0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

40 Aufrufe105 SeitenAug 25, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

40 Aufrufe

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Fault Lines
- Soul Harvest: The World Takes Sides
- Soul Harvest: The World Takes Sides
- Life As We Knew It
- Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883
- Krakatoa
- Introduction to Design of Building Structures
- Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers
- Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers
- Rogue Wave
- Judgment of Paris: California vs. France and the Historic 1976 Paris Tasting That Revolutionized Wine
- Aftershock
- Earthquake-Resistant Structures: Design, Build, and Retrofit
- Imperfection
- Industrial Power Engineering Handbook
- Cataclysm
- The Dark Flood Rises: A Novel
- Dispatches from the Edge: A Memoir of War, Disasters, and Survival
- Dispatches from the Edge

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 105

C FRAME BUILD

Upload

Login

Signup

Search

Home

Technology

Education

More Topics

For Uploaders

Search

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000-v 1/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

X by Counterflix

The 10

Top

Beer

Dangers

Automated

May

Most

ofBenefit

No

Depressing

Sleep

Future

Your Sex

isMusical

Here

Life! Artists

What

It

Who

Beer

is the

are

offers

arestuff

the

theaof

top

lot

consequences

science

of

10benefits

mostfiction,

depressing

toofyour

that

lackwe

sex

of

dreamed

musical

life,

sleep,such

and

artists?

as

about

the

thedangers?

as

A

prevention

beautiful

children.

Weyet

ofAallfuture full

X by Counterflix

of convenience

depressing

premature

probably wish

ejaculation

lyric

weat

from

could

theBillie

press

and

getlonger

Holiday's

more

of a butto

slee

X by Counterflix

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000-v 2/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

Perfect

Beer MayGifts

Benefit

for Each

Your

Sex Life!

Zodiac Sign

X by Counterflix

Manyoffers

Beer of us astruggle

lot of with

benefits out

figuring to your

whatsexwould

life,

such as

make thethe

perfect

prevention

gift forof

premature

our friends ejaculation

and family

Dangers

Top 10 Most

of No Sleep

Depressing Musical

Whatare

Who arethe

thetop 10 most

depressing musical

consequences of lack of

artists?and

sleep, A beautiful

the dangers?

yet

depressing

We all probably

lyric wish

from w

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000-v 3/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000-v 4/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000-v 5/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000-v 6/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000-v 7/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000-v 8/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000-v 9/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 10/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 11/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 12/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 13/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 14/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 15/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 16/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 17/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 18/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 19/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 20/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 21/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 22/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 23/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 24/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 25/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 26/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 27/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 28/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 29/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 30/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 31/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 32/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 33/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 34/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 35/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 36/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 37/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 38/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 39/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 40/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 41/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 42/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 43/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 44/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 45/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 46/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 47/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 48/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 49/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 50/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 51/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 52/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 53/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 54/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 55/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 56/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 57/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 58/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 59/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 60/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 61/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 62/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 63/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 64/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 65/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 66/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 67/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 68/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 69/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 70/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 71/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 72/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 73/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 74/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 75/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 76/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 77/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 78/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 79/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 80/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 81/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 82/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 83/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 84/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 85/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 86/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

Upcoming SlideShare

Loading in 5

86 of 86

Share

Email

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 87/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

by Mohammad Javed 9111 views

4146 views

MODAL

2647 views AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002)

Training sap2000 linearanalysis by Muhammad Wasim

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14

10,533 views

Response Spectrum by Teja Ande 44228 views

Share

Like

Download

Mintu

9130Choudhury

views

Follow

1 Comment

23 Likes Time History Analysis With Recorded... by Alessandro Palmeri

Statistics

42549 views

Notes

Full Name

Comment goes here.

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 88/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

Are you sure you want to Yes No

Your message goes here

Post

AKBAR AHMED

in which format should i download??

1 year ago Reply

Are you sure you want to Yes No

Your message goes here

Hay Win

1 week ago

1 week ago

kehase g/hiwot , simplified equation of period of vibration of softstory building at strucineetural eng at strucineetural eng

1 month ago

Adarsh Aadi

1 month ago

Premchandlal Mc

2 months ago

Show More

No Downloads

Views

Total views

10,533

On SlideShare

0

From Embeds

0

Number of Embeds

18

Actions

Shares

0

Downloads

1,123

Comments

1

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 89/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

Likes

23

Embeds 0

No embeds

MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT

OFFICE, ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14

1. 1. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

2. 2. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 1.1 INTRODUCTION A large portion of India is susceptible to damaging levels of seismic

hazards. Hence, it is necessary to take in to account the seismic load for the design of structures. In buildings the lateral

loads due to earthquake are a matter of concern. These lateral forces can produce critical stresses in the structure, induce

undesirable stresses in the structure, induce undesirable vibrations or cause excessive lateral sway of the structure. Sway or

drift is the magnitude of the lateral displacement at the top of the building relative to its base. Traditionally, seismic design

approaches are stated, as the structure should be able to ensure the minor and frequent shaking intensity without sustaining

any damage, thus leaving the structure serviceable after the event. The structure should withstand moderate level of

earthquake ground motion without structural damage, but possibly with some structural as well as non-structural damage.

This limit state may correspond to earthquake intensity equal to the strongest either experienced or forecast at the site. In

present study the results are studied for response spectrum method. The main parameters considered in this study to

compare the seismic performance of different models are base shear and time period. 1.2 Earthquake: Rocks are made of

elastic material, and so elastic strain energy is stored in them during the deformations that occur due to the gigantic tectonic

plate actions that occur in the Earth. But, the material contained in rocks is also very brittle. Thus, when the rocks along a

weak region in the Earths Crust reach their strength, a sudden movement takes place there opposite sides of the fault (a

crack in the rocks where movement has taken place) suddenly slip and release the large elastic strain energy stored in the

interface rocks. The sudden slip at the fault causes the earthquake - a violent shaking of the Earth when large elastic strain

energy released spreads out through seismic waves that travel through the body and along the surface of the Earth. And,

after the earthquake is over, the process of strain build-up at this modified interface between the rocks starts all over 2

3. 3. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 again. Earth scientists know this as the Elastic Rebound Theory. The material points at the

fault over which slip occurs usually constitute an oblong three-dimensional volume, with its long dimension often running

into tens of kilometers. 1.3 Seismic Zones of India The varying geology at different locations in the country implies that the

likelihood of damaging earthquakes taking place at different locations is different. Thus, a seismic zone map is required to

identify these regions. Based on the levels of intensities sustained during damaging past earthquakes, the 1970 version of

the zone map subdivided India into five zones I, II, III, IV and V. The seismic zone maps are revised from time to time as

more understanding is gained on the geology, the seismotectonics and the seismic activity in the country. The Indian

Standards provided the first seismic zone map in 1962, which was later revised in 1967 and again in 1970. The map has

been revised again in 2002, and it now has only four seismic zones II, III, IV and V. 1.4 Indian Seismic Codes Seismic

codes are unique to a particular region or country. They take into account the local seismology, accepted level of seismic

risk, building typologies, and materials and methods used in construction. Further, they are indicative of the level of

progress a country has made in the field of earthquake engineering. The first formal seismic code in India, namely IS 1893,

was published in 1962. Today, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has the following seismic codes: IS 1893 (Part I),

2002, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (5th Revision) IS 4326, 1993, Indian

Standard Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings (2nd Revision) 3

4. 4. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 IS 13827, 1993, Indian Standard Guidelines for Improving Earthquake Resistance of

Earthen Buildings. IS 13828, 1993, Indian Standard Guidelines for Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low Strength

Masonry Buildings. IS 13920, 1993, Indian Standard Code of Practice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete

Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces 1.5 Seismic Analysis of Structure In our study of the structure the analysis is being

done using the response spectrum method in SAP 2000 v14 and modal mass analysis. 1.5.1 Response Spectrum Method In

order to perform the seismic analysis and design of a structure to be built at a particular location, the actual time history

record is required. However, it is not possible to have such records at each and every location. Further, the seismic analysis

of structures cannot be carried out simply based on the peak value of the ground acceleration as the response of the structure

depend upon the frequency content of ground motion and its own dynamic properties. To overcome the above difficulties,

earthquake response spectrum is the most popular tool in the seismic analysis of structures. There are computational

advantages in using the response spectrum method of seismic analysis for prediction of displacements and member forces in

structural systems. The method involves the calculation of only the maximum values of the displacements and member

forces in each mode of vibration using smooth design spectra that are the average of several earthquake motions. It will deal

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 90/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

with response spectrum method and its application to various types of the structures. The codal provisions as per IS: 1893

(Part 1)-2002 code for response spectrum analysis of multi-story building is also summarized. 1.5.2 Modal Analysis

Method Modal analysis is the study of the dynamic properties of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is the

field of measuring and analyzing the dynamic response of structures and or fluids when excited by an input. In structural

engineering, modal analysis uses the 4

5. 5. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 overall mass and stiffness of a structure to find the various periods at which it will naturally

resonate. These periods of vibration are very important to note in earthquake engineering, as it is imperative that a

building's natural frequency does not match the frequency of expected earthquakes in the region in which the building is to

be constructed. If a structure's natural frequency matches an earthquake's frequency, the structure may continue to resonate

and experience structural damage. Although modal analysis is usually carried out by computers, it is possible to hand-

calculate the period of vibration of any high-rise building through idealization as a fixed-ended cantilever with lumped

masses. 1.6 Objective 1. Modeling The modeling of I.T. office situated in Almora will be done using SAP 2000 v14. 2.

Model Analysis - Dynamic characteristics of structure (Mode Shapes and Time Periods) 3. Seismic Analysis (ESLM &

RSM) Comparison is done between the two methods for calculating the base shear. 4. Calculation of Correction Factor

1.7 Scheme of Presentation The scheme of the project is presented as follows: 1.7.1 Introduction: The introduction i.e.

Chapter 1, refer the basics of earthquake engineering in which we have discussed about the basics of earthquake, how it

occurs and its effects on the buildings. The different seismic zones of India and the different seismic codes used in

earthquake resistant design of structures also been discussed. The seismic analysis procedure, i.e. equivalent static load

method and response spectrum method is bruised up in the chapter along with the objective of study the project. 1.7.2

Modeling of R. C. Framed Building: In Chapter 2 the elements of modeling i.e. beam elements and column elements are

described precisely. The basics of the diaphragm i.e. flexible diaphragm and rigid diaphragm are 5

6. 6. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 described and also 2D and 3D frame elements and lumped mass model are elaborately

mentioned. 1.7.3 Seismic Analysis of Structure: In Chapter 3 it is elaborately described how seismic analysis of a structure

is done using Equivalent Static Load Method and Response Spectrum Method. The factors affecting response of a structure

i.e. Importance Factor (I), Zone Factor (Z), Ductility (R), Structural Response Factor (Sa/g), Foundation, Vertical

Irregularity, Horizontal Irregularity are elaborately mentioned. 1.7.4 Modeling: In Chapter 4 the steps used to model the

structure using SAP 2000 v14 is shown. The seismic analysis of the building has been carried out by Response Spectrum

Method in SAP 2000 v 14. 1.7.5 Dynamic Analysis and Result Comparison: Chapter 5 shows the results of Modal Analysis

of the structure, i.e., mode shapes and respective time periods. Finally the results are concluded by comparing the results

obtained by Equivalent Static Lateral Load Method and Response Spectrum Method. 6

7. 7. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 CHAPTER 2 MODELLING OF REINFORCED FRAMED CONCRETE BUILDING 7

8. 8. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 2.1 INTRODUCTION Earthquake response analysis is an art to simulate the behavior of a

structure subjected to an earthquake ground motion based on dynamics and a mathematical model of the structure. The

correct analysis will depend upon the proper modeling of the behavior of materials, elements, connection and structure.

Models may be classified mainly by essential difference in the degree-of-freedom. The model, or the number of degree of

freedom, should be selected carefully considering the objective of the analysis. Sometimes sophistication or complicated

models are not only useless but also create misunderstanding to interpret the results in practical problems. Therefore, it is

important to select an appropriate and simple model to match the purpose of the analysis. Analytical models should also be

based on physical observations and its behavior under dynamic load. The most important step in the design process of a

building is to create an appropriate mathematical model that will adequately represent its stiffness, mass distribution and

energy dissipation so that its response to earthquake could be predicted with sufficient accuracy. The model and its degree

of sophistication are dependent upon the analysis and design requirements specified in the code. Some of the common types

of models employed for buildings are 2D plane frame model, 3D space frame model, and reduced 3D model with three

degree of freedom storey. A practice commonly followed is to employ 3D space frame models for static solution and

reduced 3D model for dynamic solution. If the main purpose of analysis is to calculate seismic actions for proportioning a

designing of RC members, a member-by-member type of model is most suitable. In such a model, beams, columns and

walls between successive floors are represented as 3D beam element. 2.2 ELEMENTS OF MODELLING If the layout of

the building is unsymmetrical, the building can be best analyzed by a 3D frame mode. Any combination of frame and walls

can be idealized as a frame consisting of assemblage of: 1. Beam elements, and 8

9. 9. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 2. Column elements. Each element of a model in space frame consists of a beam element

with six degree of freedom at each joint. Any torsional effects are automatically considered in this model. The ground

motions can be applied in one, two or three directions, individually or simultaneously. 2.3 DEGREE OF FREEDOM The

number of degree is the number of coordinates necessary to specify the position or geometry of mass point at any instant

during its vibration. Hence, infinite number of coordinates is necessary to specify the positions of the structure completely

at any instant of time. Each degree of freedom is having corresponding natural frequency. Therefore, a structure possesses

as many natural frequencies as it has the degrees of freedom. For each natural frequency, the structure has its own way of

vibration. The vibrating shape is known as characteristics shape or mode of vibration. Depending on the independent

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 91/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

coordinates required to describe the motion, the vibratory system is divided into following categories: (a) Single Degree Of

Freedom System(SDOF) (b) Multiple Degree Of Freedom System(MDOF) (c) Continuous System 2.3.1 2D AND 3D

FRAME ELEMENTS 2-D Beam Element: Structural systems are made up of a number of structural elements which forms

a multistory frame. Beams are one of the commonest structural elements and carry loads by developing shear forces and

bending moments along their length. A 2D beam element carries loads in two directions. The local displacement

coordinates in 2D beam element are shown in figure 2.1. 9

10. 10. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure 2.1: Local Displacement Coordinates in 2D Beam Element 10

11. 11. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 2.2 Reactions in 2D beam For 2-d beams, we get a normal stress normal to the cross

section and transverse shear acting on the face of the cross section. We can use rotation matrices to get stiffness matrix for

beams in any orientation. 3D Beam Element To develop 3-d beam elements, must also add capability for torsional loads

about the axis of the element, and flexural loading in x-z plane. Figure: 2.3 Displacement in Local Coordinates for a 3D

Beam 11

12. 12. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 2.4 Reactions in 3D Beam 12

13. 13. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 To derive the 3-d beam element, set up the beam with the x axis along its length, and y and z

axes as lateral directions. Torsion behavior is added by superposition of simple strength of materials. where, G = shear

modulus L = length fxi, fxj are nodal degrees of freedom of angle of twist at each end Ti, Tj is torques about the x axis at

each end 2.4 DIAPHRAGM A diaphragm is horizontal structural component and it functions as transferring story shears

and torsional moments to lateral force-resisting members as well as distributing gravity loads to vertical members. Relative

stiffness of the diaphragm with respect to stiffness of lateral members at the diaphragm level determines how it transfers

shears and torsional moments. In addition, it distributes gravity loads based on either one-way or two-way load distribution.

To this end, diaphragm action for lateral analysis can be defined as Rigid, Semirigid or Pseudo- flexible. For gravity

analysis, type of deck placed inside a diaphragm determines how gravity loads on the deck are distributed. Diaphragms in-

plane stiffness plays a major role in transferring shears and torsional moments generated by applied lateral loads. 2.4.1

TYPES OF DIAPHRAGM 2.4.1.1 RIGID DIAPHRAGM A diaphragm may be considered rigid when its midpoint

displacement, under lateral load, is less than twice the average displacements at its ends. Rigid diaphragm distributes the

horizontal forces to the vertical resisting elements in direct proportion to the relative rigidities. It is based on the assumption

that the diaphragm does not deform itself and will cause each vertical element to deflect the same amount. Rigid

diaphragms capable of transferring torsional and shear deflections and forces are also based on the assumption that the

diaphragm and shear walls undergo rigid body rotation and this produces additional shear forces in the shear wall. Rigid

diaphragms consist of reinforced concrete diaphragms, precast concrete diaphragms, and composite steel deck. 2.4.1.2

FLEXIBLE DIAPHRAGM 13

14. 14. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Metal decks with lightweight fill may or may not be flexible. Diaphragms are considered

flexible when the maximum lateral deformation of the diaphragm is more than two times the average story drift of the

associated story. This may be determined by comparing the computed midpoint in-plane deflection of the diaphragm itself

under lateral load with the drift to adjoining vertical elements under tributary lateral load. A diaphragm is considered

flexible, when the midpoint displacement, under lateral load, exceeds twice the average displacement of the end supports. It

is assumed here that the relative stiffness of these non-yielding end supports is very great compared to that of the

diaphragm. Therefore, diaphragms are often designed as simple beams between end supports, and distribution of the lateral

forces to the vertical resisting elements on a tributary width, rather than relative stiffness. Flexible diaphragm is not

considered to be capable of distributing torsional and rotational forces. Flexible diaphragms consist of diagonally sheeted

wood diaphragms, sheathed diaphragms etc. The rigidity of the diaphragms is classified into two groups on relative

flexibility: rigid and flexible diaphragm. 2.4.2 ROLE OF DIAPHRAGMS 1. To transfer lateral inertial forces to vertical

elements of the seismic force-resisting system - The floor system commonly comprises most of the mass of the building.

Consequently, significant inertial forces can develop in the plane of the diaphragm. One of the primary roles of the

diaphragm in an earthquake is to transfer these lateral inertial forces, including those due to tributary portions of walls and

columns, to the vertical elements of the seismic force-resisting system. 2. Resist vertical loads Most diaphragms are part

of the floor and roof framing and therefore support gravity loads. They also assist in distributing inertial loads due to

vertical response during earthquakes. 3. Provide lateral support to vertical elements Diaphragms connect to vertical

elements of the seismic force-resisting system at each floor level, thereby providing lateral support to resist buckling as well

as second-order forces associated with axial forces acting through lateral displacements. Furthermore, by tying together the

vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system, the diaphragms complete the three- dimensional framework to resist

lateral loads. 4. Resist out-of-plane forces Exterior walls and cladding develop out-of-plane lateral inertial forces as a

building responds to an earthquake. Out-of-plane forces also develop 14

15. 15. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 due to wind pressure acting on exposed wall surfaces. The diaphragm-to-wall connections

provide resistance to these out-of-plane forces. 5. Transfer forces through the diaphragm As a building responds to

earthquake loading, lateral shears often must be transferred from one vertical element of the seismic force- resisting system

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 92/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

to another. The largest transfers commonly occur at discontinuities in the vertical elements, including in-plane and out-of-

plane offsets in these elements. 2.5 LUMPED MASS MODEL A lumped mass mode is simple and most frequently used in

early times for practical design of multistory buildings. It reduces the amount of calculation and comparison to two-

dimensional frame model. In this model the ground is represented by horizontal linked lumped masses as shown in Figure

(c). Each lumped mass, with its spring constant and damping constant and damping coefficient, represents one ground layer.

These properties are difficult to determine, however, and the model does not take energy dissipation into account. Figure:

2.5 Lumped Mass Model 15

16. 16. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 CHAPTER 3 SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE 16

17. 17. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 3.1 INTRODUCTION Seismic Analysis is a subset of structural analysis and is the

calculation of the response of a building structure to earthquakes. It is part of the process of structural design, earthquake

engineering or structural assessment in regions where earthquakes are prevalent. A building has the potential to wave back

and forth during an earthquake (or even a severe wind storm). This is called the fundamental mode, and is the lowest

frequency of building response. Most buildings, however, have higher modes of response, which are uniquely activated

during earthquakes. 3.2 Methods of Seismic Analysis 3.2.1 Equivalent Static Load Method: This approach defines a series

of forces acting on a building to represent the effect of earthquake ground motion, typically defined by a seismic design

response spectrum. It assumes that the building responds in its fundamental mode. For this to be true, the building must be

low-rise and must not twist significantly when the ground moves. The response is read from a design response spectrum,

given the natural frequency of the building. The applicability of this method is extended in many building codes by

applying factors to account for higher buildings with some higher modes, and for low levels of twisting. To account for

effects due to "yielding" of the structure, many codes apply modification factors that reduce the design forces (e.g. force

reduction factors). 3.2.2 Response Spectrum Analysis: 17

18. 18. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 This approach permits the multiple modes of response of a building to be taken into account.

This is required in many building codes for all except for very simple or very complex structures. The response of a

structure can be defined as a combination of many special shapes (modes) that in a vibrating string correspond to the

"harmonics". Computer analysis can be used to determine these modes for a structure. For each mode, a response is read

from the design spectrum, based on the modal frequency and the modal mass, and they are then combined to provide an

estimate of the total response of the structure. In this we have to calculate the magnitude of forces in all directions i.e. X, Y

& Z and then see the effects on the building. Combination methods include the following: Absolute - Peak values are

added together Square Root Sum of Squares (SRSS) Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC). 3.2.3 Modal Analysis: A

modal analysis calculates the frequency modes or natural frequencies of a given system, but not necessarily its full time

history response to a given input. The natural frequency of a system is dependent only on the stiffness of the structure and

the mass which participates with the structure (including self-weight). It is not dependent on the load function. Modal

analysis uses the overall mass and stiffness of a structure to find the various periods at which it will naturally resonate.

These periods of vibration are very important to note in earthquake engineering, as it is imperative that a building's natural

frequency does not match the frequency of expected earthquakes in the region in which the building is to be constructed. If

a structure's natural frequency matches an earthquake's frequency, the structure may continue to resonate and experience

structural damage. 18

19. 19. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Fig: 3.1 Mode Shapes 3.3 Factors Affecting Response of Structure 3.3.1 Importance Factor

(I): Ensures higher design seismic force for more important structures. Table 3.1 Importance Factor 19 Sl No. Structure

Importance Factor 1 Important service and community buildings, such as hospitals; schools; monumental structures;

emergency buildings like telephone exchange, television stations, radio stations, railway stations, tire station buildings~

large community halls like cinemas, assembly halls and subway stations, power stations 1.5 2 All other buildings 1.0

20. 20. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 3.3.2 Zone Factor (Z): It is a factor to obtain the design spectrum depending on the

perceived maximum seismic risk characterized by Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in the zone in which the

structure is located. The basic zone factors included in this standard are reasonable estimate of effective peak ground

acceleration. Depends on severity of ground motion India is divided into four seismic zones (II to V) Refer Table 2 of IS

1893 (part1):2002 Z = 0.1 for zone II and Z = 0.36 for zone V Zone II This region is liable to MSK VI or less and is

classified as the Low Damage Risk Zone. The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.10 (maximum horizontal acceleration that

can be experienced by a structure in this zone is 10% of gravitational acceleration) for Zone II. Zone III The Andaman and

Nicobar Islands, parts of Kashmir, Western Himalayas fall under this zone. This zone is classified as Moderate Damage

Risk Zone which is liable to MSK VII. And also 7.8 The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.16 for Zone III. Zone IV This

zone is called the High Damage Risk Zone and covers areas liable to MSK VIII. The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.24 for

Zone 4. The Indo-Gangetic basin and the capital of the country (Delhi), Jammu and Kashmir fall in Zone IV. Zone V Zone

V covers the areas with the highest risks zone that suffers earthquakes of intensity MSK IX or greater. The IS code assigns

zone factor of 0.36 for Zone 5. Structural designers use this factor for earthquake resistant design of structures in Zone 5.

The zone factor of 0.36 is indicative of effective (zero periods) peak horizontal ground accelerations of 0.36 g (36% of

gravity) that may be generated during MCE level earthquake in this zone. It is referred to as 20

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 93/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

21. 21. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 the Very High Damage Risk Zone. The state of Kashmir, western and central Himalayas,

North-East Indian region and the Rann of Kutch fall in this zone. Generally, the areas having trap or basaltic rock are prone

to earthquakes. 3.3.3 Response Reduction Factor/Ductility(R): It is the factor by which the actual base shears force that

would be generated if the structure were to remain elastic during its response to the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE)

shaking, shall be reduced to obtain the design lateral force. Earthquake resistant structures are designed for much smaller

seismic forces than actual seismic forces that may act on them. 3.3.3.1 Ductility: Ductility of a structure, or its members, is

the capacity to undergo large inelastic deformations without significant loss of strength or stiffness. Ductility in concrete is

defined by the percentage of steel reinforcement within it. Mild steel is an example of a ductile material that can be bent and

twisted without rupture. Member or structural ductility is al so defined as the ratio of absolute maximum deformation to the

corresponding yield. This can be defined with respect to strains, rotations, curvature or deflections. Strain based ductility

definition depends almost on the material , while rotation or curvature based ductility definition al so includes the effect of

shape and size of the cross-sections. Each design code recognizes the importance of ductility in design because if a structure

is ductile it ability to absorb energy without critical failure increases. Ductility behavior allows a structure to undergo large

plastic deformations with little decrease in strength. Ductility is increased by, An increase in compression steel content.

An increase in concrete compressive strength. An increase in ultimate concrete strain. Ductility is decreased by, An

increase in tension steel content. An increase in steel yield strength. An increase in axial load. 21

22. 22. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Significance of Ductility If ductile members are used to form a structure, the structure can

undergo large deformations before failure. This is beneficial to the users of the structures, as in case of overloading, if the

structure is to collapse, it will undergo large deformations before failure and thus provides warning to the occupants. This

gives a notice to the occupants and provides sufficient time for taking preventive measures. This will reduce loss of life.

Structures are subjected to unexpected overloads, load reversals, impact and structural movements due to foundation

settlement and volume changes. These items are generally ignored in the analysis and design. If a structure is ductile than

taken care by the presence of some ductility in the structure. The limit state design procedure assumes that all the critical

sections in the structure will reach their maximum capacities at design load for the structure. For this to occur, all joints and

splices must be able to withstand forces and deformations corresponding to yielding of the reinforcement. 3.3.3.2

Redundancy: The intent of the redundancy coefficient is to encourage the design of more redundant structures, with a

greater number of elements provided to resist lateral forces. Introduction of the redundancy coefficient into the building

code was a direct reaction of the observation of structures damaged by the Northridge earthquake and the resulting

conclusion that economic pressures had led many engineers to design structures with very little redundancy. This was

particularly observed to be a problem for certain classes of moment-resisting steel frame and concrete shear wall buildings.

3.3.3.3 Overstrength: Observations during many earthquakes have shown that building structures are able to sustain without

damage earthquake forces considerably larger than those they were designed for. This is explained by the presence in such

structures of significant reserve strength not accounted for in design. Relying on such overstrength, many seismic codes

permit a reduction in design loads. The possible sources of reserve strength are outlined in this paper, and it is reasoned that

a more rational basis for design would be to account for such sources in assessing the capacity rather than in reducing the

design loads. As an exception, one 22

23. 23. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 possible source of reserve strength, the redistribution of internal forces, may be used in

scaling down the design forces. This is because such scaling allows the determination of design forces through an elastic

analysis rather than through a limit analysis. To assess the extent of reserve strength attributable to redistribution, steel

building structures having moment-resisting frames or concentrically braced frames and from 2 to 30 storeys in height are

analyzed for their response to lateral loading. A static nonlinear push-over analysis is used in which the gravity loads are

held constant while the earthquake forces are gradually increased until a mechanism forms or the specified limit on inter

storey drift is exceeded. It is noted that in moment-resisting frames the reserve strength reduces with an increase in the

number of storeys as well as in the level of design earthquake forces. Fig: 3.2 Graphs between Total Horizontal Load and

Roof Displacement () A structure with good ductility, redundancy and overstrength is designed for smaller seismic force

and has higher value of R. For example, building with SMRF has good ductility and has R = 5.0 as against R = 1.5 for

unreinforced masonry building which does not have good ductility. 3.3.4 Structural Response Factors (Sa /g): It is a factor

denoting the acceleration response spectrum of the structure subjected to earthquake ground vibrations, and depends on

natural period of vibration and damping of the structure.Depends on structural characteristics and soil condition. Structural

characteristics include time period and damping. 23

24. 24. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Fig: 3.3 Response Spectra 3.3.5 Foundation: The role of soil-structure interaction (SSI) in

the seismic response of structures is re-explored using recorded motions and theoretical considerations. Firstly, the way

current seismic provisions treat SSI effects is briefly discussed. The idealized design spectra of the codes along with the

increased fundamental period and effective damping due to SSI lead invariably to reduce forces in the structure. Reality,

however, often differs from this view. It is shown that, in certain seismic and soil environments, an increase in the

fundamental natural period of a moderately flexible structure due to SSI may have a detrimental effect on the imposed

seismic demand. Secondly, a widely used structural model for assessing SSI effects on inelastic bridge piers is examined.

Using theoretical arguments and rigorous numerical analyses it is shown that indiscriminate use of ductility concepts and

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 94/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

geometric relations may lead to erroneous conclusions in the assessment of seismic performance. 3.3.6 Vertical Irregularity:

Seismic building codes such as the Uniform Building Code (UBC) do not allow the equivalent lateral force (ELF)

procedure to be used for structures with vertical irregularities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the definition of

irregular structures for different vertical irregularities: stiffness, strength, mass, and that due to the presence of nonstructural

masonry infills. An ensemble of 78 buildings with various interstory stiffness, strength, and mass ratios is considered for a

detailed parametric study. The lateral force-resisting systems (LFRS) considered are special moment-resisting frames

(SMRF). These LFRS are designed based on the forces obtained from the ELF procedure. The results from linear and

nonlinear dynamic analyses of these engineered buildings exhibit that most structures considered in this 24

25. 25. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 study performed well when subjected to the design earthquake. Hence, the restrictions on the

applicability of the equivalent lateral force procedure are unnecessarily conservative for certain types of vertical

irregularities considered. Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the

lateral force resisting system in any storey is more than 150 percent of that in its adjacent storey. Vertical Geometric

irregularity: Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the lateral force

resisting system in any storey is more than 150 percent of that in its adjacent storey. Fig: 3.4(a) Vertical Geometric

Irregularity In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical Elements Resisting Lateral Force: An in plane offset of the lateral force

resisting elements greater than the length of those elements. 25

26. 26. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Fig: 3.4(b) In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical Elements Resisting Lateral Force When b>a

Discontinuity in Capacity - Weak Storey: A weak storey is one in which the storey lateral strength is less than 80 percent of

that in the storey above. The storey lateral strength is the total strength of all seismic force resisting elements sharing the

storey shear in the considered direction. Fig: 3.4(c) Weak Storey 3.3.7 Horizontal Irregularity: Torsional Irregularity: It is

defined to exist where the maximum story drift, computed including accidental torsion, at one end of the structure

transverse to an axis is more than 1.2 26

27. 27. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 times the average of the story drifts at the two ends of the structure. Torsional irregularity

requirements in the reference sections apply only to structures in which the diaphragms are rigid or semi rigid. Fig: 3.5(a)

Torsional Irregularity Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity: It is defined to exist where there are diaphragms with abrupt

discontinuities or variations in stiffness, including those having cut out or open areas greater than 50% of the gross enclosed

diaphragm area, or changes in effective diaphragm stiffness of more than 50% from one story to the next. Fig: 3.5(b)

Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity 27

28. 28. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Out-of-Plane Offsets Irregularity: It is defined to exist where there are discontinuities in a

lateral force-resistance path, such as out-of-plane offsets of the vertical elements. Fig: 3.5(c) Diaphragm Discontinuity

Irregularity 28

29. 29. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 CHAPTER 4 MODELING USING SAP 2000 v14 4.1 BUILDING SPECIFICATIONS The

building is 4 storeys RC framed with live load of 3 kN/m2 are to be analyzed in Almora. It lies in zone V. It is an office

building of the Income Tax Department. The properties of the considered building configurations in the present study are

summarized below: 1. Zone : IV 2. Importance of Building : Office Building 3. Number of Stories : Four ( G+3) 29

30. 30. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 4. Floor-to-floor height : 3 meter 5. Depth of slab : 150 mm 6. Thickness of external wall :

230 mm 7. Thickness of interior wall : 115 mm 8. Live load (roof) : 3 KN/m2 9. Live load (floor) : 1.5 KN/m2 10.

Materials : M25 and Fe500 11. Seismic Analysis : Equivalent Static Load Method as per IS code Density of concrete: 25

KN/m2 Poissons Ratio: 0.15 Size of column: C 1- 450mm 300mm, C-2- 600mmx300mm Size of beams: B 1- 230mm

450mm, B 2- 230mmx600mm 4.2 GROUND FLOOR PLAN 30

31. 31. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure 4.1 Plan of the Income Tax Office Building 4.3 BEAM DETAILS TABLE 4.1: Beam

Details BEAM NAME WIDTH(mm) DEPTH(mm) DESIGNATED BY B 101 230 450 B 1 B 102 230 450 B 1 B 103 230

450 B 1 B 105 230 450 B 1 B 106 230 600 B 2 B 109 230 450 B 1 B 110 230 450 B 1 B 111 230 600 B 2 B 113 230 600 B

2 B 115 230 600 B 2 B 116 230 600 B 2 B 117 230 450 B 1 B 118 230 450 B 1 B 119 230 450 B 1 B 120 230 450 B 1 B

121 230 450 B 1 B 122 230 450 B 1 4.4 COLUMN DETAILS Table: 4.2 Column Details 31

32. 32. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 COLUMN NO. CROSS SECTION(mm2 ) HEIGHT(m) C 1 450x300 3 C 2 450x300 3 C 3

450x300 3 C 4 600x300 3 C 5 600x300 3 C 6 600x300 3 C 7 600x300 3 4.5 MODELLING WITH SAP 2000 v14: 4.5.1

Begin a New Model In this Step, the basic grid that will serve as a template for developing the model will be defined. Then

a material will be defined and sections will be selected. A. Click the File menu > New Model command or the New Model

button. The form shown in Figure 1 will display. Verify that the default units are set to KN, m, c. Figure: 4.2 Selection of

Grid View to Begin the Model B. Select the Grid only template in order to get the dialog box shown in Figure 2. It should

be noted that the defined geometry should accurately represents the major geometrical 32

33. 33. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 aspects of the model; hence the number and spacing of the grid lines should be carefully

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 95/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

planned. Figure: 4.3 Enter the Required number of Grid Lines and Spacing C. The Quick Grid Lines form is used to specify

the grids and spacing in the X, Y, and Z directions. Set the number of grid lines to 8 for both X and Y direction, and to 5 for

the Z direction and grid spacing as 10 for X Y and Z axis. D. Click the OK button to accept the changes, and the program

will appear as shown in Figure 3. Note that the grids appear in two view windows tiled vertically, an X-Y Plan View on

the left and a 3-D View on the right. 33

34. 34. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.4 Grid Lines in Plan and 3D E. Click the Define menu > Coordinate Systems/Grids

command to display the Coordinate/Grid Systems form. In the Systems area, highlight GLOBAL and then click the

Modify/Show System button to display the Define Grid System Data and enter the coordinates for various grid lines in X Y

and Z axis. Figure: 4.5 Modifications of the Grid Lines F. Click the OK button twice and a modified grid will now be

displayed. This modified grid is shown in Figure 5. 34

35. 35. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.6 Modified Grid Lines 4.5.2 DEFINE MATERIAL A. Click the Define menu >

Materials command to display the Define Materials form shown in Figure 6. B. Enter the Material Name as M25 and enter

the properties of the material such as Modulus of Elasticity, Poisons Ratio, and Shear Modulus of concrete. 35

36. 36. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.7 Define Material and its Properties 4.5.3 DEFINE FRAME SECTIONS A frame

section will be defined for both beams and columns. Frame sections must be defined before they can be assigned to frame

objects in the model. A. Click the Define menu > Section Properties > Frame Sections command, which will display the

Frame Properties form shown in Figure 7. 36

37. 37. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.8 Define Frame Sections C. Select rectangular cross section for the members. D.

Name the beam members as B1 and B2 and the column members as C1 and C2 and their cross sections are defined. This is

shown in Figure 9. Figure: 4.9 Define Beams 37

38. 38. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.10 Properties of Frame Members 4.5.4 ASSIGNING OF FRAME ELEMENTS

4.5.4.1 ASSIGNING BEAMS: A. Select Quick draw frame element. B. Select cross section of beams as B1 or B2 and

assign the beams. C. Replicate the beams to all the floors. 4.5.4.2 ASSIGNING COLUMNS: A. Set x-z view of the plan. B.

Select Quick draw/ Frame element. C. Select cross section of columns as C1 or C2 and assign the columns. D. Replicate the

columns to all the floors. 4.5.4.3 ASSIGNING RESTRAINTS TO JOINTS A. Select all the joints at z=0. B. Select

ASSIGN> JOINT> RESTRAINTS. 38

39. 39. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 C. Dialog box will open; select fixed support as shown in Figure 10. Figure: 4.11 Assign

Restraints to Foundation (Fixed Base) 4.6 DEFINE LOAD PATTERNS The loads used in this modeling consist of dead and

live load patterns. The dead and live loads act in the gravity direction. Dead load consists of slab load, wall load, floor

finishing load and roof treatment. Following is the procedure to define the various load patterns. A. Click the Define menu

> Load Patterns command to access the Define Load Patterns form shown in Figure: 11. Note there is only a single default

load pattern defined which is a dead load pattern with self-weight (DEAD). [Note that the self-weight multiplier is set to 1

for the default pattern. This indicates that this load pattern will automatically include 1.0 times the self-weight of all

members. In SAP2000, both Load Patterns and Load Cases exist, and they may be different. However, the program

automatically creates a corresponding load case when a load pattern is defined, and the load cases are available for review

at the time the analysis is run.] B. Click in the edit box for the Load Pattern Name column. Type the name of the new

pattern, LIVE. Select a Type of load pattern from the drop-down list; in this case, select 39

40. 40. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 LIVE. Make sure that the Self Weight Multiplier is set to 0.25. Click the Add New Load

Pattern button to add the LIVE load pattern to the load list. C. The Define Load Patterns form should now appear as shown

in Figure: 11. Click the OK button in that form to accept the newly defined load patterns. Figure: 4.12 Different load

patterns 4.7 ASSIGN LOADS In this step, the dead and live and wind loads will be applied to the model. Make sure that the

X-Y Plane @ Z=3 view is still active, and that the program is in the Select mode. A. First select Draw Rectangular Area

element and click on each of the panel and then select all the panels. Figure 12 shows the selected panel to which the loads

has to be assigned. 40

41. 41. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.13 Selected Panel for Assigning Loads B. Select the Assign menu > Area Loads

>Uniform to frame (shell) command to access load from the Load Pattern Name drop-down list as shown in Figure 4.14.

Figure: 4.14 Assigning of Area Load pattern C. Select the Slab load from the dropdown list as shown in figure: 14 and set

the slab load as 3.75 KN/m2 . Also set the Coordinate system as Global and Direction as Gravity and 41

42. 42. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Distribution as Two Way. The direction is set as gravity because the slab load acts in the

direction of gravity. Figure: 4.14 Assigning Area Uniform Load to Frame. D. Similarly repeat the above set of steps for the

other load patterns defined such as dead wall load, roof finishing, roof treatment, live loads. E. Replicate command to

transfer the above loads on all the floors @ Z=6, 9 and 12. Figure 15 shows the dead wall load on all the floors. 42

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 96/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

43. 43. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.16 Dead Wall Load on the Frame. 4.8 DEFINE LOAD COMBINATIONS A.

Select Define> load combination to access the load combinations according to IS CODE. B. Select Add new combination to

make a combination. 43

44. 44. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.17 Different Load Combinations C. Select a name for the first combination. D.

Four combination according to IS CODE (1893:2002) are: 1.5( DL+LL) = COMB1 1.2( DL+ZL+EL) = COMB2

1.5( DL+EL) = COMB3 0.9DL+ 1.5EL = COMB4 Figure: 4.18 Load Combinations Data E. Similarly for all four

combinations modify the load case and scale factor. 44

45. 45. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 4.9 DEFINE RESPONSE SPECTRA A response-spectrum function is simply a list of period

versus spectral acceleration values. In SAP2000, the acceleration values in the function are assumed to be normalized; that

is, the functions themselves are not assumed to have units. Instead, the units are associated with a scale factor that

multiplies the function and that is specified when the response-spectrum analysis case is defined. A. Click the Define

menu> Functions> Response Spectrum Functions command which will display Define Response Spectrum Functions form

(Figure 4.19). B. In the Choose the Function Type to Add area, select Spectrum file from drop down list. C. Click the Add

New Function button, which will display Response Spectrum function Definition (Figure 20). 1. In Function Name edit

box, type IS 1893 RS HS. Figure: 4.19 Define Response Spectrum Function (IS 1893: 2002) 2. In Function file area click

the Browse function in this area and pick the text file that includes the Response-Spectrum data. The path of the selected

file will display in File Name display box. Click the View File button to display the selected file in WordPad. 3. Select

Period Vs Values option. 45

46. 46. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 4. Click the Display Graph option that will display the Response-spectrum graph (Figure

19). 5. Click the Convert to User Defined button which will display the response-spectrum form. Figure: 4.20 Response

Spectrum graph 4.9.1 DEFINE EQ-X: A. Click the Define menu> Load Cases command, which will display the Define

Load Cases form. B. Click the Add New Case button, which will display Define load Case data form (Figure: 23). C. In

Load Case Name Area, Type EQ-X. 46

47. 47. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 D. In Load Case Type Area, select Response Spectrum from drop-down list. E. In Modal

Combination Area, Select SRSS option. F. In Load applied area 1. In Load Type area, select Accel from drop down list. 2.

In Load area, select U1 from dropdown list. 3. In Function area, select IS1893 RS HS from drop down list. 4. In Scale

factor edit box, Type 0.3532. Figure: 4.21 Defining EQ-X (before correction) 4.9.2 DEFINE EQ-Y: A. Click the Define

menu> Load Cases command, which will display the Define Load Cases form. 47

48. 48. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 B. Click the Add New Case button, which will display Define load Case data form (Figure:

4.24). C. In Load Case Name area, Type EQ-Y. D. In Load Case Type area, select Response Spectrum from drop-down list.

E. In Modal Combination area, Select SRSS option. F. In Load Applied area 1. In Load Type area, select Accel from drop

down list. 2. In Load area, select U1 from dropdown list. 3. In Function area, select IS1893 RS HS from drop down list. 4.

In Scale factor edit box, Type 0.3532. 5. Click Add button. 4.10 APPLY CORRECTION FACTOR A. Click the Display

Menu > Show Tables command, which will display chose table for display window. B. Check the Structural Output option.

C. Click OK button on the choose tables for Display, which will display for Base Reaction and Modal Information. Note

Base reaction for DEAD, DEAD SLAB, DEAD WALL, DEAD FF, DEAD RT, LIVE AND LIVE ROOF and compare it

with manual load calculation. D. Also note the Base Shear in X direction and in Y direction. E. Evaluate VBx /VB and

VBy/VB, where VBx is manually calculated base reaction in X direction and VBy is in Y direction. 48

49. 49. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 F. After applying correction type 0.67 for EQ-X load case and type 0.52 for EQ-Y in Scale

Factor edit box as shown in figure for EQ-X load case (Figure 4.22) Figure: 4.22 Defining EQ-X (after correction) 4.11

ANALYZE THE MODEL A. Click on Analyze> Run analysis in order to run the analysis. Dialog box shown in Figure: 25

will display. B. Click on Run now to run analysis. 49

50. 50. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.23 Running Analysis 50

51. 51. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 51

52. 52. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 52

53. 53. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 4.12 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF RESULTS A. Make sure that the X-Y Plane @

Z=0 is active. Click on XZ view button to reset the view to an elevation. B. Click the Show Forces/Stresses> Frames/Cables

button or the Display MENU> SHOW FORCES/stresses> Frames/Cables command to bring up the Member Force

Diagram For the frame elements (Figure: 23 ) 1. Select DEAD from the Case/Combo Name from drop-down list. 2. Select

the Shear 2-2 option. 3. Check the Fill Diagram check box. 53

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 97/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

54. 54. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 C. Click on ok button to generate the Shear force diagram shown in Figure 24. Figure: 4.24

Member Force Diagram for Frame form 54

55. 55. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 4.25 Shear Force Diagram CHAPTER 5 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND RESULT

COMPARISION 55

56. 56. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 5.1 INTRODUCTION: In the study of vibration in engineering, a mode shape describes the

expected curvature (or displacement) of a surface vibrating at a particular mode. To determine the vibration of a system, the

mode shape is multiplied by a function that varies with time, thus the mode shape always describes the curvature of

vibration at all points in time, but the magnitude of the curvature will change. The mode Shape is dependent on the shape of

the surface as well as the boundary conditions of that surface. 5.1.1 Mode Shapes: A mode of vibration is characterized by a

modal frequency and a mode shape, and is numbered according to the number of half waves in the vibration. For example,

if a vibrating beam with both ends pinned displayed a mode shape of half of a sine wave (one peak on the vibrating beam) it

would be vibrating in mode 1. If it had a full sine wave (one peak and one valley) it would be vibrating in mode 2. Each

mode is entirely independent of all other modes. Thus all modes have different frequencies (with lower modes having lower

frequencies) and different mode shapes (with lower modes having greater amplitude). 56

57. 57. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Since the lower modes vibrate with greater amplitude, they cause the most displacement and

stress in a structure. Thus they are called fundamental modes. Figure: 5.1 Different Mode Shapes 5.2 Different Mode

Shapes in SAP 2000 v14: Mode 1: Time period=0.8394 sec, Frequency=0.92256 / sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ

VIEW) Figure 5.2: Mode 1 57

58. 58. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Mode 2: Time period =0.91691 sec, frequency=1.09062 / sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION

(XZ VIEW) Figure 5.3: Mode 2 Mode 3: Time period=0.85921 sec, frequency=1.16386 / sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION

(XZ VIEW) Figure 5.4: Mode 3 Mode 4: Time period =0.36358 sec, frequency=2.75039 / sec 58

59. 59. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.5: Mode 4 Mode 5: Time period

=0.30423 sec, frequency=3.28701 / sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.6: Mode 5 Mode 6: Time

period=0.26627 sec, frequency=3.75557 /sec 59

60. 60. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.7: Mode 6 Mode 7: Time period=0.22245

sec, frequency=4.49541 /sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.8: Mode 7 Mode 8: Time period=0.18259,

frequency=5.47663 60

61. 61. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.9: Mode 8 Mode 9: Time period

=0.16878 sec, frequency=5.92492 /sec. PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.10: Mode 9 Mode 10: Time

period=0.14562 sec, frequency=6.86736 /sec 61

62. 62. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.11: Mode 10 Mode 11: Time

period=0.13154 sec, frequency=7.60239 /sec PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.12: Mode 11 Mode 12:

Time period=0.10600 sec, frequency=9.43436 /sec 62

63. 63. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 PLAN @ Z=3 ELEVATION (XZ VIEW) Figure 5.13: Mode 12 TABLE 5.1: MODE, TIME

PERIOD AND FREQENCY Output Case Step Type Step Num Period Frequency Circ Freq Eigen value Sec Cycle /sec

rad/sec rad2/sec2 MODAL Mode 1.000000 1.083936 0.92256 5.7966 33.601 MODAL Mode 2.000000 0.916913 1.0906

6.8525 46.957 MODAL Mode 3.000000 0.859208 1.1639 7.3128 53.476 MODAL Mode 4.000000 0.363585 2.7504 17.281

298.64 MODAL Mode 5.000000 0.304227 3.2870 20.653 426.54 MODAL Mode 6.000000 0.266271 3.7556 23.597 556.82

MODAL Mode 7.000000 0.222449 4.4954 28.246 797.81 MODAL Mode 8.000000 0.182594 5.4766 34.411 1184.1

MODAL Mode 9.000000 0.168779 5.9249 37.227 1385.9 MODAL Mode 10.000000 0.145616 6.8674 43.149 1861.8

MODAL Mode 11.000000 0.131538 7.6024 47.767 2281.7 MODAL Mode 12.000000 0.105996 9.4344 59.278 3513.9 63

64. 64. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 5.3 Seismic Analysis of Building: Earthquake motion causes horizontal and vertical ground

motion .Vertical ground motion having much smaller magnitude is the most usual .In general; all structures are

conventionally designed to carry gravity loads. Most of the area in India is prone to severe shaking by earthquakes. India

has witnessed some of the worlds greatest earthquake in recent century. Current seismic codes help to design the structure

in such a way that they can withstand the effect of a moderate to strong earthquake shaking. The basic purpose of a seismic

code is to avoid loss of life and property. Indian seismic codes give more importance for structural configuration, lateral

strength, ductility and seismic weight of structure Earthquake response of system would be affected by different types of

foundation systems in addition to variation of ground motion due to various types of soils. Considering the effect in gross

manner, the standards gives guideline for arriving at design seismic coefficient based on stiffness of soil .it provides general

principal and specifies seismic design lateral forces. The following are the some of the relevant codes to improve the

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 98/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

earthquake resistance of different categories of structures: IS13827: 1993 Indian standard guidelines for improving

earthquake resistance of earthen building. 5.4 METHODS OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS 5.4.1 INTRODUCTION Equivalent

static method of analysis is a linear static procedure, in which the response of building is assumed as linearly elastic

manner. The analysis is carried out as per IS 1893- 2002 (Part 1) A step by step procedure for analysis of the frame by

equivalent static lateral force method is as follows: Step 1: Calculation of lumped masses to various floor levels. 64

65. 65. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 The earthquake forces shall be calculated for the full dead load plus the percentage of

imposed load as given in table 8 of IS 1893 (part 1): 2002. The imposed load on roof is assumed to be zero. The lumped

masses of each floor are worked out follows: Roof Mass of infill + mass of column + mass of beams in longitudinal and

transverse direction of that floor + mass of slab + imposed load of that floor if possible. Imposed load on roof not

considered. 50% of imposed load, if imposed load is greater than 3 KN/ Seismic weight of building = seismic weight of all

floors The seismic weight of each floor is its full dead plus appropriate of imposed load, as specified in clause 7.3.1 and

7.3.2 of IS 1893 (part 1): 2002. Any weight supported in between stories shall be distributed to the floors above and below

in inverse proportion to its distance from the floors. Step 2: Determination of fundamental natural period. The approximate

fundamental natural period of vibration ( ), second, of a moment resisting frame building without brick infill panels may be

estimated by the empirical expression. Where h is the height of the building in meters. Step 3: Determination of design base

shear. Design seismic base shear, 65

66. 66. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Step 4: Vertical distribution of base shear. The design base shear ( ) computed shall be

distributed along the height of the building as per the expression, Where, =height of the floor i, measured from base, and

n=Number of stories Determine the design base shear for a R.C. frame (I.T. office, Almora) building. The given data are as

shown below: 66

67. 67. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 5.14 Plan Data: 12. Type of structure : Multi Storey SMRF frame 13. Zone : IV 14.

Importance of Building : Office Building 15. Number of Stories : Four ( G+3) 16. Floor-to-floor height : 3 meter 17. Depth

of slab : 150 mm 18. Thickness of external wall : 230 mm 19. Thickness of interior wall : 115 mm 20. Live load (roof) : 3

KN/m2 21. Live load (floor) : 1.5 KN/m2 22. Materials : M25 and Fe500 23. Seismic Analysis : Equivalent Static Load

Method as per IS code 67

68. 68. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 5.4.2 CALCULATIONS STEP 1: Calculation of natural fundamental period (Ta) = = 0.2356

sec STEP 2: Calculation of Design Horizontal Seismic Coefficient The following expression is used to determine Ah: =

0.06 STEP 3: Calculation of Seismic weight of the building (W) Dead-Slab a) Load due to dead slab on 1st floor =

(21x12.5x3.75)+(8.5x4.9x3.75) = 1140.56 KN b) Load due to dead slab on 2nd floor = (21x12.5x3.75)+(2.5x4.9x3.75) =

1030.31 KN c) Load due to dead slab on 3rd floor = (21x12.5x3.75)+(2.5x4.9x3.75) = 1030.31 KN d) Load due to dead

slab on 4th floor = (21x12.5x3.75)+(2.5x4.9x3.75) = 1030.31 KN Floor finish load (Dead FF) a) Load due to Dead FF on

1st floor = (21x12.5x1)+(8.5x4.9x1) = 304.15 KN b) Load due to Dead FF on 2nd floor = (21x12.5x1)+(2.5x4.9x1) =

274.75 KN 68

69. 69. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 c) Load due to Dead FF on 3rd floor = (21x12.5x1)+(2.5x4.9x1) = 274.75 KN d) Load due

to Dead FF on 4th floor = (21x12.5x1)+(2.5x4.9x1) = 274.75 KN Roof Treatment (Dead RT) a) Load due to Dead RT on

roof = (21x12.5x1.5)+(2.5x4.9x1.5) = 412.13 KN Total load due to slab: 5772.02 KN Load due to dead wall (exterior) a)

Due to exterior wall on 1st floor= (21x15.2)+(12.5x15.2)+(3x8.5x15.2)+(7.6x15.2)+(4.9x15.2)+(12.5x15.2) = 1276.72 KN

b) Due to exterior wall on 2nd floor= 319.2+190+129.2+(2.5x15.2)+(4.9x15.2)+(2.5x15.2)+115.52+190 = 1094.4 KN c)

Due to exterior wall on 3rd floor= 319.2+190+129.2+(2.5x15.2)+(4.9x15.2)+(2.5x15.2)+115.52+190 = 1094.4 KN d) Due

to exterior wall on 4th floor= 319.2+190+129.2+(2.5x15.2)+(4.9x15.2)+(2.5x15.2)+115.52+190 = 1094.4 KN Load due to

dead wall (interior) a) Due to interior wall on 1st floor = (21.76x7.6) + (21.76x7.6) + 4 (12.5x7.6) +2 (2.6x7.6) + (3.4x7.6)

+ (4.9x7.6) =797.24 b) Due to interior wall on 2nd floor = (21.76x7.6) + (21.76x7.6) + 4 (12.5x7.6) + 2 (2.6x7.6) +

(3.4x7.6) + (4.9x7.6) 69

70. 70. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 =797.24 c) Due to interior wall on 3rd floor = (21.76x7.6) + (21.76x7.6) + 4 (12.5x7.6) + 2

(2.6x7.6)+(3.4x7.6)+(4.9x7.6) =797.24 d) Due to interior wall on 4th floor = (21.76x7.6) + (21.76x7.6) + 4 (12.5x7.6) +2

(2.6x7.6) + (3.4x7.6) + (4.9x7.6) =797.24 Total load due to dead wall (exterior + interior): 4559.92+3188.96=7748.88 KN

Total Dead load on Frame Members = Total load due to slab + Total load due to dead wall (exterior + interior) = 7748.88

KN + 5772.02 KN = 13520.9 KN Live Load a) Load due to live floor on 1st floor = (21x12.5x3)+(8.5x4.9x3) = 912.45 KN

b) Load due to live floor on 2nd floor = (21x12.5x3)+(2.5x4.9x3) = 824.25 KN c) Load due to live floor on 3rd floor =

(21x12.5x3)+(2.5x4.9x3) = 824.25 KN d) Load due to live roof = (21x12.5x1.5)+(2.5x4.9x1.5) = 412.13 KN Total live load

= 2973.08 KN Total Seismic Weight on Frame Elements = Total load due to slab+ Total load due to dead wall (exterior +

interior)+Total live load = (5772.02+7748.88+2973.08) KN = 16493.98 KN STEP 4: Total Base Shear in X Direction

(VBX) = AhW 70

71. 71. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 = 0.06 x 16493.98 = 989.6 KN Total Base Shear in Y Direction (VBY) = AhW = 0.06 x

16493.98 = 989.6 KN 5.5 Response Spectrum Analysis Response spectrum method For earthquake resistant design the

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000- 99/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

entire time history of response may not be required. Instead earthquake resistant design may be based on the maximum

value of response of a structure to a particular base motion. The response will depend on the mass, stiffness and damping

characteristics of the structure and on the characteristics of the base motion. In the response spectrum method the peak

response of a structure during an earthquake is obtained directly from the earthquake response spectrum or design spectrum.

This procedure is quite accurate for structural design applications. In this approach multiple modes of response of a building

to an earthquake is taken into account. For each mode, a response is read from the design spectrum, based on modal

frequency and the modal mass. The responses of different modes are combined to provide an estimate of total response of

the structure using modal combination methods such as complete quadratic combinations (CQC), square root of sum of

squares (SRSS), or absolute sum (ABS) method. Response Spectrum Method of analysis should be performed using the

design spectrum specified in IS Code 1893:2000 or by a site specific design spectrum, which is specifically prepared for a

structure at a particular project site. Frame without considering the stiffness of infills. 5.5.1 PROCEDURE A step by step

procedure for analysis of the frame by response spectrum method is as follows: Step 1: Determination of Eigen values and

Eigen vectors Mass matrices, M and stiffness, K of the plain frame mass model are, 71

72. 72. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 M= Column stiffness of storey, K=12EI/ Total lateral stiffness of each structure, Stiffness of

lumped mass modeled structure, K= For the above stiffness and mass matrices, Eigen values and eigenvector are worked

out as follows: Taking By solving the above equation, natural frequencies (Eigen values) of various modes are Eigen values

: 72

73. 73. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 The quantity of , is called the Eigen values of the matrix each natural frequency ( ) of the

system has a corresponding eigenvector (mode shape), which is denoted by . Solving the above equation, modal vector

(eigenvector), mode shapes and natural periods under different modes are Eigenvector Now calculate natural time period T

in sec. Step 2: Determination of modal participation factors: The modal participation factor ( ) of mode k is, Step 3:

Determination of modal mass: The modal mass ( ) of mode k is given by, Where g=acceleration due to gravity, =mode

shape coefficient at floor i in mode k, and =seismic weight of floor i, 73

74. 74. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Modal contribution of various modes. Step 4: Determination of lateral force at each floor in

each mode: The design lateral force ( ) at floor i in mode k is given by, where, =design horizontal acceleration spectrum

value as per clause 6.4.2 of IS 1893 (part 1): 2002 using the natural period of vibration ( of mode k. The design horizontal

seismic coefficient for various modes are, The average response acceleration coefficient for rock sites as per IS 1893 (part

1): 2002 is calculated as follows: For rocky, or hard soil sites Step 5: Determination of storey shear forces in each mode:

The peak shear force is given by, Step 6: Determination of storey shear force due to all modes: 74

75. 75. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 The peak shear force ( ) in storey i due to all modes considered is obtained by combining

those due to each mode in accordance with modal combination i.e. SRSS (square root of sum of squares) or CQC (complete

quadratic combination) methods. Square root of sum of squares (SRSS) If the building does not have closely spaced modes,

the peak response quantity ( ) due to all modes considered shall be obtained as, where, =absolute value of quantity in mode

k, and r is the number of modes being considered. Complete quadratic combination (CQC) where, r= Number of modes

being considered, =Cross modal coefficient, =Response quantity in mode i (including sign), =Response quantity in mode j

(including sign) 75

76. 76. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 where, =Modal damping ratio (in fraction), =Frequency ratio , =Circular frequency in mode,

and =Circular frequency in mode. There for all the frequency ratios and cross modal components can be represented in

matrix form as, = The above quadratic combination i.e. can also be written in matrix form as, 76

77. 77. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Here the terms or represent the response of different modes of a certain storey level. Now

calculate the storey shear for every mode. Step 7: Determination of lateral forces at each storey: The design lateral forces ,

at roof and at floor, are calculated as, And = Frame considering the stiffness of infill. The frame considering in previous

section is again analyzed by considering the stiffness of infill walls. The infill is modeled as equivalent diagonal strut. The

mass matrix [M] for the lumped plane frame model is, Column stiffness of storey K=12EI/ Stiffness of infill is determined

by modeling the infill as an equivalent diagonal strut, in which, Width of strut 77

78. 78. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 And are given as, , , where, = Elastic modulus of frame material = moment of inertia of

column = moment of inertia of beam W= A = Cross sectional area of diagonal stiffness= W*t = diagonal length of strut =

Therefore, stiffness of infill is Stiffness matrix [k] of lumped mass model is, K= 78

79. 79. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 For the above stiffness mass matrices, Eigen values and eigenvectors are, Taking Calculate

Eigen values Calculate Eigen vector Calculate natural frequency in various modes Calculate natural time period T Calculate

modal participation factor Calculate model mass Modal contribution of various modes is Now design lateral forces at each

floor in each mode The design lateral forces ( ) at floor i in each k is given by, The design horizontal seismic coefficient for

various modes are, 79

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000 100/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

80. 80. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 The average response acceleration coefficient for rock sites as per IS 1893 (part 1): 2002 is

calculated as follows: For rocky, or hard soil sites Storey shear forces in each mode The peak shear force is given by, 5.6

ANALYSIS IN SAP 2000 v14: In SAP2000, the acceleration values in the function are assumed to be normalized; that is,

the functions themselves are not assumed to have units. Instead, the units are associated with a scale factor that multiplies

the function and that is specified when the response-spectrum analysis case is defined. 5.6.1 DEFINING EQ-X: A. Click the

Define menu> Load Cases command, which will display the Define Load Cases form. B. Click the Add New Case button,

which will display Define load Case data form. C. In Load Case Name Area, Type EQ-X. D. In Load Case Type Area,

select Response Spectrum from drop-down list. E. In Modal Combination Area, Select SRSS option. 80

81. 81. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 F. In Load applied area 1. In Load Type area, select Accel from drop down list. 2. In Load

area, select U1 from dropdown list. 3. In Function area, select IS1893 RS HS from drop down list. 4. In Scale factor edit

box, Type 0.2354. 5. Click Add button. Figure: 5.15 Defining EQ-X (before correction) 5.6.2 DEFINING EQ-Y: A. Click

the Define menu> Load Cases command, which will display the Define Load Cases form. 81

82. 82. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 B. Click the Add New Case button, which will display Define load Case data form (Figure:

24). C. In Load Case Name area, Type EQ-Y. D. In Load Case Type area, select Response Spectrum from drop-down list. E.

In Modal Combination area, Select SRSS option. F. In Load Applied area 6. In Load Type area, select Accel from drop

down list. 7. In Load area, select U1 from dropdown list. 8. In Function area, select IS1893 RS HS from drop down list. 9.

In Scale factor edit box, Type 0.2354. 10. Click Add button. 5.6.3 Base Shear before correction Table 5.2: Base Reactions

before Correction Output Case Case Type Step Type Global FX Global FY Global FZ Global MX Global MY Global MZ

KN KN KN KN-m KN-m KN-m EQ X Linear Response Spectra Max 585.507 16.563 0.771 91.8241 4661.302 1 7226.038

0 EQ Y Linear Response Spectra Max 16.563 753.840 2.725 6214.396 0 85.3625 5291.914 0 5.6.4 Application of

Correction Factor A. Click the Display Menu > Show Tables command, which will display chose table for display window.

82

83. 83. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 B. Check the Structural Output option. C. Click OK button on the choose tables for Display,

which will display for Base Reaction and Modal Information. D. Note Base reaction for DEAD, DEAD SLAB, DEAD

WALL, DEAD FF, DEAD RT, LIVE AND LIVE ROOF and compare it with manual load calculation. E. Also note the

Base Shear in X direction and in Y direction. F. Evaluate = 1.69 and = 1.31 , where manually calculated base reaction in X

direction and Vby is in Y direction. G. Evaluate x = = 0.40 H. Evaluate x = x = 0.31 I. After applying correction type 0.40

for EQ-X load case and type 0.31 for EQ-Y in Scale Factor edit box as shown in figure for EQ-X load case. 83

84. 84. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 Figure: 5.16 Defining EQ-X (after correction) 5.6.5Base Reactions after Correction: Table

5.2: Base Reactions after Correction Output Case Case Type Step Type Global FX Global FY Global FZ Global MX Global

MY Global MZ KN KN KN KN-m KN-m KN-m EQ X Linear Response Spectrum Max 994.914 28.145 1.309 156.0308

7920.649 12278.73 EQ Y Linear Response Spectrum Max 21.812 992.738 3.588 8183.784 112.4145 6968.960 84

85. 85. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 5.7 Results Dynamic analysis has been carried out on the building by using two methods,

i.e., Equivalent Static Lateral Load Method and Response Spectrum Method as per suggested by the Indian Standard

Seismic Code (IS 1893: 2002) located in seismic zone IV in Almora, Uttarakhand Himalayas. The result shows the

differences in the Seismic Base Shear obtained by both the methods and that is incorporated in terms of base shear

correction factor in the analysis. The base shear obtained by Equivalent Static Lateral Load method are on the higher side

by 63% in X direction and 31% in Y direction as compare to the Response Spectrum Method. So, to extract the correct

results by dynamic analysis, i.e., Forces and Stresses, it is required to apply the correction in both the direction (X & Y) by

applying correction factor 1.63 and 1.31 in X and Y components of dynamic analysis respectively as suggested by the

Indian Seismic Code, IS 1893: 2002. REFERENCES 1. IS 1893 (Part 1): (2002), Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design

of Structures Part 1 General Provisions and Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards. 2. P. Aggarwal and Manish Srikhande,

Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, PHI Publication 2010. 3. Prabhat Kumar, Ashwini Kumar, Amita Sinwahl

Assessment of Seismic Hazard in Uttarakhand Himalaya Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee. 4. S.R.

Damodarsamy and S. Kavita Basics of Structural Dynamics and asesimic Design, PHI publications 2012. 85

86. 86. MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 1893:2002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILDING (IT OFFICE,

ALMORA) IN SAP 2000 V14 5. CSI Computers and Structures INC. Introductory Tutorial for Sap 2000: Linear and

Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analysis and Design of Three-Dimensional Structures 2011. 6. CSI (2009). SAP 2000:

Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Structures Nonlinear Version 14, Computers and Structures. 86

Recommended

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000 101/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

Mohammad Javed

Tameem Samdanee

Muhammad Wasim

Response Spectrum

Teja Ande

openseesdays

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000 102/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

Alessandro Palmeri

Manual Sap

IcDko Flores

English

Espaol

Portugus

Franais

Deutsch

About

Dev & API

Blog

Terms

Privacy

Copyright

Support

Share Clipboard

Add a message

From

Send

Email sent successfully..

Facebook

Twitter

LinkedIn

Google+

Link

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000 103/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. You

can keep your great finds in clipboards organized around topics.

Start clipping

No thanks. Continue to download.

Create a clipboard

Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store

your clips.

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000 104/105

7/12/2017 MODAL AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM (IS 18932002) ANALYSIS 0F R.C FRAME BUILD

Description Add a brief description so others know what your Clipboard is about.

Visibility

Others can see my Clipboard

Cancel Save

Save this document

https://www.slideshare.net/MintuChoudhury/modal-and-response-spectrum-is-18932002-analysis-0f-rc-frame-building-it-office-almora-in-sap-2000 105/105

- Seismic Performance of Tuned Mass Dampers Adam y FurtmullerHochgeladen vonMarcelo Guajardo
- (1982 Newmark & Hall - EERI) Earthquake Spectra and DesignHochgeladen vonsanpaz75
- IRC-SP-114-Seismic Design for Road BridgesHochgeladen vonPradeep Mishra
- Seismic QC QA Checklist 81209Hochgeladen vonHadi Wibowo
- 2_Co-Seismic and Post-seismic Displacements in Andaman and Nicobar Islands From GPS Measurements(K2)Hochgeladen vonRidho D'jokamer
- Design concept of School.pdfHochgeladen vonPrakash SIngh Rawal
- Guide to the Design of DiaphragmsHochgeladen voncoolsef
- IJRI-CCE-01-006Hochgeladen vonijripublishers
- Base Isolation 01Hochgeladen voncivilengineer_tr
- push2Hochgeladen vonRabindraSubedi
- ASCE705.SeismicHochgeladen vonAnonymous imkwF8N7Te
- Seismic Pounding Effects in BuildingsHochgeladen vonbobbytirona566
- 2003 08 Seismic Demand Bridge PEERHochgeladen vonrunkir
- pbdHochgeladen vonrksjcit
- 2011_aademovicHochgeladen vonДрагана Скоко
- SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF LOW-RISE URM STRUCTURES WITH GEOMETRIC VARIATION.pdf.pdfHochgeladen voncontrerasc_sebastian988
- synophsisHochgeladen vonSumitShingane
- Comparison of Ground Motion Selsction Criteria for Seismic DesignHochgeladen vonanna_318857983
- CHAPTER03 2005Hochgeladen vonOwethu Malinga
- Pushover_Analysis_of_Steel_Frame_Structu.pdfHochgeladen vonFanis
- Pushover_Analysis_of_Steel_Brace.pdfHochgeladen vonPradana Angga
- Earthquake AnalysisHochgeladen vonMuhammad Farhan
- MTECH _IITG_Geotechnical_2011+CourseHochgeladen vonDheeraj Sehgal
- An Introduction to Earthquake EngineeringHochgeladen vonJomar D. Marquez
- 413_ftpHochgeladen vonpuppyarav2726
- CALTRANS+Seismic+Design+Criteria V1.5(2010.11)Hochgeladen vonSoowhan Jung
- EQ Final ReportHochgeladen vonJohn Dharyl Bilas
- (Buratti) WCEE2012_5499_2Hochgeladen vonWidodo Pawirodikromo
- Seismic Safety LectureHochgeladen vonVivek Kumawat
- Earthquake eHochgeladen vonqatarstructz30

- Soil Structure InteractionHochgeladen vonEmad Ahmed Khan
- Seminar[194]Hochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- ppt-161112044856.pptxHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- Presentation1.pptxHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- How SAFE Calculates Punching Shear ACI318-95Hochgeladen vonMoy Erga
- IS-1893_1-2002Hochgeladen vonkumardbg
- millau-viaduct_france.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- h_slabsHochgeladen vonalvin_tan
- Release Report 2005Hochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- Secf1Hochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- What SE Know Liquefaction.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- FEM method.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- -Diagnostic-Approach-Towards-Structural-Repairs-of-Damaged-Buildings.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- 114214020-Estimation-and-costing-BN-Datta-ch-1-and-2.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- 15658_2006Hochgeladen vonNavneet Mathur
- 13311_1.pdfHochgeladen vonsumankanthnelluri7
- manual.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- manual.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- asdfghjkl;'.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- Pocket PDF AffairsCloud.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- Current Affairs April Question & Answer 2017 PDF by AffairsCloud.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- bridge assignment.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- New Doc 13.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- New Doc 12.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- New Doc 13.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- Analysis of 3D-Structures Resting on Piled Raft.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- 2008_Lateral_Stiffness_EQSpectra.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5

- Chapters 15-18 Kerala PWD ManualHochgeladen vonKarunamoorthi Ponnuswamy
- GuardrailBrochurev.2.1Hochgeladen vontangouze
- Controlled Cost Estimate Example (1)Hochgeladen vonFührer Magdi Badran
- COUPP_60 Hydraulic Hose Failure AnalysisHochgeladen vonRomulus Situ Morank
- Ludhiana Building ByelawshHochgeladen vonNishima
- Make Up TorqueHochgeladen vonEduard Gadzhiev
- Pipe SealsHochgeladen vonjakeer7
- 3M IM-0029B 4000 Reusable Roof AnchorHochgeladen vonDavid Sweedler
- Live Load CurriculumHochgeladen vonBlasko Nikiforov
- Burj KhalifaHochgeladen vonOdín Wotan Kronos
- WP12Hochgeladen voncesar
- doc_42_cold_cracking_ii.pdfHochgeladen vonmarko peric
- PIP CVS02010-2009Hochgeladen vonEagle3232
- Wwg Construction ActivitiesHochgeladen vontanujaayer
- Lime Stabilised Pond AshHochgeladen vonkeya29
- LWR MANUAL UPDATED UPTO CS 16.pdfHochgeladen vonShuja Mehdi
- gov.bd.bnbc.2012.08.07Hochgeladen vonDeepakSDhuri
- Spiral wound gasket compressibility.pdfHochgeladen vonPeeyush Vaish
- PM 2016 Revise RACI UTI-AB Update 10 Sep 16Hochgeladen vonWidodo Rachmad
- Highway Engineering MCQHochgeladen vonJayakumar Venkataraman
- Entrepreneurship assignment - Property DevelopmentHochgeladen vonWong Lipping
- Is Code-Guidelines for Branching of Penstocks in Hydropower ProjectsHochgeladen vonAnonymous mcHqIfbnV1
- Drawing ChecklistHochgeladen vonManoj Ashok Baraskar
- Lempco_MetricComponentsHochgeladen vonCarlos Granada
- Geotechnical Engineering of LandfillsHochgeladen vonJoeAnn Av'rage
- Verification_Manual_American_codes RSAP 2014.pdfHochgeladen vonJosé Luis Ordóñez
- ETAG 001-1 Anchors in GeneralHochgeladen vonChen Yong Chao Gabriel
- Main Beam Grid(F1&F2) Length9.61mHochgeladen vonmathu
- Energy Loss in Pipe and FittingsHochgeladen vonMuhd Fadhil Nazer
- lion vanbul;Hochgeladen vonDesmond Prince Omorogiuwa

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.