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  • 16 Timber Design

F H Potter BSc Tech, CEng, MICE, FIWSc, AMCT Senior Tutor, Imperial College of Science and Technology

Contents

  • 16.1 Introduction

16/3

  • 16.2 Design by specification

    • 16.2.1 Species and use

    • 16.2.2 Availability and sectional properties

    • 16.2.3 The movement of timber

16/3

16/3

16/4

16/4

  • 16.2.4 Moisture content and end use

16/4

  • 16.2.5 16/5

Working properties

  • 16.2.6 Natural resistance to attack

16/5

  • 16.2.7 Preservation treatment

16/6

  • 16.2.8 16/6

Fire resistance

  • 16.3 Stress grading and permissible stresses

16/6

  • 16.3.1 16/6

Visual stress grading

  • 16.3.2 Mechanical stress grading

  • 16.3.3 Glued-laminated timber grades

  • 16.3.4 Strength classes of timber

  • 16.3.5 Permissible stresses

16/6

16/6

16/6

16/7

  • 16.4 Design – general

  • 16.5 Design in solid timber

16/7

16/7

  • 16.6 Glued-laminated timber assemblies

16/7

  • 16.7 Plywood and tempered hardboard assemblies

16/8

  • 16.8 Timber fastenings

16/8

  • 16.9 Timber-framed construction

16/10

  • 16.10 Repair and restoration

16/10

  • 16.11 Termite-resistant construction

16/10

  • 16.12 Storm-resistant construction

16/10

  • 16.13 Earthquake-resistant construction

16/11

  • 16.14 Design aids

16/11

References

16/11

Bibliography

16/13

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

16.1

Introduction

Timber is one of the finest structural materials: it has a high specific strength, can be easily worked and jointed and does not inhibit design. Like most other structural materials it suffers attack causing deterioration (corrosion, weathering and bio- deterioration) but once the material is known and the causes understood, effective preventative measures can be taken easily and economically. Design is thus a confluence of specification, structural analy- sis, detailing and protection, each of which is of equal import- ance if an effective design is to be achieved. Nowadays, structural design covers a wider range of compo- nents than ever before, for the intense wind loadings in high-rise building coupled with large glazed areas has meant that much window joinery is now subject to structural design. In addition, the effects of wind loadings together with the requirements of the Building Regulations and the newer building shapes has meant that even in low-rise buildings, components which once were built must now be designed. Timber is thus used for a wide variety of structural purposes, either on its own or in combination with one of the 'heavier' materials. It can take extremely simple forms such as solid beams, joists and purlins or can be used in the more recent forms of glued-laminated construction or plywood panel construc- tion. These latter forms allow the design of exciting and economic structural shapes, the variety of which may be judged from Tables 16.1 and 16.2.

Some of the characteristics of timber may be found in Table 16.3, whilst general properties are given in other publications. 1 " 3

  • 16.2 Design by specif ication

Essentially, this is a prescription of fitness for use under service conditions and requires the choice not only of an appropriate material but also of its condition, use and protection. The success of the specification will depend upon its interpre- tation; standard glossaries are available for timber and wood- work, 4 nomenclature of timber 5 and preservative treatment. 6 Functional and user needs will dictate the choice of material based on the following factors.

  • 16.2.1 Species and use

Very many timbers are structurally useful, whereas usefulness for joinery purposes is often more restrictive. Where timber is used for structural joinery, the combination of requirements may be even more restrictive.

Table 16.3 lists most of the

timbers and their characteristics

for which working stresses are given in BS 5268: Part 2, 7 whilst

BS 1186 8 indicates the joinery use of specific species. A compre- hensive guide to West African species and their uses, both structural and joinery, is given in pamphlets issued by the United Africa Company. 9 Flooring, particularly industrial flooring, has particular re- quirements and recommendations for suitable timbers for these

Table 16.1 Roof selection

Division

Subdivision

Construction

Beams

Solid timber Laminated, either vertically or horizontally, depending on size

I

or box sections:

Arches

flanges solid or laminated. Webs plywood or diagonally boarded Laminated horizontally

I

or box sections:

Portals

flanges laminated horizontally. Webs diagonally boarded Laminated horizontally

I

or box sections:

Trusses Belgian

flanges solid or laminated. Webs plywood or diagonally boarded Solid timber

 

Warren

Solid timber

 

Laminated chords.

 

Bowstring

Solid webs

(After: L. G. Booth, Engineering, 25 March 1960)

Minimum support

Maximum

Fastenings

conditions

economic

spans

(m)

6

None

Vertical support at ends

  • 24 Glue

  • 30 Glue and/or nails

  • 46 Glue and/or nails for

Vertical and horizontal support at ends

  • 46 laminating

 

Connectors for site joints

 
  • 24 Glue and/or nails for

Vertical and horizontal

  • 46 laminating

support at ends

Connectors for site joints

Vertical support at ends

  • 12 Nails and/or glue

  • 24 Connectors

  • 12 Nails and/or glue

  • 30 Connectors

  • 46 Glue and/or nails for laminating Connectors at joints

Table 16.2 Roof selection

Division

Subdivision

Construction

Minimum support

Maximum

Fastenings

 

conditions

economic

 

sizes

(m)

Plates

Flat

Membrane formed

Vertical support

12x12

Nails and/or glue

 

from plywood or layers of diagonal boarding A single-skin structure may have stiffening ribs

at corners

 

Folded

A double-skin

Vertical support

18x9

Membrane with nails

 

structure will have spacing ribs Edge beams and end diaphragms required

at corners

and/or glue Diaphragms with nails or connectors

Singly

Circular cylindrical

Membrane formed

Vertical support

30x12

Membrane with nails

curved

with layers of

at corners

and/or glue

shells

diagonal boarding. May have stiffening ribs Edge beams required End diaphragms required

Beams (see Table 16.1) Diaphragms with nails or connectors

Doubly

Spherical dome

Boarded membrane

Ring beam to be

30 dia.

Membrane with nails

curved

with or without

supported at

and/or glue

shells

laminated ribs Laminated ring beam

intervals

Ribs and ring beam glued

 

Hyperbolic paraboloid

Boarded membrane with laminated edge beams

Vertical support only at low points, if columns tied together. Otherwise buttresses at low points

21x21

Membrane with nails and/or glue Edge beams glued

Elliptical paraboloid

Boarded membrane with laminated tied arches along edges

Vertical support at corners

24x24

Membrane with nails and/or glue Tied arches with glue and connectors

Conoid

Boarded membrane

Vertical support

30x9

membrane with nails

 

with laminated tied arches on ends Edge beams required

at corners

and/or glue Beams (see Table 16.1) Tied arches with glue and connectors

(After: L. G. Booth, Engineering, 25 March 1960)

requirements are given in Princes Risborough Laboratory (PRL) Technical Note No. 49. 10

  • 16.2.2 Availability and sectional properties

Availability is equally important, and Table 16.3 indicates the availability of the structural timbers from the viewpoints of supply and length. The geometric properties of sawn and

precision timber to be used in design are also given in BS 5268:

Part 2. Guidance on the usefulness of worldwide species may be found, 11 whilst the available sizes for hardwoods are given in BS

  • 5450. l2

    • 16.2.3 The movement of timber

Even with dried timber, changes in atmospheric conditions will

result in a varying moisture content which will induce fluctuat- ing dimensional changes in the timber, known as 'movement'. The variation can be designed-for quite simply but some know-

ledge of the degree of possible movement is helpful. Some

indication can be obtained from Table 16.3, whilst further information can be obtained from the publications of the

PRL. 231314

  • 16.2.4 Moisture content and end use

Every species of timber will achieve a fairly steady moisture content for a particular environment - the equilibrium moisture content. The PRL has established moisture contents for various

environments. 12 Greater reliability can be achieved by drying timbers to these moisture contents before construction.

Table 16.3 Characteristics and availability of some structural timbers

Standard name

Approx.

Natural

Resistance to

Moisture

Working

density at

durability

preservative

movement

quality

M/C 18%

treatment

 

(kg/m 3 )

SOFTWOODS

(IMPORTED)

Douglas fir-larch

590

Moderately

Resistant

Small

Good

Hem-fir

530

Not

Resistant

Medium

Good

Parana pine

560

Not

Moderately

 

Medium

Good

Pitch pine

720

Durable

Resistant

Medium

Good

E.

redwood

540

Not

Moderately

 

Medium

Good

E.

whitewood

510

Not

Resistant

Small

Good

Canadian

450

Not

Very

Medium

Good

spruce-pine-fir

W.

red cedar

380

Durable

Resistant

Small

Good

SOFTWOODS (HOME GROWN) Douglas fir

560

Moderately

Resistant

Small

Good

Larch (E- Japan)

560

Moderately

Resistant

Medium

Good

Scots pine

540

Not

Moderately

 

Medium

Good

European spruce

380

Not

Resistant

Small

Good

Sitka spruce

400

Not

Resistant

Small

Good

Corsican pine

510

Not

Moderately

 

Small

Good

HARDWOODS

(IMPORTED)

Abura

590

Perishable

Moderately

 

Small

Good

African mahogany

590

Moderately

Extremely

Small

Medium

Afrormosia

720

Very

Extremely

Small

Medium

Greenheart

1060

Very

Extremely

Medium

Difficult

Gurjun/Keruing

720

Moderately

Resistant

Large

Medium

Iroko

690

Very

Extremely

 

Small

Medium

Jarrah

910

Very

Extremely

Medium

Difficult

Karri

930

Durable

Impermeable

Large

Difficult

Opepe

780

Very

Moderately

 

Small

Medium

Red meranti

540

Moderately

Resistant

Small

Good

Sapele

690

Moderately

Resistant

Medium

Good

Teak

720

Very

Extremely

 

Small

Medium

HARDWOODS (HOME

GROWN)

European ash

720

Perishable

Moderately

 

Medium

Good

European beech

720

Perishable

Permeable

Large

Good

European oak

720

Durable

Extremely

Medium

Medium

16.2.5

Working properties

 

Ease of fabrication is indicated in Table 16.3, although more detailed information may be found in PRL publications. -

2

3

 

Grade of durability

16.2.6

Natural resistance to attack

 
 

Very durable

Durable

Moderately durable

Nondurable

Perishable

Timber has a widely varying resistance to attack by fungi, insects, marine borers and termites. Fungi will not normally attack timber having a moisture content lower than 20% but a timber's ability to resist fungal attack is classified according to Table 16.4. The natural durability of some structural timbers is given in Table 16.3. Information on further timbers will be found in PRL

 

Availability

Relative price

Supply

Normal

length

(m)

Good

4.20-4.80

Medium

Good

4.20-4.50

Low

Good

3.60-3.90

Low

Good

4.50-9.00

Medium

Good

1.50-7.00

Low

Good

1.50-7.00

Low

Good

2.40-5.10

Low

Good

2.40-7.30

Low

Fair

1.80-4.50

Low

Good

1.80-3.60

Medium

Good

1.80-3.60

Low

Good

1.80-3.60

Low

Good

1.80-3.60

Medium

Fair

1.80-3.60

Medium

Good

.80-6.00

Low

Good

.80-7.30

Medium

Good

2.40-7.30

Med high

Good

4.80-9.00

High

Good

.80-7.30

Low

Good

.80-6.00

Medium

Good

.80-8.40

Med high

Good

.80 up

Med high

Good

.80-6.00

Medium

Good

.80-7.30

Low

Good

.80 up

Medium

Good

.80 up

High

Fair

  • 1.80 Low

up

Good

  • 1.80 Medium

up

Good

  • 1.80 Medium

up

Table 16.4 Durability classification of the heartwood of untreated timbers

Approximate life in ground contact

(y)

More than 25

15-25

10-15

5-10

Less than 10

Technical Note No. 40 15 and the Handbooks on softwood

and

hardwoods 2 ' 3 whilst further advice on the control of decay will be found in PRL Technical Notes 29, 44 and 57. 1 ^ 18 Termite attack and its prevention are dealt with by the PRL 19

in which the following timbers are mentioned as being generally resistant: iroko, opepe, Californian redwood and teak. Other timbers are given in the Handbooks on softwood and hard-

woods. 2 ' 3 Marine borers are a hazard in the sea or brackish waters and

PRL Leaflet No. 46 20 gives advice on the protection

of timbers

against this attack. Highly resistant timbers suitable for marine works are: greenheart, pyinkado, turpentine, totara, jarrah, basralocus and manbarklak.

16.2.7

Preservative treatment

The sapwood of all timbers is liable to attack by fungi and insects but it is often possible to obtain a more attack-resistant structure by pressure-impregnating nondurable or perishable timbers than by using durable species. Indeed, it is sometimes more economic also. The amenability of timbers to preservative treatment is given in Table 16.3 and is related to the following classification:

Permeable:

Easily treated by either pressure or

Moderately resistant:

open tank. Fairly easy to treat by pressure,

Resistant:

penetration 6 to 20 mm in 2 to 3 h. Difficult to impregnate, incising often used. Penetration often little more than 6 mm.

Extremely resistant:

Very little penetration can be achieved even after prolonged treatment.

Further information and guidance on satisfactory types and methods of treatment may be found in publications of the British Standards Institute (BSI) 2 '- 23 and the Timber Research and Development Association (TRADA). The economics of timber preservation is discussed in Timberlab 77. 24

16.2.8

Fire resistance

Although timber ignites spontaneously at about 25O 0 C, ignition is a function of the external surface area to the total volume of timber and the rate of charring does not significantly increase with a rise of temperature. The rate of charring is generally taken as about 0.5 mm/min (western red cedar 0.85 mm/min, dense hardwood 0.42 mm/min), but perhaps the most important factor is that the structural properties of uncharred material remain virtually unchanged. Thus, if adequate protection against combustion is provided, timber is one of the safest structural materials in a severe fire. These measures are usually: (1) the provision of sacrificial material; (2) chemical impregnation; and (3) protective cover-

ing. 2 " 7

16.3 Stress grading and permissible stresses

Timber is a natural organic material and therefore is subject to wide variability because of environmental, species and genetic effects. This variability affects both visible quality and strength. If, for any particular property and species only one design stress were specified, this would have to be set so low (to allow for variability) that the material would have a very limited

structural application. In consequence, a number of stress grades have been adopted, leading not only to a more economic use of the material but also to a higher yield of structurally useful material. There are two main methods of stress grading for solid timber: (1) visual grading; and (2) mechanical grading. Each requires a different procedure.

  • 16.3.1 Visual stress grading

In visual grading, data obtained from clear material (straight grained and free from knots and fissures) are analysed statisti- cally for each species and basic stresses for each property are devised. These basic stresses are then reduced by factors which

take account of the strength-reducing effects of the permissible growth characteristics for each stress grade. At the present time, there are two sets of quality requirements for visual stress grading in this country, one for softwoods and one for hardwoods. The first set is given in BS 4978. 28 Besides setting the require- ments for two grades for solid softwood timber construction (SS and GS), this standard restates the requirements for laminating timber grades. The second set is given in BS 5756 29 for tropical hardwoods (HS grade). In the current edition of BS 5268:Part 2 home- grown hardwoods have been deleted, but it is probable that these will be reintroduced.

  • 16.3.2 Mechanical stress grading

Mechanical stress grading 30 is a method of non-destructive testing each piece to be graded. The piece is bent under a constant central load over a constant short span. The strength of the material can then be calculated accurately from the resultant deflection. Four grades are presented (M75, M50, MSS and MGS) and the grade stresses for the dry condition only are tabulated in BS 5268:Part 2. At present, machine-grade stresses are limited to six softwood species for which control information is available. However, it will be possible to machine-stress-grade other timbers in accordance with BS

4978.

28

  • 16.3.3 Glued-laminated timber grades

In glued-laminated members, the presence of strength-reducing characteristics will have a smaller effect than in solid timber, since the probability of identical structural defects appearing in identical positions in adjacent laminations is very small. British Standard 5268:Part 2, therefore allows higher grade stresses for glued-laminated timbers, these being obtained by applying tabulated modification factors to the grade stresses for each species.

  • 16.3.4 Strength classes of timber

For the first time, BS 5268:Part 2 introduces the concept of strength classes for timber. Softwood species-grade combina- tions for strength classes, graded to BS 4978 are tabulated in Tables 3, 4 and 5 of that standard, whilst species groupings of hardwoods graded to BS 5756 are tabulated in Table 7 of that standard for the higher strength classes. The concept, similar to the older species groupings, is that a strength class rather than a species may be specified. However, sometimes there are advantages in specifying a particular species and grade where the grade stress is higher than the strength class stress.

  • 16.3.5 Permissible stresses

Permissible design stresses for both solid and laminated timber components are governed by the type of component, the condi- tions of service and the type of loading. They are obtained from grade stresses by applying the appropriate modification factors.

  • 16.4 Design-general

Design in timber is similar to that in any other structural material as long as timber's peculiar qualities are acknowledged; indeed, these qualities can be exploited by resourceful designers. Timber is idealized as an orthotropic material, but in practice, only two directions need be considered: that parallel to the grain (along the trunk) and that perpendicular to the grain. Most strength properties, of both timber and joint fasteners, vary according to these directions and the variation has been found to follow the Hankinson relationship:

,v-

PQ

P sin 2 0 + Q cos 2 0

where 6 is the angle between directions of load and grain, N the

stress at 0 to the grain, P the stress parallel to the grain, the stress perpendicular to the grain

and Q

from which intermediate stress or strength values can be

calcu-

lated. This is not normally required for solid beams, joists and columns where only the major directions are used, but is often met where members intersect at joints. The stresses given in BS 5268:Part 2 are for permanent loading and increased values are allowed for short- and medium-term loads. This Code of Practice governs general design, but additional information is available. In the past, design has been inhibited by the relatively short lengths of timber available (Table 16.3 indicates availability). However, the production of durable resin adhesives has led to new construction techniques and structural forms being de- veloped. Glued-laminated timber in which thin laminae are glued together to form structural components of almost any shape or length is a common reality, whilst structural plywood can be combined with either solid or glued-laminated timber to produce composite components which are lightweight, reliable and pleasing. The design in these forms is more complex than in solid timber but information on a wide variety of structural forms can be found, 42 " 70 whilst advice on the selection of a particular form is given in Tables 16.1 and 16.2. General design advice is provided by TRADA. 71

3141

  • 16.5 Design in solid timber

Since permissible stresses are maxima there may be some advantage in using structural hardwoods or the higher-grade- stress softwoods whenever stress governs design. However, if deflection governs, there will be no advantage in using these more expensive materials unless the moduli of elasticity are sufficiently high. A possible exception is keruing (dipterocarpus spp.) whose current cost is roughly similar to that of softwoods. Some indication of price is given in Table 16.3. As design in solid timber is limited by the maximum size of timber available, this has led to the development of many types of girder framework: however, where there is sufficient head- room, trussed beams can give an economic solution for heavy loads and long spans. 31 - In BS 5268:Part 2, minimum sizes are specified and the

3541

geometric properties tabulated in Appendix D of BS 5268:Part 2 are based on those minimum sizes. Further reductions in section should be made for notches, mortices and bolt, screw and connector holes. Modification factors may also be required for the length and position of bearing, the shape of a beam and its depth if greater than 300 mm, whilst for compression members, combined factors are given for both slenderness and loading.

Lateral stability is important both for deep beams and for compression members, and in built-up members web stiffeners should be provided wherever concentrated loads occur. General design data are available 7173 applicable to particular

structural forms

45

- 5 ^ 61 - 6 ^ 67 whilst design aids have been published

for solid beams, portal frames and trussed rafters.

16.6

Glued-laminated timber

assemblies

Glued-laminated timber is essentially a built-up section of two or more pieces of timber whose grains are approximately parallel and which are fastened together with glue throughout their length. This enables the properties of timber to be regu- lated to some degree and provides structural sizes and shapes which would not be possible in solid timber. Variation in section is possible, whilst high-grade material can be placed in zones of high stress and low-grade material in zones of low stress. All softwoods glue well and are generally preferred in the UK, although occasionally there can be some advantage in using wholly hardwood laminae. Construction may use either vertical or horizontal lamina- tions.

With vertical laminations, the zones of equal stress are shared between the laminations so that the strength of a beam can be said to be the sum of the individual laminations. This load- sharing concept has led to the grade-stress modification factors

tabled in BS 5268:Part 2 which give higher permissible stresses for the laminated beam. Horizontally laminated beams have been permitted since 1967 but the philosophy for behaviour is entirely different from that for vertical laminations. A beam will consist of material containing knots whose presence will affect the strength ratio of the beam. Since the knot effect will vary according to the sizes of knots and the number of laminations, BS 5268:Part 2 tables basic stress modification factors according to these variables. Since curved laminated beams are fabricated by bending the individual laminations, fabrication stresses are induced which depend upon the degree of curvature, the thickness of the lamination and the species of timber. Therefore, modification factors to be applied to the grade bending stresses for different

values of t/R are specified in BS 5268:Part 2. The production of long laminations depends upon the use of efficient methods of end jointing. Where the efficiency of an end joint is known, the laminations containing them can be included when calculating the section properties, but where efficiencies are not known, the laminations containing the end joints must be omitted when calculating section properties. Efficiency rat- ings for plain scarf joints and for finger joints are given in BS 5268:Part 2: these are used to modify the basic stresses to give the maximum stresses to which any particular lamination may

be subjected. British Standard 5291

74

governs finger joints in

structural softwood. Butt joints do not transmit load and should only be used in zones of zero or very low stress.

Apart from the consideration of end joints and curvature, '

design is similar to that for solid timber, aids are noted for glulam beams.

46 64

- 75 ' 76 whilst design

  • 16.7 Plywood and tempered hardboard

assemblies

Plywood is a type of glued-laminated construction in which the laminae are formed from thin flat veneers of timber. These veneers are produced by the rotary cutting of logs and are laid alternately at right angles in an odd number of layers. Since both the shrinkage and strength of timber differ according to the grain direction, the type of construction gives greater dimen- sional stability and tends to equalize the strength properties in both major directions of the plywood sheet. There are two distinct design philosophies: (1) the North American approach which only considers the 'parallel plies', i.e.

those plies whose grain lies in the direction of the load (this approach is based on the basic stresses and moduli for solid timber); and (2) the Finnish and British approach, known as the 'full cross-section' approach, in which grade stresses and moduli for the sheet materials have been determined from tests. In BS 5268:Part 2 all the grade stresses and moduli are for full cross- section, but it is well to remember that many North American design manuals will be based on the 'parallel-plies' approach. Plywood is a strong, durable and lightweight structural material

which can be used to produce exciting structural shapes.

-

44

47 ^ 9 61

~

63

Design data are available for a variety of constructions 77 ' 79

whilst design aids are available for stressed skin panels and portal frames. Perhaps plywood's most useful property is that of providing excellent shear resistance for a small cross-section, although it is well to remember that lateral stability constraints may be required. Tempered hardboard is a durable compressed fibreboard for which BS 5268:Part 2 now gives grade stresses for use in structural components instead of plywood.

larly true in timber for which highly efficient methods of transferring tensile loads have been developed only during the

past 50 yr. Split-ring and

tooth-plate connectors are now avail-

able which have load capacities much greater than those for

nailed and bolted joints. A comparative indicator of fastener

efficiency and the required member sizes is given in Table 16.5. The strength of mechanical fasteners depends upon member size and thickness and the spacing of the fasteners. British Standard 5268:Part 2 tabulates permissible values of a wide range of variables, whereas some manuals prefer a presentation as a series of design curves. 31 >34 -

3540

However, the major advance

in fastening techniques has been

in glued joints. Early glues were unreliable, deteriorating quickly, but the present phenolic and resorcinol resins are so durable that the risk of delamination has been almost entirely eliminated, even under extreme exposure. Unfortunately, gluing still requires controlled conditions and its application to site work is still limited. Since the shear strength of adhesives is usually higher than that of timber, a fastener efficiency of 100% can be achieved. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that glues seldom have a good tensile strength, so that they should be stressed in

shear as much as possible.

Information is available on gluing, 80 the requirements for

adhesives, 81

stresses for the timber;

7

and the compatibility between glues and preserva-

tives. 82 The permissible stresses for glued joints are the shear

however, regard must be paid not only

to the variation of that shear strength but also to the possibility

of differential shrinkage and stress concentrations in the joint. The type of fastener chosen will depend upon the skills and equipment available, possible fabrication conditions, relative costs and whether or not it is necessary to take down and reassemble the structural components.

16.8 Timber fastenings

Available methods of jointing are perhaps the most important criteria for the design of structural components. This is particu-

Table 16.5 The relative strengths of timber joints

Comparison - axial compression in GS/M50

(SC3) European redwood

 

FASTENER

 

TIMBER

 

Effective

Type

& dia,

No.

Capacity

Size

Area

Capacity

(mm)

(kN)

(mm)

(mm 2 )

(kN)

NAILS

3.75

63

40.3

47

x 145

  • 5581 40.7

8.00

21

42.7

72x145

  • 8712 63.6

SCREWS

8.43

16

42.2

60

x 145

  • 6677 48.7

BOLTS

M8

30

41.3

44x169

  • 5676 41.4

M12

13

40.3

60

x 145

  • 6540 47.7

TOOTH PLATE 2/5 1 mm dia.

5

40.5

60x145

  • 6540 47.7

+ M12bolt 2/64 mm dia. + M12bolt SPLIT RING

5

43.5

60x169

  • 7980 58.3

2/64 mm dia.

3

49.7

60

x 145 or

  • 6800 49.6

+ M12bolt

 

72

x 120

  • 6740 49.2

Assumptions:

(1) three member joints loaded to

(2) timber to timber joints

4OkN in axial compression parallel to grain

(3) GS/M50 European redwood

Grade stress Table 8 SC3 6.8 N/mm.

2

Grade stress Table 9 M50 7.3 N/mm 2 . Using Table 9 value, required timber area = 5479 mm 2

EXAMPLES OF THE DESIGN OF A SIMPLE TENSION JOINT

SPLICE

= 635 x (2 x 0.9)

x

1.12 x

1.0 x

1.0 -

(assumed)

 

= 1280.16 N.

LOAD CAPACITY: 25 kN

DURATION: MEDIUM

 

TERM

Number of 5 mm nails required = -r-=? = 20

TIMBER. EUROPEAN REDWOOD

GRADE: M50

EXPOSURE CONDITION: DRY

(1) REQ UIRED TIMBER SECTION

Dry exposure condition grade stresses, Tension //g

SC3 (TABLE 8): 3.2 N/mm 2 x 1.25 = 4.0 N/mm 2

European redwood (TABLE 9): 4.0 N/mm 2 * x 1.25 = 5.0 N/mm 2

Maximum permissible timber stress = 5.0 N/mm 2

Section = ?^P = 5000 mm 2

allow 10% reduction in effective section at joint

SAY 41 x 145 mm planed = 5950 mm 2 (TABLE 99)

(2)

NAILED

JOINT

CHOICE OF NAIL DIAMETER

Possible joint thickness = 3 x 41 mm =

123 mm

Maximum available stock lengths:

 

4 and

4.5

mm 0:

100 mm

 

5 mm

<j>:

125 mm

 

Standard thicknesses for members in double shear:

 

4

mm

0:

0.7

x

44

=

31 mm

 

(splice 35

x 145)

4.5

mm

0:

0.7

x

51

=

36 mm

(splice 35 x 145)

5

mm

<f>:

0.7

x

57 =

40 mm

(splice 41

x

145)

CLAUSE 41.4.2

 

TABLE 57

 

Required nail lengths:

 

4mm

<f>

:

2

x

35 +

41

=

111 mm

 
 

4.5

mm

<f> :

2

x

35 +

41

=

111

mm

lengths not available

 

5

mm

<j> : 2

x

41

+

41 +

=

123 mm*

 

DESIGN OF JOINT (5 mm nails)

Basic single shear lateral load capacity, dry exposure:

5 mm, SC3: 635 N (TABLE 57)

Multiple shear factor (CLAUSE 41.42)

0.9 x number of shear planes provided each member is thicker than 0.7 x standard point size penetration

Permissible joint load (CLAUSE 41.8)

= basic x Jf 48 x AT 49 x AT 50

TABLE 56 SPACING, modified by 0.8 (CLAUSE 41.3)

TRY 4x 5 pattern (20 nails)

  • 25 undrilled width ^ 170 mm

x 40 x 40 x 40 x 25

XXX

X

xxx

x

XXX

X

12 x

12 x

12 x

25

area =

(145 -

4

  • 25 x

Effective

joint length 4 x 40 +

2 x 40 =

240 mm

drilled width ^ 86 mm*

x 5) 41 mm 2 (CLAUSE 41.2)

= 5125 mm 2

Effective timber load capacity = 25.625 kN

Therefore the nailing pattern is acceptable, but requires predrill-

ing

Alternatively, try 3 x 7 pattern (21 nails, but easier to control), to avoid cost of pre-drilling

 

x

x

x

 

25 x 40 x 40 x

X

X

X

25

x

X

x

X

x

X

undrilled width ^ 130 mm*

joint length 5 x

40 + 2 x 40 =

320 mm

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

Effective

area = (145 -

3 x 5) 41 =

5330 mm 2 (CLAUSE 41.2)

Effective

timber load capacity

=

26.65 kN

Fastener

capacity

=

21 x (2 x 0.9)

=

x

1.12 x

1.0 x

635 kN

 

26.9 kN

 

(3)

BOLTED JOINT

 

CHOICE OF BOLT DIAMETER

Number of lines of bolts («) possible in a 145 mm wide member

required timber capacity effective area x permissible stress

M10 bolt, n = 2.3 lines

For any larger diameter bolts, possible.

only one

line of

bolts

would be

DESIGNOFJOINT

Basic single shear lateral load parallel to grain, (TABLE 67), member 41 mm thick.

MlO, 1.28 kN: M12, 1.84 kN: M16, 3.15 kN

(interpolated)

Double shear factor (CLAUSE 43.4.2) 2.0

Permissible joint load (double shear)

=

2 basic

x

K 55

x

K 56

x

K 51

medium terrfi= 1.25 N. number'in line'

m/cdry = 1.0

duration

of load

moisture content

number of nails

(medium

term: 1.12)

(dry: 1.0)

(< 10 'line': 1.0)

Number of bolts required

MlO, 7.8: M12, 5.44: M16, 3.17:

lateral loading and, particularly, that resistance to planar defor- mation of a wall panel known as its racking resistance. Figure 16.1 shows the deformation of an idealized frame structure under lateral loading. Figure 16.1 (a) shows the uniform transla- tion of the walls which occurs when there is complete symmetry of both structure and loading. This hardly ever occurs and this lack of symmetry causes a rotation in addition to the translation (Figure 16.2(b)). The calculation of racking resistance is des-

bolts 'in line' and (K 57 ) = [1 - 3 ^ 1 *] for n < 10

MlO, 4 (.91): M12, 6 (.85): M16, 4 (.91)

revised . . number , of , bolts .. = original —-—p number

r

A

MlO,

8.6: M12, 6.4: M16, 3.5:

  • 57 cribed by TRADA 58 and will also be dealt with by BS 5268:Part 6 (currently being written).

Effective timber capacity = effective area x permissible stress

MlO,

25.63 kN: M12, 27.26 kN: M16, 26.45 kN

BOLTS REQUIRED

MlO, 9 (in two lines): M12, 7 (one line): M16, 4 (one line)

Compare with Timber Research and Development Association

(1986) Design aid DAl. p. 25.

16.9 Timber-frame construction

It is estimated that the major use of structural timber will be in the housing field. In high-rise construction, timber will play a supplementary role to the heavy material, being used for partitions, infill panels and floor and roofing systems. In this role, timber's ready adaptability to prefabrication is a great benefit. In low-rise construction, on the other hand, timber is increas- ingly being used to provide the structural skeleton for the building; indeed, at the present time, timber-frame construction constitutes some 20% of all house construction. The method of construction is a simplification and refinement of that which has been used successfully for many centuries, but which is equally well applicable to many other uses besides housing. The structural form is that of a free-standing skeleton for

which standard details have been produced.

50 " 52 ' 56 - 57 - 59 The basis

of the skeleton is the stud-framed panel for which designs are

described. 53 -

55

60

-

Of especial importance is the structure's ability to withstand

End-wall diaphragm

Roof diaphragm

 

Side-wall

element

Lateral load

Only end walls racked

Side-wall diaphragm

Direction of rotation

Centre rotation of

Majority of walls are racked:

some

are twisted and racked

Figure 16.1

Deformation of idealized house structure under

lateral loading, (a) Uniform translation of top wall parallel to the

lateral load; (b) rotation after lateral translation, caused by lack of symmetry

  • 16.10 Repair and restoration

An increasing amount of work is being carried out on the repair and restoration of old timber-framed buildings. The work is specialized and requires not only sound structural assessment of the existing building but also a good understanding of the methods used in its construction and of acceptable methods of repair and restoration. The methods of repair may be either by replacement of the damaged joints or members in the traditional manner or by the use of resin or stainless steel rods and resin fillers. Brunskill 72 describes the traditional methods of timber-frame construction whilst Charles and Charles 83 give restoration case studies. Conservation and restoration are reported on by Fiel- den, 84 Gifford, 85 Ministry of Public Buildings and Works, 86 and

repair by Avent era/.,

87

~ 88 Gates and Richards 89 and Powys. 90

  • 16.11 Termite-resistant construction

There are two basic kinds of termite, which are mainly found in tropical and sub-tropical areas. The subterranean termite (white ant or wet-wood termite) has the larger distribution, builds huge nests, farms fungi and needs to maintain contact with the damp earth. Attack is from the ground.

There are many thousands of species of subterranean termites and a species of timber providing good termite resistance in one

area may not be resistant in another. Resistive construction

depends upon correct detailing, ground poisoning and preserva- tive treatment. The dry-wood termite, on the other hand, is less widely distributed, has fewer species, and flies, mates and deposits its eggs in timber to continue the life cycle. Fly screens and preservative treatment give the best protec- tion for new structures, whilst fumigation may be required when infestation is found in existing buildings. The recognition, control and detailing required are given by Harris 91 and Sper- ling. 92

  • 16.12 Storm-resistant construction

Wind loading is one of the commonest and most variable types of loading that can occur and ranges from normal wind loading to tornadoes. Tropical storms have wind velocities in the range 55 to 117km/h and damage is usually caused by flooding, including that produced by waterborne detritus. Hurricanes are more severe and damage is caused by wind action, flooding and flying debris. Air circulation is counter- clockwise with a damage area having a dimeter of 50 to 160 km. Wind speeds are commonly 120 to 190 km/h with gusting up to 320km/h. Rainfall, normally 125 to 250mm, occasionally reaches 750 mm. Tornadoes are unquestionably the most devastating of wind storms. The vortex is much smaller than that of a hurricane,

causing intense damane from wind action and large pieces of flying debris. Generally, storm-resistant structures require strength linked to rigidity with interconnected members and components se- curely fastened together. The Southern Pine Association gives valuable advice. 93

16.13 Earthquake-resistant construction

Horizontal and vertical movement of the Earth's surface, caused by earthquakes, results in forces being generated by the inertia of the mass of the structure. The magnitude of these inertial forces varies directly as the mass of the structure and in consequence heavy structures are more severely loaded than are lightweight ones. Indeed, for timber structures, the forces may be little higher than those produced by normal wind loading. However, unlike storm-resistant structures, those for earth- quake-resistant construction require strength linked to flexibi- lity. Several publications give outlines of sound practice. 94 " 96

16.14 Design aids

There are three areas in which design aids can make a valuable contribution to the design process. These are: (1) rapid pre- liminary design either for comparison or estimation of cost; (2) routine elementary design; and (3) complex design processes for which the design time can be reduced drastically. Nomograms and load-span tables have been used for many years, but the application of computer programming has extended considerably the use of design aids. The bibliography to this chapter indicates some of the design aids which are now available for structural design in timber.

References

General properties of timber

  • 1 Dinwoodie, J. M. (1981) Timber, its nature and behaviour. Von Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

  • 2 Princes Risborough Laboratory (1972) Handbook of hardwoods. Building Research Establishment, Garston.

  • 3 Princes Risborough Laboratory (1977) Handbook of softwoods. Building Research Establishment, Garston.

Glossaries

  • 4 British Standards Institution (1972) Glossary of terms relating to timber and woodwork, BS 565. BSI, Milton Keynes.

  • 5 British Standards Institution (1974) Nomenclature of commercial timbers, BS 881 and 589. BSI, Milton Keynes.

  • 6 British Standards Institution (1968) Glossary of terms relating to timber preservatives, BS 4261. BSI, Milton Keynes.

  • 7 British Standards Institution (1984) Code of practice for permissible stress design, materials and workmanship, BS 5268: Part 2. BSI, Milton Keynes.

Species, use and availability

  • 8 British Standards Institution (1971) Quality of timber, BS 1186: Part 1. BSI, Milton Keynes.

  • 9 United Africa Company (1971) West African hardwoods, Parts 1 and 2. UAC, London.

  • 10 Princes Risborough Laboratory (1971) Hardwoods for industrial flooring, Technical Note No. 49, PRL, Building Research Establishment, Garston.

11

Timber Research and Development Association (1979/1980) Timbers of the world, VoIs 1 and 2. Longman, London.

12

British Standards Institution (198-') Sizes of hardwoods and methods of measurement, BS 5450. SI, Milton Keynes.

Moisture content, moisture movement

13

Princes Risborough Laboratory (1969) The movement of timbers, Technical Note No. 38. Building Research Establishment, Garston.

14

Princes Risborough new buildings. How

Laboratory (1971) Flooring and joinery in to minimize dimensional changes. Technical

Note No. 12. Building Research Establishment, Garston.

Natural durability and the protection of timber

15

Princes Risborough Laboratory (1975) The natural durability classification of timber. Technical Note No. 40. Building Research Establishment, Garston.

16

Princes Risborough Laboratory (1968) Ensuring good service life for window joinery. Technical Note No. 29. Building Research Establishment, Garston.

17

Princes Risborough Laboratory (1971) Decay in buildings - recognition, preservation and cure. Technical Note No. 44. Building Research Establishment, Garston.

18

Princes Risborough Laboratory (1972) Timber decay and its control. Technical Note No. 57. Building Research Establishment, Garston.

19

Princes Risborough Laboratory (1965) Termites and the protection of timber. Leaflet No. 38. Building Research Establishment, Garston.

20

Princes Risborough Laboratory (1950) Marine borers and methods of preserving timber against their attack. Leaflet No. 46. Building Research Establishment, Garston.

Preservative treatment

 

21

British Standards Institution (1975) Guide to the choice, use and application of wood preservatives. BS 1282. BSI, Milton Keynes.

22

British Standards Institution (1977) Preservative treatments for construction timbers. BS 5268; Part 5. BSI, Milton Keynes.

23

British Standards Institution (1978) Code of practice for preservation of timbers. Section 7 timber for use in prefabricated building in termite-infested areas. BS 5589. BSI, Milton Keynes.

24

Tack, C. H. (1969) 'The economics of timber preservation. Timberlab 17, Princes Risborough Laboratory, Building Research Establishment, Garston.

Fire resistance

 

25

British Standards Institution (1978) Fire resistance of timber

structures. BS

5268: Part 4. BSI, Milton Keynes.

26

Fire Research Station (1970) Fire and the structural use of timber

in buildings. BSI, Milton Keynes.

27

Wardle, T. M. (1966) Notes on the fire resistance of heavy

construction. New Zealand Forestry Service Information Series

53.

Stress grading

 

28

British Standards Institution (1978)

Timber grades for structural

use. BS 4978. BSI, Milton Keynes.

29

British Standards Institution (1980) Specification for tropical hardwoods graded for structural use. BS 5756. BSI, Milton Keynes.

30

Curry, W. T. (1969) 'Mechanical stress grading of timber'. Timberlab 18, Building Research Establishment, Garston.

Design

 

Textbooks, etc.

31

American Institute of Timber Construction (1985) AITC timber construction manual. Wiley, New York.

  • 32 Baird, J. A. and Ozelton, E. C. (1986) Timber designer's manual. Granada, London.

  • 33 Breyer, D. E. and Ank, J. A. (1980) Design of wood structures. McGraw-Hill, New York.

  • 34 Hansen, H. J. (1962) Modern timber design. Wiley, New York.

  • 35 Karlsen, G. G. (1967) Wooden structures. Mir, Moscow.

  • 36 Laminated Timber Institute of Canada (1980) Timber design manual (metric edn). LTIC, Ottawa.

  • 37 Leicester et al. (1974) Fundamentals of timber engineering, Parts 1 and 2: 24 lectures given by officers of the Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Victoria, Australia.

  • 38 Mettem, C. J. (1986) Structural timber design and technology. Longmans.

  • 39 Oberg, F. R. (1963) Heavy timber construction. The Technical Press, London.

  • 40 Pearson, R. G., Kloot, N. H. and Boyd, J. D. (1967) Timber engineering design handbook. Jacaranda, Melbourne.

  • 41 US Department of Agriculture (1974) Wood handbook. Handbook No. 72, US Printer's Office, Washington, DC.

Arches and portal frames

  • 42 Burgess, H. J. (1970) Exploiting geometrical symmetry in timber structures. Timber Research and Development Association, High Wycombe.

  • 43 Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1972) Portal frame manual. COFI, London.

  • 44 Kharna, J. and Hooley, R. F., (1965) Design of fir plywood panel arches. Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia Report No. TDD^t3. COFI, London.

  • 45 Timber Research and Development Association (1969) Ridged portals in solid timber. TRADA E/IB/18, London.

  • 46 Wilson, T. R. C. (1939) The glued laminated wood arch. United States Department of Agriculture Technical

Bulletin No. 691.

Barrel vaults

  • 47 Kharna, J. (1964) Design of fir plywood barrel vaults. Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia Report No. TDD-40. COFI, London.

Folded plates

  • 48 Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1969) Fir plywood folded plate design. COFI, London.

Formwork

  • 49 Council of Forest Industries of British

Columbia (1967) Fir

plywood concrete form manual. COFI, London.

Housing

  • 50 Anderson, L. O. (1970) Wood frame house construction. US Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 73. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

  • 51 Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1978) Timber frame construction - a guide to platform frame construction. COFI, London.

  • 52 Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1977) Load- bearing timber-framed walls. Construction data. COFI, London.

  • 53 Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (n.d.) Wind loading calculation for a typical timber-frame house. COFI, London.

  • 54 Canadian Wood Council (1977) Canadian wood construction data files. CWC, Ottawa.

  • 57 Timber Research and Development Association (1980) Timber- frame housing manual. Construction Press, TRADA, London.

  • 58 Timber Research and Development Association (1980) Calculating the racking resistance of timber-framed walls. Wood Information Sheet No. 1-18. TRADA, High Wycombe.

  • 59 Timber Research and Development Association (1981) Introduction to timber-frame housing. Wood Information Sheet No. 0-3, TRADA, High Wycombe.

  • 60 Timber Research and Development Association (1981) Timber- frame housing, structural recommendations. Construction Press, TRADA, High Wycombe.

Plyweb beams

  • 61 Burgess, H. J. (1970) Introduction to the design of ply-web beams. Timber Research and Development Association Note No. E/IB/ 24. TRADA, High Wycombe.

  • 62 Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1963) Nailed fir plywood web beams. COFI, London.

  • 63 Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1970) Fir plywood web beam design. COFI, London.

Shells

  • 64 Keresztcsy, L. O. (1966) 'Interconnected, prefabricated laminated timber diamond type shell', Proceedings, International Conference for Space Structures. Surrey University, Guildford.

  • 65 Tottenham, J. (1958) The analysis of hyperbolic paraboloid shells. Timber Research and Development Association Note No. E/RR/ 5. TRADA, London.

  • 66 Tottenham, H. (1959) 'Analysis of orthotropic cylindrical shells.' Civ. Engrg.

  • 67 Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1971) Fir plywood stressed skin panels. COFI, London.

  • 68 Finnish Plywood Development Association (1970) Design data for stressed skin panels in Finnish birch plywood. Technical Bulletin No. 11 (M). FPDA, Welwyn Garden City.

  • 69 Wardle, T. M. and Peek, J. D. (1970) Plywood stressed skin panels: Geometric properties and selected designs. Timber Research and Development Association Report No. E/IB/22. TRADA, High Wycombe.

Trussed

rafters

70

British Standards Institute (1985) Code of

rafter

roofs.

BS 5268: Part 3. BSI, Milton

Practice for trussed

Keynes.

General design data

  • 71 Timber Research and Development Association (1967) Design of timber members. TRADA, High Wycombe.

  • 72 Brunskill, R. W. (1985) Timber building in Britain. Gollancz, London.

  • 73 Timber Research and Development Association (1986) Design examples to BS 5268: Part 2, 1984. DAl, TRADA, High Wycombe.

  • 74 British Standards Institution (1984) Specification for finger joints in structural softwood. BS 5291. BSI, Milton Keynes.

  • 75 Curry, W. T. (1955) Laminated beams from two species of

timber.

Theory of design. Princes Risborough Laboratory Special Report

No. 10. HMSO, London.

  • 76 Freas, A. D. and Selbo, M. L. (1954) Fabrication and design of glued laminated wood structural members. US Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin No. 1069. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

  • 77 Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1972) Canadian fir plywood data for designers. COFI, London.

  • 55 Swedish/Finnish Timber Council (1976)

Timber stud walls of

  • 78 Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1971) Plywood

Swedish redwood and whitewood. SFTC, Retford.

construction manual. COFI, London.

  • 56 Swedish/Finnish Timber Council (1981) framed construction. SFTC, Retford.

Principles of timber-

  • 79 Finnish Plywood Development Association (1964) Finnish birch plywood handbook, FPDA, Welwyn Garden City.

Glues for structural components

  • 80 Princes Risborough Laboratory (1967) The gluing of wooden components. Technical Note No. 4. Building Research Establishment, Garston.

  • 81 Knight, R. A. G. and Newall, K. J. (1971) Requirements and properties of adhesives for wood. Bulletin No. 20, Building Research Establishment, Garston. HMSO, London.

  • 82 Princes Risborough Laboratory (1968) Gluing preservative-treated

wood. Technical Note No.

31. Building Research

Establishment,

Garston.

The repair and restoration of timber structures

  • 83 Charles, F. W. B. and Charles, Mary (1984) Conservation of

timber buildings. Hutchinson, London.

  • 84 Feilden, B. M. (1982) Conservation of historic buildings. Butterworth, London.

  • 85 Gifford, E. W. H. and Taylor, P. (1964) 'Restoring old structures'. Struct. Engr, 42, 10, 332-334.

  • 86 Ministry of Public Buildings and Works (1965) Notes on the repair and restoration of historic buildings. HMSO, London.

  • 87 Avent, R. R., Emkin, L. Z., Howard, R. H. and Chapman, C. L. (1970) 'Epoxy-repaired bolted timber connections'. J. Struc. Div. Am. Soc. Civ. Engrs, 102, 821-838.

  • 88 Avent, R. R., Sanders, P. H. and Emkin, L. Z. (1979) 'Structural repair of heavy timber with epoxy'. For. Prod. J. 29, 3, 15-18.

  • 89 Oates, D. W. and Richards, M. (1984) Timber engineering in situ.' Record of British Wood Preserving Association Annual Convention 1984, Paper 8, pp. 76-88.

  • 90 Powys, A. R. (1981) Repair of ancient buildings. Dent and Sons, London (1929). Reprinted by Robert Maclehose, Glasgow.

Finnish Plywood Development Association (1972) Design for roof

structures in Finply. Technical Publication No. 17. FPDA,

Welwyn Garden City. (Includes standard designs for box and I--

beams, stressed-skin panels, portal frames and gussetted trusses.)

Timber Research and Development Association (1984) The structural

use of hardwoods. Wood Information Sheet 01-17. TRADA,

High Wycombe. (Span tables for 65-grade Keruing for floor and

roof joists, purlins, ply-box beams and two-hinged portals.)

United Africa Company (1972) Guide to the use of West

African

hardwoods. (Load-span charts and tables for beams, joists,

purlins, studs and ridged portal frame members.) (Universal span

charts for any timber, grade and load duration together with

simplified tables.)

Solid timber beams and joists

Burgess, H. J. and Masters, M. A. (1976) 'Span charts for solid timber

beams'. Timber Research and Development Association

Publication No. TBL 34. TRADA, High Wycombe.

Burgess, H. J. (1971) Further applications of TRADA span charts.

Timber Research and Development Association Publication No.

TBL 42. TRADA, High Wycombe.

Burgess, H. J. (1984) Span tables for floor joists to BS 5268. Timber

Research and Development Association Publication No. DA

3.84. TRADA, High Wycombe.

Burgess, H. J. (1985) Joist span tables for domestic floors and roofs to

BS 5268. Timber Research and Development Association

Publication No. DA 6. TRADA, High Wycombe.

Burgess, H. J., Collins, J. E. and Masters, M. A. (1972) Use of the

TRADA universal span chart for a range of load cases, Timber

Research and Development Association Publication No. TBL 47.

Termite-resistant construction

TRADA, High Wycombe.

Timber Research and Development Association (1984) Span tables for

  • 91 Harris, W. V. (1971) Termites - their recognition and control.

floor joists to BS 5268: Part 2, Processed timber sizes to DA 3.

Longman, London.

TRADA, London.

  • 92 Sperling, R. (1976) Termites and tropical building. Overseas

Timber Research and Development Association (1985) Joist span tables

Building Note No. 170. Building Research Establishment,

for domestic floors and roofs ~ processed timber sizes to DA 6.

Garston.

TRADA, London.

Storm-resistant construction

  • 93 Southern Pine Association (1970) How to build storm-resistant structures. The Association, New Orleans.

Earthquake-resistant construction

  • 94 Building Research Establishment (n.d.) Building in earthquake areas. Overseas Building Note No. 143, BRE, Garston.

  • 95 Architectural Institute of Japan (1970) Design essentials in earthquake-resistant structures, Chapter 4, 'Wooden structures'. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

  • 96 Takayame, K., Hisadat and Ohsaki, Y. (1960) 'Behaviour and design of wooden buildings subject to earthquakes'. Proceedings, 2nd World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo.

Bibliography

General

Burgess, H. J. (1971) 'Design aids including computer programmes'.

Paper No. WCH/71/5/8 World Work, Consultation Housing,

Vancouver. (General appraisal of the development of design aids

by Timber Research and Development Association.)

Hearmon, R. F. S. and Rixon, B. E.

(1970) Limiting spans for machine

stress-graded European redwood and whitewood. Princes

Risborough Laboratory, Timberlab 30. HMSO, London. (Span

tables.)

Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1973) Hem-fir.

(Load-span tables for floor, roof and ceiling joists for a wide

variety of distributed and concentrated loads.) COFI, London.

Glued-laminated timber beams

British Woodworking Federation (1967) Span-load tables for glued-

laminated softwood beams. BWF, London.

Plywood box and web beams

Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1968) Computer

analysis of plywood web beams. (A Fortran IV program for the

analysis of both symmetrical and unsymmetrical beams.) COFI, London.

Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1968) Fir plywood

web-beam selection manual. (Tabulates the properties of 4000

standard glued beams.) COFI, London.

Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1971) Nailed fir

plywood web-beams. (Load span-deflection tables for twenty-four

standard beams.) COFI, London.

Timber Research and Development Association (1984) Load tables for

nailed plv box beams to BS 5268: Part 2. TRADA Publication

No. DA 4, TRADA, High Wycombe.

Timber Research and Development Association (1984) Load tables for

glued ply box beams to BS 5268: Part 2. TRADA Publication

No. DA 5. TRADA, High Wycombe.

Portal frames

Burgess, H. J. et at. (1970) Span tables for

ridged portals in solid timber.

Timber Research and Development Association Publication No. E/IB/17. (Selection tables for portal member sizes for five different timbers.) Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (1972) Portal frame manual. (Design and selection manual.) COFI, London.

Stressed-skin panels

Finnish Plywood Development Association (1970) Design data for stressed skin panels. Technical Publication No. 11 (M). FPDA, Welwyn Garden City. Wardle, T. M. and Peek, J. D. (1970) Plywood stressed skin panels. Timber Research and Development Association Publication No. E/IB/22. (Geometric properties and selected designs.) TRADA, High Wycombe.

Abbreviations and useful addresses

AITC American Institute of Timber Construction, 1100, 17th Street NW, Washington DC 20036, USA. BRE Building Research Establishment, Garston, Watford, Hertfordshire. BSI British Standards Institution, 2 Park Street, London, WlA 2BS.

BWF British Woodworking Federation, 82 New Cavendish Street, London, WlM 8AD. BWPA British Wood Preserving Association, 62 Oxford Street, London, WIN 9WD. CITC Canadian Institute of Timber Construction, 100 Bronfon Avenue, Ontario, Canada. CPA Chipboard Promotion Association, 50 Station

COFI

Road, Marlow, Bucks, SL7 INN Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia, Tileman House, 131-133 Upper Richmond Road,

CWC

Putney, London, SW15 2TR. Canadian Wood Council, 701-710 Laurier Avenue

West, Ottawa, Canada KlP SV5 FIDOR Fibreboard Development Association, 1 Hanworth Road, Feltham, Middlesex, TW13 5AF. FINPLY Finnish Plywood Development Association, P.O. Box 99, Welwyn Garden City, Herts, A16 OHJ. PRL Princes Risborough Laboratory (Timberlab), Building Research Establishment, Aylesbury, Bucks, and at Building Research Station, Garston, Watford, Herts. S/FTC Swedish/Finnish Timber Council, 21 Carolgate, Retford, Notts, DN22 6BZ. TRADA Timber Research and Development Association, Stocking Lane, Hughenden Valley, High Wycombe, Bucks. UAC United Africa Company (Timber) Ltd., United Africa House, Blackfriars Road, London, SEl.