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Basic course in Hypermesh

YEAR 2001

1. GENERAL AWARENESS TO FEA.

Analysis of engineering problems (to reduce design time, improve products, reduce
prototypes and hence cost)

A few of the approaches used in design are:


Rule of thumb: These depend entirely on past experience and have no scientific basis.
Exact: These are based on the solution of the governing differential equations. Not all
problems can be represented because of complex geometry, complex loading and
boundary conditions.

Numerical: These are the methods in which the governing differential equations are
cast into various forms (like Finite Elements) and solved. These are the most widely
used and are very powerful methods to solve practical engineering problems.

1.1) Numerical methods.


Several numerical methods exist and the most popular among them are

1.1.1) Finite Difference


1.1.2) Finite Element
1.1.3) Finite Volume
1.1.4) Boundary Element

Finite difference methods are not as powerful as Finite Element Methods, but still
they have a range of applications. In general, structural problems are solved using
the Finite Element method. The Finite Volume method is very popular in solving
problems related to computational fluid dynamics. The Boundary Element Method is
used in problems involving infinite domains (or open domains).

1.2) What is FEA?


FEA is a numerical method for analysis of complex engineering problems. It is useful
in areas where analytical solutions are not available/possible due to complex
geometry, BCs and loading .FEA gives answers to Real world or practical
engineering problems.

In FEM, the structure is broken down into many simple blocks or elements. The
behavior of an individual element can be described with a simple set of equations.
Just as the of elements would be joined together to build the whole structure, the
equations describing the behavior of individual element are joined into a large set of
equations, (simultaneous equations) which describe the behavior of the whole
structure.
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

1.2.1) How is it useful?


Design of structure is complex process and all factors cannot be evaluated by
building prototypes, as this is an extremely time consuming and expensive process.
Many projects involve procedures in redesigning, weight reduction, optimization.
FEM helps in getting solutions to these types of problems

1.2.2 ) Where is it used?


FEA is used in a wide range of applications and analysis types such as:
- Stress Analysis
- Thermal Analysis
- Dynamics Analysis
- Fluid flow
- Electro-magnetic
- Acoustics
- Solid mechanics, coastal hydraulics

The above analysis types find applications in a variety of industries like Heavy
machinery, Gas turbine, Aerospace, Automobile, Nuclear, Oil exploration, Noise
propagation, Environment pollution.

1.3) Flow chart of the fem process


Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

Blue Print Drawings


From Customers

3D MODELLING
(Auto CAD, PRO-E, CATIA, UNGRAPHICS, IDEAS etc.)

HYPERMESH

PRE PROCESSOR ACTIVITES SOLVERS PACKAGE


Creating Mesh Applying loads (ANSYS,NASTRAN,LS-DYNA,
And BCS ABAQUS,IDEAS,MADYMO etc)

POST PROCESS ACTIVITES

FINAL REPORT
SUBMISSION TO THE
CUSTOMER
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

2. Hypermesh relation with FEA


2.1 How HM fits into the FE process:

The basic steps involved in a Finite Element Process are as follows

CAD
Mesh
Apply loads and Bcs
Analysis
Post-process

Once the geometry is available, it has to be discretized into elements. Hypermesh


is the software used for creating the mesh. Creation of the mesh is an important
step in the Finite Element process because the quality of the solution depends a
lot on the quality of the mesh. A mesh, which is poorly created, could lead to poor
or inaccurate results, no matter how good the finite element solver is.

Hypermesh imports the geometry created by a CAD package (alternately, the


geometry can also be created within Hypermesh also) and the meshing is done
on the geometry keeping in mind the various requirements sent in by the
requestor (client).

2.2 Quality checks:


While creating a mesh, the mesher must look into the requirements of the
requestor, ensure that they can be satisfied and give constructive feedback on the
inputs supplied. After creation of the mesh, several quality checks are applied to
ensure that the mesh is of good quality. Hypermesh provides tools to perform
quality checks. Several quality parameters exist such as warpage, jacobian,
angles etc. which can be used as a measure of the overall mesh quality. After
creating the mesh, the quality checks have to be carried out and the mesh is
modified in areas, which do not satisfy the predefined criterion.

3. INTRODUCTION TO HYPERMESH
Hyper mesh: -HY stands for High and PER stands for performance and therefore
it is a high performance finite element pre and post processor
-It allows building finite element in a specified time.
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

-View the results from different analysis format


-Can performs data analysis having an in built analysis package called
OPTISTRUCT.
The most significant feature of HyperMesh is the what you see is what you
get Philosophy.

HYPER MESH package is built using ANSI C, C++ language.

4. FEATURES OF HYPERMESH
4.1 Creating Geometry
If geometry is not available from a CAD system, you can hand digitize the geometry by
using the line and surface builders. The panels used in this process are listed below:

Circles skin
Cones spheres
Create nodes spin
Defeature spline
Drag surf lines
Fillets surface edit
Geom. cleanup tangents
Intersect torus
Line drag surf lines
line edit surface edit
lines tangents
planes torus
ruled
section cut

4.2) 2D MESH
Three-noded trias, four-noded quads, six-noded trias, and eight-noded quads can all
be built in HyperMesh. These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the
following menu panels:

automesh Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications.


cones Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces.
drag Builds elements by dragging a line, row of nodes, or group of
elements along a vector.
element edit Builds elements by hand.
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

element offset Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction


of their normals.
line drag Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or
about a control line.

planes Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces.


ruled Builds elements between two rows of nodes, a row of nodes and a
line, or two lines.
spheres Builds elements on spherical surfaces.
spin Builds elements by spinning a line, row of nodes, or group of
elements about a vector.
spline Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines.
torus Builds elements on toroidal surfaces.

NOTE: By default, first order linear elements are generated when the functions in
these panels are executed, but second order parabolic elements may be generated by
changing the element order in the global panel.

4.3 ) 3D MESH
HyperMesh builds 4- and 10-noded tetras, 6- and 15-noded pentas, and 8- and 20-
noded hexa elements. Tetras can be built in the element edit panel by hand or by
using the tetramesh panel. Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following menu
panels:

drag Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create


solids.
edit element Builds elements by hand.
line drag Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line.
linear solids Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements.
solid map Builds solid elements between nodes, lines, and surfaces.
solid mesh Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines.
elem offset Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional
elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements.
spin Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create
solids.
split Propagates split hexas.
tetramesh Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements.

NOTE By default, first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels
are executed, but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order
in the global panel.

.
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

4.4) FIX RIGIDS,MASSES,WELDS,LINKS,..ETC.

One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s, bar3s, rigid


links, rbe3s, plots, rigids, rods, springs, welds, gaps, and joints. The following list indicates
the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements.

1-D Element Stores Purpose

Bar2 A property reference A Supports complex


local axis vector Pin beams.
flags Offset vectors
Optional orientation
nodes

Bar3 Property Supports complex


referenceLocal axis beams. Note: bar3s
vectorPin flagsOffset contain a third node
vectorsOptional designed to supported
orientation nodes . second order beams
Gap Property reference Supports gap elements

Joint Property Supports kinematic


referenceOptional joint definitions
orientation nodes or supplied with Safety
system(s) Analysis Codes.

Plot A reference to two Supports display type


nodes elements.

Rbe3 A degree of freedom at Supports NASTRAN


each nodeWeight at RBE3 elements.
each node
Rigid link A degree of freedom Supports rigid
codeOne independent elements with multiple
nodeMultiple nodes.
dependent nodes
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Rigid A degree of freedom Supports rigid


code elements.

Rod A property reference Supports simple


beams.

Spring A property referenceA Supports springs or


degree of freedom damper.
codeAn optional
orientation vector
Weld A degree of freedom Supports weld
code elements.

NOTE The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main
menu. Plot elements are generated in the element edit, line mesh, elem offset, edges, or
features panel.

4.5 ) BOUNDARY CONDITIONS


Accels : Creates or updates accelerations.

constraints : Creates or updates constraints or enforced displacements on nodes.

equations Creates, reviews, and updates equations.

flux Creates or updates flux loading to nodes.


forces Creates or updates forces.

interfaces Creates and modifies interfaces that define a contact or sliding surface.
load steps Allows you to create and update collections of load collectors.

load types Selects load types for new models or updates load types as defined in
a template file.
moments Creates or updates moments.

penetration Checks groups for initial penetration problems.

pressures Creates or updates pressures.


temperatures Creates or updates temperatures.
vectors Creates or updates vectors.
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

velocities Creates or updates velocities.

4.6) Importing and Exporting Data

The HyperMesh import and export subpanels on the files panel allow you to input
external CAD line and surface data or finite element models and to output information
from a HyperMesh database to several external formats.

4.6.1) Import Data


The import subpanel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite
element models. Internally, the formats ACIS, PDGS, INCA, DES, and DXF are
supported. The EXTERNAL interface allows you to create your own translation package.
An external IGES translator is provided for using this facility.

4.6.2) Export Data


The export subpanel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to
many finite element formats. Geometry data can be written in IGES format.
HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers.
You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new
template to support another analysis code. The HyperMesh templates can be used to
create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. You can also use the
templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks.

4.7) Post-Processing Analysis


Altair HyperMesh is a powerful tool for pre- and post-processing finite element models
and results. Several features have been added to HyperMesh and OptiStruct to
enhance their compatibility. This section is a guide to working with HyperMesh and
OptiStruct.

The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to view results files or databases
generated by an external code. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh
results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create
contour, assigned, deformed, and vector plots.

4.8) Specifying the Results File


Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

In order to perform post-processing functions, you must specify the name and location of
the results database.
To select the results file:

1. Select the results subpanel on the files panel.


2. Click file =.
3. Enter the path and name of the results file or click file = again to browse the
directory structure until you find and select the results file name.

5. BRIEF TO GUI
5.1)HYPERMESH MENUS
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

The above is the complete screen indicating different main menus of Hypermesh

5. Introduction to GUI

5.1.)THE GRAPHICS AREA.


The black portion of the screen is the graphic area wherein all the activities related to
graphics is carried out
.
The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen. Models, geometry, and
plots are displayed in this area. Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions
by using the mouse to click on an entities pick handles. Pick handles are different for
each HyperMesh entity type.
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

5.2)THE HEADER BAR

The header bar is the dividing line between the menu and the graphics area. It displays
the current panel title and model status information. Panel titles are displayed on the left
side of the bar. If you access a panel by using a function key, the bar displays the name
of the current panel name on the left and the original panel name to its right. On the right
side of the bar, the current component and load collector names are displayed.
Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status
information.

Messages posted on the header bar are color coded:

red Error messages.


greenMiscellaneous messages, such as status updates or completed operations.
white Brief descriptions of each panels function.

Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar

5.3) Permanent Menu Functions

. The permanent menu viewing functions are summarized below:

rotation arrows Incrementally rotates the model about the screen x and y axes by the
angle specified in the options panel.
counterclockwise arrow Incrementally rotates the model counter-clockwise around the
screen z axis.
clockwise arrow Incrementally rotates the model clockwise around the screen z axis.
+ - Zooms in and out about the center of the screen by the factor specified in the
options panel.
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

a Arc rotate dynamically rotates the model by clicking and dragging.

b Allows you to go back to the previous view.

c (center)Allows you to dynamically change the screen center to a specified location.


Hold down the mouse button to pan across the model.

card Displays the card panel which allows you to edit solver-specific data in card format.

display Displays the display panel which allows you to control which collectors are
displayed in the graphics area.

f (fill screen)Maximizes the view of displayed collectors in the graphics area.

global Displays the global panel:template file = is a file used in several panels to
determine element and property types, based on a specific analysis code. It determines
the format of files exported with the export subpanel.Currents: specifies which collectors
are currently active. Entities created are placed in the current collector.element order:
and element size = parameters are set for element creation functions.

options Displays the options panel, which contains subpanels that allow you to define
parameters for viewing and model handling. The subpanels include modeling, graphics,
menu config, colors, page names, postscript, and spaceball.

p (plot) Replots, or refreshes the screen.

r Dynamically rotates the model about the screen x and y axes. Hold down the mouse
button to dynamically rotate the model. You can also use the right mouse button to pick
a node or point as the rotation center (this additional feature is not available during
animation processes).

s (slide zoom)Allows you to dynamically zoom in and out when you move the mouse up
and down.

t (true view)Displays the true view panel which allows you to select views by using local
vectors or by entering the absolute view angles.
view Displays the view menu which allows you to select standard views or save and
retrieve user-defined views.

vis Allows you to control display options. Available on Performance graphics versions.

w The window manager positions and scales XY plot and title windows.
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z(zoom)Maximizes the view of a specific portion of the model in the screen after you
draw a circle around the area.

5.4) The Main Menu

The main menu has seven pages. Each page has a list of panels to choose from and
most panels are further divided into subpanels.

The main menu contains seven pages of HyperMesh menu panels that are grouped by
function.

5.4.1) Main menu pages.


Geom Line creation and geometry editing functions.
1D 1-D element creation.
2D 2-D surface and element creation and editing functions.
3D 3-D surface and element creation and editing functions.
BCs Boundary conditions, system and load creation functions.
ToolModel editing, utility functions, model checking functions, and informational
functions.
Post Post-processing and xy plotting functions.

To change main menu pages:

Click the radio button before the main menu page.

NOTEIf you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system, then the menu items
described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. To correct this condition,
quit HyperMesh, delete the file hmmenu.set from the directory you are working in
(provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed), and then
start HyperMesh once again.

5.5) The Secondary Menu


Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys
F1 through F12, or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys. The secondary menu
allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active
menu panel.
When you use the secondary menu, it interrupts the active menu panel and allows you to
perform a function in the secondary panel, and upon completion, to continue using the
initial panel. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you
return to the initial panel.

The default secondary menu panels are as follows:

Key Function key only plus SHIFT key


F1 hidden line color
F2 delete temp nodes
F3 replace edges
F4 distance translate
F5 mask find
F6 element edit split
F7 align node project
F8 create node node edit
F9 line edit surf edit
F10 check element normals
F11 collectors organize
F12 automesh smooth

NOTE:Function keys may be reassigned to different menu panels by using the build
menu
panel.

5.6) Side Menu


These are basically short cut methods, w/o entering in to the main panel, commands can
be selected ,which are more frequently used
The main advantage of this menu is that we will not be disturbing the present command.
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YEAR 2001

5.7) Pop-Up menus:

.
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Pop-up menus are displayed when there are several options from which to choose.
When the pop-up menu appears, the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the
menu is made active.
Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no
border. If the pop-up menu has a border, you must make a selection before you can
proceed. If the pop-up does not have a border, you can either select a menu item on the
pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu.

Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections. For example, the view pop-up menu
(view on the permanent menu) allows you to make multiple selections. HyperMesh
immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits
for you to make more selections. The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you
move the mouse outside the bounds of the box.
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

6. INTRODUCTION TO MAIN MENUS:

6.1)GEOMETRY
The Default Macro Menu
The Macro Menu is located on the right side of the graphics region. It contains shortcut,
tool, display, and page selection buttons.
The Shortcut buttons open the panel labeled on the button. They operate in the same
manner as the function and shift keys. The selection of shortcut buttons varies from page
to page.
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

The Page selection buttons are at the bottom of the macro menu. The four preset
buttons are

The Display buttons are located above the page selection buttons. They allow you to
modify the graphics display in several different ways:

Geom. allows you to turn off or on all of the geometry in the model.

On the Geom. page there are three tools:

Isolate surf allows you to isolate either an inner or an outer surface layer from a
3-D model. This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface. The
other layer and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked.

Washer Scale a circular line 1.5 times and then trim that new line into the surface. This
will allow for a better mesh quality around circular holes.

Adj. circ pts places three additional fixed points on an inner line, and then projects
those points to a concentric line. This allows you to create a higher quality mesh.

6.1.1) FILES
The subpanels of the files panel allow you to:

Save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases

Import CAD-generated geometry or finite element model information

Export CAD geometry or finite element information for specific analysis codes

Specify a template file

Specify a results file


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YEAR 2001

Run a HyperMesh command file

6.1.2) COLLECTORS
The collectors panel allows you to create, review and edit collectors and card images or
dictionaries. A collector is a database entity that collects other entities, grouping
together all the data pertaining to that entity and allowing you to handle the data as a
group. Before you create an entity in HyperMesh, you must first create a collector in
which to store the data.
The collectors panel displays fields for card images or dictionaries depending on the type
of solver template that is referenced. If a card image template is loaded, or no template
is loaded, the panel displays card image related fields. If a dictionary template is loaded,
the panel displays dictionary related fields. Card image and dictionary entry fields are
used in the same way except that when a card image solver is being used and edit is
selected, the card image is displayed in a new area of the screen. For dictionary solvers,
the data is shown in the existing menu area.

6.1.3) ASSEMBLIES
The assemblies panel allows you to create and modify assemblies, which are collections
of components or other assemblies. This method of grouping components is useful
because once an assembly is created, it is possible to display all the components in it, or
to select entities by assembly rather than by component.

6.1.4) ORGANIZE
The organize panel allows you to reorganize your database by copying or moving data
among collectors. You can use this function to transfer some elements of your model
from one component to another.

6.1.5 ) COLOR
The color panel allows you to change the color attributes of a collector. Color can only
be specified by collector. For example, if a collector is designated to be blue, the lines
and elements belonging to that collector are also blue.

6.1.6) RENAME
The rename panel allows you to modify the name of a collector or to rename types of
collectors to their respective ID with an optional prefix.

6.1.7) REORDER
The reorder panel allows you to change the order of named entities in database.
Changing this order affects the listing in the display and entity selection panels, and the
order in which HyperMesh plots these entities.
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YEAR 2001

6.1.8) CREATE NODES


The create nodes panel allows you to create nodes and points or apply nodes to a plane.
Nodes can be created at specific locations by:
Specifying the coordinates (entering the x, y, z values)
Selecting an existing point
Creating a node like another node
Picking the desired location(s) on a line

Specifying a number of nodes to be generated on a line


1. Select the on line subpanel.

2. Indicate the line on which you want to create a node


3. To create evenly spaced nodes:

- Click number of nodes.


- Enter the number of nodes you want to create along the line.

Picking the desired locations on a surface


Generating nodes on an imaginary line between nodes.

Nodes can be applied to a plane by:


Specifying the plane and picking the desired locations
Points can be created at specific locations by:
Specifying the coordinates

6.1.9) NODE EDIT


The node edit panel allows you to associate nodes to a surface, move nodes along a
surface, or place a node at a point on a surface.
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1. Select the associate subpanel.

2. While surf is highlighted, pick the surface to which you want the nodes associated.

3. Indicate the nodes that are to be associated to the surface by picking them on
your model, or click nodes and choose from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click tolerance and enter the tolerance.

If a node is within tolerance of the surface, it becomes associated to it.

5. Click associate .
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YEAR 2001

6.1.10) DISTANCE
The distance panel allows you to determine the distance between two nodes/points or
the angle between three nodes/points, or to change distances or angles.
You can measure the distance between two nodes/points by specifying the two
nodes/points; HyperMesh displays the total distance between the nodes/points, and also
displays the x, y, and z distances.
If you want to change the distance between two nodes/points, you can change the total
distance, or any of the x, y, or z values. HyperMesh recalculates the total distance if you
have changed any of the x, y, or z values. After you have changed the desired values,
HyperMesh follows the initial vector and replaces the second node/point with a
node/point at the specified distance along that vector.

You can also determine the existing angle between three nodes/points. After you have
selected the three nodes/points, HyperMesh displays the value of the angle.
You can change the angle between three nodes/points (where three nodes/points, N1,
N2, and N3 define a plane, with N2 as the center) by specifying the three nodes/points
and supplying the desired angle. After you have given the new value for the angle,
HyperMesh moves N3 along the arc formed by swinging N3 around N2, until the angle is
equal to the one you specified.
1. Select the three nodes subpanel.

2. Pick the first node on your model while N1 is highlighted.

3. Pick the second node on your model while N2 is highlighted.

5. Pick the third node on your model while N3 is highlighted.

The angle between the nodes N1, N2, and N3 is displayed after angle =.
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6.1.11) REMAP
The remap panel allows you to remap a list of nodes to a line. This function is useful
when line data have been modified and an existing mesh no longer follows the new
geometry.
1. Click node list and pick the nodes you want to remap.

2. Click line list and pick the line(s) to which you want to remap the nodes.

3. Click remap.

6.1.12) TEMP NODES


The temp nodes panel provides a way to control which nodes are on the temporary node
mark. Since HyperMesh deletes all nodes not currently referenced in the model, the
temporary node mark is provided as a holding area to save the nodes you are not
Basic course in Hypermesh
YEAR 2001

currently using. HyperMesh saves those nodes as long as they are in the temporary
node mark.

6.1.13) LINES
You can create line data between nodes or existing lines.
The new subpanel, create midline, allows you to interpolate a midline from a selected
line or from line sets that form upper and lower lines.
1. Select the create midline subpanel.

2. Click the leftmost line list and select the first line or set of lines forming one side of
the interpolation.

3. Click the rightmost line list and select the second line or set of lines forming the
other side of the interpolation.

4. Click create.
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6.1.14) LINE EDIT


The line edit panel allows you to split or join lines.
The extend line subpanel allows you to extend a line by specifying an extension length.
The selected line can be extended from either end of the line, following either the tangent
or the curvature direction. To extend a selected line to a node or point either in tangent
or curvature direction, a capture radius must be specified. A line can be extended to a
specified line or surface following the tangent direction.
1. Select the combine subpanel.

2. Click the toggle to choose smooth or straight as the method to use to combine the
lines.

3. Select the first line you want to combine.

4. Select the second line.

5. The lines are combined. (See Comments.)


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1. Select the split at line subpanel.

2. Indicate which lines you want to split by picking them on your model.

3. Click cut line and select the line to use to split the others.

4. Click split.

6.1.15) INTERSECT
The intersect panel allows you to intersect a plane with a finite element model, to
intersect two surfaces, or to intersect a series of lines. The resulting intersection is
displayed as a series of line segments.
1. Select the elements subpanel.

2. Click the input collector switch to select elems or comps.

3. Designate the entities you want to intersect with the plane:

-Pick the elements on the screen.or


-Click elems or comps and choose from the extended entity selection menu.
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4. Use the plane and vector collector to specify the plane that intersects with the entities.

5. Pick a base point if it is required for the plane and vector selection you choose.

6. Click intersect.

6.1.16 SECTION CUT


The section cut panel allows you to cut planar sections through a group of lines. This
function is useful if you have several lines and want to check the geometry of those lines.
To use this function, define the plane of the section you want to view and select the
desired lines. HyperMesh builds a line which represents the section cut through that
group of lines.
6. Use the plane and vector collector to define the cutting plane for a group of lines.
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7. Click the toggle to select smooth or linear as the type of line created by the section
cut.

8. Click line list and select a series of lines, in the appropriate order, that comprise the
section being created.

After you select each line, a "phantom line" showing the section being created is
displayed on the screen.

9. After you select all of the lines to be included in the section cut, click create to create
the line representing the section.

6.1.17) LENGTH
The length menu panel allows you to determine the length of a selected group of lines.
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6.1.18) REPARAM
The reparam (reparameterize) panel allows you to reparameterize line data.
Reparameterizing lines reduces the definition of a line to the most condensed form
possible. This function is important or useful where you have lines which are
mathematically over-defined. If your processing time or plotting speed is slow, try
reparameterizing to reduce the lines to their minimum possible form.

6.1.19) CIRCLE
The circles panel allows you to create circles and arcs by entering the center and radius,
points and a vector, or three points. It also allows you to find the center point of a circle
or an arc.

The center and radius subpanel allows you to create a circle or arc by specifying the
center, radius and plane in which the circle lies. You can create multiple circles and arcs
by selecting more than one center.
The points and vector subpanel allows you to create a circle or arc by specifying a point
which lies on the circle and the plane whose normal is used to spin the selected point
around. You can create multiple circles and arcs by selecting more than one point.

The three points subpanel allows you to create a circle or arc by specifying three points.

The find subpanel allows you to locate the center point of a circle or an arc.

6.1.20) TANGENTS
The tangents panel allows you to create tangent lines between a node and a line or two
lines. Use this function to select a node and find the tangent that runs through the node
to the line selected.
1. Click the input collector switch and select lines.

2. Select the first of the line(s) of which you want to find the tangent(s).

3. Click line.

4. Select the line of which you want to find the tangent.


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5. Click find tangent.

If more than one tangent is found, all the tangent lines found are displayed, and
HyperMesh displays the message, "Select one tangent line."
You can select the desired tangent line by using the left mouse button.

6.1.21) FILLETS
The fillets menu panel allows you to create and delete fillets between lines. A fillet is
defined as a straight segment of a line, followed by a curved segment, followed by
another straight segment.

6.1.22) VECTORS
The vectors panel allows you to create a HyperMesh vector entity. A vector represents a
three dimensional direction.
Vectors are displayed as a vector with the letters VEC at the tail end.
For more information on how vectors translate to analysis codes, refer to the External
Interfacing section in the HyperMesh Reference Manual. By default, HyperMesh
displays vectors using a representation of 100% of their magnitude. You can change
this percent by entering a different value in the magnitude = field. You can also use the
uniform size option to have all loads displayed as the same size.

6.1.23) SYSTEMS
The systems panel allows you to create rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinate
systems. Use this function when you want to define nodes, loads and constraints in a
different coordinate system.
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6.1.24) GEOM CLEANUP


The geom cleanup panel contains tools to help you prepare surface geometry for
meshing. The overlaps and misalignments that usually occur between imported surfaces
can prevent the automesher from creating the best meshes. By eliminating
misalignments and by suppressing the boundaries between adjacent surfaces, you can
automesh across larger, more logical regions of your model and improve overall meshing
speed and quality.

6.1.25) DEFEATURE
The defeature panel allows you to detach trimming lines of a surface, and find and delete
pinholes. You can also find and remove fillets on surfaces and surface edges.
The edge fillets subpanel allows you to set parameters that automatically detect all fillets
within the given criterion. After the fillets are detected, you can choose which you want to
remove. The trim-intersect subpanel allows you to manually select the beginning and
end of the fillets that you want to remove.

There are three main steps involved with using the edge fillets subpanel:

detection Select surfaces to search for edge fillets, set detection parameters and find
all fillets which meet given criteria.
selection/deselection Select from the detected fillets those that you want to remove
removal Removal of selected fillets

6.1.26) SURFACE EDIT


The surface edit panel allows you to trim surfaces with lines or surfaces and create
surfaces that fill gaps in the model.
1. Select the trim with line subpanel.

2. While surfs is highlighted:

- Pick the surface(s) to be trimmed.or

- Click surfs to select the surface(s) on the extended entity selection window.

3. While line is highlighted, pick the line you want used to trim the surface on your model.
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4. Specify that you want to sweep the trim line along a vector.

5. Use the plane and vector collector to specify the method to use to indicate the vector
used to sweep the line. (See Comments.)

6. Click trim.

This example trimmed the entire surface with the line.

6.1.27) SURF LINE


The surf lines panel allows you to change the number of lines used to display an existing
surface, or to remove lines from a surface. This panel does not change the number of
lines used to display a mesh when you create a new surface.

6.2) 1 d Elements
6.2.1) Bars
The bars panel allows you to create, review, or update bar2 or bar3 elements. A bar
element is an element created in a space between two or 3 nodes of a model where
beam properties are desired. The nodes are related to each other
based on the properties of the bar or beam element connecting them. Properties
associated with bar elements include vector orientation, offset vectors that end at A and
B, or at A, B, and C, and pin flags to tell it what degree of freedom should carry through
the beam.

Bar elements are element config 60 (bar2) and 63 (bar3) and are displayed as a line
between two nodes with BAR2 or BAR3 written at the centroid of the element.

6.2.2) Rods
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The rods panel allows you to create rod elements. A rod element is an element created
in a space between two nodes
of a model where rod properties are desired. The two nodes are related to each other
based on the properties of the rod element connecting them. Rod elements have
property pointers.
Rod elements are element config 61 and are displayed as a line between two nodes with
ROD written at the centroid of the element.
Rods can translate to CTUBES in NASTRAN or a C1D2 element in ABAQUS.

6.2.3) Rigids
The rigids menu panel allows you to create rigid or rigid link elements. A rigid element is
an element created in a
space between two nodes of a model where a rigid connection is desired.
Rigid elements are element config 5 and are displayed as a line between two nodes with
the letter R written at the
centroid of the element.
Rigid link elements are element config 55 and are displayed as lines between the
independent node and the dependent node(s) with RL displayed at the independent
node of the element.

Rigids can translate to RBE2 in NASTRAN or *MPC in ABAQUS.

6.2.3.1) To create a rigid element:


1.Select the create subpanel.

2.Select the degrees of freedom (dof) for the rigid connection you want to create.

3.Click the switch after dependent to single node.

4.While independent is highlighted, pick the node that you want to be the independent
node of the rigid element.
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5.While dependent is highlighted, pick the node that you want to be the dependent end
of the rigid element.

The element is created, as illustrated.

Undo

Click the right mouse button or reject immediately after the element is created.

6.2.3.2) To create a rigid link element:


1.Select the create subpanel.

2.Select the degrees of freedom (dof) for the rigid links you want to create.

3.Click the switch after dependent to multiple nodes.

4.While independent is highlighted, select the node that you want to be the independent
node of the rigid link element.

5.While dependent is highlighted, select the node(s) that you want to be the dependent
node(s) of the rigid link element.

The element is created, as illustrated.


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Undo

Click the right mouse button or reject immediately after the element is created.

Comments

The rigid links created have rigid connections in the degrees of freedom specified by the
selected dof1 through dof6
menu items.

6.2.4) Spotweld
The spotweld panel allows you to create 1-D elements to connect different parts. Spotwelds can
be created by using
surface geometry obtained from CAD data with the using geometry subpanel or from finite
element model data with
the using nodes subpanel. Spotwelds can be created one at a time or in groups.
The 1-D element types you can create with the spotweld panel include:

Elem type Elem config Screen display External


interfacing
bar2 60 A line between Consult the
two nodes with External
BAR2 written at Interfacing section
the centroid of the to determine
element which solvers
. support bar2
elements.

gap 70 A line between Translates to


two nodes with CGAP element in
GAP written at the NASTRAN or
centroid of the *GAP option in
element. ABAQUS.

plot 2 A line between


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two nodes.
rigid 5 A line between Translates to
two nodes with the RBE2 in
letter R written at NASTRAN or
the centroid of the *MPC in ABAQUS
element.
rod 61 A line between Translates to
two nodes with CTUBES in
ROD written at the NASTRAN or a
centroid of the C1D2 element in
element. ABAQUS

spring 21 A line between Translates to


two nodes with the CELAS2 in
letter K written at NASTRAN or
the centroid of the *spring in
element. ABAQUS

weld 3 A line between Translates to


two nodes with the RBAR in
letter W written at NASTRAN or
the centroid of the *mpc in ABAQUS
element.

6.2.5) Rbe3
The rbe3 panel allows you to create, review, and update RBE3 elements. The update
subpanel allows you to edit the connectivity, dofs, and weight for each node of the element.

RBE3 elements are element config 56 and are displayed as lines between the dependent
node and the independent node(s) with RBE3 displayed at the dependent node of the
element.

RBE3 is used in NASTRAN.

6.2.6)Hyperbeam
The hyperbeam panel allows you to create beam cross-section entities that you can use to
simplify complex portions
of your model into simple bar elements.
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6.2.7) Beam Xsect

The beam cross section panel calculates the cross sectional property values for a beam
element. These values can beused to update the property card for solvers, create a bar2
element, system or vector for the cross section, and also create a summary file with the
results of the calculations performed.

You must create property collectors before you can use this panel.

6.2.8) Springs
The springs panel allows you to create spring elements. A spring element is an element
created in a space between two nodes of a model where a spring connection is desired.
Spring elements store a property and a degree of freedom (dof).Spring elements are
element config 21 and are displayed as a line between two nodes with the letter K written
at the centroid of the element.

Springs can translate to CELAS2 in NASTRAN or *spring in ABAQUS.

6.2.9) Gaps
The gaps panel allows you to create gap elements. A gap element is an element created
in a space between two nodes of a model where contact may occur. Use a gap element
when you want to impose a nonlinear constraint on a model; this constraint will limit the
amount of movement possible during analysis. Gap elements have property pointers.
Gap elements are element config 70 and are displayed as a line between two nodes with
GAP written at the centroid of the element.

Gaps can translate to CGAP element in NASTRAN or *GAP option in ABAQUS.

6.2.10) Joints.
The joints panel allows you to create, review, or update joint elements. A joint element is a
definition of a connection between two rigid bodies. Joint elements store a property and
orientation information.Joint elements are config 22 and are displayed with lines between
the appropriate nodes and the letter J between nodes
1 and 3 of the element. The type of a joint element controls the number of nodes
contained in the element. The type also controls the orientation information formats
available. The type of an element CANNOT be changed or selected using the Element
Types panel.

6.2.11) Masses
The masses panel allows you to create mass elements. A mass element rests on a node
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and is used to represent mass.


Mass elements are element config 1 and are displayed as a dot with the letter M written
at the centroid of the element.
Masses can translate to CONM2 in NASTRAN or *MASS option in ABAQUS.

To create a mass element:

1.Select the create subpanel.

2. Indicate the nodes you want to place masses on by picking them on your model, or
click nodes and choose from the

3. extended entity selection menu.

3.Click mass = and enter the mass of the element.

4.Click property = and specify the property of the mass element.

5.Click system.

6.Select the system in which the mass element should be built.

7.Click create.

Undo
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Click reject immediately after creating the masses.

6.2.12) Line Mesh.


The line mesh panel allows you to create a chain of one-dimensional elements along a
line. Density and biasing subpanels, similar to those on the automeshing module, allow you to
interactively modify the element density and biasing.

6.2.13) Linear 1d
.
The linear 1d panel allows you to create one-dimensional elements. Plot elements are
2-noded elements used for display purposes. Plot elements are element config 2 and
are displayed as a line between two nodes. They have no properties. One example of
the use of plot elements is in a model where you have created a complex structure made
up of two planes each containing a thousand elements. If, after creating your model, you
determine that you would like to have 1000 gap elements between those two planes, you
can create plot elements between all the nodes by using linear 1d.
After the plot elements have been created, it is possible to change the plot elements to
gap elements by changing the value of the configuration to that of gaps (by using the
config edit menu panel). It is then possible to assign gap properties to those gap
elements and to run the model. This eliminates having to create the gap elements individually.

6.3) 2-D Menu:

6.3.1.) Ruled

The ruled panel allows you to create surfaces and/or meshes of plate elements from
nodes, lines, and/or line segments, in any combination. Nodes in the mesh being
created are placed on a surface created on a linear basis between the two sets of
selected entities.

The ruled panel allows to build mesh and/or surface using the following options.
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I. mesh, keep surface: This option allows to generate both mesh and surface in
the active collector. The user has more flexibility in this option. He can choose
from various mesh generating algorithms like map as rectangle, map as triangle,
map as pentagon, free (unmapped). Each of these algorithms generates meshes
with differently. autodecide option lets HyperMesh to choose the best suited
algorithm for mesh generation.

II. mesh, dele surface: This option is very much similar to the mesh, keep option
except that the surface is automatically deleted once the mesh is generated.

III. mesh, w/o surface: This is fastest and simplest mode of mesh generation
However, this option has very limited parameters, which can be changed. Like
there are no algorithms to choose from. The densities (the number of edge
elements) of the opposite edges must be same. Tria elements are generally used
instead of manipulating with mesh with quads. It should also be noted that nodes
of elements generated have to be projected to surface if the surface is more
curved in nature.

IV. surface only: This option generates only surface in the active or current collector
without any elements.

6.3.1.1) To build a surface/mesh between two rows of nodes:

1.Click the upper left switch and select nodes.

2. Select the first row of nodes where you want to create a surface/mesh

STEP2 STEP4
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3. Click the lower left switch and select nodes.


4. Select the second row of nodes where you want to create a surface/mesh.
5. Click the rightmost switch and select the desired mesh and surface option.
6. Clicks create.

6.3.1.2) To build a surface/mesh between a row of nodes and a line:

1. Click the upper input collector and select nodes.


2. Pick the row of nodes where you want to create a surface/mesh.

3. Click the lower input collector and select lines.

4. Pick the line where you want to create a surface/mesh.

5. Click the rightmost switch and select the desired mesh and surface option.

6.3.1.3) To build a surface/mesh between lines or between line


segments:
1. Click the upper input collector switch and select lines.

2. Pick the first line where you want to create a surface/mesh.

3. Click the lower input collector switch and select lines.


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4. Pick the second line where you want to create a surface/mesh.

5. Click the rightmost switch and select the desired mesh and surface option.

7. Click create.

8. To build a surface using line segments:

- Follow the same procedure as for using lines.


- After you select the line, select the points on the line that define the segment
where you want to create the surface/mesh.

9. Select the second line segment you want to use.

10. Click create.

The surface/mesh is created between the defined line segments.

Undo(this applies for all the above options)

Click reject immediately after you create a surface and/or mesh.

6.3.2) Spline
The option of mesh keep surf,.are applicable in spline panel as similar to ruled option.

6.3.2.1) To create a 2-D spline surface /mesh by selecting lines:


1. Click the leftmost switch and select lines.
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PICKED LINES RESULTING MESH

2. Indicate the lines that define the edges of the surface:


- Pick the lines on your model.
or
- Click lines and choose from the extended entity selection menu.
3. Click the switch and select the desired mesh and surface option.
4. Clicks create.

6.3.2.2) To create a 2-D spline /mesh surface by selecting nodes:


1. Click the leftmost switch and select nodes.

2. Indicate the three or four nodes that define the edges of the surface:
- Pick the nodes on your model.
or
- Click nodes and choose from the extended entity selection menu.

3. Click the switch and select the desired mesh and surface option.
4. Clicks create.
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When you create a 3-D surface from lines, you must select three or more lines. In most
cases, use no more than four lines to create the surface; an exception is that five or six
lines may work with pentagon shapes.

6.3.3 ) Drag

The drag panel allows you to create a surface and/or mesh by dragging a series of
nodes or lines, or to create elements by dragging selected elements. The function drags
the selected entities along the specified vector creating a mesh, surface, or elements
along that vector.

The Drag panel offers the following options:

Drag nodes to create a surface /mesh.


Drag a line to create a surface /mesh.
Drag a group of elements to create surface/mesh.
Drag elements along a vector (with biasing).

LIST OF NODES RESULTING MESH

*Arrow shows the direction of drag.

6.3.4) Line Drag


The line drag menu panel allows you to create a two- or three-dimensional surface
and/or mesh or elements by dragging nodes, lines, or elements along another line. An
example of its use is illustrated in the design of an exhaust pipe. You can create a cross
section of the pipe and drag it along the curved line which represents the pipe. Another
example of its use is in the design of a window frame. A cross section of the molding
can be created and dragged along the complex curves of the frame.

6.3.4.1) To drag lines or nodes:


1. Select the drag geoms subpanel.
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2. Click the input collector switch and select nodes or lines as the data type to drag.

LINES TO DRAG GUIDE LINE

3. Pick the nodes or lines you want to drag.

4. Click line list to the right of along: and select the guide line along which you want
to drag the entities.

5. Click the toggle to select use default vector or specify vector:.

- If you select use default vector, HyperMesh uses the end of the line as the base
point and the tangent direction at the end of the line as the vector.
- If you select specify vector, use the plane and vector collector to select the
orientation vector.

6. Click the rightmost switch and select the desired mesh and surface option.

7. Click drag.

RESULTING MESH

Undo

Click reject immediately after creating the surface and/or mesh. To reinstate the
rejected entity, click drag again, without changing any of the input data.
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6.3.5)Element Offset
The elem. offset panel allows you to create and modify elements by offsetting from a
mesh of plate or shell elements. The element normals provide directional
information.(SEE THE 3-D PANEL FOR DETAILS)

6.3.6) Planes
The planes panel allows you to create a square, planar surface and/or mesh in a user-
specified plane or a surface and/or mesh bounded by planar lines.

6.3.7) Cones
The cones panel allows you to create an analytic, conical or cylindrical surface and/or
mesh.

6.3.8) Spheres
The spheres panel allows you to create a spherical surface and/or mesh.

6.3.9) Torus
The torus panel allows you to create an analytic, toroidal surface and/or mesh.

6.3.10) Safety
The safety module groups the panels used most frequently in safety analysis.

6.3.11) Automesh
The automesh panel allows you to create meshes or remesh existing meshing
interactively or automatically on surfaces or groups of elements. You can use the
subpanels to provide specific meshing parameters and manipulate surface edges and
meshing fixed points (locations where the mesher is required to place a node).

The automesh subpanels include:

create mesh
mesh params
cleanup
add points
remove points
project to edge
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The visual options function is available on every subpanel. It allows you to control the
display mode of surfaces and edges. You can view surfaces in either wireframe mode or
in shaded mode. You can turn edges on and off according to their type. Each edge type
is color-coded according to the settings in the options/colors menu panel.

6.3.12) Smooth
The smooth panel allows you to improve element quality in a surface-based mesh or a
mesh of solid elements using one or more algorithms that adjust node positions to
moderate sharp variations in size or quality in adjacent elements.

This panel allows smoothing of


Plate elements
Solid elements.

ELEM SELECTED TO SMOOTH MESH AFTER SMOOTHING

Smooth panel allows shape and size corrected smoothings.

6.3.13) Edit element


The edit element panel allows you to hand build, combine, split, or modify elements.

This panel allows for the following options:


Create:allows to interactively pick nodes to define a tria,quad etc.
Combine:allows to combine 2 or more shell elements.
Split:allows to split elements into two or more elements.
Cleanup:improves the element quality using user controlled functions.

6.3.14) Split
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The split panel allows you to split plate or solid elements. In addition, hexa elements can
also be split using a technique that moves progressively through a row of elements in the
model.

6.3.15) Replace
The replace panel allows nodes to be replaced with other nodes. Use this function if you

want to manually equivalence two nodes.

6.3.16) Detach
The detach panel allows you to detach elements from the surrounding structure. You
can detach elements from a portion of your model so that it can be translated or moved,
or you can offset the new nodes by a specified value. You can also use this feature to
detach and remove elements from your model.

6.3.17) Order Change


The order change panel allows you to change element order. Use this function if you
want to change a group of elements from second order elements to first order elements
(or vice versa).

6.3.18) Config Edit


The config edit panel allows you to make changes to the configuration of existing
elements. Use this panel when you want to modify the element configuration of a model.

Quad4,Tria3 etc are the different types of element configurations.

6.3.19) Elem Types


The elem types menu panel allows you to select the element type for new models, and
also allows you to change existing element types. Element types are a vehicle with
which HyperMesh is able to translate multiple element types with the same element
configuration.
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6.4) 3D-MENU
6.4.1) LINEAR SOLID
The linear solid menu panel allows you to create solid elements between two groups of
plate elements.

1. While elems under from: is highlighted, indicate which elements belong to the first

group by selecting them on your model, or select elems to choose the elements
from the extended entity selection menu.

2. Click N1, N2, and N3 and select the alignment node(s) for the first group of
elements.

2. Click elems under to:.


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4. Indicate which elements belong to the second group by selecting them on your

model, or click elems to choose the elements from the extended entity selection menu.

5. Click N1, N2, and N3 and select the alignment node(s) for the second group of
elements.

6. Click density = and specify the number of elements to be created between the two
groups of elements.

7. Click solids.

6.4.2) SOLID MAP

To create solids by defining the source and destination face:


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1. Select the end only subpanel.

2. Click the input collector switch by source: and select the entity type of the source
face.

3. Select the source face.

4. Click the input collector switch by end: and select the entity type of the destination
face.

5. Select the destination face.

6. Click elems and select the elements on the source face that should be extruded.
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7. Click mesh to create the mesh (shown hidden line).

6.4.3) TETRAMESH

To tetramesh a volume:

1. Select the trias that bound the volume.

2. Click the switch under growth option: and select an option.

On this small model, they are all about the same in behavior.

3. Click the switch to select generate mesh normally, optimize element quality, or
optimize meshing speed.

4. Click tetmesh.
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6.4.4) SOLID MESH


The solid mesh panel allows you to create meshes in a pentagonal or hexagonal volume
defined with edge lines.
The solid mesh panel requires a volume to be defined before meshing can occur. You
can define volumes using one of the following three methods:

Opposite faces: The opposite faces method allows you to easily define a volume
which has a user-defined face definition for two faces of the volume, and four linear
faces automatically generated. To define a volume using opposite faces, you must
define two regions in space that define two opposing faces of the volume. This is
accomplished by specifying lines for region1 and region2 that can be either quadrilateral
faces or triangular faces.

Connecting faces: The connecting faces method allows you to define a volume with
four faces defined by you and two faces automatically generated. To define a volume
using this method, you must define either 3 connecting lines for a pentagon, or 4 lines for
a hexagon shape.

All faces: Using the all faces method allows you to completely define a volume with
all six sides defined by the input geometry. The input data required by this function
includes two opposing faces defined by using region1 and region2, and the appropriate
number of connecting lines. This method is simply a combination of the previous two
methods.

1. Click lines under start region:

2. Select three or four lines that define the first surface of the solid.

3. Click lines under end region:

4. Select three or four lines that define the opposing surface of the solid.

5. If desired, click lines under connecting: and select three or four lines connecting
the two surfaces.
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6. Click uniform mesh.

If the selected lines form a solid, the uniform mesh subpanel is displayed.

7. Select density u =, density v =, and density w = and enter the desired density of
the mesh. (See Comments.)

8. Click mesh.

Undo to reject.

6.4.5) DRAG

The drag panel allows you to create a surface and/or mesh by dragging a series of
nodes or lines, or to create elements by dragging selected elements. The function drags
the selected entities along the specified vector creating a mesh, surface, or elements
along that vector.

To drag a group of elements:

1. Select the drag elems subpanel.

2. Indicate which elements you want to drag by selecting them on your model or
click elems and use the extended entity selection menu.

3. Use the plane and vector collector to specify the direction along which to drag the
elements.

4. Click the toggle to choose the method that you want to use to specify the distance
to drag the elements.
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5. If you select distance =, enter the distance.

6. Click on drag = and enter the number of elements that should be created along
the drag.

7. Click drag+ or drag-.

6.4.6) LINE DRAG


The line drag menu panel allows you to create a two- or three-dimensional surface
and/or mesh or elements by dragging nodes, lines, or elements along another line. An
example of its use is illustrated in the design of an exhaust pipe. You can create a cross
section of the pipe and drag it along the curved line which represents the pipe. Another
example of its use is in the design of a window frame. A cross section of the molding
can be created and dragged along the complex curves of the frame.

To drag elements without creating element biasing:

1. Select the drag elems subpanel.

2. Indicate which elements you want to drag:

- Pick them on your model.


or
- Click elems and choose from the extended entity selection menu.

Elems to drag
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3. Click line list and select the guide line along which you want to drag the elements.

Line to drag

4. Click the toggle to select use default vector or specify vector:.

- If you select use default vector, HyperMesh uses the end of the line as the base
point and the tangent direction at the end of the line as the vector.
- If you select specify vector, use the plane and vector collector to select the
orientation vector.

Select a base point, if required.

5. Click on drag and enter the number of two-dimensional elements to be created


along the guide line.

6. Click drag.

Resulting Mesh.
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6.4.7) FINITE DIFFERENT BLOCKS

The fd blocks (finite difference) menu panel allows you to access the optional
HyperMesh finite difference menu panels. For more information on the panels found in
the finite difference package, see the individual panels.
6.4.7.1) FD blocks
The FD blocks menu panel allows you to create or modify finite difference blocks. The
finite difference block is an entity in HyperMesh, composed of a user-specified number of
cells, that provides an efficient way to store the elements that are used for finite
difference work. It can be created around a finite element model and is used to model
fluid flow, etc.

6.4.7.2) FD nodes
The FD nodes menu panel allows you to create and modify a structured grid in a finite
difference block. Use this function to specify the number of cells you want in each
direction (i, j, k) of your FD block. The number of nodes you specify determines how fine
or course the elements are in your FD block grid, and can be changed to the necessary
resolution. You can also remove all the nodes in a given direction.
After you create nodes in each direction, you can remove the nodes from the screen by
using the remove index function

6.4.7.3) FD walls
The FD walls menu panel allows you to create and modify walls in a finite difference
block. A wall represents a type of material created where your finite element structure
intersects with the FD block grid. HyperMesh puts each one of the cells of your
component that intersect with the finite element mesh into the wall. Walls are like
components and can be created, displayed, updated, and deleted.
The cells in the wall can be intersected, edited, and edited by range. The edit by range
subpanel is used when editing by range.

6.4.7.4) FD hidden line


The FD hidden line menu panel allows you to create hidden line plots of the displayed
FD block and finite element structures.

6.4.7.5) FD control
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The FD control menu panel allows you to set the block outline and the i, j, and/or k
lines on or off. You can also view cross sections, plane by plane, of your model.

6.4.8) ELEMENT OFFSET


The elem. offset panel allows you to create and modify elements by offsetting from a
mesh of plate or shell elements. The element normals provide directional information.

1. Select the solid layers subpanel.

2. Indicate which elements you want to offset by picking them on your model, or click
elems and choose from the pop-up menu.

3. Click number of layers = and enter the number of layers of elements to build along
the normal direction.

4. Click initial offset = and enter an initial offset from the surface of the plate
elements along the positive normal direction (optional).

5. Click the upper switch and select thickness is uniform, thickness = element T, or
thickness from element size.

See Comments for more information about how HyperMesh calculates component
thickness.

6. If you select thickness is uniform, click thickness = and enter the total thickness of
the layers of solid elements you want to create.

7. Click bias style: and select linear or no biasing, exponential, or bellcurve.

8. Click the data entry field after bias intensity = and enter the desired value.
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For more information on the biasing options, refer to the Element Biasing section in the
Automatic Mesh Generation section of the HyperMesh Users Guide.

9. Click the upper toggle to elements to current comp or elements to original comp to
specify if you want the newly created components to appear in the current component, or
in the components of the shell elements.

10. Click the lower toggle to choose between creating the elements with rounded
corners or square corners.

11. Click offset + or offset - to create the elements either in the positive normal
direction or the negative of the normal direction, determined from the elements.

The elements in the illustration were created with square corners.

This illustration shows the same elements created with rounded corners.

This illustration shows the same elements created with initial offset = set to 40.

This illustration shows the same elements created with no biasing factor.
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The elements in this illustration were created with a negative biasing factor.

6.5) BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:

6.5.1) Load Types


The load types menu panel allows you to update load types and equations.
This function requires that a template file be provided.

6.5.2) Constraints
The constraints panel allows you to place constraints or enforced displacements on a
model. This is accomplished by assigning a degree of freedom (dof) constraint to the
node.
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6.5.3) Equations
The equations panel allows you to create, review, and update equations. The update
subpanel allows you to edit the connectivity, dofs, weight, and constants for each node of
the equation.
Equations are displayed as lines between the dependent node and the independent
node(s) with EQ displayed at the dependent node of the equation.

6.5.4) Force
The forces panel allows you to create concentrated forces. This is accomplished by
applying a load, representing forces, to a node.
Forces are load config 1 and are displayed as a vector with the letter F at the tail end.

6.5.5) Moments
The moments panel allows you to create concentrated moments. This is accomplished
by applying a load, representing moments to a node.
Moments are load config 2 and are displayed with a double-headed vector with the letter
M at the tail end.

6.5.6) Pressures
The pressures panel allows you to create concentrated pressures. This is accomplished
by applying a load, representing pressures, to an element.
Pressures are load config 4 and are displayed as a vector with the letter P at the tail end.

6.5.7) Velocities
The velocities panel allows you to create concentrated velocities. This is accomplished
by applying a load, representing velocities, to a node.
Velocities are load config 8 and are displayed as a vector with the letter V at the tail end.

6.5.8) Accels
The accels (accelerations) panel allows you to create and update concentrated
accelerations. This is accomplished by applying a load, representing accelerations, to a
node.
Accelerations are load config 9 and are displayed as a vector with the letter A at the tail
end.
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6.5.9) Temperatures
The temperatures panel allows you to create temperature constraints. This is
accomplished by applying a load, representing temperatures, to a node.
Temperatures are load config 5 and are displayed as a vertical line with the letter T at
the top.

6.5.10) Flux
The flux menu panel allows you to apply concentrated fluxes to your model. This is
accomplished by applying a load, representing fluxes, to a node.
Fluxes are load config 6 and are displayed as a thick arrow labeled with the word "flux."

6.5.11) Interfaces
The interfaces menu panel allows you to create and modify interfaces. Interfaces are
used to define a contact or sliding interface in an analysis code.

6.5.12) Rigid Walls


The rigid walls panel allows you to create and update rigid walls. Rigid walls are used to
define a contact or sliding rigid wall in an analysis code. Rigid walls in HyperMesh are
groups with configuration 5.

6.5.13) Entity Sets


This panel allows creation of sets of available entity types in hypermesh.This helps to
apply loads,review results of entities defined in a set.
Superelement

The super elems panel allows you to assign nodes to a super element set. You can also
display the nodes that belong to a super element.

6.5.14) Design Variables


The design vars panel allows you to access the domain elements, domain node set, and
shape variables panels.

6.5.15) Vectors
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The vectors panel allows you to create a HyperMesh vector entity. A vector represents a
three dimensional direction.
Vectors are displayed as a vector with the letters VEC at the tail end.

6.5.16) Systems
The systems panel allows you to create rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinate
systems. Use this function when you want to define nodes, loads and constraints in a
different coordinate system.

6.5.17) Output Blocks


The output blocks menu panel allows you to create and update blocks of entities used for
output requests. Output blocks can be created for nodes, elements, components,
systems, groups, and materials.

6.5.18) Load steps


The load steps menu panel allows you to create and update collections of load
collectors.

6.5.19) Solver
The solver panel allows you to run an external program from within HyperMesh or assign
and run a solver on selected analysis decks. You can run linear static and Lanczos
eigenvalue extraction solutions through a sparse matrix finite element solver. The solver
is incorporated in Altairs OptiStruct topology optimization software serving as the core
solver for finite element solutions and is fully benchmarked using the standard
MacNeil/Harding tests to ensure correct element formulation.

6.6) TOOL PANEL:-


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6.6.1) CONVERT
The convert panel allows you to exchange some data between different solver formats.
It exchanges data between two card image solvers, or a card image solver and a
dictionary solver. For more information about card image and dictionary solvers, see the
External Interfacing section.
The data that is converted from one format to another are component thickness and
material properties, Young's Modulus, Poisson's Ratio, and density (i.e.,E,P,andv)

6.6.2) BUILD MENU


The build menu panel allows you to redefine the layout of the HyperMesh menu system.
Use build menu when you want to change where menu items appear on a page of the
menu, or to change the meaning of any of the function keys. When the build menu panel
is accessed, a list of the available menu items is displayed in the graphics area of the
screen. If the menu item is blue, then the corresponding panel cannot be assigned to a
function key. If the menu item text is black, it is not assigned to any of the menus or
function keys.

If you remove the build menu item, other users cannot change your menu. Once this is
done, however, the only way to change your menu system again is to delete the menu
file, hmmenu.set, from the current directory.

6.6.3) FIND
The find menu panel allows you to locate entities in a database. You can use the find
entities function to find individual elements in your model if your analysis code has a
problem with a particular element.
The find attached function finds entities that are attached to other entities. For example,
after you have selected an element, you may use this function to view the elements that
are attached to it, allowing you to move progressively through the model, row by row.

The between nodes function allows you to find the nodes that are shared by the selected
components.
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6.6.4) MASK
The mask function allows you to mask entities from the display list. Masking can be
useful to reduce the number of entities displayed. With fewer entities on the screen, it is
easier to "pick" the desired elements or lines.
It is also possible to speed up processing time by masking off portions of a large model
while you are working on a smaller, localized section of the model.

6.6.5) DELETE

The delete panel allows you to delete data from a model database, preview and delete
empty collectors, and preview and delete unused property collectors. You can also
delete an entire model database, if you wish to start with a clean database.

6.6.6) TRANSLATE

The translate panel allows you to translate model entities along a vector.
1. Click the input collector switch and select the data type of the entity you want to

translate.

2. Indicate the entities you want to translate:

- Pick the entities on your model.


or

Click the data type and choose from the extended entity selection menu.
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3. Use the plane and vector collector to specify a vector that defines the direction of
translation.

4. Click the toggle to select the method to use to specify the magnitude to translate
the entities.

The two methods available are to enter a value after magnitude =, or to translate your
entities the magnitude from N1 to N2.

5. Click the leftmost toggle to translate the selected entities in the global or the local
system.

6. If you select local system, enter the ID of the system and indicate a base node on
your model.

7. Click translate+ or translate-.


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6.6.7) ROTATE

The rotate panel allows you to rotate entities about a plane normal.
1. Click the leftmost switch and select the data type of the entities you want to rotate.

2. Indicate the entities you want to rotate:

- Pick the entities on your model.


or
- Click the data type and use the extended entity selection menu.

3. Use the plane and vector collector to select the plane whose normal defines the
vector about which you want to rotate the entities.

4. Click angle = and enter the angle through which the entities should be rotated.

5. Click rotate+ or rotate-.


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6.6.8) SCALE

The scale panel allows you to perform scaling operations on model entities.
1. Click the input collector switch and select the data type of the entities you want to
scale.

2. Indicate the entities you want to scale:

- Pick the entities on your model.


or
- Click the data type and use the extended entity selection menu.

3. Click the toggle to select a global or local system.

- If you select the local system, enter the ID of the desired system.

4. Click node under origin: and pick the node on your model that you want to use to
define the origin of scaling.

5. Select a scaling factor:

- Click uniform and enter a uniform scaling factor.


or
- Click x scale =, y scale =, or z scale = and enter the scaling factors for the
corresponding coordinates.
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6. Click scale+ or scale-.

6.6.9) REFLECT
The reflect panel allows you to reflect node, element, line, system, or component data
about a plane.
You can click reflect a second time to undo the procedure, but in a small percentage of
cases, nodes are not re-associated after selecting reflect twice. It is recommended that
you save your model before using the reflect function.

6.6.10) PROJECT

The project menu panel allows you to project data entities to a plane, vector, surface, or
line.
1. Select the to surface subpanel.

2. Click the leftmost switch and select the data type you want to project.

3. Indicate which entities you want to project by picking them on your model, or click
the data type and choose from the extended entity selection menu.

4. While surfs is highlighted, pick the surface to which you want to project the
entities.
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5. Use the plane and vector collector by along: to specify the plane along which to
project the entities.

6. Click project.

6.6.11) POSITION
The position menu panel allows you to specify the position of model entities. This is
accomplished by picking three nodes of the entities that you want to move and the
corresponding three nodes where you want your selected entities to be positioned.
HyperMesh places the entities in the new position by rotating and translating until the
entity is relocated.

6.6.12) PERMUTE
The permute panel allows you to permute node, element, line, surface, and component
data. Use this function to exchange the axes of a coordinate system.

6.6.13) CHECK ELEMENTS

The check elems panels allow you to verify the basic quality of your elements and to
verify the geometric qualities of those elements.
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For example, if you have created a quad, it is possible that the quad has some degree of
warpage. You can use the warpage function to check the element for warpage and to
specify the maximum allowable warpage for that element.
Another check available is for rigid loops. The rigid loops function allows you to
determine if a group of one-dimensional rigid elements forms a loop. After it checks for
instances where this has occurred, it highlights those elements.

The 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D subpanels have these common functions:
connectivity
duplicates
save failed

6.6.14) EDGES

The edges panel allows you to find the free edges in a group of elements, find T or
discontinuous connections in a group of elements (any edges connected to three or
more elements), display duplicate nodes, and equivalence duplicate nodes. Free edges
found in your model are displayed in red. You can use equivalence to remove the
duplicate nodes, based on a tolerance which you specify. The preview equiv function is
available to allow you to see which nodes are removed when the equivalence function is
selected.

6.6.15) FACES

The faces panel allows you to find the free faces in a group of elements, and operates in
the same manner as edges, but in 3-D. It also allows you to find and delete duplicate
nodes. This function will find free faces in your model where elements are separated,
and highlight those areas. Once the free faces are located, you can use equivalence to
remove the duplicate nodes, based on a tolerance specified by you. The preview option
is available to allow you to see which nodes will be equivalenced.

6.6.16) FEATURES

The features panel calculates features (corners) in the current model and displays them
by creating one-dimensional plot elements or feature lines. It provides a visualization
tool, allowing you to see the edges of a complex model where the normals of adjacent
elements differ by more than the user-specified angle.

6.6.17) NORMALS
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The normals menu panel allows you to display the normal of an element or surface, and
to adjust the orientation of the normal of an element. The normal of an element is
determined by following the nodes of the element, in order, using the right-hand rule.

6.6.18)DEPENDENCY

The dependency panel allows you to find nodes that have their degrees of freedom
removed by a constraint or mpc (multiple point constraint) more than once.

6.6.19) PENETRATION

The penetration panel allows you to check components for contact surface penetrations.
It also allows you to determine how much penetration is occurring, and move the
penetrating nodes in order to fix the penetration areas.
Penetration checking is supported by all of the solver interfaces that support card
images. Supported interface types include Node to Surface, Surface to Surface, and
Single Surface. Shell thicknesses and contact interfaces (groups) must be defined for the
solver being used.

The secondary penetration panel appears after performing a penetration check on a


model that contains contact surface penetrations. It allows you to set the thickness,
display mode, label vector, save penetrated, and segment orientation options. It also
allows you to apply the adjust function.
The thickness option allows you to determine the element thickness required to eliminate
penetration problems. You can modify the thickness with the scale or the reduction
options.

You can set the display mode to temp nodes, vectors, or contour. In vector display
mode, you can modify the magnitude of the vector by setting the uniform size or the
magnitude %. You can turn on or off the vectors label by setting the label vector.
The save penetrated option allows you to save the location, magnitude, and direction of
the penetrated areas so they can be fixed in other HyperMesh panels. Setting the save
penetrated option to vectors creates ^vectors in a vectorcol that can be
activated/deactivated on the display panel.

The adjust option allows you to fix penetrations by moving only the failed nodes until no
penetrations occur.

6.6.20) NUMBERS
The numbers menu panel allows you to display the IDs of an entity.

6.6.21) RENUMBER
The renumber panel allows you to renumber entities. You may also enter a value by
which to offset the IDs of entities.
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6.6.22) COUNT

The count panel allows you to obtain a sum of the entities in your database. The entities
which you may review include components, elements, lines, nodes, surfaces, system
collectors, systems, load collectors, loads, assemblies, points, load steps, equations,
groups, vectors, and vector collectors.

6.6.23) MASS CALC

The mass calc panel allows you to obtain the mass, area, and volume of a selected
group of elements, or a surface.
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6.7) Post-Processing

6.7.1) Hidden-line
The hidden line menu allows you to create hidden line plots of the displayed structure.
Both functions allow you to view a full size plot, with the menu removed from the screen.
On more powerful 3-D tubes, it can create a lighted image of your model.

The Usual mode The hidden line mode


This option also helps to veiw the cross section of the model and hence is a aid to
quality checking etc.

6.7.2) Contour

The contour panel allows you to create contour and assigned plots of your model. Use
this function to see your analysis results graphically, in either a contour or assigned plot
mode.
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A contour plot allows you to see results represented as bands of color, based on the
values returned from an analysis code. An assigned plot lets you see the values of each
element by coloring the entire element, which provides an alternate way to view your
analysis results. Additional viewing options are available if you are using the
performance graphics engine.

Model contour plot of model

6.7.3) Deformed
The deformed (deformed shape) panel plots displacement analysis results. Use this
function to see the motion of your structure after analysis. You can display both the
original structure and the deformed shape to see the total amount of movement, or view
the deformed shape by itself. You can also create an animation sequence of the
structure's movement that shows the motion of the structure in a series of frames, based
on what the analysis code has predicted
Structure will do.

6.7.4) Fatigue
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The fatigue panel allows you to write stress and strain results from finite element
analysis to an external file that can then be used to set up fatigue analysis in one of the
supported fatigue solvers. You may choose to write these results for the entire finite
element model or for selected entities.

6.7.5) Transient

The transient panel allows you to create an animation sequence from transient results.
A stored animation sequence can be viewed by using the replay function.

6.7.6) Replay
The replay menu panel allows you to replay previously saved animation sequences. To
create replay sequences, see the animation portion of the deformed or transient panels.
If you are using a 3-D platform, you can replay two animation sequences simultaneously
by entering two file names before using the replay function.

6.7.7) X-Y Plots


The xy plots panel allows you to access the XY Plotting panels.

This Panel Supports the following options

axis labels
axis scaling
border
curve attribs
edit curves
grid attribs
grid labels
integrate
legend
plot titles
plots
query curves
read curves
results curves
simple math

6.7.8) Titles
The titles panel allows you to create, edit, and move screen titles and entity tags.

6.7.9) Summary
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The summary panel allows you to obtain a summary of component element counts or
element properties of the current model. You can define your own summary by creating
a template file.

6.7.10) Apply Result

The apply results panel allows you to apply the results analysis data to selected entities
of your model. You can also create loads from the analysis data.
This function requires that you load an analysis results file containing analysis data.
By default, when you create loads, HyperMesh displays them using a representation of
100% of their magnitude. You can change this percent by entering a different value in
the magnitude = field. You can also use the uniform size option to have all loads
displayed as the same size.
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7) Assignments:Geometry Creation.
7.1) ASSIGN-1

7.2) ASSIGN-2
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7.3) ASSIGN-3
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8) Importing CAD Models.

HyperMesh allows importing of CAD models through various translators.


The import subpanel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite
element models. Internally, the formats ACIS, PDGS, INCA, DES, and DXF are
supported. The EXTERNAL interface allows you to create your own translation package.
An external IGES translator is provided for using this option.
HyperMesh supports Unigraphics (UG) v16.0, including assembly information. When the
UG translator, ug_16.dll, is invoked, it opens a part browser in a separate window that
displays the hierarchy of the parts in the UG assembly model. The part browser indicates
which assemblies contain weld information and which parts contain midsurface
representations. The UG reader also reads the weld, midsurface, material and thickness
information that is supported by the assembly (or part) files.

1. Select the import subpanel on the files panel.

2. Click filename = and select the file to be read into HyperMesh.

3. Click EXTERNAL.

A new input field, translator = appears.

4. Click translator = and select the translator to be used to read the file.

5. Click overwrite or no overwrite.

- If you select overwrite, selected entities in the HyperMesh database with matching
IDs are replaced by the imported entities.

Click offset ids if you want to increase entity ID numbers by a user-specified value. For
more information, see the id offsets procedure.

- If you select no overwrite, the IDs of the imported entities are increased so that no
conflicts occur.

6. Click the toggle to select create blanked component or no blanked component.


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- This allows you to control the presence of a blanked component in the translator.
If create blanked component is selected, all entities marked as blank are moved to a
special component. If no blanked component is selected, the translator ignores all the
blank flags in the file.

7. Click the toggle to select don't cleanup topology, use automatic cleanup tol, or
cleanup tol =.

- If you select use automatic cleanup tol, HyperMesh finds and uses a tolerance
value based on the import file. For more information, see Geom and Cleanup Tolerance
in the External Interfacing section of the Users Guide.
- If you select cleanup tol =, enter the tolerance you want to use.

8. Click import.

--Models are displayed with red lines indicating the edges between the components.

9) 2D MESH
Two-dimensional elements are mainly used to model sheet metal components that have
considerably less thickness. They are also used to model axi-symmetric models (Solvers
like Ansys can use 2d- elements to model/solve 3d axi-symmetric models). It is also
used to generated tetrahedral mesh (covered in 3-D panel)

The 2-D mesh mainly comprises of two kind of basic elemental shapes, Quadrilateral
element and Triangular element.

Quadrilateral element (quad), 4-noded Triangular Element (tria), 3-noded

Fig. 9.1
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The various ways of generating a 2-D mesh in Ansys are explained below, the user can
also look in for online help on a particular topic by first opening that respective command
or panel and then clicking the help command button. HyperMesh responds with relevant
help topic.

9.1) Using Spline command


Spline command is used to generate mesh and/or surface by defining a closed loop of

Fig.9.1.1

lines or nodes.

Step 1. Select then lines by clicking on the lines or by selecting it by extended entity
selection menu (Pop-up window which is displayed when command button lines is
clicked. (See Fig.9.1.1)

Step 2. Click the middle switch and select the desired mesh and surface option.

There are basically four meshing The following four lines are selected to form a options
closed loop of lines defining an area.
that are explained briefly. These options
are similar in other 2-D mesh
generation commands also.

V. mesh, keep surface: This option allows to generate both mesh and surface in the
active collector. The user has more flexibility in this option. He can choose from
various mesh generating algorithms like map as rectangle, map as triangle, map
as pentagon, free (unmapped). Each of these algorithms generates meshes with
differently. autodecide option lets HyperMesh to choose the best suited algorithm
for mesh generation.

VI. mesh, dele surface: This option is very much similar to the mesh, keep option
except that the surface is automatically deleted once the mesh is generated.
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VII. mesh, w/o surface: This is fastest and simplest mode of mesh generation
However, this option has very limited parameters, which can be changed. Like
there are no algorithms to choose from. The densities (the number of edge
elements) of the opposite edges must be same. Tria elements are generally used
instead of manipulating with mesh with quads. It should also be noted that nodes
of elements generated have to be projected to surface if the surface is more
curved in nature.

VIII. surface only: This option generates only surface in the active or current collector
without any elements.

Step 3. Click create. A new panel (automeshing module) is displayed where you can
set the various meshing parameters to generate best possible mesh. In this panel the
various functions are divided into six different subpanels. Note that these subpanels are
similar across all the 2-D meshing commands.

I. Density: The density subpanel allows you to specify and change the desired
element density along an individual side of the region. When this subpanel is
active, the current element density and the distribution of the edge's nodes are
displayed for each edge. (See Fig 9.1.2)

Fig 9.1.2

II. Algorithm: The algorithms subpanel allows you to choose a mesh generation
algorithm or a smoothing algorithm.(See Fig 9.1.3)

III. Type: The type subpanel allows you to specify whether quads, trias, or mixed
element types should be used during mesh generation. Each face's icon shows
the type that is currently set for that face. If toggle surf is highlighted, you can
click a faces icon to toggle the status of that face to quads, trias, or mixed. You
can also use set surf to set each face individually by direct selection of that face's
icon or set all to set all the faces. (See Fig 9.1.4 )
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Fig 9.1.3

Fig 9.1.4

IV. Biasing: Allows you to control the element biasing along edges of the domain.
Element biasing is the placing of elements along an edge so that element size is
smaller at one end than at the other, and is one way to improve element quality
when doing transitioning. In the Fig9.1.5 we can see that elements are biased
towards bottom right corner. With a biasing
V. intensity of 2.8 in x-direction and 1.9 in y-direction. To change the biasing
intensity, in the graphics area, with the mouse on the number closest to
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Fig 9.1.5

the midpoint of that edge, click the left mouse button to increase or the right mouse
button to decrease the biasing intensity. Following steps can also change the biasing
intensity
1. Select the biasing subpanel.
2. Click bias intensity = and enter the value desired.
3. Click set edge.
4. In the graphics area, click the number closest to the midpoint of each edge to
be changed.
5. If you want to set all of the edges to have a specific element biasing, click set
all.

The biasing style can also be chaged to exponential and bellcurve from
linear(default style). The student is advised to check out these options.

VI. Details: Allows you to work on one face of a domain at a time. Changes to the
menu items allow you to make changes to that face's meshing parameters. The
currently active face is highlighted in white in the graphics region. To change the
active face click on the face to be made active.

VII. Checks: Allows you to check the quality of generated elements before they are
saved to the database. For more details please refer Element Quality Check
topic in this chapter.

Step 3. Now click on mesh button. A temporary mesh is generated. If you are not
satisfied with the mesh generated, click on reject and change the required parameters
and again click on mesh. To save the mesh permanently click on return. The mesh will
be stored in the active collector.

Note:
For this command to work, the lines must form a closed loop. If the gap between two
meeting ends of the lines is greater than the tolerance then generating new lines over
the given line of increasing the cleanup tolerance will rectify the problem.

The above command on a set of nodes in place of lines.

9.2) Using Ruled command:


The ruled panel allows you to create surfaces and/or meshes of plate elements from
nodes, lines, and/or line segments, in any combination. Nodes in the mesh being
created are placed on a surface created on a linear basis between the two sets of
selected entities. The meshing options and algorithms are same as that of Spline. The
following steps will generate the mesh using two sets of nodes.

Step 1. Click the upper left switch and select nodes. (See Fig 9.2.1)
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Step 2. Select the first row of nodes where you want to create a surface. Care should
be taken that node lists selected should be in one order, either from left to right or right to
left side. Also make sure that auto reverse check box is selected. This will insure that
elements are generated with a similar order on each side of the mesh.

Step 3. Click the lower left switch and select the second row of nodes.

Step 4. Select the desired meshing option by selecting the middle switch. (For
detailed explanation of this option refer to topic Using Spline command.

Step 5 Click create

Fig 9.2.1
Step 6 After setting various parameters like density, type etc click on mesh button. A
temporary mesh is generated. If you are not satisfied with the mesh generated, click on
reject and change the required parameters and again click on mesh. To save the mesh
permanently click on return. The mesh will be stored in the active collector.
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Note: The meshes generated using this panel are planar and need be projected to
the surface again.

The combination of two sets of line segments or one set of nodes and another
set of line segments can also be used in this command.

9.3) Using Drag command:


The drag panel allows you to create a mesh and/or surface by dragging a series of
nodes or lines, or to create elements by dragging selected elements. The function drags
the selected entities along the specified vector creating a mesh, surface, or elements
along that vector.

For generating a 2D mesh, follow these steps.

Step 1. Select the drag geoms subpanel.

Step 2. Click the input collector switch and select nodes or lines depending on
the requirement.

Step 3.Indicate the row of nodes you want to drag by selecting them on your model.

Step 4. Use the plane and vector collector to specify the direction along which to
drag the nodes.

Step 5. Click the toggle to choose the method you want to use to specify the
distance to drag the nodes. If you select distance =, enter the distance. The
other option being distance = N2-N1. This option calculates the distance
between nodes N1 and N2 (used to define the vector or direction).

Step 7. Click the lower right switch and select the desired mesh and surface option.
Click drag+ or drag-. drag+ generates the mesh in the direction of the
vector, i.e. direction defined from N1 to N2, and drag- will generate the
mesh in opposite direction of the vector defined.

Step 8. After setting various parameters like density, type etc click on mesh
button. A temporary mesh is generated. If you are not satisfied with the mesh
generated, click on reject and change the required parameters and again
click on mesh. To save the mesh permanently click on return. The mesh will
be stored in the active collector.

Note: For greater details in meshing options and meshing algorithms please refer to topic
Using Spline command.
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The same command is also used to generate solid elements by dragging 2-D elements,
in this case drag elems subpanel is used.

9.4) Using Line Drag command:


The line drag menu panel allows you to create a two- or three-dimensional surface
and/or mesh or elements by dragging nodes, lines, or elements along another line.
This command is very similar to the drag command. Except that here the nodes or
elements are dragged along a line instead of specifying a directional vector. Click the
toggle to select use default vector or specify vector:

-If you select use default vector, HyperMesh uses the end of the line as the base
point and the tangent direction at the end of the line as the vector.
-If you select specify vector, use the plane and vector collector to select the
orientation vector.

Note: For greater details in meshing options and meshing algorithms please refer to topic
Using Spline command.
The same command is also used to generate solid elements by dragging 2-D elements,
in this case drag elems subpanel is used.

9.5) Using Spin command:


The spin panel allows you to create a mesh and/or surface by spinning a series of
nodes, a line or lines, or a group of elements (for generation of solid elements) about a
vector to create a circular structure.

Step 1. Select the spin geoms subpanel. Set view to top view by clicking view on
permanent menu.

Step 2. Click the input collector switch and select nodes from which you want to
generate the circular in nature mesh.

Step 3. Use the plane and vector collector to specify a plane. The selected nodes
will be spun about the normal of the plane.

Step 4. Click base and select a base point.

Step 5. Click angle = and specify an angle through which to spin the nodes.

Step 6. Click spin+. To build the mesh/surface in the opposite direction, click spin-.

9.6) Edit Element:


This button is found in 1-D, 2-D and 3-D panels. This comprises of four subpanels
namely create, combine, split and cleanup.
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9.6.1) Create: This panel is used to generate various types (plot, tria, quad, tetra,
penta and hex) of elements by manually picking the edge nodes.

Step 1. Select the create subpanel.

Step 2. Select the type of element that you want to create.

Step 3. Click auto order if you want HyperMesh to order the nodes for you.
If it is not selected, you must select the nodes in the appropriate order.

Step 4. Select the nodes of the element you want to create. When you have selected
the required number of nodes, HyperMesh creates the element.

Note: To reject the operation, immediately click reject after you had created the
element.

9.6.2) Combine: The combine subpanel allows you to combine two or more
elements into a single quad or tria.

Step 1. Select the combine subpanel.

Step 2. Click the toggle to combine to quad or combine to tria to specify how you
want the elements to be combined. If combine to quad (default) is selected
then the elements will be combined into a quad. Else they will be combined
into a tria.

Step 3. Select the elements you want to combine.

Step 4. Click combine.

Note: The elements are combine only if they are with the planar tolerance specified.
The default value being 1, can be changed by the user.

To reject the operation, immediately click reject after you had clicked combine.

The elements are automatically combined (without clicking combine) if the number of
elements selected is equal to the auto comb value specified. Default value is 4.

9.6.3) Split: The split subpanel allows you to split an element or group of elements.

Step 1. Select the split subpanel.


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Step 2. Indicate which elements you want to split by selecting them on your model by
manually clicking elements or choosing them from the extended entity
selection menu.

Step 3. Click split.

Step 4.Use the mouse to build a line in the graphics region, which intersects the
elements you want to split.

Step 5. Click split elements.

Note: To reject the operation, immediately click reject after splitting the
element(s).

If you do not select elements, the splitting algorithm operates on all the elements
displayed. This would sometimes cause unexpected results by inadvertently splitting
the elements hidden from the view and which come in the split line.

This operator works with two-dimensional, first, and second order elements.

This operation is also used to split elements into transition-like elements. (See Fig
9.6.3.1)

Elements after splitting


Split line

Fig 9.6.3.1

9.6.4) Cleanup: The cleanup subpanel lets you check the element quality and
modify it while HyperMesh displays the results of your changes. A typical
roof model that the student would be creating in one of his assignments is
used to explain this subpanel.

Step 1. Go to cleanup subpanel.


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Step 2. Select all the elements in the roof model and click cleanup. The screen
would look similar to that of Fig 9.6.4.1. Now the elements you selected are
displayed in red, yellow, or black. The color for any individual element is
determined by how that element scores on the selected element quality
checks. The element is red if it rates as unacceptable by any of the
compound test. The yellow colored elements are acceptable, but at least
one of the tests rates it as poor quality (i.e. it exceeds warning limit and not
error). All other elements, which are good in all the quality aspects selected,
are displayed as black.
Step 3. You can choose the quality aspects to be checked by checking or
unchecking the checkboxes at the left of the subpanel. (See Fig 9.6.4.1). In
this example select max. Angle, warpage and jacobian.
Step 4. Click on the set ranges. (See .Fig 9.6.4.1). The warning and error quality
check limiting values can be specified here. For this example we will be
considering the default values. (However, user can try out various
combinations for error and warning values and see how the colors vary
accordingly.)
Step 5. Highlight node.
Step 6. Pick the node you want to move and, while holding the mouse button down,
drag it to the desired location. Notice the change in color of

Fig 9.6.4.1
elements adjacent to the picked node vary as we move the node.
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Step 7. Click edge before swap edge. (See Fig 9.6.4.1)

Step 8. Pick the edge you want to switch. In this case pick the common edge of any
two common elements except transition elements. Notice that for a pair of
trias, there are two possible positions for their shared edge. For a pair of
quads, there are three possible positions. For a quad and a tria, there are
six possible positions.

Each time you pick the edge, it switches to the next legal configuration.

Step 9. Click smooth after selecting the smoothing methods, shape corrected, size
corrected. . You can also let HyperMesh to select by choosing autodecide.

Note: If the elements you brought into the element cleanup module are attached
(refer associate subpanel in node edit command) to a surface, then the nodes are
constrained to move only on that surface. Otherwise, HyperMesh infers a surface
from the mesh of elements and constrains the nodes to move only on the inferred
surface.
A description of each of the different element tests can be found in Element Quality
Checks Panel.

For the convenience of the student, this panel can be studied after meshing
assignment of roof

9.7) ROOF MESH MODEL


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Objective: The roof should be meshed for side impact analysis. So the requirement
is to have very fine mesh on the left half (impact half) of the roof. Where as we can go
in for gradual transitioning in elements on the other half, so as to limit the size of the
FE model (i.e. total number of elements). Which in turn will reduce the analysis time,
saving lot of resources.

Quality Requirements:

1. Minimum length: 7 mm (on finer/left side)


2. Average length: 15 mm
3. Warpage: 10 degrees, 15 for 2% of elements.
4.Aspect Ratio: 10
4. Jacobian: 0.7 (for finer/left side), 0.6 for transition
elements.
5. Trias: 1% of FE model size.
6. FE Model Size: 4000-4500 elements.

7. Deliverable file format: Nastran deck.

Note that transitioning should be made gradually as shown in the Pic 10. I.e. size of
the elements should gradually increase as move towards right hand side of the roof.

The average size of rightmost side of the roof must be around 45-50 mm.

All the geometric features greater that equal to 7mm should be captured in left-hand
side.

Holes and small fillets can be ignored on the right hand side.

Step1. After understanding the geometric model thoroughly and studying the
input/mesh requirements given, next step is divide the geometric model into
smaller regular geometric domains, which would help automatic mesh generating
algorithms (of the meshing package) to create meshes of better quality. Generally
a quadrilateral division is preferred. (See. Pic. 11). The division lines should be
created/saved in separate collector. Project all the line to surface.

Step 2. In permanent menu click global and set the element size to 15. Ensure that
element order toggle is set to first.
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Fig 9.7.1

Step 3. Using spline or ruled commands explained in the previous sections. Adjust
the densities such that opposite edges have same number of elements. This will
avoid bad elements as well as trias. Care should be taken that there is
connectivity between the elements of two geometric divisions.

Step 4. Mesh the outer rims and fillets of the left-hand side.

Step 5. Coarsen the mesh on the right-hand side, but maintain the equal edge
densities on opposite side.
Step 6. Now give connectivity between the generated mesh (coarser mesh) with finer
mesh. Use split command to create transition elements wherever necessary.
Refer back to topic Edit Elements command in previous section. The last stage of
this assignment is dealt in the next section.
Step 7. After the complete mesh is generated in this fashion. Check for connectivity
using edges. Make sure that all the nodes are projected to the surface.

Note: It is always advisable to save the models during the course of meshing. It might
be helpful to save the model with different suffixes at every stage of meshing.
(E.g. Roof_meshA.hm, roof_meshB.hm etc). So that user can revert back to
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previously saved model if there is any change in strategy of meshing at later


stages, instead of starting the whole procedure from the start.

9.8 ) Element Quality Check: This panel allows the user to check the
various quality aspects of the mesh.

The quality parameters related 2-d model is explained here, with generally
acceptable values. This will help the student in correcting the mesh efficiently.
1. Aspect : Aspect ratio in two-dimensional elements can be defined as the ratio
between maximum length side of an element by the minimum length side
of an element.

2. Jacobian : The jacobian ratio is a measure of the deviation of a given element from
an ideally shaped element. The jacobian value would be always greater
than zero and less than or equal to one, where 1.0 represents a perfectly
shaped element.

3. Warpage : The amount by which an element or element face (in the case of solid
elements) deviates from being planar. Warpage of up to five degrees is
generally acceptable.
The degree of Warpage in two-dimensional elements is calculated by
splitting a quad into two trias and finding the angle between the two planes
that the trias form. The quad is then split again, this time using the
opposite corners and forming the second set of trias. The angle between
the two planes that the trias form is then found. The maximum angle found
between the planes is the Warpage of the element.

Warpage in three-dimensional elements is performed in the same fashion


on all faces of the element. The entire element is highlighted if any face
fails the Warpage check.

4. Connectivity : The two-dimensional elements that share more than two nodes with
another two-dimensional element are said to be having questionable
connectivity. Likewise, the three-dimensional elements that share more
than four nodes with another three-dimensional element are said to be
having questionable connectivity. The connectivity of this kind should be
avoided.

5.Minimum/Maximum Angles: Minimum and maximum angles of the elements must be


always within the limits.
Generally, least allowed min. angle for quad are 45 degrees and 20
degrees for a tria element. The highest value that is allowed for maximum
angle of a quad is 135 degrees and 120 degrees for that of tria.
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6.Duplicates : The two elements are said to be duplicates if they share all the nodes, i.e.
all the nodes of one element are merged to the corresponding nodes of
another. The duplicate elements should be deleted before giving the model
for analysis.

Step 1. Select check elems panel found 1-D, 2-D or 3-D panel.

Step 2. Select 2-D subpanels, the quality parameters relevant to 2-D elements are
displayed.

Step 3. Display the elements you want to test.

Step 4. To check the warpage of the elements displayed specify the maximum
allowable warpage by changing the value, which follows the warpage function.

Step 5. Click warpage. The failed elements will be highlighted. And the status bar
indicates the number of elements failing the parameter, their percentage and the
highest warpage value.

Step 6. Click save failed. This will save the failed elements that can be used mask
rest of the elements. This would help in correcting the elements.

Step 7. Repeat steps 4 to 6 for rest of the parameters: jacobian, aspect ratio,
minimum angle, maximum angle, and length.

Step 8. Check connectivity by clicking connectivity.

Step 9. Check for the duplicate elements by clicking duplicates. If found then delete
them.

Step 10. Save the model, and export it into Nastran deck. (Refer chapter 4.
HyperMesh features)

Note: The student is also advised to use the cleanup subpanel of edit elements to
correct the quality of elements.
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11) RIGIDS , LINKS ,MASS FIXING.

LAYER 1

LAYER 2

Dependent
Dependent

Independent

RIGID
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11.1) Fixing Rigid Links


Rigid link elements are element config 55 and are displayed as lines between the
independent node and the dependent node(s) with RL displayed at the independent
node of the element.As shown in figure.

1. Select the create subpanel.

2. Select the degrees of freedom (dof) for the rigid links you want to create.

3. Click the switch after dependent to multiple nodes.

4. While independent is highlighted, select the node that you want to be the
independent
node of the rigid link element.

5. While dependent is highlighted, select the node(s) that you want to be the
dependent node(s) of the rigid link element.

11.2) Mass Fixing:


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Fig 11.2.1) Car roof and car panels

The masses panel allows you to create mass elements. A mass element rests on a
node and is used to represent mass.

Mass elements are element config 1 and are displayed as a dot with the letter M written
at the centroid of the element. As shown in figure

Masses can translate to CONM2 in NASTRAN or *MASS option in ABAQUS.

1 Select the create subpanel.


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2. Indicate the nodes you want to place masses on by picking them on your model,
or click nodes and choose from the extended entity selection menu.

3. Click mass = and enter the mass of the element.

4. Click property = and specify the property of the mass element.

5. Click system.

6. Select the system in which the mass element should be built.

7. Click create.

Reference: 1d main panel

11.3) Rigids Fixing:

Layer 1

Layer 2
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The rigids menu panel allows you to create rigid or rigid link elements. A rigid element is
an element created in a space between two nodes of a model where a rigid connection is
desired.

Rigid elements are element config 5 and are displayed as a line between two nodes with
the letter R written at the centroid of the element.

1. Select the create subpanel.

2. Select the degrees of freedom (dof) for the rigid connection you want to create.

3. Click the switch after dependent to single node.

4. While independent is highlighted, pick the node that you want to be the
independent node of the rigid element.

5. While dependent is highlighted, pick the node that you want to be the dependent
end of the rigid element.

The element is created, as shown.

Reference: 1d main panel for any additional details.

/
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12) 3D MENU AND QUALITY CHECKS

FIG 12.1

12.1) ELEMENT SPECIFICATION AS PER CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT


FOR BASE HINGE

WARPAGE : 25 DEGREES

SKEW : 60 DEGREES

QUAD FACES:

MIN ANGLE : 45 DEGREES

MAX ANGLE : 135 DEGREES

LENGTH : 1

JACOBIAN : 0.6
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TRIAS FACES :

MIN ANGLE : 20 DEGREES

MAX ANGLE : 120 DEGREES

2 LAYERS OF ORTHAGANAL ELEMENTS AROUND HOLE

CAPTURE THE GEOMETRY

3 ELEMENTS ALONG THE FILLETS.

12.2) PROCEDURE-- 3D MESH HINGE BASE

HINGE BASE IS A SYMMETRICAL COMPONENT

CREATE A COLLECTOR AND ORGANISE ONE HALF OF THE GEOMETRY

DISPLAY THE ORGANISED COLLECTOR

CREATE TWO COLLECTOR, ONE FOR 2D ELEMENT AND ANOTHER FOR 3D


ELEMENT

CREATE 2D MESH ON OUTER SURFACE AS PER CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT


IN 2D COLLECTOR

CHECK FOR THE QUALITY OF 2D ELEMENT

FOR CREATING 3D ELEMENTS WE CAN USE EITHER OF THE COMMANDS LIKE


DRAG,LINE DRAG
ELEMENT OFFSETAND LINEAR DRAG

CREATE USING DRAG COMMAND:

The drag panel allows you to create a surface and/or mesh by dragging a series of
nodes or lines, or to create elements
by dragging selected elements. The function drags the selected entities along the
specified vector creating a mesh, surface,
or elements along that vector.
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1 Select the drag geoms subpanel.

2.Click the input collector switch and select nodes.

3.Indicate the row of nodes you want to drag by selecting them on your model.

4.Use the plane and vector collector to specify the direction along which to drag the
nodes.

5.Click the toggle to choose the method you want to use to specify the distance to drag
the nodes.

6.If you select distance =, enter the distance.

7.Click the lower right switch and select the desired mesh and surface option. (For
information regarding the
other options, refer to the Automeshing section of the User's Manual.)

8.Click drag+ or drag-.

12.2.1) CREATE USING LINE DRAG


The line drag menu panel allows you to create a two- or three-dimensional surface
and/or mesh or elements bydragging nodes, lines,
or elements along another line. An example of its use is illustrated in the design of an
exhaust pipe.You can create a cross section of
the pipe and drag it along the curved line which represents the pipe. Another example
of its use is in the design of a window frame. A
cross section of the molding can be created and dragged along the complex curves of
the frame.

1 Select the drag geoms subpanel.

2.Click the input collector switch and select nodes or lines as the data type to drag.

3.Pick the nodes or lines you want to drag.

4.Click line list to the right of along: and select the guide line along which you want to
drag the entities.

5.Click the toggle to select use default vector or specify vector:.

-If you select use default vector, HyperMesh uses the end of the line as the base point
and the tangent direction at the end of the line
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as the vector
.
-If you select specify vector, use the plane and vector collector to select the orientation
vector.

6.Click the rightmost switch and select the desired mesh and surface option.

For information regarding the meshing options, refer to the Automeshing section of the
User's Manual.

7.Click drag.

12.2.2) CREATE USING ELEMENT OFFSET


The elem offset panel allows you to create and modify elements by offsetting from a
mesh of plate or shell elements. The element
normals provide directional information.

1 Select the solid layers subpanel.

2 .Indicate which elements you want to offset by picking them on your model, or click
elems and choose from the
pop-up menu.

3 .Click number of layers = and enter the number of layers of elements to build along the
normal direction.

4. Click initial offset = and enter an initial offset from the surface of the plate elements
along the positive normal
direction (optional).

5 .Click the upper switch and select thickness is uniform, thickness = element T, or
thickness from element size.

6 .If you select thickness is uniform, click thickness = and enter the total thickness of the
layers of solid elements you
want to create.

7. Click bias style: and select linear or no biasing, exponential, or bellcurve.

8. Click the data entry field after bias intensity = and enter the desired value.
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9 .Click the upper toggle to elements to current comp or elements to original comp to
specify if you want the newly
created components to appear in the current component, or in the components of the
shell elements.

10. Click the lower toggle to choose between creating the elements with rounded corners
or square corners.

11.Click offset + or offset - to create the elements either in the positive normal direction
or the negative of the normal
direction, determined from the elements.

The elements in the illustration were created with square corners.

This illustration shows the same elements created with rounded corners.

This illustration shows the same elements created with initial offset = set to 40.

This illustration shows the same elements created with no biasing factor.

The elements in this illustration were created with a negative biasing factor.

Comments

Before you offset plate elements, make sure that the normals of the plate elements are
properly aligned.

The offset can be a negative value.

If you use the option, thickness is uniform, the total thickness of all the layers will be the
specified value, partially adjusted to try to give
square corners.

If you use the option, thickness from component


, the total thickness of all the layers will be obtained from the dictionary of the elements
component. If elements from more than one
component meet at a node, the thickness at that node will be the average of the
elements thicknesses.

If you use the option, thickness = element T, the total thickness at each node is the
number of layers times the average of the lengths
of the element edges adjacent to that node.
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12.2.3) CREATE USING LINEAR SOLID


The linear solid menu panel allows you to create solid elements between two groups of
plate elements.

1 While elems is highlighted, indicate which elements belong to the first group by
selecting them on your model, or
select elems to choose the elements from the extended entity selection menu.

2.Click N1, N2, and N3 and select the alignment node(s) for the first group of elements.

3.Click elems

4.Indicate which elements belong to the second group by selecting them on your model,
or click elems to choose the elements from the
extended entity selection menu.

5.Click N1, N2, and N3 and select the alignment node(s) for the second group of
elements.

6.Click density = and specify the number of elements to be created between the two
groups of elements.

7.Click solids.

.AFTER CREATING ONE HALF CHECK FOR ELEMENT QUALITY CHECK

CREATE A COLLECTOR AND REFLECT THE REMAINING HALF USING REFLECT


COMMAND.

FINALLY CHECK FOR EDGES AND FACES.

12.2.4) 3D ELEMENT QUALITY CHECK

In addition to the element checking functions on the 2-d subpanel, the 3-d subpanel
allows you to check tetra elements by various
measures.

Check for length

1.Select the 2-d or 3-d subpanel.


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2.Display the elements you want to test.

3.Click the data entry field after length < and enter the minimum allowable length of a
side.

4.Click length.

Comments

The elements that have a length less than the values specified are highlighted when the
length function is selected. These elements remain
highlighted until you exit the check elems panel or you select another check element
function.

1. Select the 3-d subpanel.

2. Display the elements you want to test.

3. Specify the minimum allowable collapse value by changing the value after tet
collapse.

4. Click tet collapse.

Comments

Tetra elements whose collapse value falls below the value specified are highlighted
when the tetra collapse function is selected.
These elements remain highlighted until the check elems panel is exited.

12.3) TETRA ELEMENTS FOR VOLUMETRIC SKEW CHECK

1. Select the 3-d subpanel.

2. Display the elements you want to test.

3. Specify the minimum allowable collapse value by changing the value after vol
skew.

4. Click vol skew.

Comments
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Tetra elements whose volumetric skew measurement exceeds the value specified are
highlighted when the volumetric skew
function is selected. These elements remain highlighted until the check elems panel is
exited.

HyperMesh calculates volumetric skew by the following procedure. HyperMesh fits a


sphere through the four nodes of the tetra.
That sphere defines an ideally shaped equilateral tetra, whose volume is . HyperMesh
then calculates the actual volume of the tetra element.

The element's volumetric skew is then (Videal -Vactual)/Videal. This measure will,
normally, equal the skew measure from Tgrid, and equal
1 minus the equivalent check in Abaqus.

/
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15) ADVANCED HYPERMESH


In this example we will go through the steps of setting material properties, real constants
like thickness, defining Ansys specific element type and lastly exporting the Finite
element data into Ansys readable format. This is done with roof mesh example.

15.1) Exporting Models And Writing different analysis decks.


15.1.1)Define Template
1. Click on global on permanent menu.
2. Set the template to Ansys.3d. Note that if the model comprises of 2-D elements
(except shell types) then we use Ansys.2d template. And for shells and solid
elements select Ansys.3d is used.
3. Define Element type.
4. Go to collectors panel, there go to card image sub-panel.
5. Make sure that the collector type is set to comps.
6. In name specify the name of the element collector, whose elements you want to
define.
7. In collector specify the element type. In this case it is shell 63. Click load/edit. This
will open up a new subpanel where you can set various key options for the selected
element type. (See Fig.15.1.1)
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Fig .15.1.1)

15.1.2) Updating elements and reading the deck in ANSYS.


1. Go to elem types in 1-D, 2-D or 3-D panels.

2. A screen representing various element types set for corresponding config. types of
the elements are displayed. (See fig.15.1 2)

Fig.15.1.2
3. Click on quad4. Select shell63 in the pop-menu, which is displayed. Similarly change
element type of tria3 to shell63.

4. Select the elements belonging to roof model by using extended entity selection
window.

5. Click update
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6. Click return to save the changes.

7. To review the existing element type of an element. In elem types, select the
element/s u want to review

8. Click review. The corresponding element types are displayed near the elements in
graphical area.

9. Setting Real Constant/Thickness.

10. Enter the value 0.16 below R (See Fig 15.1.1). The value represents the thickness of
the shell element in inches. As the HyperMesh is units independent, care should be
taken that all the values entered or in consistent unit system.

11. Selecting the corresponding boxes can set the various keyoptions. In this case we
will not change any of them. Refer to end of the column to check out the various
values of keyoptions for shell63 element type.

12. Click return to save the changes or abort to cancel them.

13. Note: The key options and real constant can be also set at the time of creating the
collector. The procedure is similar to above.

14. These properties of a particular card image can also be changed by going to card
permanent menu. Selecting the entities whose card image values have to be
changed and then click edit.

15. Exporting Data to Ansys readable format.

16. Click files.

17. Select export subpanel.

18. As we had defined global template already (ref 15.1.1), ansys.3d template is
automatically selected in template. If not ,select template as ansys.3d.

19. Click filename = and enter the name (including filepath) of the output file. In this case
roof.cdb (*.cdb is the standard filename format for Ansys readable dat files.)

20. Click write. Once the file is generated.

21. Checking the written file in Ansys.


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22. Open the roof.cdb in a notepad or wordpad.

23. Check that all the types have corresponding element types defined. If not define
them by typing in the following command line right after the /prep7 (first line of the
file) et, <type number>, <element type number>. In this example element type
number is 63.

24. Save the changes and exit the text editor.

25. Open Ansys.

26. In the file menu select submenu read input from.(See Fig 15.1.3).

27. In the Open dialog window select the roof.cdb file and click open.

28. Wait while the nodes and elements are read in.

29. If error elements are found while reading the data, then their element id will be
displayed in the error window, with the description of the error. Note down the ids.

30. Go back to HyperMesh, Select the elements and correct the quality.

Fig.15.1. 3
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31. Export the file to *.cdb format again and read it back to Ansys. Repeat the steps 23 to
31.

Note: The similar procedure is followed for exporting into any other Finite Element
Format like Nastran, Abacus, LS Dyna etc.

It might not be possible to export some types of elements depending on the format to
which we are exporting. This might be due to either the limitation of the target solver or
the translating template.

15.2) Importing Results

Follow the below steps to import the Ansys result files into HyperMesh. Ansys
generated results are to in .rst(for structural),*.rth(for thermal) etc format.

1. Select the solver panel on the BCs page.

2. Click the switch and select hmansys.

3. Click input file = and enter <filename>. rst. (See Fig.15.2.1)


Basic course in Hypermesh
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Fig 15 2 1

4. Click output file = and enter <filename>. hmres.

5. Click solve.

6. Specify Result File

7. .To specify the HyperMesh results file, click results file = on the global panel and
select <filename>.hmres.

15.3)POST PROCESSING
To perform exercise in post processing we will be using a HM example files.

1. Open file : c:\apps\altair\tutorials\hm\treb.hm30. The file path might vary depending


on where HyperWorks is installed.
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2. To retrieve the analysis results file In results subpanel of file panel Select the
files panel open c:\apps\altair\tutorials\hm\treb.res.

3. Change from the standard to performance graphics mode. In graphics subpanel of


options (in permanent menu) specify a bitmap animation preference to simple.

4. Change the AVI window size by click the switch after AVI Options and select
screen.

5. To change the result color type in performance graphics mode, click the toggle after
result color type: and select discrete contours. Discrete contours produces discrete
color bands on contour plots with distinct boundaries between contour levels.

6. Click return to exit the options panel.

15.3.1)To create an animation sequence from transient results:

1.Select the transient panel on the Post page. (See fig. 15.3.1)
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Fig 15.3.1

2. Click start with HyperMesh displays a list of the available simulations.

3. Select Time step 0, t = 0.000e+00 to be used as the starting point for calculating the
deformed shape of the structure.

4. Click end with Select Time step 26, t = 2.500e+00 as the last simulation to be used.

5. Click data type =.

6. Select Von Mises (mid) as the data type used to calculate the deformed shape of the
structure.

7. Click the toggle before find maximum and select maximum =.


Basic course in Hypermesh
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8. Click maximum = and enter 2000 as the maximum data type value on the contour
plot.

9. Click transient. HyperMesh goes to the animation panel

10. In the header bar, the message Some element results not found (ignored) is
displayed. This message occurs because rigid links and joints are displayed in the
graphics area. HyperMesh does not support results for these entities.

11. Click the leftmost toggle and select visual options.

12. Click the toggle after mode and select hidden line.

13. Click the toggle after color and select contour.

14. To create reply file click create replay.

15. Click return to exit the animation panel and return to the transient panel.

16. To reverse the legend data type values:

17. Click the legend in graphics area to activate the legend edit panel.

18. Click reverse legend.

19. Click return to exit the legend edit panel. HyperMesh returns to the transient panel.

20. Click transient.

21. In the header bar, the message Some element results not found (ignored) is
displayed. This message occurs because rigid links and joints are displayed in the
graphics area. HyperMesh doesnt support results for these entities.

22. HyperMesh returns to the animation panel, the bitmap frames are built, and the
animation begins.

23. Click return to exit animation panel. HyperMesh returns to the transient panel.

24. To turn off the legend and simulation titles:

25. Click w on the permanent menu.

26. Click display legend to make this option inactive.


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27. Click display simulation title to make this option inactive.

28. Click return to exit the w panel.

29. Click transient.

15.3.2 To create an AVI file:

1. Click make AVI. The file is generated and saved in your specified user directory
with a file extension of .AVI. The file is the size specified under AVI Options in the
options panel. File names are automatically incremented when you create multiple
AVI files. You can insert AVI files into Microsoft Word or PowerPoint files.

2. Click return to exit the animation panel.

3. Click return to exit the transient panel.