWindkanalder DVL. Lufo 12 (1935),
there is transition of the laminar boundary layer to a S.181187.
 Elektrisch gesteuerte Laufgewichtswaage fiir hohe MeB
turbulent one, 'and an apparent increase in the values of genauigkeit und Fernaufzeichnung der MeBwerte, Z. VDI
CLm . . : The measurements on some G6ttingen profiles 80 (1936), S. 141. '
(from Profile 456 to Profile 592, but there are exceptions) LOCK, C. N. H., W. F. HILTON and S. GOLDSTEIN: Determina
have been made in the presence of such a Vshaped wire tion of Profile Drag at High Speeds by a Pitot Traverse
Method. R & M No. 1971 (1940).
suspension, and therefore require certain corrections; this
LUDWIEG, H.: Windkanalkorrekturen bei kompressibler Stro
is particularly true of the CL maz . results. mung. Mon. D3 4.2 (1946).
MATT, H.: Aufbau und Strahleigenschaften des DVLHochge
schwindigkeitswindkanals. LGLBericht 127 (1940) und
2.4 References Mon. D12.1.
ACKERET, J.: Experimentelle lind theoretische Untersuchungen  EinfluB verschiedener Windkanalaufhangungen auf die
iiber Hohlraumbildung (Kavitation) im Wasser. Techn. aerodynamischen Beiwerte von Fliigeln, LGLBericht 156
Mech. und Thermodynaniik 1 (1930), S. 122 u. 6372. (1942).
 Das Institut fiir Aerodynamik des neuen Maschinenlabo PLATT, R. C.: Turbulence Factors of NACA WindTunnels as
ratoriums der E.T.H. Mitt. Inst. fiir Aerodynamik, Ziirich, Determined by Sphere Tests. NACA Rep. 558 (1936).
Nr. 8 (1943). ' PRANDTL, L.: Der Luftwiderstand von Kugeln. Nachrichten
BETZ, A.: Eine Methode zur direkten Bestimmung des Profil der Gessellschaft der Wissenschaften, Math.Phys.Klasse
widerstandes. ZFM (1925). 1914.
 and R. SEIFERTH: Untersuchung von Flugzeugmodellen  Die Bedeutung von Modellversuchen fiir die Luftschiffahrt
im Windkanal. Handb. d. ExperimentalPhysik, Bd. IV, 2 und Flugtechnik und die Einrichtungen fiir solche Versuche
(1932). in Gottingen. Z. VDI 1909, S. 1711.
DOENHOFF, A. E. v. and F. T. ABBOTT jr.: The Langley Two  Tragftiigeltheorie II. Mitt. Nachr. d. Kgl. Ges. d. Wiss.
dimensional Lowturbulence Pressure Tunnel. NACA TN Gottingen, Math.Phys. Kl. 1919, S. lO7137. Wiederab
No. 1283 (1947). druck in: Vier Abhandlungen zur Hydrodynamik und
DOETSCH, H.: Profilwiderstandsmesilungen im groBen Wind Aerodynamik, Gottingen 1927.
kanal der DVL. Lufo 14 (1937), S. 173. REGENSCHEIT, B.: Untersuchungen iiber den EinfluB der Rand
DRYDEN, H. L. and A. M. KUETHE: Effect of Turbulence in kappenform auf die TragfliigelmeBergebnisse. Techn. Ber.
WindTunnel Measurements. NACA Rep. 342 (1930). d. ZWB. Bd. 11 (1944), S. 113.
DRYDEN, H. L., C. B. SCHUBAUER, W. C. MOCK, Jr. and RIEGELS, F.: Windkanalkorrekturen bei inkompressibler Stro
H. K. SKRAMSTAD: Measurements of Intensity and Scale of mung. Mon. D3 4.1 (1946).
WindTunnel Turbulence and their Relation to the Critical SEIFERTH, R.: Messung der Kanalturbulenz und ihr Zusammen
Reynolds Number of Spheres. NACA Rep. 581 (1937). hang mit der Hitzdrahtmessung. Mon. Dl 4.2 (1946).
DRYDEN, H. L. and L. H. ABBOTT: The Design of Low Tur 'SCHLICHTING, H.: EinfluB der Turbulenz und der Reynolds
bulence Windtunnels. NACA TN 1755 (1948) und R 940 Bchen Zahl auf die Tragfiiigeleigenschaften. Ringbuch der
(1949). Luftfahrttechnik I A 1 (1937).
FAGE, A.: Experiments on a Sphere at Critical Reynolds Num SCHMITZ, F. W.: Zur Aerodynamik der kleinen Reynoldszahlen.
bers. R & M No. 1766 (1936). Jahrb. 1953 der WGL, S. 149165.
FERRI, A.: La Galleria Ultrasonora di Guidonia. Atti di SCHUBAUER, G. B. and H. L. DRYDEN: The Effect of Turbulence
Guidonia No. 15, (1939) and Aircraft Engineering 12 (1940), on the Drag of Flat Plates. NACA Rep. 546 (1935).
p.302305. SILVERSTEIN, A.: Scale Effect on Clark Y Airfoil Characteristics
 Influenza del N'umerodi Reynolds ai Grandi Numeri di from NACA FullScale WindTunnel Tests. NACA Rep. 502
Mach. Atti di Guidonia .No. 6769 (1942). (1934).
DE FRANCE, S. I.: The NACA FullScale WindTunnel. NACA TAYLOR, G., I. : The Determination of Drag by the PitotTraverse
Rep. 459 (1933). Method. R & M No. 1808 (1937).
GLAUERT, H.: see Section 1.5.1. WEINIG, F.: Berechnung der Profilbeiwerte aus den Beiwerten
GOETT, H. 1.: Experimental Investigations of the Momentum des Modellfliigels. FB 1666 (1942).
Method for Determining Profile Drag. NACA Rep. 660 WINTER, H.: 'Oberdruckkanal der Aerodynamischen Ver
(1938). suchsanstalt Gottingen. Jb. 1937 dDL und Luftwissen 3
GOTHERT, B.: Widerstandsbestimmung bei hohen Unterschall (1936), S. 237. .
geschwindigkeiten aus Impulsverlustmessungen. Jb. 1941 ZOBEL, TH.: Fortschritte in der optischen StromungsmeBsung.
dDL I, S. 148. FB 1934 (1944) und DAL Nr. 5008/44. '
.
3. FORCE AND MOMENT COEFFICIENTS
3.1 Characteristic Aerodynamic Quantities Drag and lift are to be regarded as components of the
The force on a moving wing is proportional to the area, total force, R = V L2 +D2, in the direction of the free
S, of the wing (or, in the twodimensional case we are stream and normal to this direction respectively (see Figure
considering, to the chord, c, of the profile) and to the 3.1). If the total force is resolved in the direction of the
kinetic pressure, q = (e/2) V2 (where e is the density of the
fluid). Consequently, it is usual to give the drag, D, and
the lift, L, in the form of dimensionless coefficients: Fig. 3.1. Resolution of total
aerodynamic force (R) into
D '0 L L' drag (D) and Iift (L). or into
OD = qS' 
 qS' (3.1) tangential Ilnd normal forces
(respectively Nand T)
briefly, 0;0; N
ON=' (3.4)
(b) the ideal angle of incidence, 0;*; this is the angle of qS
incidence (for cambered profiles) at which the flow does If 0; is the angle between the direction fixed with respect to
J.. not turn abruptly round the leading or trailing edges the profile and the direction of the free stream, then the
of the camber line, but attaches smoothly and leaves formulas connecting the coefficients are
smoothly; in theoretical work 0;* is sometimes called
the" design angle of incidence "t. For further remarks OT =,OL sin 0; + OD cos o;} (3.5)
see Sections 8.2.1.2 and 8.2.5. ON = 0 L cos 0; + 0 D sin 0;
According to theory, a simple relation exists between for small values of 0; these become
lift coefficient and angle of incidence,
(3.6)
OL = dOL. ( )
TaSIn 0; 0;0. (3.2)
In addition to these forces we are interested in the
Experimental results confirm this equation for. small pitching moment of the total force with respect to a fixed
angles of incidence, In which range the relationship is point of the profilefor example, the leading edge
linear, being (suffix l); we write
(3.3) (M)z = (Om)zqSc; (3.7)
it is taken to be positive if its effect is to increase thfJ angle
Because of viscous effects the constant value for the lift of incidence. The total force, R (resulting from the lift, L,
curve slope, df:, is less than the theoretical value. It is not
and the drag, D), cuts the line chosen as reference axis in
a point at a distance h from the leading edge; the reference
possible to find a similar simple theoretical relation for the axis is a line fixed with respect to the profile, examples
drag coefficient, 0 D. being the chord and the freestream direction at zero lift.
t The German expression for a* is "der Anstellwinkel des Hence, we can write
sto.l3freien Eintritts", "the angle of incidence of shockfree
attachment" . (M)z = h(L coso: + D sin a) = hN. (3.8)
3.1 CHARACTERISTIC AERODYNAMIC QUANTITIES 25
The point (at a distance h from the leading edge) that is equation of the envelope is
[. +,g}~2Yr
the intersection of the profile chord and the line of action
of the total force is called the centre of pressure of the
profile; its position is given by
h (Om)z
c=  (3.9)
ON'
sin 2(atn  y). The method by which the behaviour of the moment has
sinaln been obtained is strictly valid for inviscid flow only;
but the assumptions made concern only the dependence
Choose coordinates x* and y* with origin at the point to which of OL and (Om)/ on O:in. According to measurement,
the moment is referred; let the x* axis be parallel to the free OL and (Om)! differ from the theoretical values; therefore,
;';, stream direction at zero lift, and the y* axis be normal to this the focus almost always lies at a point different from that
Ii direction. The line of action of the lift cuts the x* axis at the just determined, and the moment with respect to this
point h = zjcos aln, and the equation of this line is
I x* + y* tan aln = _ z _ ;
cos aln
point is not exactly constant. Nevertheless, even in
viscous flow, a point exists referred to which the moment is
approximately independent of angle of incidence; this is
L
true for every profile in a certain (sometimes very limited)
( tan aln (k, say) occurs as a parameter here. The family of lines of
o'
~
action F(x*, y*, k) = has an envelope whose equation is range of 0 L. The point is called the aerodynamic centre
(a.c.) of the profile or, so~etimes, the neutral point of the
c" of
by_~t~ 1b.t_n F ~ 0 =d_O_k_=_O. The
profile; it corresponds to the focus of the lift parabola in
, 26
CL
*0 ao *0 '0
Fig. 3.3 Induence of trailing edge angle on CL(a) and CL(Cm). Wind tunnel: DVL 2.7 m
two profiles Go 420 and Go 623. Although the assumption on the perpendicular from the leading edge (the coefficient,
of twodimensional flow made elsewhere in this book does (Omh, is positive when the tendency is to decrease the
not hold here and a conversion to A = 00 would have angle of incidence!); for the profiles Go 758 and beyond,
little meaning, these measurements should be regarded as a the reference point lies at one quarter of the chord from
welcome addition to our knowledge. the leading edge (the coefficient, Om, is positive when the
tendency is to increase the angle of incidence); the latter
t Instead of the three values of CL proposed here the NACA definition is here used throughout (that is, for the older
(see [R537]) determine the aerodynamic centre and the cor
responding moment by using Equation (3.11) twice (when profiles as well). In the figures and tables, jetboundary
CL = 0; and when CL = C~, C~ being close to CLm,x) and by corrections have been applied, and the conversion to
A = 00 has been performed with allowance for the effect
making ~~; have the measured value at CL = O. of the lift distribution on the wing (see Section 2.3).
3.2 REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 27
The Gottingen profile Go 398 (with its maximum thick After verification of the properties of the NACA 24 and
ness at 30% of the chord) has proved particularly favour 230 series by measurements in the 5 m X 7 m windtunnel
able (this profile is approximately the same as the Clark Y of the DVL (DOETSCH), an extensive programme was
profile); its thickness distribution is, therefore, the basis of carried out in this tunnel to determine the effect of changes
the extensive systematic measurements made by the NACA in the thickness distribution (in particular, the effect of
in the VDT (see Section 7.3.2, Type D l ). These measure varying the nose radius and the position of maximum
ments, carried out at the high effective Reynolds number thickness); the results of these measurements can be found
of 8 .106 [R460], have led to a number of standard profiles in the collection of data of Table 11.1 and also in Table 11.5.
(in particular, the 24 and 230 series) with distinctive The investigations, carried out at a Reynolds number of
properties. Although later measurements in lowturbulence 2'7.106, demonstrate the favourable influence on the drag
windtunnels of the DVL and the NACA reveal a number both of a rearward displacement of the maximum thickness
Lt ,
t R'" '1.I0~ R=IH.l0~
A I/'\.
08 / I' 19H17a
 / rz:;;; r'
IJ6
1/ _f... ~~ 1/ ~
ft!Plate
,
/II V V /"
j/;.,615
I II ./ ~
tJ.1 IIV II1/
/"
I
o If/', , 11 16"
(l((l(.
lit'
W,.
B B
,a.a..
11" 16 ~
I
R :J.6II.1it R=H.tiI
~
V
11
/........ /" V
n ~61S
1/~61S

\
~o
\
~
6II'17Y / ai~ /

08 1\
~. FLat Plate
/; FLat Plate
i.J
\
\ 1/11
/~ / V ~
tJ.1
jj 7J
I( If
,. ,. 11" /6.
ot.at,
M" 0 ,. rot...a..
Fig. 3.4a, b. Dependence of lift coefficient on Reynold. number, for typical proflles
(SCHMITZ). Wind tunnel: Cologne
of deficiencies in these results, such a systematic investiga from the normal value of 30% of the chord and of a
tion gives considerable insight into the influences of decrease in nose radius from the normal value role =
.thickness, camber, and position of maximum camber. 11 (t/e)2; it is found possible to obtain significant laminar
The deficiencies are removed to a certain extent by the effects (that is, to keep the boundry layer laminar longer
application of corrections (in. particular, for the maximum than is usual with "normal" profiles). Unfortunately,
lift (C Lm.. ) and the minimum drag (CD m1n ) [R669]) and undesirable changes frequently occur in' the liftcurve
by new measurements in lowturbulence windtunnels slope and in the behaviour of the moment; they are
[R 824]. Because of the existence of later measurements, caused by the unfavourable movement of the transition
we do not reproduce the old experimental results, but point on profiles of this type. These changes are eliminated
simply refer to the literature. only when the trailing edge angle is made smaller (Figure
28 3. FORCE AND MOMENT COEFFICIENTS
'
. dOL
P1ate IS a;; . ra d'lans, or dOLO
= 2n, 1'f Ct IS. measured ill Ta = .11 012 11 11 smoolh
0/0
NACA 65 s.,.,.
  
if Ct is measured in degrees. We introduce an efficiency '(aullh
ooe
factor, 1J, by the relation f}{J6 ~rJ 11
O'I~
OIZ 1I J! 11
1__
Jmollih
(3.12) 0/0
IHI8
NACA 66. Series  ~,
'f!'ugh
006 I I I I
For the Gottingen flatplate measurements (Figure 3.4b), 8 12 16 flc 2'
the value 1J = 1 is very nearly reached, but the measured
value becomes smaller as the Reynolds number decreases,
and falls to 1J = 084 when R = 42.104.
dCL
The behaviour of 1J for the cambered plate is anomalous Fig. 3.S. ([; (a in degrees) as a Fig. 3.6. Influence of Mach
function of thickness ratio. 'for dCL
(Figures 3.4a and b); although 1J increases theoretically by various profile ~eries. Wind tunnel:
number on (i';" for sym
a factor of only [1 + k( f)2], if{ is small, the measurements LTT. Reynolds number: 6'10' metrical NACA proilies. Wind
tunnel: DVr. 2'7 m
on, for example, Go 417 a for 0 L < 06, give the high valuet
The later profiles with small nose radius and maximum
1J :::::; 1'38, corresponding to df: = 28n; this value is thickness lying further back display a somewhat different
behaviour; because of the favourable pressure distribution
alm<Jst independent of Reynolds number from R = 42.104 the boundary layer remains very thin even in the turbulent
up to R = 42.10s. For 0 L > 0'6, 1J certainly decreases region; turbulent separation does not occur until near the
with increasing OLand is soon less than 1. trailing edge, so that the influence of viscosity is con
The usual profiles of finite thickness, with maximum siderably smaller. At Reynolds numbers above 6.106 ,
thickness at about 30% of the chord, have a poor value of therefore,1J continues to increase with thickness and reaches
1J in the subcritical region, but 1J increases with the Rey values up to about 107. However, if the rear part of the
nolds number and reaches values of about 09 in the super profile bulges too much (large trailing edge angle), as in
critical region, at a Reynolds number of 4 . lOS. At Reynolds profiles investigated by the DVL and in those of the NACA
numbers of the order of 106 , and with not too large a Iseries, the unfavourable pressure distribution causes a
thickness ratio, 1J becomes almost equal to 1. For a constant thicker boundary layer, and hence a decrease in 1J; for
Reynolds number (say, R = 6.106 ) a fall is detectable such profiles an increase in camber leads to improvement.
t This high value results from separation on the pressure side, In general, the factor 1J decreases considerably with
the expected suction not being realised. Reynolds number at high 0 L values, the cause being the
3.3 BEHAVIOUR OF THE LIFT 29
large increase in boundary layer thickness. The influence number increases still further are caused by the appearance
of" standard roughness" of the surface (see Section 4.1.3) of shocks and their interaction with the boundary layer.
on the liftcurve slope is shown in Figure 3.5. When the Mach number is greater than unity, but not
From the PrandtlGlauert rule (see Section 10.3) df: large compared with unity then, if the flow is wholly
supersonic and the angle of incidence is small, a linear
increases with Mach number as . / 1 _; this is weli behaviour is agai~ observed; according to a wellconfirmed
v1M2 dOL . 4 .
confirmed for profiles of small and moderate thickness, until theory da then takes the value (M2 _ 1)1/2 (see SectIon
the critical Mach number is reached, but considerable 1O.5.3).
deviations occur at higher Mach numbers and 0 1, values
(Figures 3.6 and 3.7). As the Mach number increases there 3.3.2 Angle of Zero Lift
20 The angle of zero lift for the flat plate is independent of
t
dCL
doc lLo_
!!
,,, Reynolds number but, for a cambered plate, a small
decrease with increasing Reynolds number is detectable
15 H.i (Figure 3.8); the effect of Reynolds number is most
11 i ,/ ! I r/at lute
02 iI' I
i o t I
12
jv,
\ /~1 t
~ 60''11711
NACA 61t, A 212
NACA'I'I15

 1 I
8
8
1
1 !f Go 625
>,*009
~.~4~~1
:1 I I ~ I
4 Q.o 1'v/ 12 0
2 6 8 105 2 'f 6 8 10 6
I?
2
: I
o ,~
*'
, ,
/tl Io'ig. 3.8. Angle of Incidence at zero lift, as a function of Reynolds
number
*012
 ~\
4 tl~
:' I
~'
marked on cambered, thick profiles. ao is always relatively
small for subcritical Reynolds numbers, but it jumps to a
large negative value when the critical Reynolds number is
zd.o
c,..Oj :l./
o ;iI t Iy'*qog
r: qo I~I
o
.045
=.::~h
, joJ 05 1 107
~I
J {)'9
I
, \ J\ 2
2~
I1cr/~ I'
o 02
.~j
'v ~M
~8
 o
2
t
0\1 ~S
I.
~*0"2
Mcrit~ f'1
c
1 10.7
q.o
f \ 09
M
~
deL
Fig. 3.7. Influence of Mach number on d;;' for the NACA 230
series. Wind tunnel: DVL 27 m t
I,
~,.().I5 a.o f\
2
is initially a considerable rise, then a fall, and finally
another rise. As the camber is increased, the measured
~9
z .
Mach number, and OL no longer behaves linearly with a. Fig. 3.9. Angle of Incidence for zero 11ft, as a function of
Mach number (for the 230serle.)
. . . II
Th e mitia arge'mcrease m
. dOL
a;;' which occurs when t he
exceeded (that is, when there is transition to turbulent
critical Mach number is exceeded, is predicted by more flow in the boundary layer); it then rises with increasing
accurate theory, but the changes occurring as the Mach Reynolds number to an almost constant value. This value
"
L
30 3. FORCE AND MOMENT COEFFICIENTS
is essentially dependent only on the camber for medium By a combination of suitable thickness and camber
and high Reynolds numbers; it is almost completely distributions, it is possible to design profiles for which at
independent of the profile thickness (see Table 11.1).
2
Deviations from the theoretical angle of zero lift usually lie
t Ct,D rt atI jQ:oii
t~~;1~lr11
L
'*
J
of camber line; for the camber line which has a constant o ~':\ 11
N ) .. __ 'l.~V\ H
~ ~ 10.1 ....r,2 UUf 'fh., I
velocity deviations of 25% are found. I '001
w  c::o::: ...
t~11021 _
The angle of zero lift does not change rapidly with Mach
number until shocks appear; the change then depends very
much on the profile shape. The behaviour with increasing
Mach number is usually as follows: there is a small
2
3
[ooz
[.",.,.
T r..:::..::.
foo
1
b2 =r ~:
,
o
2
.~
105
'1104
1.4 l== '  
_~
~
J
~11
" fM
~
decrease in ao, until a Mach number of about 0;8 is
reached; the decrease is then usually followed by a sudden,
IS
t 1'1; 1' 'Qj;, 
tr~~
~t a
~.06
t~t;,..(H ht 6
large rise. For the NACA 230series (Figure 3.9) only a
small dependence on Mach number is detectable until far
beyond the critical Mach number. When the Mach number
3
I.. 'tJlQI
..002
::; ..... " ... li r ~ ~
.~
:::::
'"::::0::: ~z ~ \l
r<::
'"
~' I
:::: t....
is greater than 08 the large changes already mentioned
2
'I;; ,, 3 ~ j ,\
appear, and they increase with thickness. Figure 3.10 is a i\: r R:: ~ 17 11'
comparison of the variation of angle of zero lift with o 00+ t... ~,U
tL 2
, '~ ~
Mach number for three profiles of various shapes [R947]; 06 07 O~ O~ 06 07 O~
'0
,,..r
1 Fig. 3.11. a plotted against M at constant CL. Profile series:
x 3512  0'55 40 (with various values of maximum camber).
H
Dashed lines: PrandtlGlimert rule
~6"
W
3.4 Maximum Lift
().+. There is generally a considerable variation of maximum
003 fM M lift with Reynolds number. Figure 3.12 shows a small
selection from the large amount of material in Table 11.1.
Fig. 3.10. a.(M) for some modem profiles.
I NAJ230~~ V vrJ
I
I
with a flap deflection of _6, the profile having a fairly I N1~Zr2
large atshows approximately the same variation as the
i
10
~917~
T
..... / ........
I'"
~/
v
.....   'j",J
increases with Mach number in supersonic flow.
I NACA 65oh6 j
3.3.3 Effect of Increase in Mach Number on the Relation Flut Plate
between Lift and Angle of Incidence
(}6
Because of the large irregularities as sonic speed is  6 81r1 2
approached (from below), diagrams of the behaviour of
a a
either angle of incidence for constant L or L for constant Fig. 3.12. lIIaxlmum 11ft as a function of Reynolds number, for selected
profiles
angle of incidence are frequently used in addition to
d~L and ao. An example of the first type
For subcritical flow only very small lifts are reached
diagrams for of
throughout (the cambered plate forming an exception):
diagram is given in Figure 3.11; according to the Prandtl after the critical Reynolds number is passed, aLm&x.
Glauert rule the curves of a against M should be ellipses, increases very rapidly at first; when the supercritical
and these are also drawn in the diagram; the ellipses have state is reached its growth is again slow, and this behaviour
zero slope when M = 0, and infinite slope at a = 0, M = 1. often continues up to high Reynolds numbers, but is
3.5 PROFILE DRAG 31
sometimes disturbed by a temporary fall. In general, the values in the Reynoldsnumber range R = 2.104 to
maximum lift increases with camber. R = 6.10 7 The drag of the flat plate is wholly skin
For a fixed Reynolds number OLmax ., when plotted friction drag and agrees with theoretical predictions: on
against thickness, shows pronounced maxima, the position the other hand, the camber~d plate (in a supercritical
of these maxima depending on the profile series being stream) is almost completely independent of Reynolds
investigated; for profiles whose maximum thickness lies at number at ex = 0 (that is, the drag is predominantly
t form drag). For cambered profiles of finite thickness both
about 30% of the chord they are usually close to  = 012. types of drag occur, and a strong dependence on Reynolds
c
If the maximum thickness lies further back, the maxima number...~ec?~~~_~_p~!lnt::~~~. is veryhigh in sub
occur at higher values of the thickness ratio (~ = 0.16); for critical flow because the contribution of the form drag is
high; when the critical Reynolds number is exceeded the
the NACA 66series OL mas has a high, constant value drag falls suddenly, because the boundary layer is no
longer laminar when it separates; the region of separated
in the range of ~c from 015 to 0'21, provided that the
flow is then considerably smaller, since the turbulent
Reynolds number is high (9.106 ). boundary layer remains attached for longer. Therefore, a
The influence of nose radius on the maximum lift is turbulent boundary layer is desirable in this region of
quite large (see Figure 5.2). For the DVL series (R = Reynolds number (usually beyond R = 105 ); the effect is
2'7.106 ) 0 L max ., with normal thickness ratios of 12% and to reduce the drag, because flow that would otherwise have
15%, shows the following behaviour as the nose radius separated stays attached, and so the form drag contribu
is decreased: from the normal value of nose radius down to tion is reduced/For normal profile shapes transition of the
one half this value there is a slight fall; but, when the nose boundary layer usually occurs in the first third of the
radius has become one quarter the normal value, OLmas . profile chord; this is true of the fourfigure NACA profiles
has sunk to almost one half of its initial value. (shown together with Gottingen profiles in Figure 3.13) in
Other factors affect the behaviour of 0 L max. : both the the range of Reynolds number between 105 and 106 }Vith
state of turbulence of the air and the quality of the surface increasing Reynolds number the skinfriction drag be~ ,.
have a decisive influence (see Sections 2.3.4: and 4.1). CQm~~ m~eimportant. A glance at the theoretical curves
for the flat pl~te (Figure 9.15) shows that large reductions
in drag are obtainable at higher Reynolds numbers, if it is
3.5 Profile Drag
possible to increase the length of laminar boundary layer
3.5.1 Incompressible Flow. Minimum Drag (that is, to displace rearwards the point of transition).
The minimum drag of a profile occurs at vanishing lift With a suitable pressure distribution or profile shape it is
(OL = 0) for symmetrical profiles and, generally, at the possible to achieve these reductions, as measurements in
ideal angle of incidence for cambered profiles (that is, all windtunnels of sufficiently low turbulence have shown.
when 0 L = Ot). Figure 3.13 gives a survey of experimental In Figure 3.13 are also plotted the drag coefficients of some
01
6
X Wr
r G55Z5 (ZO/.)
5
~~ Z
(T5%)
" ~k 1'\
~5Z3(TZ%)
".J
G~rZ5
N50(lZ,t%, I/D ," ..;< :./ZZ (6 NACA 5.Jmo)+ZZ
Z 0016
............. ~~.hz1)+ZO
~ ~lOlZ
Without
t.w :..:::.:: I; 0009 / 55; +18
(}01 tWithtw.
I
k~<~'5(215r 115
Co
t
6
5
It
Z
...... "'
...... ......
~
tI'<:
I'
r
~lz~ t
 
I I
WI/ I I
..77 f.~
kGii 780~I'"riot Plute
(lurOulentj
" r'~)J
......
0001 4 Q..;
6 c>~
....f"'>".
5 '?~
"
If " ~,
'~
It 5 6 10' Z 5 6 10 1 Z
R
Fig. 3.13. Minimum drag coefficient as a function of Reynolds number for some profiles
(tw, turbulent wire; LB 24, Japanese profile)
32 3. FORCE A!'i"D MOME!'i"T COEFFICIEXTS
characteristic profiles for which the point of transition has 3.5.2 Incompressiltle Flow. Dependence on Lift Coeffi
been displaced rearwards to 60% of the chord. It must be cient
emphasised that these profiles, though favourable at high Figure 12.66 and Tables 11.5 contain measured polars for
Reynolds numbers, may have higher drag coefficients at Joukowsky profiles at R = 4.105 An important feature
low Reynolds numbers than profiles with a maximum (which is true of all profiles) is that the effect of camber,
thickness at 30% of the chord; this is because the large provided it is small, consists simply in a shift of the whole
pressurerise behind the minimum pressure gives rise to polar to a higher value of 0 L; more radical changes in the
laminar separation, and so produces an increase in the shape of the polar occur only when the camber is large
form drag. (above 10%); these become more noticeable with increas
The behaviour of the. drag coefficient as a function of ing thickness.
thickness and camber, at constant Reynolds number, is of There is no basic change in this behaviour at higher
interest. Measurements carried out at a Reynolds number Reynolds numbers. For laminar profiles, the region of
of 4.105 on Joukowsky profiles lead to the approximate minimum drag is shifted in the same way.
formula The point of transition moves forward suddenly when
oL exceeds a certain value, and so the laminar region is
aDmin. = 0'004,6 + 0044 c + generally sharply delimited; for example, almost all
measurements on the profiles of the NACA 6series show
this. The width of the region increases considerably with
thickness; in particular, its upper limit moves to higher
this has been derived by a careful study of the results in aL values. For thickness ratios c~ ~ 012, the width of the
. t f
t he regIOn  < 0'25,  < 011. We see that the drag aL region with minimum drag is usually less than.10L =
c c 01. The measurements show clearly that this region
coefficient increases as the first power of the thickness becomes smaller as the Reynolds number increases; this
ratio, but as the third power of the camber. Corresponding is confirmed by an investigation of the profile NACA
approximate formulas for other profiles and Reynolds 65(421)420 carried out up to very high Reynolds numbers
numbers can be easily derived from Table 11.1. This table (up to R = 35.106 ) [R824]. Once the laminar region has
shows that, at a Reynolds number of 6.106 , the approxi ended, a steep rise in the drag occurs (usually very soon),
mately linear rise with thickness ratio is still valid. For the an effect that becomes more noticeable as the Reynolds
four and five figure NACA profiles we have, approximately, number is increased. It is interesting that exactly the
opposite behaviour is observed with the usual four and
t five figure NACA profiles (with maximum thickness at
aDmin = 00038 + 0016  for R
c
= 6.106, 
c
< 015;
30% of the chord): the drag decreases with increasing
Reynolds number at the higher 0 L values. If we were to
and for the NACA 66series we have examine the range of OL in which the drag is small, we
would find that, in contrast to the laminar profiles, these
t t
aDmin.= 00026 + 0'007  for R
c
= 6.106, 
c
< 015. profiles show a broadehing of the region with increasing
Reynolds number. If the position of maximum thickness
With increasing thickness ratio, terms of higher order is moved still further forward, the drag coefficient remains
appear and these soon become dominant. For example, approximately constant up to very high 0 L values (see, for
HOERNER (see Section 1.5.1) gives the following formula: example, the profile Go 769, Figure 12.88).
c/U4
(}flZ (}QZ
'Of.
to to ~c ()M
t t '6
(}Qf (}(Jf
(}Q09 (}(JOS
C
(}OO6 (}Q06
0007 (}(J07
(}006 (}006
If o
1H2
(}(J3 003
(}OZ (}O2
IJ.ft
to CO
t t
(}Ot (}Of
OQ09 (}Q{)g c
(}Q06 (}(J08
0007 (}(J07
(}OO6 (}Q06
M
(}(J05
oj .+ f) QI}
(}()O5
.+ I u,
:Fig. 3.14. Drag coefficient as a function of Mach number for various combinations of angle of Incidence and thickness
ratio (maximum thickness at 30% of the chord). Wind tunnel: DVL 2'7 m
,.,
NACA2JO tic ::~ NACA 2.10 tic r= NACA ZJO tic
()Q.J
c;.O =~ Cl.(}Z ~ CI (}+
()Q.J
002 !Z
Co CO
t t
001 001
~ Hr;n
0008 f/cOfZ eli! f/c045
()OQ4_
: ~c0.f5 (}()08
,,(}fZ
(}{)g
:i"q.og
fJOO+
o O~ (J.+ Q6 06 (}7 ...!! M fM5 0 (}J (J.+ IJ6 06 (}7 ..!!H fM5 0 O~O" IJ6 06 fJ'1
Fig. 3.15. As above, but for the 230serles at various values of CL (DVL)
34 3. FORCE AND MOMENT COEFFICIENTS
()(}2 02
Co
t JIJ
0111 01
()(}OB 009
(}QOO '8 008
JfJ%
0007
.10%
()(}06 ruua
ruuu 11 ~
.~ 110"
0005 1105
M N N
o .j . .f:fo IN (}O R:(}8.5 O'J:f l; !'6 In IN 5 o oJ
Fr'0"wv '5 '0 07 (}O R:015f Fig. 3.16 ac
1J.00l 'QIJJ
''Ole r~!.c
NACA 0OO12/~ 40 NACA 00012 (t/C)3 40 NACA 00012(tIC)' 40
It (ZaO I (Za4 f a_6
(}QJ OJ OJ
(}02 02 D2
Co
t
()(}f '01 1 '"
()(}09
11
(}OOO
(}QO7 '00, flJ7
f/6$
(}QO6 I'IIW fJ06
(}Q05

(}QO
.. M /of
fJDII.
M
o R=(}8.5 3.+ o t=

5 (}7 0 .~ ~. Ftq15 0:J_4 07 (}8 j::f085
()(}OJ
'0 01
IJOJ
'0 't '0 Fig. 3.17 ac
()(}Z 02 '02
Co
i 4"
(}Of 01 'Ot
(}o09 fXJ9
(}Qo.'8 1lJ8 0"" 16
()(}O7
()(}O0
"'''
f
(UIII [WI
()(}O5 0
'006
005
2
'DOlI
0D5
' ",
(}Oo+ .fJD/t tIJ
M M M
:'J:t 5 ~'6 t,(}7 ()8
f R'1N5
.....,.Of
1=Fp"5 0_"J:'4 07 ()8 \:ro05 '5_ 0 08
(}oOJ IJOJ
'0
tIi Fig. 3.18 ac
Fig. 3.16. As above, but for various positions of maximum thickness Fig. 3.17. As above, but for various values of nose radius
(see Equation (1.7
Fig. 3.18. As above, but for various cambers, with halfnormal nose radius and maximum thickness at 40% of the chord
3.6 MOMENT COEFFICIENT, CENTRE OF PRESSURE AND AERODYNAMIC CENTRE 35
Chapter 12. For profiles with normal position of maximum position of maximum thickness moves rearward" (see
thickness, the sharp rise in drag usually begins soon after Table ILl).
the critical Mach number is exceeded; this Mach number Figure 3.19 shows the position of the centre of pressure
becomes higher as the thickness decreases, because the on some symmetrical profiles at high angles of incidence
disturbance velocities are smaller. For profiles whose IN3241]. For s~all Reynolds numbers, Figures 3.20 to
maximum thickness lies further back, the critical Mach 3.23 show measured positions of centre of pressure; we see
number can often be considerably exceeded without a
il.
)/0'/ p/O'/e ~5
consequent rise in drag. For the first class of profiles the c
Mach number at which the drag rise begins becomes lower
as the angle of incidence (or CL) increases; but, if the
t
thickness lies further back and the nose radius is suitably .'3. 105
chosen, the Mach number at which the rise begins is 168.10t. ~ .
...
practically the same for a small CL as for a fairly high 0 L.
!
The reason is that the shocks on a profile of the latter class I:'..t
~
:d!'cI R *"2.10"
interact with a boundary layer which is thin and usually 002
subjected to a favourable pressure gradient, so that it is
not likely to separate (see Section 10.4.1).
..
~ ..
~
. .......,_. .1./ 3.6.2 Compressible Flow
Oz
..
The influence of Mach n.umber on :g; is shown in
M =05
R ",7'3.10'
_ ... 
64006
001Z
Figures 3.24 and 3.25; at first the coefficients increase
slightly with :Mach number, and then there is a fall. For
 _ .. _ 64 018
1 J
I mcrease
some profil es t he mltla . 0 f dOm . conSl'd'erable,
dOLlS
o
but, after the critical Mach number is exceeded, the fall is
all the greater. This fall is sometimes followed by a further
Fig. 3.19. Position of centre of pressure of NACA proflles rise. The position of aerodynamic centre should theoretic
In contrast, the NACA profiles of the 6series show a ally be independent of Mach number. Nevertheless, a
rearward movement to a value of between O'27c and 0'28c slight forward displacement of the aerodynamic centre is
when : = 021'' this movement becomes smaller as the .
observe d ,correspon di ng to t he lnltla . dOm
... l'mcrease m dOL' The
c
36 3. FORCE AND MOMENT COEFFICIENTS
,
I
h  . R  z.t 10 r~ ...
~~
C
t \ \\ \ 0062.5
A5 ~ 6+,10 ~.;
.::"" (J,
ro . r '\
i'~ 1 .J. 0'8
o n. I
.......
~ ... ~ ._.'
J I\"~\
\ \
llL 06
I \ 11
! R ~ \ 0'.
16 0
oz
Fig. 3.22. As above, but for the profile Go 625 (SCHJIIlTZ) Fig. 3.23. 0 ..(0 L) for the profile
NACA 66,2215 (a  0'6).
Wind tunnel: CAT
00. ooz o C'm
020
de' t .009
~
(}16 "c
iI
(}ol2
008
(}I
o
()/
0", iN Ot
. :;1
b~
~.o4 ~~ UL
 M
H)
kj'
I ~I
00. 02
0 '3'2
0
c
0'2 (}4 (}O6 08 10 ide..
004
dCi . i1 I I
Fig. 3.24. Position of aero
()/
o
r i\'.r'
.
 ~.
M
~\ ~:
00 02 iN 06 fO
dynamic cen tre as a function of
~ 1>4
(}oIl
Mach number, for the symmetri
cal NACA series. Wind tunnel:
DVL 2'7 m
01 ,
..
0::
'.
02
/()
\li~1
\
centre is different for each profile and for each CL value, so
02
that general remarks are not possible; in a particular case "'1
all that can be done is to use the behaviour of the moment
for a suitable profile which has been experimentally Fig. 3.25. As above, but for the 230series
investigated (see, for example, Figures 12.133 ff).
L
3.7 REFERENCES 37
.1 SCHMITZ, F. W.: Zur Aerodynamik der kleinen Reynoldsschen gleich mit Ergebnissen in mittleren Windkanalen der DVL.
Zahlen. Jahrb. 1953 d. WGL. Braunschweig 1954. FB 1329 (1940).
SERBY, I. E., M. B. MORGAN and E. R. COPPER: Flight Test  Profilmessungen im DVLHochgeschwindigkeitsWindkanal
on the Profile Drag of 14% and 25% Thick Wings. R & M an symmetrischen NACAProfilen mit verschiedenen Dicken
1826 (1937). verhaltnissen. FB 1490 (1941). \
SILVERSTEIN, A.: Scale Effect on Clark Y Airfoil Characteristics  Druckverteilungsschaubilder und Impulsverlustschaubilder
from NACA WindTunnel Tests. NACA Rep. 502 (1934). fur das Profil NACA 000181, 130. FB 1505.
 and I. V. BECKER: Determination of BoundaryLayer  Profilmessungen im DVLHochgeschwindigkeitsWindkanal.
Transition on Three Symmetrical Airfoils in the NACA LGL 156 (1942).
FullScale Wind Tunnel. NACA Rep. 637 (1939).  Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen an einem Flugel sehr klei
SMITH, H. A. and R. F. SCHAFER: Aerodynamic Characteristics ner Abmessungen im DVLHochgeschwindigkeitsWind
at Reynolds Numbers of 3.106 and 6.106 of three Airfoil kana!. LGL 156 (1942).
Sections Formed by Cutting off Various Amounts from the GOTHERT, B.: Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen am Heinkel
Rear Portion of the NACA 0012 Airfoil Section. NACA TN Profil 0 00 120,715 36,6 im DVLHochgeschwindigkeits
2074 (1950). Windkanal. DVLBericht J 900/6 (1942).
SWATY, F.: Untersuchungen uber die Beeinfiussung der Bei  Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen am MesserschmittProfil
zahlen des Profils NACA 0018 durch Kiirzungen an der Me 235131,130 im DVLHochgeschwindigkeitsWind
Profilhinterkante. FB 1349 und Jahrb. 1940 dDL I, S. 58 kanal, DVLBericht J 900/17 (1942).
61.  Profilmessungen bei hohen Unterschallgeschwindigkeiten.
WALZ, A.: Messungen an zwei 13, 6% dicken Profilen mit klei UM 1229/1 und 2 (1944).
nem Hinterkantenwinkel im groBen AVAKanal. UM 3092  Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen am Profil Me 1 25 12
(1944). 0,82540. UM 1234/1, 2 (1944).
WILLIAMS, D. H. and A. F. BROWN: Experiments on an  Hochgesr.:hwindigkeitsmessungen an Profilen del' Reihe
Elliptic Cylinder in the Compressed Air Tunnel. R & M No. NACA 230 mit verschiedenen Dickenverhaltnissen (9, 12,
1817 (1937). 15%). UM 1259/1 bis 3 und UM 1260/1 bis 3 (1944).
YOUNG, A. D.: A Review of Some Stalling Research. R & M  Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen am MustangProfil 1,6 50
No. 2609 (1951). 13,60825 39. UM 1282/1 (1944).
 Hochgeschwindigkeitsmessungen an Luftschraubenprofilen
der RAFReihe mit verschiedenen Dickenverhaltnissen (6
und 9%). UM 1321/1 a und Ib (1944).
3.7.2 Compressible Flow GRAHAM, D. J.: High Speed Tests of an Airfoil Section Cambered
ACKERET, J., F. FELDMANN and N. ROTT: Untersuchungen an to have Critical Mach Numbers Higher than those Attain
VerdichtungsstoBen und Grenzschichten in schnell beweg able with a Uniformload Mean Line. NACA TN 1396 (1947).
ten Gasen. Mitt. ETH Zurich Nr. 10 (1946).  G. E. NITZBERG and R. T. OLSON: A Systematic Investiga
BEAVAN, J. A. and G. A. M. HYDE: Compressibility Increase tion of Pressure Distributions at High Speeds over Five
of Lift and Moment on EC 1250 for Low Speed () L = 017. Representative NACA LowDrag and Conventional Airfoil
R & M No. 2055 (1942). Sections. NACA Rep. 832 (1945).
BUSEMANN, A.: Profilmessungen bei Geschwindigkeiten nahe  The Development of Cambered Airfoil Sections having
del' Schallgeschwindigkeit. Jahrb. b. WGL 1928, S. 95. Favourable Lift Characteristics at Supercritica! Mach Num
 and O. W ALCHNER: Profileigenschaften bei Uberschallgesch. bers. NACA Rep. 947 (1949).
windigkeit. Forschung auf dem Gebiete des Ingenieurwesens HAMILTON, W. T. and W. H. NELSON: Summary Report on the
4 (1933), S. 87. HighSpeed Characteristics of Six Model Wings having
BRYSON jr., A. E.: An Experimental Investigation of Transonic NACA 65Series SectioI}s. NACA Rep. 877 (1947).
Flow past TwoDimensional Wedge and CircularArc Sections HELMBOLD, H. B.: Einige Ergebnisse aus der aerodynamischen
using a MachZehnder Interferometer. NACA TN 2560 IndustrieForschung. DAL (1942).
(1951).  Physikalische Erscheinungen in der kompressiblen Unter
FERRI, A.: Aluni Resultati Experimentali. Atti di Guidonia schallstromung. LGL 156 (1942), S. 170/174.
Nr. 17 (1939).  Flugelprofile bei hohen Geschwindigkeiten. UM 2502 (1944).
FROSSEL, W.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen del' kompressib HOERNER, S.: EinfiuB del' Kompressibilitat auf den Wider
len Stromung an und in der Nahe einer gewolbten Wand. stand. UM 7810 (1944).
UM 6608, 6611, 6622 (1944) und Mitt. d. MPI fur Stromungs HOLDER, D. W., A. CHINEREK and R. I. NORTH: Pressure
forschung Nr. 4 (1951). Measurements in a Supersonic Tunnel on a TwoDimensional
FURLONG, G. Ch. and J. E. FITZPATRICK: Effects of Mach Aerofoil of RAE 104 Section. CP 62 (1951).
Number and Reynolds Number on the Maximum Lift Coef KNAPPE, 0.: Schnellkanalversuche an einem symmetrischen
ficient of a Wing of NACA 230series Airfoil Sections. NACA Klappenfiugel. Jahrb. 1941 dDL I, S. 96100.
MR No. L6F04 (1946) and TN No. 1299.  Schnellkanalversuche an Profilen und Flugzeugmodellen
GAULT, D. E.: Correlation of Low Speed AirfoilSection Stalling und ihre fiugtechnische Auswertung. LGL 156 (1942),
Characteristics with Reynolds Number and Airfoil Geometry. S.128132.
NACA TN 3963 (1957). MAxI, R. L. and L. W. HUNTON: An Investigation at Subsonic
GOLDSTEIN, S., W. F. HAMILTON and C. F. COWDREY: Tests of Speeds of Several Modifications to the LeadingEdge
a New Aerofoil in the H.S.T. at the N.P.L. R & M No. Region of the NACA 64AOI0 Airfoil Section Designed to
2246 (1940). Increase Maximum Lift. NACA TN 3871 (1956).
GOTHERT, B.: Messungen am Profil NACA 001564 im Hoch NAU1\1ANN, A.: Messungen am Profil23OO864 und 2301264
geschwindigkeitsWindkanal der DVL. FB 1247 (1940). im kompressiblen Unterschallbereich. Bericht d. Aerodyna
 Messungen am Profil NACA 001564 mit verschiedenen mischen fustituts d. TH.Aachen.
Tiefen im DVLHochgeschwindigkeitsWindkanal und Ver NITZBERG, G. E. and S. M. CRANDALL: A Comparative Examina
3.7 REFERENCES 39
tion of Some Measurements of Airfoil Section Lift and Drag NACA TN 665 (1938).
at Supercritical Speeds. NACA TN 2825 (1952). STACK, J.: Tests of Airfoils Designed to Delay the Compressi
PEARCEY, H. H. and J. A. BEAVAN: Profile Drag Measurements bility Burble. NACA Rep. 763 (1943).
at Compressibility Speeds on three Aerofoils having Spanwise STAFF OF H. S. T.: Measurements of Force Coefficients on Aero
Wires or Grooves. R & M No. 2252 (1943). foil EC 1240 in the High Speed Tunnel at the N.P.L. R & M
 Force and PreBBure Coefficients up to Mach Number 087 on No. 2246 (1940) .
the Goldstein Roof Top Section 1442/1547. R & M 2346 STIVERS, Louis S. jr.: Effects of Subsonic Mach Number on
(1946). the Forces and Pressure Distributions on four NACA 64A
ROGERS, E. W. E.: Observations on a Thin Cambered Aerofoil Airfoil Sections at Angles of Attack as High as 28. NACA
Beyond the Critical Mach Number. R & M No. 2432 (1950). TN 3162 (1954).
STACK, J. and A. E. v. DOENHOFF: Tests of 16 Related Airfoils SUMMERS, I. L. and S. L. TREON: The Effects of Amount and
at High Speeds. NACA Rep. 492 (1934). Type of Camber on the Variation with Mach Number of the
STACK, J., W. F. LINDSAY and R. E. LrrrEL: The Compressibility Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 10PercentThick NACA
Burble and the Effects of Compressibility on PreBBureS and 64 ASeries Airfoil Se<'ltion. NAC TN 2096 (1950).
Forces Acting on an Airfoil. NACA Rep. 646 (1938). z..u.OVCIK, I. A. and E. P. LUKE: Some Flight Measurements of
STACK, J. and W. F. LINDSAY: Tests of N85, N86 and N87 PreBBureDistribution and BoundaryLayer Characteristics
Airfoil Sections in the llinch High Speed WindTunnel. in the Presence of Shock. NACA RM L8C22 (1948).
4. SPECIAL PROBLEMS
4.1 Influeuce of Quality of Surface 26.106 (Figure 4.4:) shows how the effect of roughness
4.1.1 Older Results varies with the place on the chord at which it occurs.
The quality of the surface has a large effect on the profile Figure 4.5 shows the influence of the height of the rough
properties. From an old AVA measurement (Figure 12.63), ness when this occurs at the nose; in this experiment there
at the relatively small Reynolds number of 63. lOS, we is only a strip of granular roughness along the leading edge.
can see the main effects caused by a surface which is not When such a strip (made from a carborundum layer of a
smooth: a considerable increase in: drag; and, usually, a certain grain size) is placed at a certain point of the chord,
decrease in maximum lift. The roughening for this measure this is practically equivalent to making this point the
ment was rather coarse: it was produced by a wire net of point of transition (certainly for the Reynolds numbers of
05 mm gauge, with 38 square meshes in a length of 10 most interest today). The flow past profiles with roughness
em; the net was soldered on to a wing of sheet metal, the over the whole surface obeys the laws of turbulent flow over
profile being Go 449. According to this measurement the a rough wall, and so the aerodynamic characteristics do
suction side is very sensitive to roughness; this is generally not change with increasing Reynolds number; however,
true, the nose of the profile being particularly sensitive. profiles with rough strips on an otherwise smooth surface
Figure 4.1 illustrates the effects of various amounts of show a continual decrease of the drag with increasing
coarse roughness on the suction side for the profile NACA Reynolds number (Figure 4.6). The" standard roughness"
0012 at a Reynolds number of 5 .106 The same behaviour applied at the nose consists of a carborundum layer with a
occurs at higher Reynolds numbers, as will be shown. grain size of 028 mm, which covers between 5 and 10%
of the surface in the region 0 ~ x ~ 0'08e, on the suction
4.1.2 Surface Roughness and the pressure sides. To investigate the effect of such
DOETSCH has investigated the effect of the roughness
roughness in modern NACA measurements (where it is
caused by paint on some industrially manufactured wings; used to control transition), the profile characteristics have
the profiles are mostly those of the NACA 24series, and been measured in the LTT, usually at a Reynolds number
the range of span is fairly large. DOETSCH obtains the of 6.106 , both with a smooth surface and with standard
following result: an increase in drag over that of an ideal roughness at the nose; the chord of the rectangular wings
smooth wing is found in the Reynolds number range of used in these measurements is 2 ft. Results of this kind can
4 .106 to 107 A J u 288 wing shows an increase of 46%, an be found in the figures of Chapter 12. It is not difficult to
He 177 wing 60%, an Me 109B wing 50%, and an FW 190 see from these measure~ents that roughness, at first sight
wing 33% ; the wings are all painted with camouflage paint, seemingly insignificant, can completely counteract any
and no priming has been used; the average height of
roughness is about 0019 mm (Ju 288), 0014 mm (He 179), 16
and 0007 mm (FW 190). Figure 4.2 shows the results from
the measurement of momentum loss along the span of the
I ./ ~
FW 190 wing. A Mustang wing (including armament), t tI
V ~moofh
"'r II/I'"",,,
measured at the same time, gives an increase in sectional 12
5
drag of 41 % over the ideal smooth value; the latter value is 5.1rr
V".4;""
actually obtained over large parts of the span, and is very ~ . . ..: K I
A'/I12.1~
small, CD being 00044. The effect of various kinds of ,/ ~at.10o
surface at high Reynolds numbers can be clearly seen from
Figure 4.3. Further information on the effects of surface 1/
1'1
OTheo'Y
roughness has been obtained from flatplate measurements
(see Section 4.1.5).
"r f....
ct.5 0
4.1.3 Standard Roughness Fill. 4.1. NACA 0012 with I
various amounts of coarse
We have already mentioned that roughness near the roughness on the suction side.
Reynolds number: 5.10'
profile nose is especially harmful. An example at R = (}()2
4.1 INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF SURFACE 41
0 0
i
R .J, '10 6 i 5 . 106 16 '106 i 7 . 106
I
1 OZ
 I
r
~
0
 CDI ~ofl
L 1.
1.
~L
ell
I
Centre
wing
\ 2200
1200
0
'I ..
8
I
I
\ ~ ~n
 '0
I
l \
\'" ... I i
*650 ~ 661~
I
~
r I
i
[

Fig. 4.2. Dis~ribution of thickness and sectional drag coetllcient of an actual FW 190 wing with camouflage paint but without priming_
Roughness height: kmax.  0'006 to 0008 mm. Profiles: NACA 24series. Wind tunnel: DVL 5 m x 7 m
16
CL
18
/7,:
. j.+ ~ ~
t
~~ pig:::; I!'
12
~V ~  r"'"
/V ,/ ~ 0
08
~; .j
~ ,..
  If ~
if ti08
t 0+
/ { I
I
III
f  If:
0., I:  '" ~.~~ rt1 III
1
If
o o !
:\ 'i
\ c\.~
ct_~
1:1"1 .. ~
... \\ /
r\e ,.,. ........ II
08 roo
0{)0. 0008 .,. 0 (}QQ. 0008 ,. ..I
"0 "0 j
R 25.10' 1,2
R a 15.10'
Fig. 4.3. Drag of the proftle 65(,,1)420, o ~ (}QQ8 tHJ1Z tHJ16 (}OZO (}oZ. poZ6 8" O 8" 16" Z.
a = 1, for R = 15 10' (right) and 25 10' (left).
Wing chord: i54 m. Wind tunnel: TDT. 0:
co _CIt
production model with camouflage paint, not Fig. 4.4. Polars for the profile 63( ... )422, for various positions of roughness.
ftnished. x : production model with camouftage
paint, highly polished, +: camouflage paint, Strips of roughness at ~ = : 03 (+); 0'2 (x); 0~05 (0); smooth (0). Wind
c
not finished. 0: primed, lacquered, polished. tunnel: TDT. Reynolds number: 26_10'. Chord: 0915 m
aerodynamically smooth
42 4. SPECIAL PROBLEMS
r/
~
/
.
II'
p;1::.:
:p>
 drag; as the lift coefficient increases, roughness certainly
leads to considerably increased drags; and the maximum
lift generally suffers a large reduction. The liftcurve slope
of a profile with standard roughness decreases with
!1 .If increasing thickness (Figure 3.5), and sometimes the angle
o I of zero lift and the moment are noticeably influenced as
well. Drag measurements on wings in their original
\ \\. I construction, with various types of nose, confirm the above
\~ If
.\ experimental results (Figure 4.7).
~~
," .
{}8
j
..;::
~.
4.1.4 Isolated Disturbances
1:2 O 8" 16 Z.
0 0:00'# 1J{}08 0<J12 IJ{}f6 (J020 002+ 1J{}20 8 Isolated disturbances on a surface on which laminar flow
CO' '" exists produce transition of the boundary layer in a region
Flg.4.5. PoJars for the profile 63( ... )422, with various types of roughness at the which extends rearwards; the region is conical at first,
nose. Smooth (0); shellac (+). Size of grain: 0'051 mm (x); 0'0102 mm (0);
0'028 mm (0). Reynolds number: 26.10'. Chord 0'915 m. Wind tunnel: TDT with an angle of 140 to 18, but then broadens more
20 Z'O
L CL
t t
1'Z
1'Z Ai 'P" ~
(}8
A/
VI 1/
/
I
 
<>
I
A
, "'
rr
o . o 7
~ L'\. I
I"::: :..... ......
....... ~.  ro
OB OB ro'
"
Fig. 4.6. PoJars for the prodie 63(11.)422 (moditled), with standard roughness at the nose.
Reynolds number: 6.10' (0); 14.10' (x); 26.10' (0). Wind tunnel; TDT. Chord: 0'915 m
Co
t
0006
Nose
~o~~~~~~~~~~~~oa~~O
o 04 02 0:3 f}5  L biZ 
Fig. 4.7. Actual FW wing with smoothly polished metalsurface (without paint). Fig. 4.8. Sectional drag coefticlent and position of
Profile: NACA 2415. Reynolds number: 10'4 10'. Wind tunnel: DVL 5 m x 7 m. point of transition. In the vicinity of an isolsted
(1) Front spar (FS) at 30% of the chord. (2) FS at 30% of the chord; deIcing slot disturbance (suspension wire). Wind tunnel: 5m x 7m
(DS) at 27% of the chord, on the suction side. (3) FS at 10% of the profile chord. (4) DVL. Reynolds number: 2,7.10'
FS at 10% of the chord; DS at 4% of the chord, on the suction side. (5) FS at 10%
of the chord; DS at 2 % of the chord on the suction side and 8 % of the chord on the
pressure slde
4.1 INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF SURFACE 43
~ i ~
a ......'a what additional drag is to be expected from the very varied
! isolated disturbances occurr,ing in practice in an already
I
turbulent boundary layer. Among many measurements
ad 777
Co which have been made in attempts to answer this question,
t /~~ ~.
the systematic investigations of WIEGHARDT and TILL
OZ MANN lIil'e particularly worth mentioning, because they
.~~
1Z
.........
~.i I l
~11 permit a direct application to isolated roughness elements
01
. t'" )!f::::1' .10
{}8
on an arbitrary profile in the region where the boundary
1 '
(}If layer is turbulent. A coefficient for the additional drag,
0 01 02 OJ 0+ 05 (}6
o/e LlCD = ~~, has been introduced, whereS is the maximum
Cl
t ' ~"1: 1....""' .
1 1Zo_
15
x croBssectional area (normal to the flow direction) of the
(}8 ~1~ ~ go protuberance causing the disturbance, and ij is the average
, I kinetic pressure over the height, k, of the protuberance, so
I I 6
~ 3" that
OJ,
"
IX0
SJt 10J
1xlOf
:'12x f0 4
l\ 1.1
I R=~
11
Fig. 4.10. Skinfriction drag of rough plates. k" height of roughness (sand); If, momentum thickness; 0" drag coefficient for one side
of plate
44 4. SPECIAL PROBLEMS
10'Z * <:
f::
TIIRI:
symm. protTle liirlvrbllnce III ricIN
HtH If 2..1<(}7 "
6 Tani: : 22rR(xJ!'~ l r... t.,
c
"
r
6 + kO:2.5mm}
0  09mm flol plole
ZrrftrTT+ffffT1~~~~
t ro'
r t
2
J",
.. 07mm
'" symm.ProlileLBt
flc' OLr, (J.; O
10'J ~~. . Oislvr611nce IIII/C=o./
6
6
~
b .... fo i" fo
OVL: Circv/llr lire profile " o t:: i"""'"
Z r, (}5c 'fJ1f
Oislvr611nce 01 1ft (HS
,n,
10"
6 61(J5 2 + 6 610' Z + "
6 610 1 Z 10' Z * 6 610 ' 2 + 6 610'
0
o 01 O~ 03 (# 05
R(K) R/c) iL
Fig. 4.11. Critical disturbance height, referred to Fig. 4.12. Critical disturbance height Fig. 4.13. Flight measurements for
length of boundary layer; R = Vx. Flat plate and referred to chord; R _ Ve. Disturbance' various qualities of surface, Profile:
symmetrical profile (.)
NACA 66 (215)  1 (14'5). 0: factory
in front third of a 15 % thick profile made, with camouflage paint, 0:
smoothed. 0: waviness reduced, ~:
visible waves 6lled up, surface waxed.
[R 824]
4.1.5 Permissible Size of Grain and Critical Height of The relationships are rather more favourable if the
Roughness boundary layer is not turbulent; we then speak of a
We now investigate the effect of surface roughness on critical roughness height, and understand by this the
the skinfriction drag of flat plates. Figure 4.10 (from roughness height that just induces transition. Some
measurements by PRANDTL and SCHLICHTING) shows that examples of the behaviour of this quantity with Reynolds
the skinfriction drag of the plate deviates from the curve
corresponding to a smooth surface, and becomes constant (a)
fHJfJlJl
from a certain Reynolds number onwards, this number
depending on the grain size. From this it follows that, at a
._ ".,
J
fJOO16
given Reynolds number, the skinfriction drag of a plate
with a rough surface is the same as that of a smooth plate,
provided that the grain size is below a certain permissible
0Q01Z t
(J(lJf,
value; in other words, the surface can be regarded as
._...
()QOfJt.
6. :,, l S 8 1
(}(J(J()f.
b:>a: ~ ~ ~ l\
I_V~
L
4.2 PROBLEMS OF HIGH SPEED IN LIQUID MEDIA: CAVITATION 45
number are shown in Figures 4.11 and 4.12; the measure parabolic nose with continuous curvature at the join
ments have been made on isolated disturbances ([R824 causes the behaviour expected of lI. laminar profile: small
(Figure 19)] ; DOETSCH; YOUNG; TANI). New measurements drag for small liftcoefficients, as in polar (c).
and calculations by TANI and DRYDEN give the ratio of Profiles with a discontinuity in curvature are very
roughness height to the displacement thickness at the sensitive to changes in Reynolds number, because of the
disturbance; they confirm that, for profiles with a favour large influence of the discontinuity on the onset of transi
able pressure gradient, there is approximately the same tion.
dependence on the critical Reynolds number as for the
flat plate. 4.2 Problems of High Speed in Liquid Media:
Cavitation
4.1.6 ~a~e8S
In an incompressible medium the pressure falls when the
Freeflight measurements on a modern profile (Figure freestream speed increases; the smallest pressure that can
4.13) show that the effect of flight roughness is sometimes occur in a liquid is the vapour pressure of the liquid (if we
insignificant compared with the effect of surface waviness. ignore the possibility of delay in boiling). When the liquid
Figure 4.14 shows the behaviour of OD with Reynolds boils, cavities filled with vapour occur; this phenomenon,
number for profiles with various tyPes of waviness (see known as "cavitation", occurs on ship propellers when in
Figure 4.15): model 8 is largely free from waviness; in the rapid motion, and also in water turbines; decreased
efficiency and, sometimes, corrosive effects are associated
O ~ with it. In the flow about a profile the smallest pressures
/ occur on the surface and so, if cavitation occurs, it starts
"t
(}5
/
SI
/l=3.m t
from the surface; the flow separates from the profile and
forms a free surface (of constant pressure), which encloses
og the region of cavitation. This region extends to various
OJ I
,; a
L. Fig. 4.16. Drag coefficient as a
distances in the direction of flow; it ends in a turbulent
V ....,...1 function of aL: (a) with a
./ mixing region of liquid and vapour, where a sudden
oc discontinuity in curvature that
,
O
./ !/ b causes a large disturbance; (b)
with a discontinuity in curva
increase in pressure takes place.
0002 (}ciJff......'O010 00111 ture that does not cause a The state of cavitation is characterised by the" cavita
o
, .... r..l) Co
large disturbance; (c) without
tion number",
0 .. I\~ discontinuitl!: in curvature
(DOETSCH) p  Pv.
o(N a=,
q
neighbourhood of the nose of model 5 and, especially, of in particular, this characterises the magnitude of the
model 6, considerable waviness exists, which leads to an cavitation region. p is the pressure in the undisturbed
increase in the drag. flow, Pv is the vapour pressure of the liquid (dependent on
Similar effects (changes in the pressure distribution, the temperature), and q is the kinetic pressure of the
which lead to premature transition) can also occur when a undisturbed flow. The cavitation number is defined more
profile has a discontinuity in curvature at a certain point accurately if, instead of Pv; the actual pressure in the region
(see DOETSCH). From Section 7.3.3 we see that the velocity of cavitation (pc) is introduced. pc is the same as pv only
distribution possesses a point of inflexion and that ,a for liquids in which no gas is present; for liquids with gas
relatively large variation of the velocity occurs in the region present (for example, water containing air) pc is greater
of this point. Figure 4.16 shows that this behaviour than pv (REICHARDT).
can lead to transition. By rounding off the nose of a If we wish to avoid cavitation on profiles we must 'be
circular arc profile (~ = 0.1) with another circular arc, familiar with the manner of its formation and with its
effect on the profile polars at various cavitationnumbers.
of radius OOlc (the two parts having the same slope at the Measurements on profiles with normal position of maximum
join), a discontinuity in curvature is obtained; the radius thickness show that the lift falls with decreasing ca,.vita
of curvature changes from ~ = 001 to eII = 26. The tion number. It is found that shapes whose maximum
c c thickness lies further forward are unfavourable because of
behaviour of polar (a) shows that the expected forward the high minimum pressure and the consequent premature
movement of the point of transition (the existence of which occurrence of cavitation. Profiles with a uniform pressure
is confirmed by direct measurement) produces a consider dIstribution are favourable; the circular segment profile
able increase in drag. Polar (b) corresponds to a smaller (whose maximum thickness occurs at half the chord) has a
nose radius, and hence to a still greater discontinuity in pressure distribution of approximately this type.
curvature; the influence of this is masked to a certain Measurements of forces on profiles show three typical
extent by the sharp drop in ptessure at the nose. Only a forms of cavitation (see Figure 4.17).
46 4. SPECIAL PROBLEMS
1. cavitation on the suction side which starts from the A theoretical treatment of cavitation is difficult, but the
leading edgethis occurs if the front stagnation point following results have been obtained. For completely
lies on the pressure side, so that the flow accelerates developed cavitation on the suction side BETZ found that
round the nose from the pressure side and the point of the shape of the suction side (hence, in general, the profile
minimum pressure lies very far forward; thickness) is unimportant. For profiles with a flat pressure
2. cavitation which starts approximately from the position side the theory gives
of maximum thickness when the profile is at the ideal
angle of incidence or when the front stagnation point
lies on the suction side;
3. cavitation on the pressure side which starts from the
leading edgethis occurs if the front stagnation point the first term is the lift coefficient (according to KIRCH
lies on the suction side, so that the flow accelerates round HOFF'S theory) of a flat plate at a small angle of incidence,
the nose from the suction side. a, the flow having separated; the second term allows for the
Measurements by W ALCHNER of lift and drag coefficients fact that the dominant pressure on the suction side is not
of circular segment profiles at various cavitationnumbers that of the undisturbed flow, but the vapour pressure,
are reproduced in Figures 12.150 to 12.152. The points are which is smaller than the undisturbed pressure. If we take
not experimental points, but have been obtained by the skinfriction drag (G/ ) into account, the drag coefficient
becomes
BRASLOW, A. L.: Investigation of Effects of Various Camouflage SCHERBARTH, K.: Grenzschichtmessungen hinter einer punkt
Paints and Painting Procedures on the Drag Characteristics formigen Storung in laminarer Stromung. Jahrb. 1942
of an NACA 65(421)420 a = 1.0 Airfoil Section. NACA dDL I, S. 5152.
CB No. L4Gl7, 1944 (WR L141). SCHLICHTING, H.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Rau
 and E. C. KNOX: Simplified Method for Determination of higkeitsproblem. Ing.Arch. 7 (1936), S l.
Critical Height of Distributed Roughness Particles for  Grenzschichttheorie, Verlag Braun 1951 and London 1955
BoundaryLayerTransition of Mach Numbers from 0 to 5. (English translation).
NACA TN 4363 (1958). TANI, J., R. HAMA and S. MITUISI: On the Permissible Rough
DOENHOFF, A. E. andE.A. HORTON: A LowSpeed Experimental ness in the Laminar Boundary Layer. Rep. Aer. Res. Inst.
Investigation of the Effect of a Sandpaper Type of Roughness Tokyo No. 199 (1940).
on BoundaryLayerTransition. NACA Rep. 1349 (1958).  On the Effect of a Single Roughness Element on Boundary
DOETSCH, H.: Einige Versuche tiber den EinfluJ3 von Ober layer Transition. Rep. Inst. Sci. Techn. Tokyo 8 (1954),
flachenstorungen auf die Profileigenschaften insbesondere p. 125/133.
auf den Profilwiderstand im Schnellflug. Jahrb. 1939 dDL I, TILLMANN, W.: Neue Widerstandsmessungen an Oberflachen
S. 88 und LGL II7. storungen in der turbulenten Reibungsschicht. Forschungs
 Profilwiderstandsmessungen an Modellfltigeln in serien hefte f. Schiffstechnik I (1953), S. 8188.
mal3iger Glattblechbauweise. FB 1731 (1943). WIEGHARDT, K.: Zum Reibungswiderstand rauher Platten.
 Versuche an zwei Modellfltigeln in Blechbauweise mit Lami UM 6612 (1944).
narprofilen. FB 1855 (1943).  Erhohung des turbulenten Reibungswiderstandes durch
 V"ber den Einflu13 von Oberflachenstorungen auf den Wider Oberflachenstorungen. ForschungsHefte f. Schiffstechnik I
stand der Tragfltigel. UM 1233 (1944), LGLBericht 176/1 (1953), S. 658l.
und 179a (1944). WILLIAlIIS, D. H. and A. F. BROWN: Tests on RAF 34 Negative
DRYDEN, H. L.: Review of Published Data on the Effect of at Incidences and of the Effect of Surface Roughness on RAF
Roughness on Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow. 34 with Split Flap in the Compressed Airtunnel. R & l\I No.
J. Aer. Sci. 20 (1953), pp. 477/482. 1772 (1937).
GOTHERT, B.: Einflu13 von Einzelrauhigkeiten auf den Wider YOUNG, A. D.: Surface Finish and Performance. Aircr. Eng.,
stand von Tragfltigelprofilen. UM 1480 (1945). Sept. 1939.
GRAY, V. H. and U. W. GLAHN: Aerodynamic Effects Caused by ZALOVCIK, J. A.: ProfileDrag Coefficients of Conventional and
Icing of an Unswept NACA 65AOO4 Airfoil. NACA TN 4155 LowDrag Airfoils as Obtained in Flight. NACAACR
(1958). No. L4E31 (1944) WR L139.
HOERNER, S.: Einflu13 der Oberflachenrauhigkeit auf die aero
dynamischen Eigenschaften der Luftfahrtzeuge. Ringbuch
der deutschen Luftfahrtforschung, Teil IA (1937) 9. 4.3.2 Cavitation
HOLSTEIN, H.: Versuche an einer parallel angestromten ebenen
Platte tiber den Rauhigkeitseinflu13 auf den Umschlag lami BETZ, A.: Einflu13 der Kavitation auf die Leistung von Schiffs
nar/turbulent. UM 3110 (1944). schrauben. Verh. 3. Int. Kongr. Techn. Mech., Stockholm,
HOOKER, R. W.: The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils Teill, S. 411. Stockholm 1931.
as Affected by Surface Roughness. NACA TN 457 (1933). HELlIIBOLD, H. B.: Erorterungsbeitrag tiber Kavitation. Hydro
HOOD, M. J.: The Effects of some Common Surface Irregularities mechanische Probleme des Schiffsantriebes, Hamburg (1932),
on Wing Drag. NACA TN No. 695, 1939. S.338.
JONES, R. and D. H. WILLIAMS: The Effect of Surface Rough MARTYRER, E.: Kraftmessungen an Widerstandskorpern and
ness on the Characteristics of the Aerofoils NACA 0012 and Fliigelprofilen im Wasserstrom bei Kavitation. Hydro.
RAF 34. R & M 1708 (1936). mechanische Probleme des SchiffSlantriebes, HamburgischE!
KRAEMER, K.: Die Wirkung von Stolperdrahten auf den Grenz SchiffsbauVersuchsanstalt, 1932, S. 268.
schichtumschlag. Jahrb. 1959 d. Wiss. Ges. Luftf. NUlIIACHI, F.: Profilmessungen bei Kavitation. 1. Mitt.: Kraft
KRETZ, P.: Profilwiderstandsmessungen an rauhen Flachen. FB messungen an vier Profilen bei Hohlsog. VDIForschung II
i
1456 (1941). (1940), S. 303.
 and A. WANNER: Profilwiderstandsmessungen an Gleitflug  3. Mitt.: Kraftmessung an Spaltfltigelprofilen bei Kavitation,
zeugen. FB 1212 (1940) und Jahrb. 1941 dDL., S. I 111/19. Werft, Reederei, Hafen 22 (1941), S.295.
LOFTIN, L. K.: Effects of Specific Types of Surface Roughness  Summary Report on the Research of Cavitation Pheno
I on Boundarylayer Transition. NACA ACR L5J29a (1945) mena Obtained Hitherto by our Institute.
I
.1
WRL48 Rep. Inst. High Speed lVlech. Tohoku Uitiv. 4 (1954),
PRANDTL, L. and A. BETZ: Ergebnisse der Aerodynamischen p. 159/17l.
Versuchsanstalt zu Gottingen. R. Oldenbourg_ Mtinchen, REICHARDT, H.: Kavitationskanale. Gottinger Monographie,
III. Lieferung (1927). Teil D1 3.2 (1946).
PRANDTL, L. and H. SCHLICHTING: Das Widerstandsgesetz WALCHNER, 0.: Profilmessungen bei Kavitation. Hydromecha
rauher Platten. Werft, Reederei, Hafen 15 (1934). nische Probleme des Schiffsantriebes, Hamburgische Schiffs
RUNKEL: Profilwiderstand und Grenzschichtmessung an einem bauVersuchsanstalt, 1932, S. 256.
NACA 23012Profil bei glattem und rauhem Anstrich.  Bericht tiber Profilmessungen bei Kavitation. Nicht ver
UM 3507 (1943). offentlichter Bericht des KWI, Gottingen 1934.
L_
~
i!
I
"
, "
5.1 Survey increases with thickness ratio, but so do the flap deflection
The simplest method of increasing the maximum lift of a and tne size of flap required to produce the prescribed
profile is to increase the profile camber by deflection of a maximum value of OL. An additional camber is. more
flap. The possible ways of fitting a flap on to a profile are effective on thin profiles than on thick ones. The shape of
numerous, and the effects on the profile properties are the front part of the profile has an important effect on the
extraordinarily varied. The principal arrangements are: efficiency of a split flap; this can be seen from Figure 5.2,
1. plain flaps;
2. split flaps; 22
3. slotted and doubleslotted flaps;
'l.max.
4. nose flaps; .......
in addition, the most diverse combinations of these
arrangements are used. Since the representation of the
t /
/ r?
,
experimental results in diagrams would take too much 18
l
space, the reader is referred to Table 11.6 (a survey of the
results) and, for more detail, to the literature (see Section
5.6). The influence of Reynolds number can be estimated
[7
V
)(
f"" I.

f..n. ........,
from the table, but hardly any profiles with flaps have been
investigated over a large Reynolds number range. Some If 7
brief remarks about the resultst follow. Fig. 0.1. Effect of an [I
"!nslgnlftcant" gap of 12
0'0032 c at a plain ftap
5.2 Plain Flaps (ftap chord being 20%
of wing chord). Profile: 10
The maximum lift depends essentially upon the ratio of Clark Y. Aspect ratio:
6. Reynolds number:
the flap chord, c1)' to the profile chord, c, as well as upon 0'61.10'. [R938)
the flap deflection, 1]. Ratios ~/c that lie in the range 02 08
o 20 110 80 11 100
to 025 are favourable when 1] is about 60; the increased
maximum lift rises with thickness. For laminar profiles
the range of OLin which the drag is small can be displaced in Which are plotted the results of a large number of
to higher OL values by small flapdeflections (a small oLm... measurements on profiles with split flaps, for
camber has the same effect). As with all flaps it is essential various values of thickness, position of maximum thick
that the unavoidable gap between wing and flap be kept as ness, and nose radius; the results are plotted against the
small as possible; otherwise losses in lift cannot be avoided t ,
(see Figure 5.1). The increase in the moment coefficient parameter 2 I~
(.10 m ) is proportional to the increase in the lift coefficient c '" Xt
Table 11.6 and many diagrams of Chapter 12 conhin
(.10 L ), and is in fair agreement with the theoretical value;
further numerical results. The theoretical behaviour of the
the normal forces and hinge moments also agree well with
moment is not so easily predicted as for plain flaps.
theoretical predictions (see [R634]). Section 12.4 contains
some pressure distributions on wings with flaps.
5.4 Slotted Flaps
5.3 Split Flaps A still higher liftcoefficient can be obtained by the use
of a slotted flap, but the geometrical shape of the slot
With a split flap the suction side of the profile remains
must be carefully considered if the desired increase is to
unaltered, but on the pressure side a downward flap
be realised; for this reason it is difficult to give definite rules
deflection is possible at the rear. The effect is similar to that
for the best position of the flap. Sharp edges at the begin
of a plain flap, but considerably more marked. OL maJ:.
ning of the slot are to be avoided as much as possible on thick
t The published experimental results are usually for wings of profiles, but thin profiles are less sensitive in this respect. If
finite span, and only in rare cases for twodimensional flow. the suction side is bent round at the trailing edge in the
L
5.5 NOSE FLAPS AND SLATS 49
lL_ 08 ,
, ...
4Ci."."
t
a
. I
6
a
t O'
NA~ (N
5 .
 :On  ,~
V a
_6
~. . O'C
~
0
./
0
1/"
smo:/t
ACA 6
I'ov.;/t
0
0
0,2
t!
~t
~! ~. Fig. 5.3. Increase in C Lmax. from nose dap on various prodles, as a function
/ of the nose radius (see Equation (1.7. (0): without spilt dap. (~): with split
/
/ ftap; S!c  1)'2; '1  60. [FB1948]
1 ." rOil!.
t~
/
 2cXt
Fig. 5.2. Splltdap measurements for the NACA 6series (fuIllihe, !c  0'06
to 0'21), and the DVL series (dashed line, ~  0'09 to 0'18, ~ ~ 0'3 to 0'5).
1'V c c
O~I __________LI__________ ~I~ ________ ~I~ ________ ~' ~Ieaningofsymbols: (0) 63series; (0) 64series; (~) 65series; (x) 66series
o 0'01 002 (}OJ (}O~
direction of the upper side of the flap, there is often a improve the value of OLmax.; with a suitable arrangement
favourable effect. Numerous results for wings with slotted an increase in maximum lift coefficient, LlOLmax ., of between
flaps are shown in Table 11.6. The use of a doubleslotted 06 and 07 is obtained. The additional use of a split flap
flap can produce a further increase in maximum lift then produces a further increase, so that in the most
r coefficient, but this is realised in practice only at the expense favourable case OL max. is increased from 07 (without flaps)
Ci. L' ~
',
~1J.~0'2 t 4' \ \.
c /. \ \
70 10
'J \
Ci.
I
t 08
v: 1
17
OIl
/ I /
1/ I
,I / 1\
0/1 0/1 II
/ \
I I /'
0'2
/ I
7 ;
o
il II Ii .17
J I IY
1,.7
02 0,2 1/ I
~D
o ,.. 0'02 o
~D
,..0'02 1/ o 8 12  a 20
Fig. 5.4. Cbaraeteristica of a doublewedge prollle (~ 0'0423; wedge angie  5'1; circular arc Calred In Crom 0'425 .. ~ .. 0'575) with nose flaps oCchords
~ 012 and 0'25.   with no dedection, '1  0'.    with deflection. '1 .. 30 (~ = 0'12). _. . with deflection,'1  30' (~ .. 0'25). [N2018].
Reynolds number: 5'8.10'. Mach number: 0'17
50 5. PROFILES WITH FLAPS
remaining aerodynaInic coefficients change less than, for foil with 20% Plain Flap in the N.P.L. 13 ft. x 9 ft. Wind
example, when a split flap is used. This flap arrangement is Tunnel. R & M No. 2412 (1946).
CluNE, R. M. and R. W. HOLTZCLAW: Wind Tunnel Investiga.
of importance for the takeoff of aircraft having supersonic tion of the Effects of Profile Modification and Tabs on the
profiles (with pointed noses); Figure 5.4 shows the aero Characteristics of Ailerons on a Low.Drag Airfoil. NACA
dynaInic coefficients of such a profile. Rep. 803 (1944).
For profiles with normal nose radius, retractable slats. CuNNING. R. W., N. GREGORY and W. S. WALKER: An Investiga.
can be recommended as a means of increasing CLm... tion of the Use of an Auxiliary Slot to Reestablish Laminar
Flow on Low.Drag Airfoils. R & M No. 2742 (1950).
Measurements on a profile, NACA 23012, equipped with DAVIDSON, J. M.: The Jet Flap. J. Roy. Aeron. Soc. 60 (1956),
them [L261] show that LlCLmax . = 05 and that the cor pp.2550.
responding angle of incidence is increased by between eight DOETSCH, H. and M. KRAMER: Der Maximalauftrieb der Profil
and ten degrees; for further experimental results see reme NACA 24 mit Spreizklappe, Oberflachenrauhigkeit und
Stordraht, FB 642.
Table 11.6. DOETSCH, H. and G. KONIG: UnteJ;Suchung an einem Normal.
flugel NACA 1242 mit Spaltruder und verschiedenen Spalt.
formen. FB 762.
5.6 References  and A. PASCHKE, Druckverteilungsmessungen und Wagun.
gen an den Profilen NACA 23009, 23012 und 23018 ohne
ABBOTT,!. H. and H. SREENBERG: Tests in the VariableDen. und mit Spreizklappe. FB 1095 (1939).
sity WindTunnel of the NACA 23012 Airfoil with Plain and DUSCHIK, F.: WindTunnel Investigations of an NACA 23021
Split Flaps. NACA Rep_ 661 (1939). Airfoil with Two Arrangements of a 40PercentChord Slot
ABBOTT,!. H.: lift and Drag Characteristics of a Low.Drag Air ted Flap. NACA TN 728, 1939.
foil with Slotted Flap Sub:tnitted by Curtiss Wright Corpora. FISCHEL, J. and J. M. RIEBE: WindTunnel Investigation of
tion. NACA MR, Dec. 2, 1941. an NACA 23021 Airfoil with a 032AirfoilChord Double
 and H. R. TURNER jr.: Lift and Drag Tests of Three Airfoil Slotted Flap. NACA ARR UJ05 (1944) WR L7.
Models with Fowler Flaps Submitted by Consolidated FULLMER, F. J., jr.: Wind. Tunnel Investigation of NACA
Aircraft Corporation. NACA MR, Dec. 29, 1941. 66 (215)216, 66, 1212, and 651212 Airfoils with 020Air
 Tests of Four Models Representing Intermediate SectionS foil Chord Split Flaps. NACA CB UGlO (1944). WR Ll40;
of the XB33 Airplane Including Sections with Slotted  TwoDimensional WindTunnel Investigation of the NACA
Flat and Ailerons. NACA MR, June 4,1942. 641012 Airfoil Equipped with two Types of Leading Edge
AMES, Mrr.TON B., jr.: Wind Tunnel Investigation of Two Air Flap. NACA TN 1277 (1947).
foils with 25PercentChord Gwinn and Plain Flaps. NACA. GAMBUCCI, B. J.: Section Characteristics of the NACA 0006
TN 763, 1940. Airfoil with Leading Edge and Trailing.Edge Flaps. NACA
BOGDONOFF, S. M.: Tests of Two Models Representing Inter TN 3797 (1956).
mediate Inboard and Outboard Wing Sections of the XB36 GLAUERT, H.: Theoretical Relationships for an Airfoil with
Airplane. NACA MR, Jan. 7,1943. Hinged Flap. R & M No. 1095 (1927).
 WindTunnel Investigation of a Low Drag Airfoil Section
GOTHERT, B.: Ruderwirkung bei hohen Unterschallgeschwin.
with a Double Slotted Flap. NACA ACR 2130 (1943). digkeiten. LGL 156 (1942), S. 51.
BRASLOW, A. L. and L. K. LOFTIN, jr.: TwoDimensional
 Unterbrecherwirkung bei hohen Unterschallgeschwindig.
WindTunnel Investigation of an Approximately 14Percent kehen. LGL 156 (1942), S. 64.
Thick NACA 66Series.Type Airfoil Section with a Double
GOTHERT, R.: Systematische Untersuchungen an Fliigeln mit
Slotted Flap. NACA TN 1110, 1946.
Klappen und Hilfsklappell. Jahrb. 1940 dDL I, S. 278/307.
BRYANT, L. W., A. S. HALLIDAY and A. S. BATSON: TwoDimen
sional Control Characteristics. R & M No. 2730. HANDLEY PAGE: Aeron. Journal (1921), p. 270.
CAHILL, J. F.: Aerodynamic Tests of an NACA 66 (215)116, HARRIS, TH. A.: WindTunnel Investigation of an NACA 23012
a = 06 Airfoil with a 025 c Slotted Flap for the Fleetwings Airfoil with Two Arrangements of a WideChord Slotted
XA39 Airplane. NACA MR UK21, 1944. Flap. NACA TN 715 (1939).
 Aerodynamic Data for a Wing Section of the Republic  and P. E. PURSER: WindTunnel Investigation of an NACA
XF12 Airplane Equipped with a Double Slotted Flap. NACA 23012 Airfoil with Two Sizes of Balanced Split Flap. NACA
L6A08a, 1946 (Wartime Rep. L.544). ACR, Nov. 1940.
 TwoDimensional WindTunnel Investigation of Four Types  and R. S. SWANSON: Wind Tunnel Tests of an NACA 23021
of High Lift Flap on NACA 65210 Airfoil Sectiqn. NACA Airfoil Equipped with a Slotted Extensible and a Plain
TN 1191, 1947. Extensible Flap. NACA TN 782 (1940).
 and ST. RACISZ: WindTunnel Development of Optimum  and J. G. LOWRY: Pressure Distribution over an NACA
DoubleSlotted.Flap Configurations for Seven Thin NACA 23021 Airfoil with a Slotted and a Split Flap. NA.CA Rep.
Airfoil Sections. NACA RM L7B17 1947. 718 (1941).
 WindTunnel Investigation of Seven Thin NACA Airfoil  and 1. G. RECANT: WindTunnel Investigation of NACA
Sections to Determine Optimum Double.Slotted.Flap con 23012, and 23030 Airfoils. Equipped with 40Percent
figurations. NACA TN 1545, 1948. Chord Double Slotted Flaps. NACA Rep. 723 (1941).
 W. J. UNDERWOOD, R. J. NUBER and G. A. CHEESMAN:  and J. G. LOWRY: Pressure Distribution over an NACA
Aerodynamic Forces and Loadings on Symmetrical Cir 23012 Airfoil with a Fixed Slot and a Slotted Flap. NACA
cular Arc Airfoils with Plain LeadingEdge and Plain Rep. 732 (1942).
Trailing.Edge I laps. NACA.Rep. 1146 (1953). HILTON, W. F. and A. E. KNOWLER: Lift, Drag and Pitching
CHEERS, E., W. S. WALKER and C. R. TAYLOR: TwoDimen Moment Coefficients on an EC 1240 Tailplane.Elevator at
sional Tests on a 15% Thick Symmetrical Roof.Top Aero High Speeds. R & M No. 2227 (1943).
,.
5.6 REFERENCES 51
HOLTZCLAW, R. W. and Y. WEISMANN: WindTunnel Investiga PLATT, R. C.: Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Wing with
tion of the Effects of Slot Shape and Flap Locations on the Fowler Flaps Including Flap Loads, Downwash, and Cal
Characteristics of LowDrag Airfoils Equipped with a culated Effect on Takeoff. NACA Rep. 534 (1935).
025Chord Slotted Flap. NACA WR A80 (1944).  Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wings with Cambered Ex
v. HOLST, E.: Der rotierende Fliigel als Mittel zur Hochauf ternalAirfoil Flaps, Including Lateral Control with a Full
triebserzeugung. Jahrb. (1941) dDL I, S. 372. Span Flap. NACA Rep. 541 (1935).
JACOBS, E. N. and R. M. PINKERTON: Pressure Distribution over  and I. H. ABBOTT: Aerodynamic Characteristics of NACA
a Symmetrical Airfoil Section with Trailing Edge Flap. NACA 23012 and 23021 Airfoils with 20PercentChord External
Rep. 360 (1930). Airfoil Flaps of NACA 23012 Section.. NACA Rep. 573
JACOBS, E. N.: Tapered Wings, Tip Stalling, and Preliminary (1936).
Results from Tests of the StallControl Flap. NACA ACR,  and J. A. SHORTAL: WindTunnel Investigation of Wings
Nov. 1937. with Ordinary Ailerons and FullSpan External Airfoil
KOSTER, H.: Messungen am Profil 0 00 120,55 45 mit Spreiz Flaps. NACA Rep. 603 (1937).
und Nasenspreizklappe. UM 1317 (1944). PURSER, P. E., J. FISCHEL and J. M. RIEBE: WindTunnel
 Untersuchungen am Profil NACA 0 00 120,55 45 mit Investigation of an NACA 23012 Airfoil with a 030Airfoil
Nasenspreizklappe. UM 1363 (1944). Chord Double Slotted Flap. NACA ARR 3LIO (1943)
KNAPPE, 0.: Schnellkanalversuche an einem symmetrischen WR L469.
Klappenfiiigel. Jahrb. (1941) dDL I, S. 96/100. PuRSER, P. E. and H. S. JOHNSON: Effect of Trailing Edge
 Schnellkanalversuche an Profilen und Flugzeugmodellen Modification on PitchingMoment Characteristics of Air
und ihre fiugtechnische Auswertung. LGL 156 (1942), foils. NACA CB L4I30, (1944) WR L664.
S. 128/132. QUINN, J. H. jr.: Tests of the NACA 641 A212 Airfoil Section
KRAMER, M.: Steigfiugklappen. FB 1576 (1942). with a Slat, a Double SIJtted Flap, and BoundaryLayer
KRUGER, W.: V'ber eine neue Moglichkeit der Steigerung des Control by Suction. NACA TN 1293 (1947).
Hochstauftriebes von Hochgeschwindigkeitsprofilen. UM RACISZ, ST. F.: Investigation of NACA 65(1l2)Alll (Approx),
3049 (1943). Airfoil with 035Chord Slotted Flap at Reynolds Numbers
 Syetematische Windkanalmessungen an einem Laminar up to 25 Millions. NACA TN 1463 (1947).
fiiigel mit Nasenklappe. FB 1948 (1944). RECANT, I. G.: WindTunnel Investigation of an NACA 23030
 Windkanalmessungen an einem abgeanderten Mustang Airfoil with Various Arrangements of Slotted Flaps. NACA
Profil mit Nasenklappe. Kraft und Druckverteilungsmes TN 755 (1940).
sungen. UM 3153 (1944). REGENSCHEIT, B.: Versuche an einem Fliigel mit einem Rotor.
KUCHEIIIANN, D.: Dreikomponentenmessungen an einem Fliigel FB 826.
mit rotierendem Hilfsfiiigel. FB 1513 (1944). ROGALLO, F. M. and B. S. SPANO: WindTunnel Investig&tion
 Auftrieb und Widerstand eines rotierenden Fliigels. FB 1651 of an NACA 23012 Airfoil with 30PercentChord Venetian
(1942). Blind Flaps. NACA Rep. 742 (1942).
LEMME, H. G.: Kraftmessungen und Druckverteilungen an ROSE, L. M. and I. M. ALTMANN: LowSpeed Investigation of a
einem Fliigel mit Knicknase, VorHiigel, Wolbungs und Thin, Faired, DoubleWedge Airfoil Section with NoseFlaps
Spreizklappe. FB 1676 (1942). of Various Chords. NACA TN 2018 (1950).
 Kraftmessungen und Druckverteilungsmessdngen an einem ROSE, L. M. and I. M. ALTMAN: LowSpeed Investigation of a
Rechteckfliigel mit Spaltknicknase, Wolbungs und Spreiz. Thin, Faired, DoubleWedge Airfoil Section with Nose Flap.
klappe oder Rollklappe. FB 1676/2 (1943). NACA TN 2172 (1950).
 Kraftmessungen und Druckverteilungsmessungen an einem ScmLLER, M.: Windkanaluntersuch unglin an einem Fliigel mit
Rechteckfliigel mit Doppelknicknase. FB 1676/3 (1944). Klappenfliigeln und Vorfliigel. Fi3 543.
LOFTIN, L. K., jr. and F. J. RICE jr.: TwoDimensional Wind SCHRENK, 0.: Kritischer tlberblick iiber Auslandsuntersuchun
Tunnel Investigation of Two NACA LowDrag Airfoil Sec gen zur Hochauftriebserzeugung. Jb. 1939 dDL I, S. 79.
tions Equipped with Slotted Flaps and a Plain NACA Low SCHULDENFREI, M. J.: WindTunnel Investigation of an NACA
Drag Airfoil Section for XF6Ul Airplane. NACA MR L5Lll, 23012 Airfoil with a Handley Page Slot and Two Flap
(1946). Arrangements. NACA ARR, Febr. 1942 WR L261.
LOWRY, J. G.: WindTunnel Investigation of an NACA 23012 SEIFERTH, R.: Neuere Messungen an Hochauftriebsfliigeln.
Airfoil with Several Arrangements of Slotted Flap with Ex Jahrb. 1939 dDL I, S. 8487.
tended Lips. NACA TN 808 (1941). SHAW, R. A.: Changes in Control Characteristics with Changes
NONWEILER, T.: Maximum Lift Data for Symmetrical Wings. in Flow Pattern at High Subsonic Speeds: Tests on an EC
Aircr. Eng. XXVII (1955) No. 311, p. 2. 1250 Aerofoil with 25% Concave Flap. R & M No. 2436
 Flaps, Slots and other Highlift Aids. Aircr. Eng. XXVII (1949).
(1955) No. 311, p. 2. SHERMAN, A. and T. A. HARRIS: The Effect of Equal Pressure
 The Design of Wing Sections, Aircr. Eng., July 1956. Fixed Slots on the Characteristics of a Clark Y;Airfoil.
NACA TN 507 (1934).
NOYES, R. W.: WindTunnel Tests of a Wing with a Trailing
SILVERSTEIN, A., S. KATZOFF and J. HOOTMAN: Comparative
Edge Auxiliary Airfoil Used as a Flap. NACA TN 524 (1935).
Flight and FullScale WindTunnel Measurements of the
NUBER, R. J. and F. J. RICE jr.: Lift Tests of a 01536 c Thick Maximum Lift of an Airplane. NACA Rep. 618 (1938).
Douglas Airfoil Section of NACA 7Series Type Equipped SIVELLS, I. C. and S. H. SPOONER: Investigation in the Langley
with a LateralControl Device for Use with a Fullspan 19Foot Pressure Tunnel of Two Wings of NACA 65210
DoubleSlotted Flap on the C74 Airplane. NACA MR and 64210 Airfoil Sections with Various Type Flaps. NACA
L5C24a (1945). Rep. 642 (1949).
PETRIKAT, K.: Untersuchungen an festen und selbsttatig off STAUFER: Windkanalmessungen an einem Fliigel mit Doppel
nenden Fliigeln. Jahrb. 1940 dDL I, S. 248264. spaltklappe. Jahrb. 1940 dDL I, S. 245.
5. PROFILES WITH FLAPS
52
6.1 Suction as a Means of Increasing the Lift is used (negative when the pressure is less than the free
Only a limited increase in lift can be obtained by stream pressure).
arrangements of flaps; to gain a further increase. the The older experiments on boundarylayer suction (by
distribution of energy in the boundary layer must be con BETZ, ACKERET, and SCHRENK) were concerned with the
trolled by suitable means. This can be done by sucking generation of high lift, in conformity with the state of
away the fluid in the boundary layer near the wall (this aircraft development at that time. For practical application
fluid is deficient in energy) or by blowing out air in the it seemed advantageous to use a wing with a flap and apply
direction of flowthat is, by bringing in additional energy suction at the flap; this arrangement has been more
(see Section 6.2). It is customary to use a dimensionless accurately investigated by SCHRENK and REGENSCHEIT,
coefficient for Q, the amount sucked away or blown out, and they obtain better results by sucking through two
called the volumeflowrate coefficient, slots, one slot lying in front of and the other behind the flap
(Figure 6.1). In this way maximum lift coefficients, OLmu .,
CQ =Q/VS (6.1) greater than 35 are obtained, and the volumeflowrate
(where S is the area of the part of the wing surface affected). coefficient has a practical value (cQ < 002). The suction
For the required suction or blowing pressure, P" the aircraft of the AVA (AF1 and AF2) have been tested in
coefficient flight by STUPER; an increase in OLm&J:. of about 15 is
obtained (from 0 L au.. = 26 without suction to 0 L maI. =
(6.2) 41 with suction); suction is applied at a flap, the value of
cQ being 002.
From Figure 6.1 it is seen that the behaviour of 0Lmaz.
with increasing CQ is usually as follows: at first there is a
R .17.10' sharp rise in OLmu ., up to a value of about 3; a relatively
small increase follows, despite the application of a large
amount of suction. From theoretical calculations of the
point of separation of the turbulent boundary layer it is
found that, in the range of CQ corresponding to the steep
rise in OLmaz ., there is n~ danger of separation before the
point at which suction is applied (that is, before the flap);
consequently, in this range the only purpose of suction is to
'L...., guide the flow past the flap and to keep the flow attached
t despite the adverse pressure gradient existing on the suc
tion side of the flap. In the range of CQ corresponding to the
shallow rise in OLm (that is, for values of OLmaz . greater
&
x/cOl
R  fHJ.10'13.1O'
20++.,;C+j
L
t++#4+1
OC oo 300
Fig. 6.3. Intluence of position Fig. 6.4. CLmax. correspond Fig. 6.5. Intluence of nose Fig. 6.6. Intluence of nose
of suction slot on the cQ ing to the most favourable radius Q (see Equation (1.7 radius on the increase in
necessary for a certain in PQsltion of suction slot. on the most favourable C Lmax" when the suction
crease in C Lmax. Profile: NACA 23015 position of suction slot (with slot Is at the most favourable
split tlap): position (no tlapdetlection)
(a) for Increasing CLmax. ;
(b) for increasmg aCL mu .
increases with thickness ratio; it reaches its greatest value application of this result on profiles with a flap there
at a definite thickness ratio (dependent on cQ). Profiles must be a further suction slot in either the riddle or the
without suction behave similarly. For the still practical forward part of the profile so that the behaviour of 0 Lmax.
value CQ = 002, the favourable thickness ratio lies with CQ can be improved near OL max = 30. Using the
between 015 and 020. W ALZ has investigated theoretically first of these arrangements QUINN has been able to increase
and experimentally the influence of the position of a single the lift of a wing with a doubleslotted flap from OLmax =
suction slot; the profiles have a split flap but no plain
35 to 0 Lmax. = 368 when CQ = 0024, and to 0 Lmax. = 416
flap; the results are shown in Figures 6.3 to 6.6. From these
investigations and from further measurements by REGEN when CQ = 004.
SCHEIT and EHLERS it appears that there are two places on According to REGENSCHEIT, the other favourable posi
the profile where suction is most advantageously applied. tion for a suction slot is the trailing edge of the profile.
One of these favourable positions lies at the point where, Removal of portions of the boundary layer is then of no
at the required value of 0 L max ., separation would occur in importance; the change in the flow is caused only by the
the absence of suction; separation is prevented by remov sink effect of the suction, and can therefore be treated by
ing from the boundary layer fluid which is deficient in potential theory.' Figures 6.7 and 6.8 come from theoretical
energy. According to a proposal of W ALZ, for the practical calculations by EHLE~S for the flat plate; they show the
iH.r.
15 f.j...j...,.&1++
101:f++,L+==t
0. 915
1++r'OJ"""'::=+"""'=+ 09SO
0900
o 00
0~~~iO~1~0~'0z~01.~===oj'0===Oj'0:5==~J~ 001 ~OZ OOJ OO~ 005 0'06
 clil _cQ
Fig. 6.7. Intluence of position of Ruction slot on the increase In lift obtained Fig. 6.8. Intluence of width of suction slot. for suction at the trailing edge.
for a given volumetlowrate coetllcient. Flat plate (theoretical) Flat plate (theoretical)
6.2 BLOWING AS A MEANS OF IXCREASING THE LIFT 55
i a06fJ.8.'10' Cq'
201
) (('pl.
1.0 0020
t
/ 0015
10 Jl,<~
J.O
7/
"t I II
0010
OOZ.JA
Cq
t
/V _0
001+~.q
2'0 I
/
V 0003 sic 0006
03"~
C'pJs.cf
2O~'+,4l
t
M~
O,Z+..l,.I
(('p).
t t++__+_I
t .. 'q _
C .. ,
__ __
Without sudiM
With tutti", It
fl
6.3.1 Keeping the Boundary Layer Laminar
Suction is frequently used to keep the boundary layer
  ~!l
Theory ~ ~~
i~~r
o9ftt++tt+1
laminar; the present state of the theory on this subject is
II '"'/
described in Chapter 9. Theoretical work usually assumes 1/1
~!"
continuous suction, which can be easily visualised physic
ally; it is of great practical interest, being theoretically the
most efficient form of suction. With continuous suction
(for example, on a flat plate) gains in performance of 50%
and more are possible, the gains being particularly large at
Flg.6.16. Protlle with a sl1ctlon slot. the pressurp rise being displaced
high Reynolds numbers. rearwards to the slot; designed by Grlftlth (see GOLDSTEIN)
6.3 SUCTION AS MEANS OF REDUCING DRAG 57
I
[,0 6 r1'Z 106
small amounts of suction if the number of slots is suf t _ 0'019'' (see

DO  1'04 0'2 to t
/
C ..
ficiently large (see also Figure 6.17). Equation (1.7; no co
In the present stage of technology the manufacture of a ordinates available. Total cQ In I"'
wing with a large number of suction slots (or, better still,
the realisation of continuous suction) w011.ld be extra
all cases less than 0'0016. Wind
tunnel: Zurich V 0002 000'1
ordinarily difficult; however, the large gains in performance
predicted by theory for continuous suction provide a
strong stimulus to look for solutions of this technical drag by keeping the boundary layer laminar. We can
problem. Some progress has already been made: of obtain either a reduction in the form drag by sucking
particular interest are successful experiments (RASPET) away the boundary layer in the region of the trailing edge,
with a specially designed sailplane; and, above all, the 'Or a reduction in the turbulent skinfriction drag by
results obtained by BRASLOW and others [R1025] on a blowing away the more slowly moving air (following a
wing with a porous surface made from sintered bronze proposal by BETZ). The latter case has yet to be investi
(Figure 6.18). gated, but results exist for the former one.
Suction applied to the boundary layer at higher Mach In the region behind a suction slot the thinning of the
numbers is of particular importance; this is confirmed by boundary layer (when this is not kept laminar) always
one of the first experiments in this field, carried out by increases the skinfriction drag and decreases the form
REGENSCHEIT; the results are shown in Figure 6.19. drag; the nearer the suction slot is to the trailing edge, the
less is the disadvantage of the increased skinfriction drag;
the gains in performance are expected to be largest if the
6.3.2 Control of the Turbulent Boundary Layer suction slot can be placed at the trailing edge. Measure
The technical difficulties of an attempt to reduce the ments by WALZ [FB 1611] on the profile NACA 23015 at the
drag by controlling a turbulent boundary layer are small Reynolds number of ()'8.1 06 show a gain in per
expected to be smaller than in an attempt to reduce the formance of about 7% for an arrangement in which the
0000 o'AOtO
r
I I
Mlnoul sudion 111 010'.
t ~R 20.10 6
0'00'
t R  ;.10 6
, R .111'2.10'
OOOJ
~
.:: ....... :.: I'"  ~
.. ..
0002 H
'"IF'
I~  1
0001 ~
 1
_c 001

~
~ Fig. 6.19. Reduction In drag of
o 0000, OOO/M (}0012 0{}016 _ c~ (}0020 profile by suction at higher Mach
.numbers. Profile: circular arc with
FIg. 6.18. Drag of the proftle NACA 64A010 with porous surface. at CL  0, as a function rounded leading edge. Reynolds num
of volumeBowrate coelllclent, cQ. Wind tunnel: TDT. Reynolds number: 5'9.10' (0); ber: 11.10' to 1'2.10'. (AVA)
12 10' (0); 19'8.10' (<. Full line is total drag. Dashed line Is portion of drag arising trom
suction; (C,,),  132
~. 58 6. BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL
I
suction slot is at approximately 95% of the chord (OL:::: 0). and can be written as
REGENSCHEIT [FB 1550] has carried out other measure
PI (VI)2 cQ2
ments, at R = 2'2.106 , with an arrangement in which a. q= V = (kslc)2'
(6.3)
suction slot is placed exactly at the trailing edge, the
opening of the slot lying on the suction side (Figure 6.20). The factor k (0 ~ k ~ 1) appears in this expression because
the width of the slot, s, is not wholly effective; the loss in
20   .   , .    y     . ,
efficiency is caused by separation at the sharp edges of the
C~A~I~ entrance; in the suction measurements carried out in
Gottingen k is usually between 03 and 05.
If the sucked air is blown out in the freestream direction
10 iiirt\ with a velocity Vb, then the power, P" required for the suc
~I tion is given by
f Fig. 6.20. Improvement of polars by
suction at the trailing edge.
CDtot. = CD + cQ[l  (C.),]
p. = Qps + Q ~ Vb 2
In contrast to the results of WALZ a gain in performance To decide whether suction, when it is used to reduce
occurs only for values of 0 L greater than 04; at 0 L = 1 it drag; does result in a. saving of power, we must consider
amounts to roughly 25% (referred to OD). The arrangement the sum of the power required to overcome the drag,
of the suction slot at the trailing edge has the great
VD = OD ~V3S, and the power required for the suction;
advantage that an increase in OLma>. can be achieved at
takeoff and landing with the same suction slot. the sum is
Although the control of the turbulent boundary layer
as a method for drag reduction still seems problematic at P = {OD + cQ [(~r  (Op).]} ~ V3S. (6.5)
low lift coefficients, it is undoubtedly of considerable
We now introduce the powerconsumption coefficient,Op;
importance at larger values of OL, and so is suitable for
this is defined by
improving polars. The suction is particularly effective if the
slot is placed immediately behind the nose (or the suction
peak), and is supported by an independent slot in the OD+CQ [(~r (Op).]=OP. (6.6)
middle of the wing; this is demonstrated in Figure 6.21.
It can be verified that 0 p has a minimum w)1en Vb = V
(see SCHRENK), so that
The sucked air moves into the interior of the wing with a C9N and CQM. (0): I
small speed, because of t1!e generally large crosssection of
without suction, R
5,8.10'. (0): CQN  0.'1 II
0'0065, cQ.v =0'0115,
the interior; hence, the "slot loss" is approximately equal R=41.10'.(O): CQN /
to the kinetic pressure formed with the speed in the slot,  0'0038, cQAf  O'OmlO,
V R = 0'8.10'. Protlle: o
S3,012 o 000'1 0008 0012 0015
VI = cQ kslc' to
6.5 REFERENCES 59
In the analysis of drag measurements for profiles with GAINER, TH. G.: LowSpeed Wind Tunnel Investigation to
boundary layer control it is usually assumed that Cp has Determine the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Rectangular
this minimum value; it is occasionally referred to as the Wing Equipped with a FullSpan and an Inboard HalfSpan
Jet.Augmented Flap Deflected 55. NASA MEMO 12759L
total drag coefficient (C Dtot )' (1959).
In the practical application of boundary layer control to GERBER, A.: Untersuchungen iiber Grenzschichtabsaugung.
an aircraft, additional losses (increasing rapidly with cQ) Mitteilungen aus dem Institut fiir Aerodynamik der E.T.H.
Ziirich Nr. 6 (1938).
arise in the ducting and the pump; these pipe losses can be
GLAUERT, M. B.: The Design of Suction Aerofoils with a Very
essentially greater than the power required to suck the air Large CLrange. R & M No. 2111 (1945).
into the interior of the wing (particularly for large values  W. S. WALKER and W. G. RAYMER: WindTunnel Tests on
of cQ). When values of (Cp )8 obtained from windtunnel Thick Suction Aerofoil with a Single Slot. R & M No. 2646
measurements are used in calculations, the calculations (1947). .
GoLDSTEIN, S.: Lowdrag and Suction Airfoils. J. Aeron. Sci.,
have meaning only if cQ is very small (for example, when
15 (1948), pp. 189214.
the suction is used to reduce drag). For further estimates GREGORY, N. and W. S. WALKER: Further WindTunnel Tests
of the pressure and power requirements on an aircraft with on a 36% Symmetrical Suction Aerofoil with a Movable
boundary layer control the reader is referred to the ex Flap. R & M No. 2287 (1946).
haustive work of KRUGER. GREGORY, N., W. S. WALKER and W. G. RAYMER: WindTunnel
Tests on the 30% Symmetrical Griffith Aerofoil with
Ejection of Air at the Slots. R & M No. 2475 (1946).
GREGORY, N.: Note on Sir Geoffrey Taylor's Criterion for the
Rate of Boundary Layer Suction at a Velocity Discontinuity.
R & M No. 2496 (1947).
6.5 References  Further Observations on the Boundary Layer Theory of
Suction Aerofoils. R & M No. 2577 (1948).
 Addendum to ARC 10854 (Tests on GIas II). ARC 11797.
ACKERET, J.: Grenzschichtabsaugung. Z. VDI 35 (1926) 1153.
 W. S. WALKER and A. N. DEVEREUX: WindTunnel Tests
 M. RAS and W. PENNINGER: Verhinderung des Turbulent
on the 30% Symmetrical Griffith Aerofoil with Distributed
werdens einer Reibungsschicht durch Absaugung. Naturw.
(1941), S. 622. Suction over the Nose. R & M No. 2647 (1948).
 and A. R. CURTIS: A Comparison of Three Thick, Symmetri
BAMBER, M. J.: WindTunnel Tests on Airfoil Boundary Layer
cal, Multislot Suction Aerofoils. C. P. 20 (1950).
Control Using a Backward.opening Slot. NACA Rep. No. 385
(1931).  R. C. PANKHURST and W. S. WALKER: WindTunnel Tests
on the Prevention of Boundarylayer Separation by Dis
BEAVAN, J. A . : Note on Reynolds and Mach Number Effects
tributed Suction at the Rear of a Thick Aerofoil. R & M
on the Pressure Distribution on the Tail of EC 1250. R & M
No. 2252 (1943). No. 2788 (1950).
BETZ, A.: Die Wirkungsweise von unterteilten Fliigelprofilen.  and W. S. WALKER: WindTunnel Tests on the NACA 63
Berichte und Abhandlungen der WGL (1922), Heft 6. A 009 Aerofoil with Distributed Suction over the Nose.
R & M No. 2900 (1955).
 Beeinflussung der Reibungsschicht und ihre praktische
Verwertung. Schriften der Deutschen Akademie der Luft HOLSTEIN, H.: Auftriebsmessungen an einem Fliigel mit Ab
fahrtforschung, Heft 49 (1941). saugung durch DiiSenwirkung. FB 1253 (1940).
 Neue Ergebnisse der Auftriebsbeeinflussung von Fliigeln. HOLSTEIN, H.: Messung zur Laminarhaltung der Grenzschicht
DAL 1047 (1942). durch Absaugl!lng an einem Tragfliigel. LGL S 10 (1941),
BRA.SLOW, A. L., D. L. BURROWS, N. TETERVIN and F. VISCONTI: S.1727.
Exp. and Theoret. Studies of Area Suction for the Control HOLSTEIN, H. and A. DONEIS: Messungen an einem Laminar
of the Laminar Boundary Layer on an NACA 64AOlO Air profil mit extremer Riicklage des DruckminimuIns. FB 1522
foil. NACA Rep. 1025 (1951). (1941).
CHEERS, F. and O. DOUGLAS: Tests on a Glauert Nosesuction  Messungen zur Laminarhaltung der Reibungsschicht durch
Aerofoil in the N.P.L. 4ft. No.2 WindTunnel. R & M No. Absaugen an einem Tragfliigel mit dem Profil NACA
2356 (1947). 001264. FB 1654 (1942).
CHEERS, F., W. G. RAYMER and O. DOUGLAS: Tests on a HORTON, E. A., S. F. RACISZ and N. 1. PARADISO: Investiga
'Lighthill' Nosesuction Aerofoil in the N.P.L. 4ft. No. 2 tion of BoundaryLayer Control to Improve the Lift and
WindTunnel. R & M No. 2355 (1951). Drag Characteristics of the NACA 652415 Airfoil Section
DANNENBERG, R. and WEIBERG, J.: Effect of Type of Porous with DoubleSlotted and Plain Flaps. NACA TN 2149 (1950).
Surface and Suction Velocity Distribution on Characteristics KNIGHT, M. and M. J. BAMBER: Windtunnel Tests on.Airfoil
of a 10'5% thick Airfoil with Distributed Suction over the Boundary Layer Control Using a Backward Opening Slot.
Nose. NACA TN 3093 (1953). NACA TN No. 323 (1929).
DOENHOFF, A. E. v. and LOFl'IN, L. K.: Pre~nt Status of KRUGER, H.: tlber den EinfluB der Absaugung auf die Lage
Research on BoundaryLayer Control. J. Aeron. Sci. 16 der Umschlagstelle an Tragfliigelprofilen. Ing.Arch., 19. Bd.
(1949), p. 7~9. (1951), S. 384387.
EHLERS, F. and W. SCHWIER: Blasversuche an einem Fliigel KRUGER, W.: Rechnerische und experimentelle Untersuchung
, mit Spaltklappe. FB 1247 (1940). zur Frage des Forderleistungsbedarfes von Flugzeugen mit
:! EHLERS, F.: tlber die Anderung des Auftriebes und der Druck Grenzschichtbeeinfiussung. FB 1618 (1942).
verteilung an Absaugefliigeln durch. Senkenwirkung. AVA  Windkanalmessungen am Absaugeklappenfliigel 23012 mit
Bericht 45/Wf15 (1945). Vorfliigel. FB 1623 (1942).
1_. . . .~
60 6. BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL
LACIDIANN, G. V.: Boundary Layer Control. J. Roy. Aero. Soc.  Untersuchungen an einem Fliigel mit Hinterkantenabsau
59 (1955), pp. 163198 und Jahrb. 1953 d. Wiss. Ges. Luftf., gung. FB 1594 (1942).
S.132143.  Absaugeklappenfliigel 23009: FB 1555; 23012: FB 1543;
 Grenzschichtsteuerung in der Praxis. Z. Flugwiss. 4 (1956), 23015: FB 1591; 23018: FB 1639 (1942).
S.914.  Versuche zur Verringerung des Tragfliigelwiderstandes durch
LIGHTHILL, M. J.: A Theoretical Discussion of Wings with selbsttatige Absaugung. FB 1673 (1942).
Leading Edge Suction. R & M No. 2162 (1945).  Versuche an einem Fliigel mit einer Klappe geringer Tiefe
LOFTIN, L. K. and D. L. BURROWS: Investigations Relating to und selbsttatiger Absaugung. UM 3053 (1943).
the Extension of Laminar Flow by Means of Boundary.  Versuche iiber eine neue stromungstechnische Steuerung.
Layer Suction throtlgh Slots. NACA TN 1961 (1949). UM 3104 (1944).
MCCULLOUGH, G. B. and D. E. GAULT: An Experimental In  Messungen am Absaugeklappenfliigel NACA 23015 mit 10
vestigation of the NACA 631012 Airfoil Section with und 15% Klappentiefe. FB 1763 (1943)und 43015: FB
Leading.Edge and Midchord Suction Slots. NACA TN 2041 1763/2 (1944).
(1950).  Eine neue Anwendung der Absaugung zur Steigerung des
PANKHURST, R. C., W. G. RAYMER and A. N. DEVEREUX: Auftriebes eines Tragfliigels. FB 1474 (1941).
Wind Tunnel Tests of the Stalling Properties of an 8% Thick  Absaugung in der Flugtechnik. Jahrbuch 1952 der Wissen.
Symmetrical Section with Uniformly Distributed Nose Suc schaftlichen Gesellschaft fiir Luftfahrt, Braunschweig 1953.
tion. R & M No. 2666 (1946). RICHARDS, E. J., W. S. WALKER and R. J. GREENING: An
PANKHURST, R. C. and N. GREGORY: Power Requirements for Aerofoil Designed to give Laminar Flow over the Whole
Distributed Suction for Increasing Maximum Lift. C. P. 82 Surface with Boundary Layer Suction. R & M No. 2263
(1948). (1943).
PEARCEY, H. H. and E. W. E. ROGERS: The Effect of Com RICHARDS, E. J.: Tests 011 a Griffith Aerofoil in the 13 ft. x 9 ft.
pressibility on the Performance of a Griffith Aerofoil. R & M WindTunnel. Part IWindTunnel Technique and Interim
No. 2511 (1.946). Note. R & M No. 2148 (1944).
PFENNINGER, W.: Untersuchungen iiber Reibungsverminde. RICHARDS, E. J., W. S. WALKER and J. R. GREENING: 13 ft. x
rungen an Tragfiiigeln, insbesondere mit Hilfe von Grenz 9 ft. WindTunnel Tests on a Griffith Aerofuil. Part II
schichtabsaugung. Mitteilg. a. d. Inst. 'f. Aerodynamik  Effect of Concavity on Drag. R & M No. 2148 (1944).
E.T.H. Zurich Nr. 13 (1946). and W. S. WALKER: 13ft. X 9ft. WindTunnel Tests on a
 Experiments on a Laminar Suction Airfoil of 17 Percent Griffith Aerofoil. Part IIIThe Effect of Wide Slots and
Thickness. Journ. Aeron. Sci. 16 (1949), pp. 227236. of Premature Transition to Turbulence. R & M No. 2148
PRESTON, J. H.: The Boundary Layer Flow over a Permeable (1944).
Surface through which Suction is Applied. R & M No. 2244. 13 ft. X 9 ft. WindTunnel Tests on a Griffith Aerofoil
 W. S. WALKER and C. R. TAYLOR: The Effect on Drag of the Part IVLift, Drag, Pitching Moments and Velocity
Ejection of Air from Backward Facing Slots on a 16'2% Distributions. R & M No. 2148 (1944).
Griffith Aerofoil. R & M No. 2108 (1946).  W. S. WALKER and C. R. TAYLOR: WindTunnel Tests on
PRETSCH, J.: Die Leistungsersparnis durch Grenzschichtab a 30% Suction Wing (Replacing 8473). R & M No. 2149
saugung beim Schleppen einer ebenen Platte. UM 3048 (1945).
(1943).  and C. H. BURGE: An Aerofoil Designed to Give Laminar
 Umschlagbeginn und Absaugung. Jahrb. 1942 I, S. 1/7. Flow over the Whole Surface with Boundary.LayerSuction.
QUINN, J. H. jr.: Tests of the NACA 653018 Airfoil Section R & M No. 2263 (HI49).
with Boundarylayer Control by Suction. NACA CB No. REID, E. G. and M. J. BAMBER: Preliminary Investigation on
L4HI0 (1944) WR L209. Boundary Layer ~ontrol by Means of Suction and Pressure
 WindTunnel Investigation of Boundary.layer Control by with the U.S.A. 27 Airfoil. NACA TN No. 286 (1928).
Suction on the NACA 653418, a = 10 Airfoil Section SCHLICHTING, H.: Die Grenzschicht an der ebenen Platte mit
with a 029 Airfoilchord Double Slotted Flap. NACA TN Absaugen und Ausblasen. Lufo 19 (1940), S. 293.
No. 1071, 1946.  Die Grenzschicht mit Absaugung und Ausblasen. Lufo 19
 Tests of the NACA 641A212 Airfoil Section with a Slat, a (1942), S. 179.
Double Slotted Flap, and Boundarylayer Control by Suc  Berechnung der' laminaren Grenzschicht mit Absaugung.
tion. NACA TN No. 1293, 1947. LGL 141 (1941), S. 1417 und DLG. Arch. 16 (1948), S. 201.
RASPET, A.: Boundarylayer Studies on a Sailplane. Aer. Eng.  and K. BUSSMANN: Exakte Losungen fiir die laminare
Rev. 11 (1952) 52. Grenzschicht mit Absaugung und Ausblasen. Schriften d.
REGENSCHEIT, B.: Hochauftriebsversuche mit Absaugeklap DAL Bd. 7B (1943), Heft 2, S. 2569.
penfliigeln. Bericht A 64 der LGL (1938). SCHRENK, 0.: Tragfiiigel mit Grenzschichtabsaugung. Lufo 2
 and O. SCHRENK: Versuche mit Absaugefliigeln ver (1928), S. 49 und 5 (1931), S. 634.
schiedener Profilwolbung und Wolbungslage. FB 1061 (1939).  Versuche mit Absaugefliigeln. Lufo 9 (1935), S. 10.
 Systematische Untersuchungen von Absaugeklappenfliigeln.  and F. EHLERS: Spaltklappenfliigel mit Absaug1.Ulg an der
Messungen an den Profilen 23015,23018, 6215 g, 6218 Hinterkante des Hauptfliigels. FB 1064 (1938).
g. FB 1221 (1940). .  Grenzschichtabsaugung. Luftwissen 7 (1940), S. 409.
 Versuche zur Widerstandsverringerung eines Fliigels bei SCHWARTZBERG, M. A. and A. L. BRASLOW: Experimental Study
hoher Machscher Zahl durch Absaugung der hinter dem Ge of the Effects of Finite Surface Disturbances and Angle
biet unstetiger Verdichtung abgelosten Grenzschicht. FB of Attack on the Laminar Boundary Layer of an NACA
1424 (1941). 64 A 010 Airfoil with Area Suction. NACA TN 2796 (1952).
 Messungen mit und ohne Knicknase an einem Absauge. SCHWIER, W.: Fremde Arbeiten iiber Absaugung und Ausblasen.
klappenfliigel NACA 23015. FB 1312 (1941). LGL A 64 (1938).
 Versuche zur Verringerung des Tragfiiigelwiderstandes durch  Versuche zur Auftriebssteigerung durch Ausblasen von Luft
Hinterkantenabsaugung. FB 1550 (1942). an einem symmetrischen Profil mit Wolbungsklappe groBer
6.5 REFERENCES 61
Tiefe. FB 1462 (1941J.  On the Design of Aerofoils for which the Lift is Independent
 Auftriebsinderung durch Ausblasen von Luft. FB 1481 of the Incidence. R & M No. 2612 (1947).
(1941).  The Production of Lift Indepepdently of Incidence. J. Roy.
 Absaugeversuche an einem Fliigel mit einem Querruder ge Aer. Soc. 52 (1948), pp. 117/24.
ringer Tiefe. FB 1579 (1941). ULRICH, A.: Theoretische Untersuchungen iiber die Wider
 Ausblaseversuche zur Auftriebssteigerung an einem Fliigel standsersparnis durch Laminarerhaltung mit Absaugung.
von 9% Dicke mit Vorfliigel und Klappe. FB 1622 (1942). Schriften d. DAL 8B (1944) Heft 2.
 Versuche zur Auftriebssteigerung durch Ausblasen von Luft
W ALZ, A.: Messungen zur ErhOhung der tl'berziehsicherheit
an einem Proill von 12% Dicke mit verschiedenen Klappen.
durch Absaugung im vorderen Profilteil (Messungen am Pro
formen. FB 1658 (1942).
fil 0012 und zusammenfassende Auswertung friiherer Mes
 Versuche tiber Widerstandsinderungen eines Tragtliigels
sungen). AVABericht 45/W/14 (1945).
beim Ausblasen von erwirmter Luft. FB 1783 (1943).
 Theoretisches zur Absaugung der Reibungsschioht. FB 1775
 Blasversuche zur Auftriebssteigerung am Profil 23015 mit
(1943).
verschiedenen Klappenformen. FB 1865 (1943).
 Versuche mit Reibungsschichtabsaugung an einem Fliigel
 Anderung von Auftrieb und Widerstand eines Tragtliigels
profil NACA 23015 bei verschiedenen Lagen des Absauge
bei Luftaustritt auf der Fliigelsaugseite. UM 3064 (1943).
schlitzes lings Fliigeltiefe. FB 1611 (1942).
 Auftriebsinderung durch einen auf der Fliigeldruckseite aus
geblasenen Lnftstrahl. UM 3192 (1944). WIEGHARDT, K.: tl'ber das Ausblasen von Warmluft fiir Ent
SPENCE, D. A.: The Lift Coefficient of a Thin Jet Flapped Wing. eiser. KWIBericht (1943).
Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 238 (1956), pp. 4668 and J. WILLIAMS, J.: Some Investigations of the Stalling Properties of
Aeron. Sci. 23 (1956), pp. 9294. Some Thin Nosesuction Aerofoils. R & M No. 2693 (1952).
STUPER, J.: Messungen und Flugerfahrungen an zwei Absauge  Some Improvements in the Design of Thick Suction Aero
tlugzeugen. FB 1821 (1942). foils. C.P. 31 (1950).
THwAITES, B.: A Theoretical Discussion of HighLift Aerofoils  An Analysis of Aerodynamic Data on Blowing over Trailing
with Leadingedge Porous Suction. R & M No. 2242 (1946). Edge Flaps for Increasing Lift. C. P. No. 209 (1955).
L
7. THE THEORY OF WING PROFll..ES I
Profile Shape and Pressure Distribution in Inviscid the profile, the length of this region being a small
Incompressible Flow percentage of the chord;
7.1 General Remarks (C) experimental pressure distributions.
The velocity distribution on the surface of a profile is The velocity or pressure distributions for camber lines
primarily determined by the distribution of curvature. given in Section 7.2 and Chapters 11 and 12 are of type (A);
In inviscid incompressible flow the velocities can theoretic those for thickness distributions in symmetrical flow
ally be found for an arbitrary contour (see Section 8.2). If (0: = 0) given in Section 7.3 are also of type (A); those for
the flow is not initially regarded as inviscid, the velocity symmetrical profiles at incidence or for cambered profiles
distribution can often be calculated theoretically (see in Chapter 12 are mostly of type (B). For a comparison
Section 9.1) by correcting for viscous effects, although the between theory and experiment see Figure 12.27. Theoreti
necessary calculations are more lengthy. A calculation is cal pressure distributions on profiles with flaps are much
always possible if the flow has not separated from the more difficult to obtain, because of the occurrence of
profile; it can frequently be carried out even if this require separation; experimental results, type (C), have usually
ment is not met. been chosen for these. Figures 12.35 and 12.36 compare
Suppose the speed of the free stream is V and its pressure theoretical and experimental pressure distributions on
is poo; let the speed at a point on the profile contour be w profiles with flaps at small and large lift coefficients, with
and the pressure there be p. The pressure coefficient, Cp , is and without separation.
defined as the difference between the pressure on the profile In compressible flow at subsonic speed the pressures
and the freestream pressure (.dp) divided by the kinetic
pressure q,where q = ie V2; it is given by Bernoulli's increase by a factor v' 1, ,to a first approximation;
1M2
equation as they vary more rapidly as the speed of sound is approached,
and if this is locally exceeded significant deviations from
the simple rule are observed (see Section 10.3); the pressure
distribution is also considerably altered, a feature that is
The corresponding relationship for compressible flow is treated in more tletail in Section 10.4. In Chapter 12,
derived in Section 10.2. pressure distributions at these Mach numbers are ex
Direct measurements of the pressure distribution, made perimental results from'wind tunnels (that is, of type (C)).
by small pressure holes bored in the profile surface, show If the freestream speed is sufficiently greater than the
that the theoretical distribution is accurate enough for speed of sound then the pressure distributions can again be
practical purposes, provided that the influence of viscosity determined theoretically with good accuracy, except for a
has been allowed for (see Section 9.1). The theoretical small region on the upper side of the profile near the trailing
values for inviscid flow provide a good basis for comparison edge (see Figures 12.48 and 12.49).
of profiles; at small angles of incidence or for small lift
coefficients, they are usually quantitatively satisfactory as
well.
7.2 Camber Line and Velocity Distribution
The pressure distributions given in Chapter 12 can be
divided into three classes: We first consider inviscid incompressible flow. In the
theoretical results of this and the next two sections the
(A) pressure distributions calculated on potential theory
upper and lower signs refer to the upper and lower sides of
for inviscid incompressible flow, which agree approxi
the profile respectively.
mately with experiment only at small lift coefficients
and for moderately thick profiles;
(B) pressure distributions calculated theoretically, with 7.2.1 Simple Special Cases
an allowance for the effect of viscosity, which agree If the freestream speed is V then, from Section 8.2.1.2,
well with experiment except in a region at the rear of we find for the local speed, w:
7.2 CAMBER LINE AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION 63
(a) on the surface of a flat plate at an angle of incidence a, Type 8 1 : BirnbaumGlauert camber lines.
The special cases (a) to (c) of Section 7.2.1 are known as
to
V =cosasina V;=;
x (0 ~ z ~ c); (7.2)
the BirnbaumGlauert basic distributions. Other camber
lines can be derived from these by linear superposition.
We can easily obtain further special camber lines from the
if the angle of incidence is small, following series (which does not include a term containing
the angle of incidence):
w
=Ia
V~=;
 (7.3)
V z
2z
where ~=l. (7.8)
(b) on a circular arc of small camber f, whose contour is c
given by the equation
HELMBOLD and KEUNE have systematically investigated
!!... =
c
4{ !!.... (1  ~)
c c c
(0 ~ z ~ c), (7.4)
such camber lines. With the notation employed here and
with retention of the first three terms only, this camber
line may be written
at the ideal angle of incidence,
 I
10= 1 8  Vz ( z)
 I (7.5)
y(c)
c
z( z) ( + z+ (Z)2 )
= 4 Icc 1 !: 1 llC
 12 C
V c c c
z
O~~l. (7.9)
 c 
V c
I
W= 1 8  Vz ( z)

c
1
c
X
1
z) Vz ( z)
o
e
= i_I
ex2
(2XIe~_ (~)2
e
) (1 am indebted to Dr. G. JUNGCLAUS for the derivation
1
of Equations (7.15), (7.18), and (7.4:1).) The velocity
distributions corresponding to positions of maximum
x camber x/Ie = 02, 03, 04:, 05, 06, and 07 are given in
for O;:;! c;:;! 21,
Fignre 12.1 and in Table 11.2; the maximum camber,j, is
(7.14:) equal to 006e. Results for smaller values of the maximum
[(1 _ 2 x ) + 2 x _.x _
y(c) camber can be obtained by affinely reducing the velocitie::;
= f 1
e e (1  21)1 lIe in proportion to the maximum camber. A discontinuity in
curvature exists at the point where the two parabolas join.
w f cosa(Sin9'=~J)+sina(ICOS9')
_=_
V e .
sm 9'
V 1 +
(cos 9'1  cos 9')2
16 (1 cos 9'1)'
;(7.15) (7.17)
kl. k2, and 9' are chosen so that a prescribed value for ot
results and (Om}a = O. Hence, camber lines of this type
have a fixed centre of pressure. The numerical values of
the constants are:
Table 7.1
(7.18)
7.2 CAMBER LINE AND VEI,QeITY DISTRIBUTIOS 65
(1~:.')' {G M! p'+p,),,
%1 ()0()68 01260 02025 0'2900 0'3910
CL*/<J/c ) 26'9 19'6 16" 145 113
J'= kl/CL" 1206 172l 1\3'2 22'13 1077
1.0 aL*
y=IT (7.20)
L* [(1  x)
where
y(C)

c
= a 
4" c
In ( 1  x)
c
+
+ xc z]
In c . (7.21)
 = 61
'y(c)
c
kI x I 3
(x)
1 C
x
for x 1S C S 1. (7.19)
L
66 7. THEORY OF WING PROFILES I
where
g=  b 1 a [al (! lna ~)
b
l
(! ~) 1 lnb
For the angle of incidence at zero lift, <XQ, the ideal angle of
incidence, a*, and the moment coefficient (referred to the
leading edge) at CL = 0, (Cmoh, there results
ba 2
1 [1
h = +   (Ia)1 In (Ia)
 ~ (Ib)1 In (Ib)+
2
1 1
+(Ib)I(Ia)1 ] +g.
4 4
. (n  1) . 2
X [ smq;>+(n+2)sm q;>
(n  I)(n  2) . <.b +
If the terms beyond 'JI = 5 are ignored, the velocity  (n +
2)(n +
3) sm "'t'
distribution is (from Section 8.2.1.2)
(n  I)(n  2)(n  3) . 4 ]
+ (n + 2)(n + 3)(n + 4) sm q;>  . .. .
(7.27)
; =1m V: (1  : ) [co + c
1 (1  :) + Table 7.3 gives characteristic aerodynamic quantities for
some values of n.
+ CI (1  :)' + (1  :)' J;
c3 (7.26)
. 3
Table 7.3
6 7
Type 8 8 : the flat plate with a point of discontinuity. 7.3 Thickness Distribution and Velocity Distribution
The equation of this camber line is
7.3.1 Simple Special Cases
Iii:
where Ais a function obi (the position of the discontinuity)
ii
and of the jump in local angle of incidence, 'YJ (flap deflec
~.. tion). A is given by the velocity distribution is
I~..c
"
..
A= VI + 4X1(I 
2X1(I 
Xl)
Xl)
tan2 'YJ
tan 'YJ
 1
cos a sin 91 + sin a (lcos91) . (7.32)
(for 1'YJ1 ~ n/2, A ~ 'YJ).
From Equation (8.21) the velocity distribution is
(7.29) VSin 191 + y
(~ cos~
_ 2x , J(7'3)
where :J:=I
where 911, t, and t1 have been defined by Equation (7.16). e
t > 0 for the upper side and t < 0 for the lower side; t1 is
always greater than zero. The function F(A, Xl) is given by at IX = 0 it has the velocity distribution
IEquation 7.34,*
For small thickness ratios the circular arcs can be
replaced by parabolic arcs:
I I
(for 'YJ n/2 F = 1). z
c
= '2 + 2
c
costp , y= 2t (Icos 2 tp) . (7.35)
*Equation 7.34
(7.34)
1 21'Z In (I+i)[(I+1'2)1_41'2i+(I1'2)(I+1'2)1_4T2:J:1l]
n 1 + 1'2 z
(I:J:) [(1 + 1'2)2 + 4 1'2 + (11'2) (I + 1'2)1 4T2z 2 ]
68 7. THEORY OF WING PROFILES I
The velocity distribution can be derived either from 7.3.2 More General Thickness Distributionst
Equation (7.35) or by linearising Equation (7.34); it
has the simple form Type Dl: the NACA standard profile, of which the
ordinates (Table 11.3) are given by
w
v 1+ 4T[ 1 + (xc "2
; 1) cx]
In  x  . (7.36) yll) = 5t (0.2969 Vz  0'1260x  0'3516x 2 +
(7.41)
the velocity distribution is
1Equation 7. 38 1
where
when e = 0 this reduces to the velocity distribution for
the fiat plate. Results obtained by using this approxi ..4 
1 {a
 o
In
1 + Y;; 1 x
a1ln    
mate equation are in very good agreement with the n 2Y;; Iyx x
exact values; the velocity distribution shows small
deviations from that calc)llated by means of exact
conformal mapping (see below) if the thickness ratio is  ( IX) ,
2 az 1 + x In  x  
too large (tIc> 02); this is primarily because the
(2I + + IX)
linearised equation for the body, Equation (7.37), is no
longer in good agreement with the exact equation.  3aa x x 2 In x 
The parametric representation for the shape of the
symmetrical generalised Joukowsky profile (Equations
(1.14) and (1.15 comes from exact conformal trans
formation: the velocity distribution for zero angle of
1 I
 4a, ( 3" + 2' x + Xl
IX)}
+ z3in  x  ,
incidence is
w _ N (~)
V = 2 sin 9' ;::===~====::::::::: (7.39)
y (N _1)2 + 4k 2 sinZ9'
t For simplicity c is set equal to unity in this section;
for the meaning of the symbols see Section 1.4.1. x and Xt represent : and ~ respectively.
c c
Equation 7.38
w
=
cos a [ (1 + +) sin 9' 7 sin 29' ] + sin a (1 cos 9') (1 2 +cos 9' )
(7.38)
V
VSin Z 9'+ :: (C089'C0829')2
7.3 THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION
69
Type D2: profiles with various positions of maximum The slope is given by
. thickness can be obtained by joining two curves together
(without a discontinuity in curvature); the equation of t 1
such a profile is y' = '2 y; [1 + 3 (al 1) x + 5 (aa all x 2
y, = 5 t (ao y; + a l x + a2x 2 + as x3) 0 ~ x ~ Xtl
+ 7 (as  as) x3 + 9 (a,  as) x'
= 5 t [0'002 + d l (Ix) + d s X (7.42)
+ 11 (as  a,) X5 13 a5x6] (7.44)
X (1  X)2 + da (1  X)3J Xt ~ x ~ 1.
Cs =
111=

eo Xt  Xt ,
2
2as xt 3 = 02  0'15 Y2
5el
" II.
aT =
11,=
2'00
()O4776
234
03766
315
0'3428
4'65
()O4064
7'00
Wv = Y1 ( (1 + .i. 1IV;
cos a + y; In
0 0 'L = 14'5812 92034
11428
1 + y'2 n
6'333 4'7696 4'4750
3 ()O2711 8'3625 4'1259 1'9357 ()O8366 0'8843
6 11 21438 49516 24616 3'0964 2'7063
9 33 697 8'38 &90 8'86 7'97
. . . (7.51)
Type D4: the symmetrical profile
in which b4 = 0 for EOH profiles.
x (1  x) . t 1  2xt The camber lines with which these thickness distribu
y(l) =a 1 b Wlth a =  22; b = 2 ' (7.4:7)
+x Xt Xt tions are usually combined are those of Equation (7.9)'
with Z2 = O.
The position of maximum thickness is variable (it depends
on b), the contour has no point of inflexion, and the slopes
at the leading and trailing edges are finite. When ex = 0 the 7.3.3 In1luence of a Sudden Change in Curvature of the
velocity distribution is Profile Contour
w 1 { 1 a [ I+b
V = VI + y'2 1 +:n; (1 + bX)2 1 +  b X Engineers and designers often approximate a curve of
high order by simple curves (for example, straight lines or
parabolas); they usually ensure that the change from one
X In(I+b)+(l2xbx l )ln x x+ bx ]}.(7.4:8) curve to another occurs so that the function and its first
i
derivative are continuous, but higher derivatives are
frequently not made continuous. Profiles are occasionally
designed by joining curves together in this manner. For
Finally, we give some other thickness distributions, for example, DOETSCH has investigated a symmetrical circular
which the velocity distributions have been calculated but arc section the front part of which is replaced by a parabola;
for which no simple algebraic formulas exist. the curvature is made continuous at the join, but the third
derivative is not continuous, so that the curvature has a
"kink". The camber line" of the fourfigure NAOA profiles
Type D5: a simple approximation for the contour of the provides another example (see Section 7.2.2). It is com
hyperbola profile (see Section 1.4:.3) is posed of two parabolas; at the join the curvature is not
continuous, so that the curvature has a "jump". The
y(I) = k (1 x) V(l + b) x  bx l . (7.4:9) questions arise, what effects such discontinuities have on
the velocity and pressure distributions, and how the result
ant changes in these distributions affect the boundary
layer. These questions have been investigated many times
Type D6: profiles designated EO or EQ (R & M No. 4:726, and the answers are now clear. It is shown below that a
No. 4978) are constructed by joining two curves together. jump in the curvature leads to a point of inflexion in the
The front part of the profile is an ellipse and the rear part velocity distribution, the slope at the point of inflexion
is either a cubic (EO) or a quartic (EQ). The formulas for being infinite; and even a kink in the curvature manifests
the two curves are itself in a slight concavity in the pressure distribution.
The latter behaviour has been confirmed both theoretically
and experimentally for the symmetrical circular .arc
y(l) = VAx Bx2 o ;::;! x ;::;! Xl'
section with a parabolic nose (see Figure 12.3).
(7.50) Let us consider a jump in curvature, at which the radius
= bo + btx+ bzXI + bax3 + b,x' Xl;::;! x ;::;! 1, of curvature changes from Rl to R 2 ; let the x axis lie along
the tangent at the point of discontinuity, and_assume that,
in which b4 = 0 for EO profiles. in the neighbourhood of this point, the contour is given by
7.3 THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION 71
Y= 2R
Xl
+ a3 z3 + a,x' + .... (x < 0),
Xl
1
,
used with caution; this is especially true if, as a result of its
previous development, the boundary layer at the join is
expected to be sensitive to pressure rises.
We must emphasise that the point of inflexion (with
infinite slope) in the velocity distribution occurs only on
the contour itself; at an arbitrarily small distance from the
wall no singularity of this nature exists. To investigate
By an approximate calculation BETZ has been able to show this, BETZ has considered the simple example represented
that the velocity in the neighbourhood of such a point in Figure 7.1. Far away from the singular point the
may be written in the form velocity, V, is parallel to the straight section of the wall; on
the circular arcs of radius +R and R the velocity is
respectively greater and smaller than V; it is equal to Vat
(7.53)
wall,
x = for reasons of symmetry. At a point (x, y) near the
Xo
~
~ 0,
0, I (7.54)
 In
2
+!I (tan1
(a
. . . (7.56)
x being measured from the join; the velocity distribution,
calculated by the method of Section 8.2.2, is the symbols are explained in the figure. The behaviour of
the velocity is shown for various values of the distance
W 3 ,/ x 1 +YIx2 from the wall. Although the point of inflexion and the
 =  y l  x2 In';''''':
V 2 n Ixl infinite slope do not appear to be dangerous, since the
forl ~ x ~ 0,
3 x 1 +YIx2
= In Kli In 2!::..
2 nYl x2 x (7.55)
s V
for o~x ~ 1,
( sin1 ~~)
3
=+
2
x
x 2
nVx2I
for 1 ~ x ~ co.
15 1 0,5 05 1
 x
s
15
slope is finite at an arbitrarily small distance from the KAWALKI, K. H.: Theoretische Untersuchungen von Schnell
wall, the total fluctuation of the velocity in the neighbour flugprofilen, die aus Ellipsenprofilen entwickelt sind. FB
1224/1 und 2 (1940).
hood of such a point is considerable. It is advisable not to KOCHANOWSKY, W.: Zur Berechnung del' Druckverteilung tiber
expose sensitive boundary layers to such fluctuations. den Umfang beliebig geformter Fitigelschnitte. Jahrb. 1937
dDL I, S. 58.
7.4 Cambered Profiles  Weitere Ergebnisse von Druckverteilungsrechnungen tiber
den Umfang beliebig geformter Fltigelschnitte. Jahrb. 1938
For small camber, camber lines and thickness distribu dDL I, S. 82.
tions can be additively superimposed: the corresponding KOPPENFELS, W. Y.: Ebene Potentialstromung langs einer
velocitydistributions can then also be additively super glatten Wand mit stiickweise stetiger Krtimmung. Lufo 17
(1940), S. 189195.
imposed, to a good approximation. Even if the cambered
LEHlIIANN and F. ZEUNERT: Beitrage zur Profilforschung.
profiles have not been constructed by simple superposition, UM 7603 (1944).
the velocity distributions can still be thus determined LEMME, H. G.: Kraftmessungen und Druckverteilungsmessun.
provided that coordinates with the longest chord as gen an einem Rechteckfltigel mit Spalt.Knicknase, Wol
abscissa are used in the calculation (as required in the bungs. und Spreizklappe odcr Rollklappe. FB 1676/2 (1943).
theoretical treatment in Section 8.2.3). Theoretical  Kraftmessungen t1nd Druckverteilungsmessungen an einem
Rechteckfltigel mit Doppel.Knicknase. FB 1676/3 (1944).
pressure distributions on some profiles, with allowance for PANKHURST, R. C. and H. B. SQUIRE: Calculated Pressure
viscous effects, are given in Figures 12.7 ff, for various lift Distributions for the RAE 100104 Aerofoil Sections.
coefficients; these distributions have been calculated by C.P. 80 (1950).
the method described in Section 9.1. In Section 12.4 PATTERSON, E. W. and A. L. BRASLOW: Ordinates and Theoreti
experimental pressure distributions are reproduced, in cal PressureDistribution Data for NACA 6 and 6ASeries
Airfoil Sections with Thicknesses from 2 to 21 and from 2 to
which the influence of various arrangements of flaps can be 15 per cent Chord, Respectively. NACA TX 4322 (1958).
examined. The regions of separated flow are prominent; PIERCY, N. A. V., R. W. PIPER and L. G. WHITEHEAD: The
they are recognisable by the pressure's becoming suddenly New Transformed Wing Sections. Aircraft Engineering 10
constant. (1938), p. 339.
PIPER, R. W.: Extensions of the New Family of Wing Profiles.
Phil. Mag. Ser. 7 (1937), p. 1114.
7.5 References PINKERTON, R. M.: Calculated and Measured Pressure Distribu
.ALLEN, H. J.: Calculation of the Chordwise Load Distribution tions over the Midspan flection of the NACA 4412 Airfoil.
over Airfoil Sections with Plain, Split or Serially Hinged NACA Rep. No. 563 (1936).
Trailing Edge Flaps. NACA Rep. 634 !1938).  The Variation with Reynolds Number of Pressure Distribu
BETZ, A.: Verlauf der Stromungsgeschwindigkeit in der Nach tion over an Airfoil Section. NACA Rep. No. 613 (1937).
barschaft einer Wand im Fall einer unstetigen Kriimmungs RIEGELS, F. and J. LIESE: Druckverteilungskatalog. FB 1884
anderung. Lufo 19 (1942), S. 129131. (1944).
DOETSCH, H. and A. PASCHKE: Druckverteilungsmes8ungen RIEGELS, F.: Umstromungsproblem bei inkompressiblen
und Wagungen an den Prqfilen NACA 23009, 23012 und Potentialstromungen I, II. Ing. Arch. 16 (1948), S. 373, 17
23018 ohne und mit Spreizklappe im 5 X 7 mWindkanaI (1949), S. 94 und Berichtigung 18 (1950), S. 321.
der DVL. FB 1095 (1939). ROSSNER, G.: nber eine Klasse von theoretischen Profilen mit
DOETSCH, H.: Untersuchungen an einigen Profilen mit ge vier frei wahlbaren geOlpetrischen Parametern. Jahrb. 1942
ringem Widerstand im Bereich kleiner caWerte. Jahrb. 1940 dDL I, S. 142.
dDL I, S. 5457. SCHLICHTING, H. and A. ULRICH: Zur Berechnung des Urn
FI;UGGELoTZ, J. and F. KEUNE: Druckverteilungen an Kar schlages laminar/turbulent. Jahrb. 1942 dDL I, S. 835.
manTrefFtzProfilen bei hohen Auftriebsziffem. Jahrb. 1938 SCHMIDT, W.: Entwurf, Auftrieb, Moment und Druckverteilung
dDL I, S. 39. eines JoukowskyS.Profiles. Jahrb. 1939 dDL I, S. 5054.
FLUGGELoTZ, J. and I. GINZEL: Die ebene Stromung um ein SCHlIfIEDEN, S.: Die konforme Abbildullg von Tragfliigeln mit
geknicktes Profil mit Spalt. Jahrb. 1939 dDL, I S. 55/66. Kriimmungssingularitaten. Jahrb. 194:2 dDL I, S. 10610.
GLAUERT, H.: A Theory of Thin Aerofoils. R & M No. 910 SCHRENK, 0.: Druck und Geschwindigkeitsverteilung langs der
(1924). Fltigeltiefe fiir verschiedene Flugzustande. Ringbuch der
 Theoretical Relationships for an Aerofoil with Hinged Flap. Luftfahrttechnik, I A 11 (1938).
R & M No. 1095 (1927).  and A. W ALZ : Theoretische Verfahren zur Berechnung
HARRIS, A. TH. and G. J. LOWRY: Pressure Distribution over von Druck und Geschwindigkeitsverteilungen. Jahrb. 1939
an NACA 23012 Airfoil with a Fixed Slot and a Slotted Flap. dDL I, S. 29. .
NACA Rep. 732 (1942). TRwAlTES, B.: A Method of Aerofoil Design. I, II R & M No.
HELMBOLD, H. B. and F. KEUNE: Beitrage zur Profilforschung 2166 und 2167 (1945).
II, III. Lufo 20 (1943), S. 82. a
 A New Family of Low Drag Wings with Improved Lranges.
JACOBS, E. N.: Preliminary Report on Laminar Flow Airfoils R & M No. 2292 (1945).
and New Methods Adopted for Airfoil and Boundary Layer W ALZ, A.: t1>ertragung gemessener Druckverteilungen auf be
Investigation. NACAWR 345 (1939). liebige Anstellwinkel. Lufo 16 (1939), S. 121128.
 N ..EASTlIIAN and R. M. PINKERTON; Pressure Distribution  Potentialtheoretisch gerechnete Druckverteilungen diinner
over a Symmetrical Airfoil Section with Trailing Edge Flap. symmetrischer Profile mit heruntergeklappter Nase und Auf
NACA Rep. 360 (1930). triebsklappe. FB 1170 (1940).
7.5 REFERENCES
73
WANNER, A. and P. KRETZ: Druckverteilungs. und Profil.
widel'8tandsmessungen im Flug an den Profilen NACA NACA 23012 ExternalAirfoil Flap. NACA Rep. No. 614
(1938).
23012 und Go 549. Jahrb. 1941 dDL I, S. 111119.
WENZlNGER, C. J.: Pressure Distribution over an Airfoil Sec.
 and B. J. DELANO: Pressure Distribution over an NACA
tion with a Flap and Tab. NACA Rep. No. 574 (1936). 23012 Airfoil with a Slotted and a Plain Flap. NACA Rep.
No. 633 (1938).
 Pressure Distribution over an NACA 23012 Airfoil with an
'.:f."
1
:i
Numerical Methods The former method has remained limited to special
profile families. The method of TREFFTZ for the construc
8.1 The Flow Field tion of Joukowsky profiles has become wellknown; in an
Twodimensional incompressible flow about a profile can extension of this RUDEN describes a graphical procedure
be treated as potential flow throughout most of the field; (later simplified by PERES) for the determination of the
the only exceptions are small regions very close to the velocity vector at an arbitrary point, P, of the flow field.
profile in which viscous effects dominate (see Section 9.2). The construction requires no auxiliary lines, the magnitude
It is therefore possible to determine most of the flow field of the velocity being determined from the following quan
theoretically, so that experiments are necessary only in tities (the notation is that of Figure 1.15): the distance
special cases (for example, when the effect of large regions PO of P, the point being considered, from 0, the origin;
of separated flow is to be investigated). If we continue to the distance PM between P and M, the centre of the
ignore changes in density, the inviscid flow about a profile transformed circle; the distance P N between P and N, the
at normal speeds (those compared with which the speed singular point near the nose; and the distance PS between
of sound, a, is very large) is governed by the equations of P and S, the front stagnation point on the transformed
continuity circle. We find that
freestream direction with the tangent to the profile) are Methods involving the use of singularities are simple, but
usually small, so that log w = log (1 Llw) ~ Llw gives + unfortunately they do not give the velocity distribution on
the disturbance velocity directly; here, the disturbance an arbitrary profile to the required accuracy. BIRNBAUM
velocity is the deviation from the freestream velocity and GLAUERT were able to solve this problem only for the
divided by the magnitude of this velocity. KEUNE (1938) special case of a "thin" profile: lat!lr, RIEGELS gave a
has coJilstructed similar fields, in which, as usual, the suitable solution for profiles of finite thickness; the results
complex velocity (wz + iwy) is used. of this extended theory are presented in Section 8.2.
For profiles of finite thickness PISTOLESI and KEUNE
have developed simple methods of calculation that use
source and sink distributions in addition to vortex dis 8.2 Calculation of the Pressure Distribution for a
tributions. KEUNE'S method involves the construction of Prescribed Shape of Profilet
networks representing the flow fields of certain hasic
distributions (as in the method for thin profiles); these are 8.2.1 Velocity Distribution on a Thin Profile; Vortex
immediately applicable to other cases. PISTOLESI chooses Distribution
the same form for both the vortex distribution and the
8.2.1.1 Vortex Distribution on a Straight Line of Length c
source and sink distribution:
Suppose vortices are distributed along the x axis from
x = 0 to x = c. This vortex distribution, rex), induces
2w.. sin 8 1 c
V = aocosh82cos81 + x = "2 (1 + cosrp) , (8.12)
Q)
2 w,.
 a
V 
( 1
cosh e
sinh e 2
cos 8 1
)
+  cot ~) drp'; (8.13)
2
1\. as  d l = 2c cos e l , aa + d l = 2c cosh8:a. (8.10) t "The second main problem of profile theory. "
L_
76
s. THEORY OF WING PROFILES II
J V
V
c
2
y(x) =  
:It
cx
x
W
'
(x')
x' dx'
  , ,, (8.15) .
cx xx
Yc =_ ~ _1_
c sm IP 2 :It
f
~"
dy(c) (cot IP' IP 
d IP' 2
o o
W, + V sin a dy(c)
(8.16) w = V Yj /2 yc/ 2 ; (8.21)
Veosa = d;
the upper and lower signs refer respectively to the upper
If a is small this may be linearised to and lower sides of the plate.
W dy(c)
'+a=~, (8.17}
V dx 8.2.2 Velocity Distribution on a Symmetrical Profile;
Source Distribution and Additional Vortex
where y(C) denotes the ordinate of the plate at station x. Distribution
For the flat plate that coincides with the part of the x axis Consider a syinmetrical profile whose contour, y = y(t)(x),
dy(c)
.1 lying between x = 0 and x = c, dx = 0, so that Wy = makes a small angl~ almost everywhere with the x axis.
l Suppose the flow is symmetrical, with a freestream speed
a V; from this, with the help of Equation (8.13), we of V cos a. The profile can be replaced by a distribution of
\ obtain the familiar expression for the distribution of sources along the x axis, q,(x), where
Ii circulation along a flat plate,
i
dy(l)
1  coslP IP
Yj = 2 Va. = 2 Va tan 2 = q, (x) = 2 V cos a dx ; (8.22)
 SllllP
=2Va,
V cx
x (8.18) this source distribution induces a velocity WZI along the x
axis, where
f(
1 dyl/) y(I) dx'
10 = (V cos a +10%,) .1 . (8.24) (8.25)
dx'  2x'(c  x') x'  x .
Y1 + (dy/dx)2 o
 Equation 8.27
V
10
=J1+ 1 [
[dy(t)] 2 cos a
{ 1
1 ~
f c
ay(I) _dx_'_}
dx' x'  x
dx 0
Equation 8.27a
10
V
1 . 2 1
[ cosa { sin q;  c 
2n

f
2,.
dy(I)
cot
dq;'
q;'  q;
2
o
(8.27a)
+ 2
sin a (lcosq;) { 1   ;  
1
c Sin q; 2n
f (+.
2,.
a
y(l))

dy(I)
,

i obviously be applied to bodies whose mean line is not show that, if b. = 0, the usual theory of thin profiles
straight. If, however, we consider only profiles with small results: using Equation (8.30) with Equation (8.29) we
find that, for small ~;,
camber (in practice, the camber of most profiles is small),
the contribution of the additional term proportional to
sin ex can be neglected. Unsymmetrical body shapes
y = y(x) (more exactly: y = yu(x) for the upper surface,
and y = yz(x) for the lower surface) can be regarded as w
V = I +
L va.
cosvrpI rp
+atan , (8.31)
having been formed by a superposition of symmetrical sinrp 2
profile shapes y(t) on cambered plates y(c) :
this being the expression familiar from the theory of thin
y = y(c) y(t) = yu + yz
"'_"' yu  yz profiles (see DURAND II, p. 41). The term that is singular at
(8.28)
2 2 the leading edge can be written separately if we split the
or, in terms of rp, series up into its even and odd terms; we find that
'y(rp) + y(rp) + y(rp)  y(rp)
y ()
rp = 2 2 w .. cos 2vrpl
V
1+ L2va2.
1
.
SInrp
+
In the calculation of the corresponding velocity contribu
tions along the x axis a contribution due to the camber, cos (2v I)rp  cosrp
+ L1
CD
Equation 8.29
w
v
(8.29)
 Equation 8.34
CD CD CD CD
w { cos a (sinrp + L va. cos vrp + LV b. sin vrp  L va.) + sin a (1 cosrp) (1 + L {Jp cos p,rp)}
I V
_ _ _ _ _ _ _~l____~===l~=;~7===~l===;~==~===7~~o
Vsin2rp + (L v b, cos vrp  L va. sin Vrp)2
(8.34)
For an exact calculation from this equation the contour distribution (the difference between the velocities
must be given in the form of a Fourier series. This can be 1.Ovl + y'2 on the upper and lower sides of the axis) is
avoided by using a suitable approximate procedure: if we
are given the ordinates at certain fixed values of x we can
replace the Fourier series by a finite series whose terms F (q;) F (2nq;) }
consist of products of the ordinates with certain fixed y(q;)=V { sinq;  sin (2nq;)
coefficients; the fixed values of x are given by t
F(q;) + F. (2nq;)
:1:"
nn) .
="21 ( 1 + cos 11 (8.35)
=V
SInq;
,
or
The velocity distribution is
Nl
An integration along the chord gives the force normal to
D= Ib,,1 + L B_ x 2Ym(C). the freestream direction:
",_I
c n
The upper and lower signs refer to the upper and lower sides
of the profile respectively. ~: denotes the slope of the profile
L = (! V I y(x)dx = V I y (q;) sinq;dq;;
(!
o o
with respect to the parametric angle; we can easily obtain
n;
this by plotting y against q; or it is important only near
the nose. 2N is the total number of fixed points at which its coefficient is
the ordinates Ym (on the suction side) and Y2Nm (on the
pressure side) are prescribed; Ym(t) and Ym(C) are given by
+ f
points (those in the series n = 1, 3, 5, ... ) after, ifnecessary. n
dOL ( 2 y(I) (q;) )
 =2n 1 .dq;
da. n SInq;
o
8.2.5 Forces and Moments
To determine the force and moment exerted on the body
we require the vortex distribution along the x axis in
Fourier form. Let the numerator of the righthand side of
Equation (8.34) be denoted by F(q;); then the vortex
Nl :\
t For practical reasons x and y are here referred to a. chord of = 2n (
1 + ~A",X2Ym(t); (8.39)
unity (c = 1).
80 8. THEORY OF WING PROFILES II
CXO =  
2
n
f" y(c)(q:
 .   dq:>=
SIn q:>
co,
Y
""T'
va. the positive sense of the moment is clockwise, if the flow is
assumed to come from the left; the coefficient is
o
Nl
=L B". X2Ym(C); (8.40) (Cm)=~=
(! I
1
"2VSc2
,.
a* = 
,
f
,2
 .
n
cosq:>
Sill2q:>
y(C) (q: dq:> d~~:h can be written in the form
o
f"
ao Nl
= L (2 v 1) a~._l = L E"..X2Ym(C); (8.41)
1 (
1 1 d(Cm),
= 
dOL 4
1 + n2 I+2cosq:>2cos2q:>
smq:>
. y(t)(q:dq:>
)
o
the corresponding lift coefficient is
"
CL*= 2n(a*  CXO) =4f y(.C)(q:>_) dm 2
T
sm q:>
o
(8.44)
'" Nl
! = 4n L
1
pat. = IF". X2Ym(c).
1
(8.42)
If
When calculating the moment we must remember that
the source distribution, as well as the vortex distribution,
makes a contribution. If we refer the moment to the point " 2cosq:>cos2q:> n '"
I
'I,
t
x = 0, then "the contribution from the source distribution
has the value
Cmo= 
fo
I~osq:>
'y(cf (q: dq:> = L
22
pa.
l!
I,
LI(Mh = (! V sin a fq
c
(x) x dx; =
Nl
L1
D". X2Ym(c). (8.45)
I,
o
!t
so that, for the total moment referred to the point x = 0, Numerical values of Am, B m, etc are given in Table 11.7.
I'
! we have
c
(Mh = (! V f[
o
y(x)  aq(x) ]x dx 8.3 Calculation of the Profile Shape for a Prescribed
Velocity Distributiont
L
8.3 CALCULATION OF THE PROFILE SHAPE FOR A PRESCRIBED VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIO~ 81
approximate method has been given by TRUCKENBRODT. symmetrical profile, y(t), at zero incidence, the direction of
We shall describe only the results necessary for practical its chord coinciding with the freestream direction. Such a
application. velocity distribution can be written W = V W2, where +
W2 denotes the disturbance velocity associated with the
thickness distribution. A stagnation point occurs at the
8.3.1 Thin Profiles leading edge of the profile (that is, W must vanish there).
Suppose the velocities on the upper and lower sides of the We can think of the distribution of W2 as induced by a
chord are different from one another at each point, but source distribution assumed to lie along the chord; since
that they satisfy the relation W = V WI, where the the normal velocity on the surface of the profile must be
upper and lower signs refer to the upper and lower sides zero, E,quation (8.24) represents an integul equation for
respectively; this corresponds to the camber line of a the slope of the upper side.
profile at a certain angle of incidence, a. For the flow to ThiS equation becomes
leave the trailing edge smoothly WI must vanish there. We
can regard the distribution of WI as induced by a vortex
distribution assumed to lie along the chord. From the
condition that the normal velocity vanish on the camber
dr' ~~j[; Vl+(dt7}
o
line we obtain the following formula for the slope of the
dy(e)
camber line, dx' by using Equations (8.11), (8.17), and
(8.21).
x
V x' (cx')
x(cx)

dx'
x;r;!'
(8.50)
I ( = ~ (f I (D)+ ~ 1. (8.54)
'" '" '"(( 
1 +
I
Y". a".
(f>I) )2
,
I'
solution from the Fourier representation, which allows an
immediate calculation of the profile ordinates; we obtain ness distribution, is known; the shape of the camber line
and the local angle of incidence can then be calculated as
described in Section 8.3.1. There the required velocity
I
y(l) 1 f '.,
"
4 t (p ) sm p In 1
 e= n  C O S pp
( ')
1  cos (p + p') ,
dp. (8.55)
distribution is denoted by Wi; for Wi we must now write
I1 (8.56)
so that Equation (8.47) becomes
" Wu  WI (8.60)
9 =     +Llg,
I. 2 V
! TRUCKENBRODT has given the coefficients bmn for N = 12.
I
I
where
Wa
Llg=a,,. (8.61)
V
8.3.3 Unsymmetrical Profile at Incidence
Suppose the velocities on the upper and lower sides of the We first put Llg = 0; then, carrying out the calculatioI
chord are different at each point; we can then write described in Section 8.3.1, we find that
(8.57)
or
this term, which is produced by the incidence of the thick into a circle. Almost all the authors do the second stage by
ness distribution, can be considered simply as an additional an iterative procedure, in which the imaginary part of an
change in the camber line; the corresponding change in the analytic function is determined from a knowledge of the
local angle of incidence is found to be real part. Both MULLER and VON KARMAN and TREFFTZ
use the convenient method of harmonic analysis for this;
a = [1 2 
ale)
dy(t)]
ale)
(8.64) 
e (cp) =  2x
1 f
2,.
, ,
cp  cp ,
'P (cp ) cot  2   dcp . (8.69)

c dcp '1'=,. o
We find that the change in the ordinates of the camber line Here e = p  8; it is the angular difference between the
IS vectors of two points connected by the mapping function,
(t)
one on the approximately circular figure (C', with angular
Lfy(e) = a(1  cos cp) ( Jf + [
dy(t)] ); coordinate 8), and one on the circle (C, with angular
smcp dcp '1'=" coordinate p); this is illustrated in Figure 8.1. C' and
(8.65)
log WI = 'P are known functions of the angle 8, since C'
is the distance from the point chosen as centre of the
and, at the points n = P.. N, we have circle to the point on the approximately circular figure,
x
and so C' can be obtained graphically. If we write p' ~ 8
and use 'P(8) as the distribution function in Equation
(8.66)
(8.69), we can find a first approximation, e(l); from this we
obtain an improved value of p, p(l) = 8 e(l); e(2) is +
where the ,constants, Pn. and qn, have been calculated for formed from 'P(p(l) in the same way, and an iteration
N = 12, and are'given in Table 11.9c. The three parts, procedure carried out until successive approximations
y(t), y(e), and Lfy(e), must be combined to give the required cease to differ significantly.
ordinates: The idea sketched here has been used by the authors as a
method of calculation. In an extension by WALZ it is made
y = y(t) y(c) LJy(c). (8.67) the basis of a graphical procedure, by which even irregular
contours (for example, profiles with flaps and deadwater
regions) can be mapped into a circle; the graphical aids
8.4 Remarks on the Rigorous Methods of Conformal are used mainly in the construction of the approximately
Mapping circular figure and in the evaluation of the Poisson integral.
8.4.1 Older Solutions of the Second Main Prohlem
Mathematical methods for the conformal mapping of
, ~
the exterior of a given profile (lying in the z plane) into the , ...
/
exterior of the unit circle (lying in the Cplane) are based on ./
./
~
'the mapping function I
I
, I
,,
I
(8.68)
I
I
BETZ and KEUXE treat the first problem with the help of a Here, (jim = n;;(m = 0, 1, ... , 2N); amn and pmn are
network based on the sourcesink flow field; the second
problem is solved with the aid of a suitably numbered constants that can be calculated once and for all,
network. For normal profiles the iteration converges
rapidly, and only a few steps are necessaryt. In the
a",.. = 1 1  (_1)"'+" X
determination of the velocity distribution the derivative of
the mapping function is required; this can be obtained in
p",,. = I 4N
terms of distances between certain points, as described in n (m+n) n (mn) )
Section 8.1. X ( cot 2N cot 2N ; (8.72)
We end this brief description of other procedures that
use potential theory by referring to some later work.
RINGLEB and ROSSXER have been able to represent more 2N is the number of values of cpo
general types of profiles by a combination of known WITTICH realises that, with the help of this representa
mapping functions; the significance of the methods used tion, the function that maps the profile into the circle can
can be easily understood intuitively. THEODORSEN, be obtained by iteration from a simple initial approxima
GOLDSTEIN, LIGHTHILL, THWAITES, and others have tion, and that an intermediate mapping into an approxi
succeeded in obtaining solutions of the first and second mately circular figure is unnecessary. This idea leads him
main problems in a different way: they have treated the to a representation of the mapping in the form of an
mapping problem analytically; there is then little need for integral equation for x(<ji),
intuitive assumptions about the form of certain functions,
but the mathematical analysis cannot be described as x (qi) = ao + 2a cos ;p  2 b sin qi 
simple.
f (x (qi) cot
qi'_qi
2 dqi'; (8.73)
The procedure of Theodorsen requires the evaluation of n