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7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

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7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

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MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT
OFFICE, ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14
1. 1. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
2. 2. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 1.1 INTRODUCTION A large portion of India is susceptible to damaging levels of seismic
hazards. Hence, it is necessary to take in to account the seismic load for the design of structures. In buildings the lateral
loads due to earthquake are a matter of concern. These lateral forces can produce critical stresses in the structure, induce
undesirable stresses in the structure, induce undesirable vibrations or cause excessive lateral sway of the structure. Sway or
drift is the magnitude of the lateral displacement at the top of the building relative to its base. Traditionally, seismic design
approaches are stated, as the structure should be able to ensure the minor and frequent shaking intensity without sustaining
any damage, thus leaving the structure serviceable after the event. The structure should withstand moderate level of
earthquake ground motion without structural damage, but possibly with some structural as well as non-structural damage.
This limit state may correspond to earthquake intensity equal to the strongest either experienced or forecast at the site. In
present study the results are studied for response spectrum method. The main parameters considered in this study to
compare the seismic performance of different models are base shear and time period. 1.2 Earthquake: Rocks are made of
elastic material, and so elastic strain energy is stored in them during the deformations that occur due to the gigantic tectonic
plate actions that occur in the Earth. But, the material contained in rocks is also very brittle. Thus, when the rocks along a
weak region in the Earths Crust reach their strength, a sudden movement takes place there opposite sides of the fault (a
crack in the rocks where movement has taken place) suddenly slip and release the large elastic strain energy stored in the
interface rocks. The sudden slip at the fault causes the earthquake - a violent shaking of the Earth when large elastic strain
energy released spreads out through seismic waves that travel through the body and along the surface of the Earth. And,
after the earthquake is over, the process of strain build-up at this modified interface between the rocks starts all over 2
3. 3. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 again. Earth scientists know this as the Elastic Rebound Theory. The material points at the
fault over which slip occurs usually constitute an oblong three-dimensional volume, with its long dimension often running
into tens of kilometers. 1.3 Seismic Zones of India The varying geology at different locations in the country implies that the
likelihood of damaging earthquakes taking place at different locations is different. Thus, a seismic zone map is required to
identify these regions. Based on the levels of intensities sustained during damaging past earthquakes, the 1970 version of
the zone map subdivided India into five zones I, II, III, IV and V. The seismic zone maps are revised from time to time as
more understanding is gained on the geology, the seismotectonics and the seismic activity in the country. The Indian
Standards provided the first seismic zone map in 1962, which was later revised in 1967 and again in 1970. The map has
been revised again in 2002, and it now has only four seismic zones II, III, IV and V. 1.4 Indian Seismic Codes Seismic
codes are unique to a particular region or country. They take into account the local seismology, accepted level of seismic
risk, building typologies, and materials and methods used in construction. Further, they are indicative of the level of
progress a country has made in the field of earthquake engineering. The first formal seismic code in India, namely IS 1893,
was published in 1962. Today, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has the following seismic codes: IS 1893 (Part I),
2002, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (5th Revision) IS 4326, 1993, Indian
Standard Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings (2nd Revision) 3
4. 4. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 IS 13827, 1993, Indian Standard Guidelines for Improving Earthquake Resistance of
Earthen Buildings. IS 13828, 1993, Indian Standard Guidelines for Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low Strength
Masonry Buildings. IS 13920, 1993, Indian Standard Code of Practice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete
Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces 1.5 Seismic Analysis of Structure In our study of the structure the analysis is being
done using the response spectrum method in SAP 2000 v14 and modal mass analysis. 1.5.1 Response Spectrum Method In
order to perform the seismic analysis and design of a structure to be built at a particular location, the actual time history
record is required. However, it is not possible to have such records at each and every location. Further, the seismic analysis
of structures cannot be carried out simply based on the peak value of the ground acceleration as the response of the structure
depend upon the frequency content of ground motion and its own dynamic properties. To overcome the above difficulties,
earthquake response spectrum is the most popular tool in the seismic analysis of structures. There are computational
advantages in using the response spectrum method of seismic analysis for prediction of displacements and member forces in
structural systems. The method involves the calculation of only the maximum values of the displacements and member
forces in each mode of vibration using smooth design spectra that are the average of several earthquake motions. It will deal
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with response spectrum method and its application to various types of the structures. The codal provisions as per IS: 1893
(Part 1)-2002 code for response spectrum analysis of multi-story building is also summarized. 1.5.2 Modal Analysis
Method Modal analysis is the study of the dynamic properties of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is the
field of measuring and analyzing the dynamic response of structures and or fluids when excited by an input. In structural
engineering, modal analysis uses the 4
5. 5. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 overall mass and stiffness of a structure to find the various periods at which it will naturally
resonate. These periods of vibration are very important to note in earthquake engineering, as it is imperative that a
building's natural frequency does not match the frequency of expected earthquakes in the region in which the building is to
be constructed. If a structure's natural frequency matches an earthquake's frequency, the structure may continue to resonate
and experience structural damage. Although modal analysis is usually carried out by computers, it is possible to hand-
calculate the period of vibration of any high-rise building through idealization as a fixed-ended cantilever with lumped
masses. 1.6 Objective 1. Modeling The modeling of I.T. office situated in Almora will be done using SAP 2000 v14. 2.
Model Analysis - Dynamic characteristics of structure (Mode Shapes and Time Periods) 3. Seismic Analysis (ESLM &
RSM) Comparison is done between the two methods for calculating the base shear. 4. Calculation of Correction Factor
1.7 Scheme of Presentation The scheme of the project is presented as follows: 1.7.1 Introduction: The introduction i.e.
Chapter 1, refer the basics of earthquake engineering in which we have discussed about the basics of earthquake, how it
occurs and its effects on the buildings. The different seismic zones of India and the different seismic codes used in
earthquake resistant design of structures also been discussed. The seismic analysis procedure, i.e. equivalent static load
method and response spectrum method is bruised up in the chapter along with the objective of study the project. 1.7.2
Modeling of R. C. Framed Building: In Chapter 2 the elements of modeling i.e. beam elements and column elements are
described precisely. The basics of the diaphragm i.e. flexible diaphragm and rigid diaphragm are 5
6. 6. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 described and also 2D and 3D frame elements and lumped mass model are elaborately
mentioned. 1.7.3 Seismic Analysis of Structure: In Chapter 3 it is elaborately described how seismic analysis of a structure
is done using Equivalent Static Load Method and Response Spectrum Method. The factors affecting response of a structure
i.e. Importance Factor (I), Zone Factor (Z), Ductility (R), Structural Response Factor (Sa/g), Foundation, Vertical
Irregularity, Horizontal Irregularity are elaborately mentioned. 1.7.4 Modeling: In Chapter 4 the steps used to model the
structure using SAP 2000 v14 is shown. The seismic analysis of the building has been carried out by Response Spectrum
Method in SAP 2000 v 14. 1.7.5 Dynamic Analysis and Result Comparison: Chapter 5 shows the results of Modal Analysis
of the structure, i.e., mode shapes and respective time periods. Finally the results are concluded by comparing the results
obtained by Equivalent Static Lateral Load Method and Response Spectrum Method. 6
7. 7. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 CHAPTER 2 MODELLING OF REINFORCED FRAMED CONCRETE BUILDING 7
8. 8. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 2.1 INTRODUCTION Earthquake response analysis is an art to simulate the behavior of a
structure subjected to an earthquake ground motion based on dynamics and a mathematical model of the structure. The
correct analysis will depend upon the proper modeling of the behavior of materials, elements, connection and structure.
Models may be classified mainly by essential difference in the degree-of-freedom. The model, or the number of degree of
freedom, should be selected carefully considering the objective of the analysis. Sometimes sophistication or complicated
models are not only useless but also create misunderstanding to interpret the results in practical problems. Therefore, it is
important to select an appropriate and simple model to match the purpose of the analysis. Analytical models should also be
based on physical observations and its behavior under dynamic load. The most important step in the design process of a
building is to create an appropriate mathematical model that will adequately represent its stiffness, mass distribution and
energy dissipation so that its response to earthquake could be predicted with sufficient accuracy. The model and its degree
of sophistication are dependent upon the analysis and design requirements specified in the code. Some of the common types
of models employed for buildings are 2D plane frame model, 3D space frame model, and reduced 3D model with three
degree of freedom storey. A practice commonly followed is to employ 3D space frame models for static solution and
reduced 3D model for dynamic solution. If the main purpose of analysis is to calculate seismic actions for proportioning a
designing of RC members, a member-by-member type of model is most suitable. In such a model, beams, columns and
walls between successive floors are represented as 3D beam element. 2.2 ELEMENTS OF MODELLING If the layout of
the building is unsymmetrical, the building can be best analyzed by a 3D frame mode. Any combination of frame and walls
can be idealized as a frame consisting of assemblage of: 1. Beam elements, and 8
9. 9. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 2. Column elements. Each element of a model in space frame consists of a beam element
with six degree of freedom at each joint. Any torsional effects are automatically considered in this model. The ground
motions can be applied in one, two or three directions, individually or simultaneously. 2.3 DEGREE OF FREEDOM The
number of degree is the number of coordinates necessary to specify the position or geometry of mass point at any instant
during its vibration. Hence, infinite number of coordinates is necessary to specify the positions of the structure completely
at any instant of time. Each degree of freedom is having corresponding natural frequency. Therefore, a structure possesses
as many natural frequencies as it has the degrees of freedom. For each natural frequency, the structure has its own way of
vibration. The vibrating shape is known as characteristics shape or mode of vibration. Depending on the independent

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coordinates required to describe the motion, the vibratory system is divided into following categories: (a) Single Degree Of
Freedom System(SDOF) (b) Multiple Degree Of Freedom System(MDOF) (c) Continuous System 2.3.1 2D AND 3D
FRAME ELEMENTS 2-D Beam Element: Structural systems are made up of a number of structural elements which forms
a multistory frame. Beams are one of the commonest structural elements and carry loads by developing shear forces and
bending moments along their length. A 2D beam element carries loads in two directions. The local displacement
coordinates in 2D beam element are shown in figure 2.1. 9
10. 10. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure 2.1: Local Displacement Coordinates in 2D Beam Element 10
11. 11. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 2.2 Reactions in 2D beam For 2-d beams, we get a normal stress normal to the cross
section and transverse shear acting on the face of the cross section. We can use rotation matrices to get stiffness matrix for
beams in any orientation. 3D Beam Element To develop 3-d beam elements, must also add capability for torsional loads
about the axis of the element, and flexural loading in x-z plane. Figure: 2.3 Displacement in Local Coordinates for a 3D
Beam 11
12. 12. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 2.4 Reactions in 3D Beam 12
13. 13. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 To derive the 3-d beam element, set up the beam with the x axis along its length, and y and z
axes as lateral directions. Torsion behavior is added by superposition of simple strength of materials. where, G = shear
modulus L = length fxi, fxj are nodal degrees of freedom of angle of twist at each end Ti, Tj is torques about the x axis at
each end 2.4 DIAPHRAGM A diaphragm is horizontal structural component and it functions as transferring story shears
and torsional moments to lateral force-resisting members as well as distributing gravity loads to vertical members. Relative
stiffness of the diaphragm with respect to stiffness of lateral members at the diaphragm level determines how it transfers
shears and torsional moments. In addition, it distributes gravity loads based on either one-way or two-way load distribution.
To this end, diaphragm action for lateral analysis can be defined as Rigid, Semirigid or Pseudo- flexible. For gravity
analysis, type of deck placed inside a diaphragm determines how gravity loads on the deck are distributed. Diaphragms in-
plane stiffness plays a major role in transferring shears and torsional moments generated by applied lateral loads. 2.4.1
TYPES OF DIAPHRAGM 2.4.1.1 RIGID DIAPHRAGM A diaphragm may be considered rigid when its midpoint
displacement, under lateral load, is less than twice the average displacements at its ends. Rigid diaphragm distributes the
horizontal forces to the vertical resisting elements in direct proportion to the relative rigidities. It is based on the assumption
that the diaphragm does not deform itself and will cause each vertical element to deflect the same amount. Rigid
diaphragms capable of transferring torsional and shear deflections and forces are also based on the assumption that the
diaphragm and shear walls undergo rigid body rotation and this produces additional shear forces in the shear wall. Rigid
diaphragms consist of reinforced concrete diaphragms, precast concrete diaphragms, and composite steel deck. 2.4.1.2
FLEXIBLE DIAPHRAGM 13
14. 14. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Metal decks with lightweight fill may or may not be flexible. Diaphragms are considered
flexible when the maximum lateral deformation of the diaphragm is more than two times the average story drift of the
associated story. This may be determined by comparing the computed midpoint in-plane deflection of the diaphragm itself
under lateral load with the drift to adjoining vertical elements under tributary lateral load. A diaphragm is considered
flexible, when the midpoint displacement, under lateral load, exceeds twice the average displacement of the end supports. It
is assumed here that the relative stiffness of these non-yielding end supports is very great compared to that of the
diaphragm. Therefore, diaphragms are often designed as simple beams between end supports, and distribution of the lateral
forces to the vertical resisting elements on a tributary width, rather than relative stiffness. Flexible diaphragm is not
considered to be capable of distributing torsional and rotational forces. Flexible diaphragms consist of diagonally sheeted
wood diaphragms, sheathed diaphragms etc. The rigidity of the diaphragms is classified into two groups on relative
flexibility: rigid and flexible diaphragm. 2.4.2 ROLE OF DIAPHRAGMS 1. To transfer lateral inertial forces to vertical
elements of the seismic force-resisting system - The floor system commonly comprises most of the mass of the building.
Consequently, significant inertial forces can develop in the plane of the diaphragm. One of the primary roles of the
diaphragm in an earthquake is to transfer these lateral inertial forces, including those due to tributary portions of walls and
columns, to the vertical elements of the seismic force-resisting system. 2. Resist vertical loads Most diaphragms are part
of the floor and roof framing and therefore support gravity loads. They also assist in distributing inertial loads due to
vertical response during earthquakes. 3. Provide lateral support to vertical elements Diaphragms connect to vertical
elements of the seismic force-resisting system at each floor level, thereby providing lateral support to resist buckling as well
as second-order forces associated with axial forces acting through lateral displacements. Furthermore, by tying together the
vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system, the diaphragms complete the three- dimensional framework to resist
lateral loads. 4. Resist out-of-plane forces Exterior walls and cladding develop out-of-plane lateral inertial forces as a
building responds to an earthquake. Out-of-plane forces also develop 14
15. 15. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 due to wind pressure acting on exposed wall surfaces. The diaphragm-to-wall connections
provide resistance to these out-of-plane forces. 5. Transfer forces through the diaphragm As a building responds to
earthquake loading, lateral shears often must be transferred from one vertical element of the seismic force- resisting system

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to another. The largest transfers commonly occur at discontinuities in the vertical elements, including in-plane and out-of-
plane offsets in these elements. 2.5 LUMPED MASS MODEL A lumped mass mode is simple and most frequently used in
early times for practical design of multistory buildings. It reduces the amount of calculation and comparison to two-
dimensional frame model. In this model the ground is represented by horizontal linked lumped masses as shown in Figure
(c). Each lumped mass, with its spring constant and damping constant and damping coefficient, represents one ground layer.
These properties are difficult to determine, however, and the model does not take energy dissipation into account. Figure:
2.5 Lumped Mass Model 15
16. 16. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 CHAPTER 3 SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE 16
17. 17. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 3.1 INTRODUCTION Seismic Analysis is a subset of structural analysis and is the
calculation of the response of a building structure to earthquakes. It is part of the process of structural design, earthquake
engineering or structural assessment in regions where earthquakes are prevalent. A building has the potential to wave back
and forth during an earthquake (or even a severe wind storm). This is called the fundamental mode, and is the lowest
frequency of building response. Most buildings, however, have higher modes of response, which are uniquely activated
during earthquakes. 3.2 Methods of Seismic Analysis 3.2.1 Equivalent Static Load Method: This approach defines a series
of forces acting on a building to represent the effect of earthquake ground motion, typically defined by a seismic design
response spectrum. It assumes that the building responds in its fundamental mode. For this to be true, the building must be
low-rise and must not twist significantly when the ground moves. The response is read from a design response spectrum,
given the natural frequency of the building. The applicability of this method is extended in many building codes by
applying factors to account for higher buildings with some higher modes, and for low levels of twisting. To account for
effects due to "yielding" of the structure, many codes apply modification factors that reduce the design forces (e.g. force
reduction factors). 3.2.2 Response Spectrum Analysis: 17
18. 18. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 This approach permits the multiple modes of response of a building to be taken into account.
This is required in many building codes for all except for very simple or very complex structures. The response of a
structure can be defined as a combination of many special shapes (modes) that in a vibrating string correspond to the
"harmonics". Computer analysis can be used to determine these modes for a structure. For each mode, a response is read
from the design spectrum, based on the modal frequency and the modal mass, and they are then combined to provide an
estimate of the total response of the structure. In this we have to calculate the magnitude of forces in all directions i.e. X, Y
& Z and then see the effects on the building. Combination methods include the following: Absolute - Peak values are
added together Square Root Sum of Squares (SRSS) Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC). 3.2.3 Modal Analysis: A
modal analysis calculates the frequency modes or natural frequencies of a given system, but not necessarily its full time
history response to a given input. The natural frequency of a system is dependent only on the stiffness of the structure and
the mass which participates with the structure (including self-weight). It is not dependent on the load function. Modal
analysis uses the overall mass and stiffness of a structure to find the various periods at which it will naturally resonate.
These periods of vibration are very important to note in earthquake engineering, as it is imperative that a building's natural
frequency does not match the frequency of expected earthquakes in the region in which the building is to be constructed. If
a structure's natural frequency matches an earthquake's frequency, the structure may continue to resonate and experience
structural damage. 18
19. 19. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Fig: 3.1 Mode Shapes 3.3 Factors Affecting Response of Structure 3.3.1 Importance Factor
(I): Ensures higher design seismic force for more important structures. Table 3.1 Importance Factor 19 Sl No. Structure
Importance Factor 1 Important service and community buildings, such as hospitals; schools; monumental structures;
emergency buildings like telephone exchange, television stations, radio stations, railway stations, tire station buildings~
large community halls like cinemas, assembly halls and subway stations, power stations 1.5 2 All other buildings 1.0
20. 20. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 3.3.2 Zone Factor (Z): It is a factor to obtain the design spectrum depending on the
perceived maximum seismic risk characterized by Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in the zone in which the
structure is located. The basic zone factors included in this standard are reasonable estimate of effective peak ground
acceleration. Depends on severity of ground motion India is divided into four seismic zones (II to V) Refer Table 2 of IS
1893 (part1):2002 Z = 0.1 for zone II and Z = 0.36 for zone V Zone II This region is liable to MSK VI or less and is
classified as the Low Damage Risk Zone. The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.10 (maximum horizontal acceleration that
can be experienced by a structure in this zone is 10% of gravitational acceleration) for Zone II. Zone III The Andaman and
Nicobar Islands, parts of Kashmir, Western Himalayas fall under this zone. This zone is classified as Moderate Damage
Risk Zone which is liable to MSK VII. And also 7.8 The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.16 for Zone III. Zone IV This
zone is called the High Damage Risk Zone and covers areas liable to MSK VIII. The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.24 for
Zone 4. The Indo-Gangetic basin and the capital of the country (Delhi), Jammu and Kashmir fall in Zone IV. Zone V Zone
V covers the areas with the highest risks zone that suffers earthquakes of intensity MSK IX or greater. The IS code assigns
zone factor of 0.36 for Zone 5. Structural designers use this factor for earthquake resistant design of structures in Zone 5.
The zone factor of 0.36 is indicative of effective (zero periods) peak horizontal ground accelerations of 0.36 g (36% of
gravity) that may be generated during MCE level earthquake in this zone. It is referred to as 20

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21. 21. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 the Very High Damage Risk Zone. The state of Kashmir, western and central Himalayas,
North-East Indian region and the Rann of Kutch fall in this zone. Generally, the areas having trap or basaltic rock are prone
to earthquakes. 3.3.3 Response Reduction Factor/Ductility(R): It is the factor by which the actual base shears force that
would be generated if the structure were to remain elastic during its response to the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE)
shaking, shall be reduced to obtain the design lateral force. Earthquake resistant structures are designed for much smaller
seismic forces than actual seismic forces that may act on them. 3.3.3.1 Ductility: Ductility of a structure, or its members, is
the capacity to undergo large inelastic deformations without significant loss of strength or stiffness. Ductility in concrete is
defined by the percentage of steel reinforcement within it. Mild steel is an example of a ductile material that can be bent and
twisted without rupture. Member or structural ductility is al so defined as the ratio of absolute maximum deformation to the
corresponding yield. This can be defined with respect to strains, rotations, curvature or deflections. Strain based ductility
definition depends almost on the material , while rotation or curvature based ductility definition al so includes the effect of
shape and size of the cross-sections. Each design code recognizes the importance of ductility in design because if a structure
is ductile it ability to absorb energy without critical failure increases. Ductility behavior allows a structure to undergo large
plastic deformations with little decrease in strength. Ductility is increased by, An increase in compression steel content.
An increase in concrete compressive strength. An increase in ultimate concrete strain. Ductility is decreased by, An
increase in tension steel content. An increase in steel yield strength. An increase in axial load. 21
22. 22. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Significance of Ductility If ductile members are used to form a structure, the structure can
undergo large deformations before failure. This is beneficial to the users of the structures, as in case of overloading, if the
structure is to collapse, it will undergo large deformations before failure and thus provides warning to the occupants. This
gives a notice to the occupants and provides sufficient time for taking preventive measures. This will reduce loss of life.
Structures are subjected to unexpected overloads, load reversals, impact and structural movements due to foundation
settlement and volume changes. These items are generally ignored in the analysis and design. If a structure is ductile than
taken care by the presence of some ductility in the structure. The limit state design procedure assumes that all the critical
sections in the structure will reach their maximum capacities at design load for the structure. For this to occur, all joints and
splices must be able to withstand forces and deformations corresponding to yielding of the reinforcement. 3.3.3.2
Redundancy: The intent of the redundancy coefficient is to encourage the design of more redundant structures, with a
greater number of elements provided to resist lateral forces. Introduction of the redundancy coefficient into the building
code was a direct reaction of the observation of structures damaged by the Northridge earthquake and the resulting
conclusion that economic pressures had led many engineers to design structures with very little redundancy. This was
particularly observed to be a problem for certain classes of moment-resisting steel frame and concrete shear wall buildings.
3.3.3.3 Overstrength: Observations during many earthquakes have shown that building structures are able to sustain without
damage earthquake forces considerably larger than those they were designed for. This is explained by the presence in such
structures of significant reserve strength not accounted for in design. Relying on such overstrength, many seismic codes
permit a reduction in design loads. The possible sources of reserve strength are outlined in this paper, and it is reasoned that
a more rational basis for design would be to account for such sources in assessing the capacity rather than in reducing the
design loads. As an exception, one 22
23. 23. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 possible source of reserve strength, the redistribution of internal forces, may be used in
scaling down the design forces. This is because such scaling allows the determination of design forces through an elastic
analysis rather than through a limit analysis. To assess the extent of reserve strength attributable to redistribution, steel
building structures having moment-resisting frames or concentrically braced frames and from 2 to 30 storeys in height are
analyzed for their response to lateral loading. A static nonlinear push-over analysis is used in which the gravity loads are
held constant while the earthquake forces are gradually increased until a mechanism forms or the specified limit on inter
storey drift is exceeded. It is noted that in moment-resisting frames the reserve strength reduces with an increase in the
number of storeys as well as in the level of design earthquake forces. Fig: 3.2 Graphs between Total Horizontal Load and
Roof Displacement () A structure with good ductility, redundancy and overstrength is designed for smaller seismic force
and has higher value of R. For example, building with SMRF has good ductility and has R = 5.0 as against R = 1.5 for
unreinforced masonry building which does not have good ductility. 3.3.4 Structural Response Factors (Sa /g): It is a factor
denoting the acceleration response spectrum of the structure subjected to earthquake ground vibrations, and depends on
natural period of vibration and damping of the structure.Depends on structural characteristics and soil condition. Structural
characteristics include time period and damping. 23
24. 24. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Fig: 3.3 Response Spectra 3.3.5 Foundation: The role of soil-structure interaction (SSI) in
the seismic response of structures is re-explored using recorded motions and theoretical considerations. Firstly, the way
current seismic provisions treat SSI effects is briefly discussed. The idealized design spectra of the codes along with the
increased fundamental period and effective damping due to SSI lead invariably to reduce forces in the structure. Reality,
however, often differs from this view. It is shown that, in certain seismic and soil environments, an increase in the
fundamental natural period of a moderately flexible structure due to SSI may have a detrimental effect on the imposed
seismic demand. Secondly, a widely used structural model for assessing SSI effects on inelastic bridge piers is examined.
Using theoretical arguments and rigorous numerical analyses it is shown that indiscriminate use of ductility concepts and

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geometric relations may lead to erroneous conclusions in the assessment of seismic performance. 3.3.6 Vertical Irregularity:
Seismic building codes such as the Uniform Building Code (UBC) do not allow the equivalent lateral force (ELF)
procedure to be used for structures with vertical irregularities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the definition of
irregular structures for different vertical irregularities: stiffness, strength, mass, and that due to the presence of nonstructural
masonry infills. An ensemble of 78 buildings with various interstory stiffness, strength, and mass ratios is considered for a
detailed parametric study. The lateral force-resisting systems (LFRS) considered are special moment-resisting frames
(SMRF). These LFRS are designed based on the forces obtained from the ELF procedure. The results from linear and
nonlinear dynamic analyses of these engineered buildings exhibit that most structures considered in this 24
25. 25. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 study performed well when subjected to the design earthquake. Hence, the restrictions on the
applicability of the equivalent lateral force procedure are unnecessarily conservative for certain types of vertical
irregularities considered. Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the
lateral force resisting system in any storey is more than 150 percent of that in its adjacent storey. Vertical Geometric
irregularity: Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the lateral force
resisting system in any storey is more than 150 percent of that in its adjacent storey. Fig: 3.4(a) Vertical Geometric
Irregularity In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical Elements Resisting Lateral Force: An in plane offset of the lateral force
resisting elements greater than the length of those elements. 25
26. 26. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Fig: 3.4(b) In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical Elements Resisting Lateral Force When b>a
Discontinuity in Capacity - Weak Storey: A weak storey is one in which the storey lateral strength is less than 80 percent of
that in the storey above. The storey lateral strength is the total strength of all seismic force resisting elements sharing the
storey shear in the considered direction. Fig: 3.4(c) Weak Storey 3.3.7 Horizontal Irregularity: Torsional Irregularity: It is
defined to exist where the maximum story drift, computed including accidental torsion, at one end of the structure
transverse to an axis is more than 1.2 26
27. 27. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 times the average of the story drifts at the two ends of the structure. Torsional irregularity
requirements in the reference sections apply only to structures in which the diaphragms are rigid or semi rigid. Fig: 3.5(a)
Torsional Irregularity Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity: It is defined to exist where there are diaphragms with abrupt
discontinuities or variations in stiffness, including those having cut out or open areas greater than 50% of the gross enclosed
diaphragm area, or changes in effective diaphragm stiffness of more than 50% from one story to the next. Fig: 3.5(b)
Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity 27
28. 28. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Out-of-Plane Offsets Irregularity: It is defined to exist where there are discontinuities in a
lateral force-resistance path, such as out-of-plane offsets of the vertical elements. Fig: 3.5(c) Diaphragm Discontinuity
Irregularity 28
29. 29. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 CHAPTER 4 MODELING USING SAP 2000 v14 4.1 BUILDING SPECIFICATIONS The
building is 4 storeys RC framed with live load of 3 kN/m2 are to be analyzed in Almora. It lies in zone V. It is an office
building of the Income Tax Department. The properties of the considered building configurations in the present study are
summarized below: 1. Zone : IV 2. Importance of Building : Office Building 3. Number of Stories : Four ( G+3) 29
30. 30. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 4. Floor-to-floor height : 3 meter 5. Depth of slab : 150 mm 6. Thickness of external wall :
230 mm 7. Thickness of interior wall : 115 mm 8. Live load (roof) : 3 KN/m2 9. Live load (floor) : 1.5 KN/m2 10.
Materials : M25 and Fe500 11. Seismic Analysis : Equivalent Static Load Method as per IS code Density of concrete: 25
KN/m2 Poissons Ratio: 0.15 Size of column: C 1- 450mm 300mm, C-2- 600mmx300mm Size of beams: B 1- 230mm
450mm, B 2- 230mmx600mm 4.2 GROUND FLOOR PLAN 30
31. 31. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure 4.1 Plan of the Income Tax Office Building 4.3 BEAM DETAILS TABLE 4.1: Beam
Details BEAM NAME WIDTH(mm) DEPTH(mm) DESIGNATED BY B 101 230 450 B 1 B 102 230 450 B 1 B 103 230
450 B 1 B 105 230 450 B 1 B 106 230 600 B 2 B 109 230 450 B 1 B 110 230 450 B 1 B 111 230 600 B 2 B 113 230 600 B
2 B 115 230 600 B 2 B 116 230 600 B 2 B 117 230 450 B 1 B 118 230 450 B 1 B 119 230 450 B 1 B 120 230 450 B 1 B
121 230 450 B 1 B 122 230 450 B 1 4.4 COLUMN DETAILS Table: 4.2 Column Details 31
32. 32. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 COLUMN NO. CROSS SECTION(mm2 ) HEIGHT(m) C 1 450x300 3 C 2 450x300 3 C 3
450x300 3 C 4 600x300 3 C 5 600x300 3 C 6 600x300 3 C 7 600x300 3 4.5 MODELLING WITH SAP 2000 v14: 4.5.1
Begin a New Model In this Step, the basic grid that will serve as a template for developing the model will be defined. Then
a material will be defined and sections will be selected. A. Click the File menu > New Model command or the New Model
button. The form shown in Figure 1 will display. Verify that the default units are set to KN, m, c. Figure: 4.2 Selection of
Grid View to Begin the Model B. Select the Grid only template in order to get the dialog box shown in Figure 2. It should
be noted that the defined geometry should accurately represents the major geometrical 32
33. 33. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 aspects of the model; hence the number and spacing of the grid lines should be carefully

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planned. Figure: 4.3 Enter the Required number of Grid Lines and Spacing C. The Quick Grid Lines form is used to specify
the grids and spacing in the X, Y, and Z directions. Set the number of grid lines to 8 for both X and Y direction, and to 5 for
the Z direction and grid spacing as 10 for X Y and Z axis. D. Click the OK button to accept the changes, and the program
will appear as shown in Figure 3. Note that the grids appear in two view windows tiled vertically, an X-Y Plan View on
the left and a 3-D View on the right. 33
34. 34. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.4 Grid Lines in Plan and 3D E. Click the Define menu > Coordinate Systems/Grids
command to display the Coordinate/Grid Systems form. In the Systems area, highlight GLOBAL and then click the
Modify/Show System button to display the Define Grid System Data and enter the coordinates for various grid lines in X Y
and Z axis. Figure: 4.5 Modifications of the Grid Lines F. Click the OK button twice and a modified grid will now be
displayed. This modified grid is shown in Figure 5. 34
35. 35. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.6 Modified Grid Lines 4.5.2 DEFINE MATERIAL A. Click the Define menu >
Materials command to display the Define Materials form shown in Figure 6. B. Enter the Material Name as M25 and enter
the properties of the material such as Modulus of Elasticity, Poisons Ratio, and Shear Modulus of concrete. 35
36. 36. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.7 Define Material and its Properties 4.5.3 DEFINE FRAME SECTIONS A frame
section will be defined for both beams and columns. Frame sections must be defined before they can be assigned to frame
objects in the model. A. Click the Define menu > Section Properties > Frame Sections command, which will display the
Frame Properties form shown in Figure 7. 36
37. 37. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.8 Define Frame Sections C. Select rectangular cross section for the members. D.
Name the beam members as B1 and B2 and the column members as C1 and C2 and their cross sections are defined. This is
shown in Figure 9. Figure: 4.9 Define Beams 37
38. 38. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.10 Properties of Frame Members 4.5.4 ASSIGNING OF FRAME ELEMENTS
4.5.4.1 ASSIGNING BEAMS: A. Select Quick draw frame element. B. Select cross section of beams as B1 or B2 and
assign the beams. C. Replicate the beams to all the floors. 4.5.4.2 ASSIGNING COLUMNS: A. Set x-z view of the plan. B.
Select Quick draw/ Frame element. C. Select cross section of columns as C1 or C2 and assign the columns. D. Replicate the
columns to all the floors. 4.5.4.3 ASSIGNING RESTRAINTS TO JOINTS A. Select all the joints at z=0. B. Select
ASSIGN> JOINT> RESTRAINTS. 38
39. 39. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 C. Dialog box will open; select fixed support as shown in Figure 10. Figure: 4.11 Assign
Restraints to Foundation (Fixed Base) 4.6 DEFINE LOAD PATTERNS The loads used in this modeling consist of dead and
live load patterns. The dead and live loads act in the gravity direction. Dead load consists of slab load, wall load, floor
finishing load and roof treatment. Following is the procedure to define the various load patterns. A. Click the Define menu
> Load Patterns command to access the Define Load Patterns form shown in Figure: 11. Note there is only a single default
load pattern defined which is a dead load pattern with self-weight (DEAD). [Note that the self-weight multiplier is set to 1
for the default pattern. This indicates that this load pattern will automatically include 1.0 times the self-weight of all
members. In SAP2000, both Load Patterns and Load Cases exist, and they may be different. However, the program
automatically creates a corresponding load case when a load pattern is defined, and the load cases are available for review
at the time the analysis is run.] B. Click in the edit box for the Load Pattern Name column. Type the name of the new
pattern, LIVE. Select a Type of load pattern from the drop-down list; in this case, select 39
40. 40. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 LIVE. Make sure that the Self Weight Multiplier is set to 0.25. Click the Add New Load
Pattern button to add the LIVE load pattern to the load list. C. The Define Load Patterns form should now appear as shown
in Figure: 11. Click the OK button in that form to accept the newly defined load patterns. Figure: 4.12 Different load
patterns 4.7 ASSIGN LOADS In this step, the dead and live and wind loads will be applied to the model. Make sure that the
X-Y Plane @ Z=3 view is still active, and that the program is in the Select mode. A. First select Draw Rectangular Area
element and click on each of the panel and then select all the panels. Figure 12 shows the selected panel to which the loads
has to be assigned. 40
41. 41. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.13 Selected Panel for Assigning Loads B. Select the Assign menu > Area Loads
>Uniform to frame (shell) command to access load from the Load Pattern Name drop-down list as shown in Figure 4.14.
Figure: 4.14 Assigning of Area Load pattern C. Select the Slab load from the dropdown list as shown in figure: 14 and set
the slab load as 3.75 KN/m2 . Also set the Coordinate system as Global and Direction as Gravity and 41
42. 42. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Distribution as Two Way. The direction is set as gravity because the slab load acts in the
direction of gravity. Figure: 4.14 Assigning Area Uniform Load to Frame. D. Similarly repeat the above set of steps for the
other load patterns defined such as dead wall load, roof finishing, roof treatment, live loads. E. Replicate command to
transfer the above loads on all the floors @ Z=6, 9 and 12. Figure 15 shows the dead wall load on all the floors. 42

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43. 43. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.16 Dead Wall Load on the Frame. 4.8 DEFINE LOAD COMBINATIONS A.
Select Define> load combination to access the load combinations according to IS CODE. B. Select Add new combination to
make a combination. 43
44. 44. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.17 Different Load Combinations C. Select a name for the first combination. D.
Four combination according to IS CODE (1893:2002) are: 1.5( DL+LL) = COMB1 1.2( DL+ZL+EL) = COMB2
1.5( DL+EL) = COMB3 0.9DL+ 1.5EL = COMB4 Figure: 4.18 Load Combinations Data E. Similarly for all four
combinations modify the load case and scale factor. 44
45. 45. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 4.9 DEFINE RESPONSE SPECTRA A response-spectrum function is simply a list of period
versus spectral acceleration values. In SAP2000, the acceleration values in the function are assumed to be normalized; that
is, the functions themselves are not assumed to have units. Instead, the units are associated with a scale factor that
multiplies the function and that is specified when the response-spectrum analysis case is defined. A. Click the Define
menu> Functions> Response Spectrum Functions command which will display Define Response Spectrum Functions form
(Figure 4.19). B. In the Choose the Function Type to Add area, select Spectrum file from drop down list. C. Click the Add
New Function button, which will display Response Spectrum function Definition (Figure 20). 1. In Function Name edit
box, type IS 1893 RS HS. Figure: 4.19 Define Response Spectrum Function (IS 1893: 2002) 2. In Function file area click
the Browse function in this area and pick the text file that includes the Response-Spectrum data. The path of the selected
file will display in File Name display box. Click the View File button to display the selected file in WordPad. 3. Select
Period Vs Values option. 45
46. 46. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 4. Click the Display Graph option that will display the Response-spectrum graph (Figure
19). 5. Click the Convert to User Defined button which will display the response-spectrum form. Figure: 4.20 Response
Spectrum graph 4.9.1 DEFINE EQ-X: A. Click the Define menu> Load Cases command, which will display the Define
Load Cases form. B. Click the Add New Case button, which will display Define load Case data form (Figure: 23). C. In
Load Case Name Area, Type EQ-X. 46
47. 47. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 D. In Load Case Type Area, select Response Spectrum from drop-down list. E. In Modal
Combination Area, Select SRSS option. F. In Load applied area 1. In Load Type area, select Accel from drop down list. 2.
In Load area, select U1 from dropdown list. 3. In Function area, select IS1893 RS HS from drop down list. 4. In Scale
factor edit box, Type 0.3532. Figure: 4.21 Defining EQ-X (before correction) 4.9.2 DEFINE EQ-Y: A. Click the Define
menu> Load Cases command, which will display the Define Load Cases form. 47
48. 48. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 B. Click the Add New Case button, which will display Define load Case data form (Figure:
4.24). C. In Load Case Name area, Type EQ-Y. D. In Load Case Type area, select Response Spectrum from drop-down list.
E. In Modal Combination area, Select SRSS option. F. In Load Applied area 1. In Load Type area, select Accel from drop
down list. 2. In Load area, select U1 from dropdown list. 3. In Function area, select IS1893 RS HS from drop down list. 4.
In Scale factor edit box, Type 0.3532. 5. Click Add button. 4.10 APPLY CORRECTION FACTOR A. Click the Display
Menu > Show Tables command, which will display chose table for display window. B. Check the Structural Output option.
C. Click OK button on the choose tables for Display, which will display for Base Reaction and Modal Information. Note
Base reaction for DEAD, DEAD SLAB, DEAD WALL, DEAD FF, DEAD RT, LIVE AND LIVE ROOF and compare it
with manual load calculation. D. Also note the Base Shear in X direction and in Y direction. E. Evaluate VBx /VB and
VBy/VB, where VBx is manually calculated base reaction in X direction and VBy is in Y direction. 48
49. 49. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 F. After applying correction type 0.67 for EQ-X load case and type 0.52 for EQ-Y in Scale
Factor edit box as shown in figure for EQ-X load case (Figure 4.22) Figure: 4.22 Defining EQ-X (after correction) 4.11
ANALYZE THE MODEL A. Click on Analyze> Run analysis in order to run the analysis. Dialog box shown in Figure: 25
will display. B. Click on Run now to run analysis. 49
50. 50. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.23 Running Analysis 50
51. 51. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 51
52. 52. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 52
53. 53. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 4.12 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF RESULTS A. Make sure that the X-Y Plane @
Z=0 is active. Click on XZ view button to reset the view to an elevation. B. Click the Show Forces/Stresses> Frames/Cables
button or the Display MENU> SHOW FORCES/stresses> Frames/Cables command to bring up the Member Force
Diagram For the frame elements (Figure: 23 ) 1. Select DEAD from the Case/Combo Name from drop-down list. 2. Select
the Shear 2-2 option. 3. Check the Fill Diagram check box. 53

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54. 54. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 C. Click on ok button to generate the Shear force diagram shown in Figure 24. Figure: 4.24
Member Force Diagram for Frame form 54
55. 55. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.25 Shear Force Diagram CHAPTER 5 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND RESULT
COMPARISION 55
56. 56. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 5.1 INTRODUCTION: In the study of vibration in engineering, a mode shape describes the
expected curvature (or displacement) of a surface vibrating at a particular mode. To determine the vibration of a system, the
mode shape is multiplied by a function that varies with time, thus the mode shape always describes the curvature of
vibration at all points in time, but the magnitude of the curvature will change. The mode Shape is dependent on the shape of
the surface as well as the boundary conditions of that surface. 5.1.1 Mode Shapes: A mode of vibration is characterized by a
modal frequency and a mode shape, and is numbered according to the number of half waves in the vibration. For example,
if a vibrating beam with both ends pinned displayed a mode shape of half of a sine wave (one peak on the vibrating beam) it
would be vibrating in mode 1. If it had a full sine wave (one peak and one valley) it would be vibrating in mode 2. Each
mode is entirely independent of all other modes. Thus all modes have different frequencies (with lower modes having lower
frequencies) and different mode shapes (with lower modes having greater amplitude). 56
57. 57. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Since the lower modes vibrate with greater amplitude, they cause the most displacement and
stress in a structure. Thus they are called fundamental modes. Figure: 5.1 Different Mode Shapes 5.2 Different Mode
Shapes in SAP 2000 v14: Mode 1: Time period=0.8394 sec, Frequency=0.92256 / sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ
VIEW) Figure 5.2: Mode 1 57
58. 58. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Mode 2: Time period =0.91691 sec, frequency=1.09062 / sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION
(XZ VIEW) Figure 5.3: Mode 2 Mode 3: Time period=0.85921 sec, frequency=1.16386 / sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION
(XZ VIEW) Figure 5.4: Mode 3 Mode 4: Time period =0.36358 sec, frequency=2.75039 / sec 58
59. 59. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.5: Mode 4 Mode 5: Time period
=0.30423 sec, frequency=3.28701 / sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.6: Mode 5 Mode 6: Time
period=0.26627 sec, frequency=3.75557 /sec 59
60. 60. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.7: Mode 6 Mode 7: Time period=0.22245
sec, frequency=4.49541 /sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.8: Mode 7 Mode 8: Time period=0.18259,
frequency=5.47663 60
61. 61. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.9: Mode 8 Mode 9: Time period
=0.16878 sec, frequency=5.92492 /sec. PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.10: Mode 9 Mode 10: Time
period=0.14562 sec, frequency=6.86736 /sec 61
62. 62. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.11: Mode 10 Mode 11: Time
period=0.13154 sec, frequency=7.60239 /sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.12: Mode 11 Mode 12:
Time period=0.10600 sec, frequency=9.43436 /sec 62
63. 63. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.13: Mode 12 TABLE 5.1: MODE, TIME
PERIOD AND FREQENCY Output Case Step Type Step Num Period Frequency Circ Freq Eigen value Sec Cycle /sec
rad/sec rad2/sec2 MODAL Mode 1.000000 1.083936 0.92256 5.7966 33.601 MODAL Mode 2.000000 0.916913 1.0906
6.8525 46.957 MODAL Mode 3.000000 0.859208 1.1639 7.3128 53.476 MODAL Mode 4.000000 0.363585 2.7504 17.281
298.64 MODAL Mode 5.000000 0.304227 3.2870 20.653 426.54 MODAL Mode 6.000000 0.266271 3.7556 23.597 556.82
MODAL Mode 7.000000 0.222449 4.4954 28.246 797.81 MODAL Mode 8.000000 0.182594 5.4766 34.411 1184.1
MODAL Mode 9.000000 0.168779 5.9249 37.227 1385.9 MODAL Mode 10.000000 0.145616 6.8674 43.149 1861.8
MODAL Mode 11.000000 0.131538 7.6024 47.767 2281.7 MODAL Mode 12.000000 0.105996 9.4344 59.278 3513.9 63
64. 64. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 5.3 Seismic Analysis of Building: Earthquake motion causes horizontal and vertical ground
motion .Vertical ground motion having much smaller magnitude is the most usual .In general; all structures are
conventionally designed to carry gravity loads. Most of the area in India is prone to severe shaking by earthquakes. India
has witnessed some of the worlds greatest earthquake in recent century. Current seismic codes help to design the structure
in such a way that they can withstand the effect of a moderate to strong earthquake shaking. The basic purpose of a seismic
code is to avoid loss of life and property. Indian seismic codes give more importance for structural configuration, lateral
strength, ductility and seismic weight of structure Earthquake response of system would be affected by different types of
foundation systems in addition to variation of ground motion due to various types of soils. Considering the effect in gross
manner, the standards gives guideline for arriving at design seismic coefficient based on stiffness of soil .it provides general
principal and specifies seismic design lateral forces. The following are the some of the relevant codes to improve the

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earthquake resistance of different categories of structures: IS13827: 1993 Indian standard guidelines for improving
earthquake resistance of earthen building. 5.4 METHODS OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS 5.4.1 INTRODUCTION Equivalent
static method of analysis is a linear static procedure, in which the response of building is assumed as linearly elastic
manner. The analysis is carried out as per IS 1893- 2002 (Part 1) A step by step procedure for analysis of the frame by
equivalent static lateral force method is as follows: Step 1: Calculation of lumped masses to various floor levels. 64
65. 65. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 The earthquake forces shall be calculated for the full dead load plus the percentage of
imposed load as given in table 8 of IS 1893 (part 1): 2002. The imposed load on roof is assumed to be zero. The lumped
masses of each floor are worked out follows: Roof Mass of infill + mass of column + mass of beams in longitudinal and
transverse direction of that floor + mass of slab + imposed load of that floor if possible. Imposed load on roof not
considered. 50% of imposed load, if imposed load is greater than 3 KN/ Seismic weight of building = seismic weight of all
floors The seismic weight of each floor is its full dead plus appropriate of imposed load, as specified in clause 7.3.1 and
7.3.2 of IS 1893 (part 1): 2002. Any weight supported in between stories shall be distributed to the floors above and below
in inverse proportion to its distance from the floors. Step 2: Determination of fundamental natural period. The approximate
fundamental natural period of vibration ( ), second, of a moment resisting frame building without brick infill panels may be
estimated by the empirical expression. Where h is the height of the building in meters. Step 3: Determination of design base
shear. Design seismic base shear, 65
66. 66. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Step 4: Vertical distribution of base shear. The design base shear ( ) computed shall be
distributed along the height of the building as per the expression, Where, =height of the floor i, measured from base, and
n=Number of stories Determine the design base shear for a R.C. frame (I.T. office, Almora) building. The given data are as
shown below: 66
67. 67. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 5.14 Plan Data: 12. Type of structure : Multi Storey SMRF frame 13. Zone : IV 14.
Importance of Building : Office Building 15. Number of Stories : Four ( G+3) 16. Floor-to-floor height : 3 meter 17. Depth
of slab : 150 mm 18. Thickness of external wall : 230 mm 19. Thickness of interior wall : 115 mm 20. Live load (roof) : 3
KN/m2 21. Live load (floor) : 1.5 KN/m2 22. Materials : M25 and Fe500 23. Seismic Analysis : Equivalent Static Load
Method as per IS code 67
68. 68. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 5.4.2 CALCULATIONS STEP 1: Calculation of natural fundamental period (Ta) = = 0.2356
sec STEP 2: Calculation of Design Horizontal Seismic Coefficient The following expression is used to determine Ah: =
0.06 STEP 3: Calculation of Seismic weight of the building (W) Dead-Slab a) Load due to dead slab on 1st floor =
(21x12.5x3.75)+(8.5x4.9x3.75) = 1140.56 KN b) Load due to dead slab on 2nd floor = (21x12.5x3.75)+(2.5x4.9x3.75) =
1030.31 KN c) Load due to dead slab on 3rd floor = (21x12.5x3.75)+(2.5x4.9x3.75) = 1030.31 KN d) Load due to dead
slab on 4th floor = (21x12.5x3.75)+(2.5x4.9x3.75) = 1030.31 KN Floor finish load (Dead FF) a) Load due to Dead FF on
1st floor = (21x12.5x1)+(8.5x4.9x1) = 304.15 KN b) Load due to Dead FF on 2nd floor = (21x12.5x1)+(2.5x4.9x1) =
274.75 KN 68
69. 69. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 c) Load due to Dead FF on 3rd floor = (21x12.5x1)+(2.5x4.9x1) = 274.75 KN d) Load due
to Dead FF on 4th floor = (21x12.5x1)+(2.5x4.9x1) = 274.75 KN Roof Treatment (Dead RT) a) Load due to Dead RT on
roof = (21x12.5x1.5)+(2.5x4.9x1.5) = 412.13 KN Total load due to slab: 5772.02 KN Load due to dead wall (exterior) a)
Due to exterior wall on 1st floor= (21x15.2)+(12.5x15.2)+(3x8.5x15.2)+(7.6x15.2)+(4.9x15.2)+(12.5x15.2) = 1276.72 KN
b) Due to exterior wall on 2nd floor= 319.2+190+129.2+(2.5x15.2)+(4.9x15.2)+(2.5x15.2)+115.52+190 = 1094.4 KN c)
Due to exterior wall on 3rd floor= 319.2+190+129.2+(2.5x15.2)+(4.9x15.2)+(2.5x15.2)+115.52+190 = 1094.4 KN d) Due
to exterior wall on 4th floor= 319.2+190+129.2+(2.5x15.2)+(4.9x15.2)+(2.5x15.2)+115.52+190 = 1094.4 KN Load due to
dead wall (interior) a) Due to interior wall on 1st floor = (21.76x7.6) + (21.76x7.6) + 4 (12.5x7.6) +2 (2.6x7.6) + (3.4x7.6)
+ (4.9x7.6) =797.24 b) Due to interior wall on 2nd floor = (21.76x7.6) + (21.76x7.6) + 4 (12.5x7.6) + 2 (2.6x7.6) +
(3.4x7.6) + (4.9x7.6) 69
70. 70. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 =797.24 c) Due to interior wall on 3rd floor = (21.76x7.6) + (21.76x7.6) + 4 (12.5x7.6) + 2
(2.6x7.6)+(3.4x7.6)+(4.9x7.6) =797.24 d) Due to interior wall on 4th floor = (21.76x7.6) + (21.76x7.6) + 4 (12.5x7.6) +2
(2.6x7.6) + (3.4x7.6) + (4.9x7.6) =797.24 Total load due to dead wall (exterior + interior): 4559.92+3188.96=7748.88 KN
Total Dead load on Frame Members = Total load due to slab + Total load due to dead wall (exterior + interior) = 7748.88
KN + 5772.02 KN = 13520.9 KN Live Load a) Load due to live floor on 1st floor = (21x12.5x3)+(8.5x4.9x3) = 912.45 KN
b) Load due to live floor on 2nd floor = (21x12.5x3)+(2.5x4.9x3) = 824.25 KN c) Load due to live floor on 3rd floor =
(21x12.5x3)+(2.5x4.9x3) = 824.25 KN d) Load due to live roof = (21x12.5x1.5)+(2.5x4.9x1.5) = 412.13 KN Total live load
= 2973.08 KN Total Seismic Weight on Frame Elements = Total load due to slab+ Total load due to dead wall (exterior +
interior)+Total live load = (5772.02+7748.88+2973.08) KN = 16493.98 KN STEP 4: Total Base Shear in X Direction
(VBX) = AhW 70
71. 71. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 = 0.06 x 16493.98 = 989.6 KN Total Base Shear in Y Direction (VBY) = AhW = 0.06 x
16493.98 = 989.6 KN 5.5 Response Spectrum Analysis Response spectrum method For earthquake resistant design the

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entire time history of response may not be required. Instead earthquake resistant design may be based on the maximum
value of response of a structure to a particular base motion. The response will depend on the mass, stiffness and damping
characteristics of the structure and on the characteristics of the base motion. In the response spectrum method the peak
response of a structure during an earthquake is obtained directly from the earthquake response spectrum or design spectrum.
This procedure is quite accurate for structural design applications. In this approach multiple modes of response of a building
to an earthquake is taken into account. For each mode, a response is read from the design spectrum, based on modal
frequency and the modal mass. The responses of different modes are combined to provide an estimate of total response of
the structure using modal combination methods such as complete quadratic combinations (CQC), square root of sum of
squares (SRSS), or absolute sum (ABS) method. Response Spectrum Method of analysis should be performed using the
design spectrum specified in IS Code 1893:2000 or by a site specific design spectrum, which is specifically prepared for a
structure at a particular project site. Frame without considering the stiffness of infills. 5.5.1 PROCEDURE A step by step
procedure for analysis of the frame by response spectrum method is as follows: Step 1: Determination of Eigen values and
Eigen vectors Mass matrices, M and stiffness, K of the plain frame mass model are, 71
72. 72. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 M= Column stiffness of storey, K=12EI/ Total lateral stiffness of each structure, Stiffness of
lumped mass modeled structure, K= For the above stiffness and mass matrices, Eigen values and eigenvector are worked
out as follows: Taking By solving the above equation, natural frequencies (Eigen values) of various modes are Eigen values
: 72
73. 73. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 The quantity of , is called the Eigen values of the matrix each natural frequency ( ) of the
system has a corresponding eigenvector (mode shape), which is denoted by . Solving the above equation, modal vector
(eigenvector), mode shapes and natural periods under different modes are Eigenvector Now calculate natural time period T
in sec. Step 2: Determination of modal participation factors: The modal participation factor ( ) of mode k is, Step 3:
Determination of modal mass: The modal mass ( ) of mode k is given by, Where g=acceleration due to gravity, =mode
shape coefficient at floor i in mode k, and =seismic weight of floor i, 73
74. 74. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Modal contribution of various modes. Step 4: Determination of lateral force at each floor in
each mode: The design lateral force ( ) at floor i in mode k is given by, where, =design horizontal acceleration spectrum
value as per clause 6.4.2 of IS 1893 (part 1): 2002 using the natural period of vibration ( of mode k. The design horizontal
seismic coefficient for various modes are, The average response acceleration coefficient for rock sites as per IS 1893 (part
1): 2002 is calculated as follows: For rocky, or hard soil sites Step 5: Determination of storey shear forces in each mode:
The peak shear force is given by, Step 6: Determination of storey shear force due to all modes: 74
75. 75. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 The peak shear force ( ) in storey i due to all modes considered is obtained by combining
those due to each mode in accordance with modal combination i.e. SRSS (square root of sum of squares) or CQC (complete
quadratic combination) methods. Square root of sum of squares (SRSS) If the building does not have closely spaced modes,
the peak response quantity ( ) due to all modes considered shall be obtained as, where, =absolute value of quantity in mode
k, and r is the number of modes being considered. Complete quadratic combination (CQC) where, r= Number of modes
being considered, =Cross modal coefficient, =Response quantity in mode i (including sign), =Response quantity in mode j
(including sign) 75
76. 76. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 where, =Modal damping ratio (in fraction), =Frequency ratio , =Circular frequency in mode,
and =Circular frequency in mode. There for all the frequency ratios and cross modal components can be represented in
matrix form as, = The above quadratic combination i.e. can also be written in matrix form as, 76
77. 77. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Here the terms or represent the response of different modes of a certain storey level. Now
calculate the storey shear for every mode. Step 7: Determination of lateral forces at each storey: The design lateral forces ,
at roof and at floor, are calculated as, And = Frame considering the stiffness of infill. The frame considering in previous
section is again analyzed by considering the stiffness of infill walls. The infill is modeled as equivalent diagonal strut. The
mass matrix [M] for the lumped plane frame model is, Column stiffness of storey K=12EI/ Stiffness of infill is determined
by modeling the infill as an equivalent diagonal strut, in which, Width of strut 77
78. 78. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 And are given as, , , where, = Elastic modulus of frame material = moment of inertia of
column = moment of inertia of beam W= A = Cross sectional area of diagonal stiffness= W*t = diagonal length of strut =
Therefore, stiffness of infill is Stiffness matrix [k] of lumped mass model is, K= 78
79. 79. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 For the above stiffness mass matrices, Eigen values and eigenvectors are, Taking Calculate
Eigen values Calculate Eigen vector Calculate natural frequency in various modes Calculate natural time period T Calculate
modal participation factor Calculate model mass Modal contribution of various modes is Now design lateral forces at each
floor in each mode The design lateral forces ( ) at floor i in each k is given by, The design horizontal seismic coefficient for
various modes are, 79

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80. 80. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 The average response acceleration coefficient for rock sites as per IS 1893 (part 1): 2002 is
calculated as follows: For rocky, or hard soil sites Storey shear forces in each mode The peak shear force is given by, 5.6
ANALYSIS IN SAP 2000 v14: In SAP2000, the acceleration values in the function are assumed to be normalized; that is,
the functions themselves are not assumed to have units. Instead, the units are associated with a scale factor that multiplies
the function and that is specified when the response-spectrum analysis case is defined. 5.6.1 DEFINING EQ-X: A. Click the
Define menu> Load Cases command, which will display the Define Load Cases form. B. Click the Add New Case button,
which will display Define load Case data form. C. In Load Case Name Area, Type EQ-X. D. In Load Case Type Area,
select Response Spectrum from drop-down list. E. In Modal Combination Area, Select SRSS option. 80
81. 81. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 F. In Load applied area 1. In Load Type area, select Accel from drop down list. 2. In Load
area, select U1 from dropdown list. 3. In Function area, select IS1893 RS HS from drop down list. 4. In Scale factor edit
box, Type 0.2354. 5. Click Add button. Figure: 5.15 Defining EQ-X (before correction) 5.6.2 DEFINING EQ-Y: A. Click
the Define menu> Load Cases command, which will display the Define Load Cases form. 81
82. 82. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 B. Click the Add New Case button, which will display Define load Case data form (Figure:
24). C. In Load Case Name area, Type EQ-Y. D. In Load Case Type area, select Response Spectrum from drop-down list. E.
In Modal Combination area, Select SRSS option. F. In Load Applied area 6. In Load Type area, select Accel from drop
down list. 7. In Load area, select U1 from dropdown list. 8. In Function area, select IS1893 RS HS from drop down list. 9.
In Scale factor edit box, Type 0.2354. 10. Click Add button. 5.6.3 Base Shear before correction Table 5.2: Base Reactions
before Correction Output Case Case Type Step Type Global FX Global FY Global FZ Global MX Global MY Global MZ
KN KN KN KN-m KN-m KN-m EQ X Linear Response Spectra Max 585.507 16.563 0.771 91.8241 4661.302 1 7226.038
0 EQ Y Linear Response Spectra Max 16.563 753.840 2.725 6214.396 0 85.3625 5291.914 0 5.6.4 Application of
Correction Factor A. Click the Display Menu > Show Tables command, which will display chose table for display window.
82
83. 83. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 B. Check the Structural Output option. C. Click OK button on the choose tables for Display,
which will display for Base Reaction and Modal Information. D. Note Base reaction for DEAD, DEAD SLAB, DEAD
WALL, DEAD FF, DEAD RT, LIVE AND LIVE ROOF and compare it with manual load calculation. E. Also note the
Base Shear in X direction and in Y direction. F. Evaluate = 1.69 and = 1.31 , where manually calculated base reaction in X
direction and Vby is in Y direction. G. Evaluate x = = 0.40 H. Evaluate x = x = 0.31 I. After applying correction type 0.40
for EQ-X load case and type 0.31 for EQ-Y in Scale Factor edit box as shown in figure for EQ-X load case. 83
84. 84. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 5.16 Defining EQ-X (after correction) 5.6.5Base Reactions after Correction: Table
5.2: Base Reactions after Correction Output Case Case Type Step Type Global FX Global FY Global FZ Global MX Global
MY Global MZ KN KN KN KN-m KN-m KN-m EQ X Linear Response Spectrum Max 994.914 28.145 1.309 156.0308
7920.649 12278.73 EQ Y Linear Response Spectrum Max 21.812 992.738 3.588 8183.784 112.4145 6968.960 84
85. 85. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 5.7 Results Dynamic analysis has been carried out on the building by using two methods,
i.e., Equivalent Static Lateral Load Method and Response Spectrum Method as per suggested by the Indian Standard
Seismic Code (IS 1893: 2002) located in seismic zone IV in Almora, Uttarakhand Himalayas. The result shows the
differences in the Seismic Base Shear obtained by both the methods and that is incorporated in terms of base shear
correction factor in the analysis. The base shear obtained by Equivalent Static Lateral Load method are on the higher side
by 63% in X direction and 31% in Y direction as compare to the Response Spectrum Method. So, to extract the correct
results by dynamic analysis, i.e., Forces and Stresses, it is required to apply the correction in both the direction (X & Y) by
applying correction factor 1.63 and 1.31 in X and Y components of dynamic analysis respectively as suggested by the
Indian Seismic Code, IS 1893: 2002. REFERENCES 1. IS 1893 (Part 1): (2002), Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design
of Structures Part 1 General Provisions and Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards. 2. P. Aggarwal and Manish Srikhande,
Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, PHI Publication 2010. 3. Prabhat Kumar, Ashwini Kumar, Amita Sinwahl
Assessment of Seismic Hazard in Uttarakhand Himalaya Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee. 4. S.R.
Damodarsamy and S. Kavita Basics of Structural Dynamics and asesimic Design, PHI publications 2012. 85
86. 86. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,
ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 5. CSI Computers and Structures INC. Introductory Tutorial for Sap 2000: Linear and
Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analysis and Design of Three-Dimensional Structures 2011. 6. CSI (2009). SAP 2000:
Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Structures Nonlinear Version 14, Computers and Structures. 86

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