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You are on page 1of 77

Herman Jaramillo

2

Introduction

These notes show the solutions of a few selected problems from Munkres [1],

book.

3

4

Chapter 4: Change of Variables

Problem 1.

Prove that the function f of Lemma 16.1 is of class C as follows: Given

any integer n 0, define fn : R R by the equation

1/x n

(e /x ) for x > 0,

fn (x) =

0 for x 0.

(a) Show that fn is continuous at 0. [Hint: Show that a < ea for all a. Then

set a = t/2n to conclude that

tn (2n)n

< (4.0.1)

et et/2

Set t = 1/x and let x approach 0 through positive values.]

sln. Let us first show that a < ea . The function f (a) = ea a, has

derivative f 0 (a) = ea 1. That is, f 0 (a) > 0, a > 0. That is the func-

tion is monotonically increasing in the positive a axis and monotonically

decreasing in the negative a axis. That is,

a < ea a > 0

If a = 0, from 0 < 1, and if a < 0, from a < 0 < ea , a < 0, we see that

in general a < ea . In particular, if a = t/2n we get

t

< et/2n

2n

5

6

tn

< et/2 = et /et/2

(2n)n

from which equation 4.0.1 follows. Let us now call x = 1/t so we

rewrite 4.0.1 as

e1/x (2n)n

<

xn e1/2x

Clearly as x 0+ , e1/2x and so (2n)n /e1/2x 0, so by the squeeze

1/x

theorem, fn (x) = e xn 0. That is limx0+ fn (x) = fn (0). So f is

continuous in 0.

(b) Show that fn is differentiable at 0. The left derivative exists and is 0,

since the function is identically zero on the left x axis. Let us check along

the right x axis. By definition, and from fn (0) = 0,

fn (h) fn (0)

fn0 (0+ ) = lim+

h0 h

fn (h)

= lim+

h0 h

1/h

e

= lim+ n+1

h0 h

(2n)n

<

he1/2h

The denominator he1/2h goes to as h 0+. To understand this,

expand the denominator in Taylor series (which is fine for small h). Then

he1/2h = h(1 + 1/2h + (1/2h)2 /2! + + (1/2h)k /k! + )

= h + 1/2 + 1/8h + O(1/h2 )

which clearly goes to as h 0. So in the limit fn0 (0+ ) = 0 and fn is

differentiable at 0.

(c) Show that fn0 (x) = fn+1 (x) nfn+1 (x) for all x. By direct evaluation,

from Leibniz product rule

fn0 (x) = e1/x /xn+2 ne1/x /xn+1 = fn+2 (x) nfn+1 (x), x (4.0.2)

7

(d) Show that fn is of class C . The recursion formula 4.0.2 shows that

the derivative of fn can be written in terms of functions fn+1 and fn+2 ,

weighted with coefficients 1 and n respectively. To the derivative exists

and its continuous for all n (an induction argument).

Problem 2.

Show that the functions defined in Example 1 form a partition of unity on

R. [Hint: Let

Show that

X

f2m (x) = (1 + cos x)/2. (4.0.4)

P

Then find f2m+1 (x)].

sln. I believe the hintPmake the problem more complicated. Let us perform

a direct evaluation of i (x).

Let us consider the case of x [, ] where f has a support. here are

two cases

Even indices:

2m (x) = f (x + m), m 1.

If x and x + m then

Here the only possible value is m = 1, since a higher value will shift the

argument from 0 by 2 or greater and the function f would evaluate

to zero there, and it is necessary that x 0. Hence, for x 0,

X 1 + cos(x + ) 1 cos x

2m (x) = f (x + ) = = , (4.0.5)

2 2

Odd indices:

8

m = 0, 1. That is,

3 (x) = f (x ) = (1 + cos(x ))/2 = (1 cos x)/2, 0 x

so

X (1 + cos x)/2 x 0,

2m+1 (x) = (4.0.6)

1 0 x ,

X X 1 x 0

i (x) = (2m (x) + 2m+1 (x)) =

1 0x

That is

X

i (x) = 1.

in the interval [, ].

Note that for the negative branches we added (1 cos x)/2 + (1 +

cos x)/2 = 1, and for the positive branches we added (1 + cos x)/2 +

(1 cos x)/2 = 1.

orem

Problem *6.

Let B n (a) denote the closed ball of radius a in Rn , centered at 0,

v(B n (a)) = n an

9

1

Before defining the mapping let us find a natural coordinate system

for this problem.

vector has coordinates

u = (u1 , , un ),

where

x ei xi

ui = = = cos i

kxk a

with i is the director angle between the vector x and the coordinate

base vector ei .

Since

u21 + + u2n = 1,

all ui coordinates are not independent and we can write the last coordi-

nate as

q

un = 1 (u21 + + u2n1 ).

: B Rn

(u1 , , un1 , r) 7 (ru1 , , run ), (4.0.7)

It is clear that this mapping turns our coordinates into a ball of radius

r, which for 0 r a is B n (a).

1

I solved this problem using 4 other methods including generalized polarspherical

coordinates, recursion formulas and evaluation of Gaussian functions, in my notes on

PDE.

10

r 0 0 u1

0 r 0 0 u2

.. .. ..

D = .. ..

. .

. . .

0 0 r un1

ru

un

1

ru

un

2

ruun1

n

un

q

Since un = 1 n1 2

P

i=1 ui , that is, un is multivalued and we need to

consider two patches. Each patch (due to symmetry) has the same area

and volume. We then only evaluate one patch and duplicate our result.

Let us evaluate det D(u, r). For this we perform Gaussian elimination

to put zeroes in the last raw, except for the last entry of that raw. We

11

find

u21

ru1

un

0 0 un

0 r 0 0 u2

un

.. ... ... .. ..

det D(u, r) = det

u1 . . .

0 0 r un1

ru

un

1

ru

un

2

ruun1

n

un

ru1 u21

un

0 0 un

0 r 0 0 u2

un .. .. .. .. ..

= det . . . . .

u1

0 0 r un1

u21 +u2n

0 ru

un

2

ruun1

n un

u21

ru1

un

0 0 un

ru2 u22

0

0 un

0 un

un un

.. .. .. .. ..

= det . . . . .

u1 u2

0 0 r un1

u21 +u22 +u2n

0 0 ruun1

n un

12

That is

un un un

det D(u, r) =

u1 u2 un1

u21

ru1

0 0

un un

u22

0 ru2 0

un

0 un

. .. ..

det .. . . . . . .

. .

u2n1

run1

0

0 un un

Pn1

u2i +u2n 1

0 0 0 i=1

un

= un

from which

rn1

det D(u, r) = (4.0.8)

un

Hence, the volume of the B n1 (a) ball is given by (recall that there are

two patches with equal volume)

Z

n

v(B (a)) = 2 det D(u, r)

n (a)

B+

Z a Z

n1 1

= 2 r dr du1 dun1

0 n (1)

B+ un

n Z

2a 1

= du1 dun1

n n (1)

B+ un

= an n (4.0.9)

with

Z

2 1

n = du1 dun1 (4.0.10)

n n (1)

B+ un

(c) Compute n in terms of n2 .

(d) Obtain a formula for n . [Hint: Consider two cases, according as n is

even or odd.]

13

Z

n

v(B (a)) = 2 det D(u, r)

n (a)

B+

Z a Z

n1 1

= 2 r dr q du1 dun1 .

n1

P n1 2

0 B+ (1) 1 i=1 ui

Z

n

2a 1

= q du1 dun1 .

n P n1 2

B+ (1) 1

n1

i=1 ui

If n = 1 (in the onedimensional space, then

2a

v(B 0 (a)) = = 2a,

1

If n = 2 (in the 2D space)

1

2a2

Z

1 1

v(B (a)) = p du1 = a2 .

2 1 1 u21

If n = 3 (in the 3D space)

1

2a3

Z

2 1

v(B (a)) = p du1 du2

3 1 1 u21 u22

2a3 1

Z Z 1

1

= du1 du2 p

3 1 1 b2 u22

where b2 = 1 u21 . The substitution u2 = b sin , du2 = b cos ,

where [/2, /2] provides

2a3 1

Z Z /2

2 b cos d

v(B (a)) = du1

3 1 /2 b cos

3 Z 1

2a

= du1

3 1

4a3

=

3

which corresponds to the three dimensional volume of a sphere.

14

integrated iteratively. That is they are independent variables along or-

thogonal directions. This is not always true and we were lucky in ob-

taining the right answer with a weak assumption. In general we could

have trouble.

In general, let us assume that we are considering the ndimensional

space. We will assume that the variable of integration r is decoupled

from the rest of the variables (and this is right) there is not dependence

between the radius and any of the polar/azimuthal directions. So we can

write

Z

n

2a 1

v(B n (a)) = q du1 dun1 .

n P n1 2

n1

B+ (1) 1 u

i=1 i

from zero, so we can apply Fubinis rule, and then after we apply the

rule we can take the limit as the denominator (un ) goes to zero. Recall

n1

that the domain of integration B+ (a) is the manifold of n 1tuples

(u1 , , un1 ) under the mapping

Pn1

and since 0 < un 1 then 1 i=1 u2i > 0.

Let us take the last coordinate un1 and let it be in the interval un1

[1 + , 1 ], 0 < << 1 and write

Z 1 Z

2an 1

v(B n (a)) = dun1 q Pn1 2 du1 dun2 .

n

1 B+ (1) 1

n1

i=1 ui

n1 n2 n2

with B+ = B+ [1, 1]. B+ is the manifold defined by the (n 2)

tuples (u1 , un2 ) such that

u21 + u2n2 1.

15

Z Z 1

n

2a du

n

v(B (a)) = lim du1 dun2 p n12 .

0 n b2 un1

n2

B+ (1) 1+

with b2 = 1 n2 2

P

i=1 ui and make the change of variables un1 = b sin ,

du = b cos , so

Z arcsin(1)

2an

Z

n

v(B (a)) = du1 dun2 d

n B+n2 (1) arcsin(1+)

2an

Z

= du1 dun2

n n2

B+ (1)

2an

= v(B n2 )(1) (4.0.11)

n

This provides us with the following recursion formula. Starting at n = 1.

v(B 0 (a)) = 2a

2a3 4a3

v(B 2 (a)) = v(B 0 (1)) =

3 3

5

2a 8 2 a5

v(B 4 (a)) = v(B 2 (1)) =

5 15

on the other hand, starting at n = 2

v(B 1 (a)) = a2

2a4 a4 2

v(B 3 (a)) = v(B 1 (1)) =

4 2

6 6 3

2a a

v(B 5 (a)) = v(B 3 (1)) = .

6 6

In general, by simple induction and the recursions above, it is easy to

observe that the formula for the volume of the ndimensional ball

n/2 an

v(B n (a)) = . (4.0.12)

n2 + 1

v(B n (a)) n/2

n = = (4.0.13)

n2 + 1

an

16

Problem *7.

(a) Find the centroid of the upper halfball

n

B+ (a) = {x|x B n (a) and xn 0}

in terms of n and n1 and a, where n = v(B n (1)).

Z

n 1 I

ck (B+ (a)) = n

k = n

, (4.0.14)

v(B+ (a)) B+n (a) v(B+ (a)

with

Z

I= k .

n (a)

B+

We know that half the sphere has half the volume (isnt this obvious?,

since the density is constant :)) So

n an n n 2I

v(B+ (a)) = , and so ck (B+ (a)) = .

2 an n

Next we evaluate the integral I. For this evaluation we use the change

of variables defined by the function in the mapping 4.0.7, for which we

already know (see equation 4.0.8 ) that

rn1

V (D) = .

un

We should evaluate the integral

Z

I= k .

n (a)

B+

Z

I = ruk det D((u, r))

n (a)

B+

Z a Z

n uk

= r dr du1 dun1

0 n (1)

B+ un

an+1

Z

uk

= du1 dun1 (4.0.15)

n+1 n (1)

B+ un

17

d

an+1

Z Z

uk

I = du1 duk1 duk+1 dun1 duk

n n (1)

B+ c un

tion of Fubinis rule always should be addressed. I will assume that

the kintegration can be moved to the end as I did here (and I

could, but will not prove it).

From i u2i = 1, i = 1, , n we have

P

v

u

u n1

X

un = t1 u2i

i=1

v

u n1

X

u

= t1 u2i u2k

i=1,i6=k

q

= b2 u2k

where

n1

X

2

b =1 u2i .

i=1,i6=k

and d = b. Since, uk is odd (recall uk = xk /a )

d b

an+1 an+1

Z Z

uk uk

I= duk = duk p = 0 (4.0.16)

n+1 c un n+1 b b2 u2k

2

n+1 = n1 . (4.0.17)

n+1

18

an+1 an+1

Z

I= du1 dun1 = n1 (4.0.18)

n + 1 B+n (1) n+1

2a n1 an+1

ck = kn = kn

n + 1 n n

where

1 if i=n

kn =

0 if i 6= n

is the Kronecker delta.

Two simple cases (we should start at n 2).

n=2 (semicircle)

c1 = 0

2a 2 4a

c2 = = .

3 3

n=3 (semisphere)

c1 = 0

c2 = 0

2a 3a

c3 = = .

4 4/3 8

Finally let us express the formula of the centroid in terms of the

function using equation 4.0.13. That is, since

n/2

n =

n2 + 1

then

2a (n1)/2 ((n 1)/2 + 1) 2a (n/2 + 1/2)

ck = kn = kn .

n + 1 n/2 (n/2 + 1) (n + 1) 1/2 (n/2 + 1)

n n2

(b) Express c(B+ (a)) in terms of c(B+ (a)).

19

n

c(B+ (a)) an+1 n2 n+1 n2

n2 = =

c(B+ (a)) n an1 n n1

c(B+n

(a)) (n+1)/2 (n2)/2 ( n2 + 1) ( n1

2

+ 1)

n2 = n+1 n2

c(B+ (a)) ( 2 + 1) ( 2 + 1) n/2 (n1)/2

(n + 2)/2

=

(n + 3)/2

n+2

=

n+3

So the relationship looked for is

n n+2 n2

c(B+ (a)) = c(B+ (a)).

n+3

20

Chapter 5: Manifolds

Manifold

Problem 2.

Let A be open in Rk ; let f : A R be of class C r ; let Y be the graph of

f in Rk+1 , parameterized by the function : A Rk+1 given by (x) =

(x, f (x)). Express v(Y ) as an integral.

sln. By definition

Z

v(Y ) = V (D ).

A

if j k

i ij

i,j = =

xj

f,i if j = k + 1

with ij being the Kronecker delta, that is the identity matrix up to dimension

k k and

f

f,i = .

xi

Let us call

P = DT r D .

21

22

We should evaluate:

det P.

the diagonal entry Pii , we dot multiply the ith column of D by itself and

find

Pii = 1 + (f,i )2 .

Off the diagonal we find that the dot product only provides the last two

entries of the column, mainly

notation) and the LeviCivita antisymmetric tensor. We write

and so

det P = i1 i2 ik (1i1 + f,1 f,i1 )(2i2 + f,2 f,i2 ) (kik + f,k f,ik )

If we are to split the factors in monic terms, each term would have the

form of

i1 i2 ik j1 ij1 j2 ij2 jl ijl (f,p1 f,ip1 )(f,p2 f,ip2 ) (f,pm f,ipm )

that if m > 1 then the contribution of the sum of the corresponding terms

below is zero. To see why this should be true let us see a simple case. Let

us say that m = 2, then there are k 2 Kronecker deltas, and in those cases

to avoid a zero we need js = is for all s = 1, k 2, and only two couple of f

factors. That is

23

k 2 superindices of the LeviCivita symbol are fixed and two are variable.

The two superindices which can change are i and i . For each (i , i ) couple

there is a (i , i ) couple, and they give opposite signs in the sum (if one pro-

duces an odd permutation, the other produces an even permutation). Now,

the interchange of by will not change the absolute value of equation 5.19.

So all terms cancel pairwise.

The same applies if m > 3. We can always interchange by couples and

see that the terms cancel pairwise.

The only remaining cases are m = 0 and m = 1. For m = 0 we have the

expression

by default, and the expansion of the LeviCivita expression provides

where jk is the only free index running in the list 1, 2, k. So, combin-

ing 5.20 and 5.21 we find

k 2

X f

det P = 1 + .

i=1

xk

Z v

u k 2

u X f

v(YD ) = t1 + .

i=1

xk

24

Problem 3.

Let A be open in Rk ; let : A Rn be of class C r ; let Y = (A). The

centroid c(Y ) of the parameterizedmanifold Y is the point Rn whose ith

coordinate is given by the equation

Z

1

Ci (Y ) = i V, (5.22)

v(Y ) A

(a) Find the centroid of the parameterizedcurve

(b) Find the centroid of the hemisphere of radius a in R3 . (See Example 4.)

sln.

(a) Let us first find

Z

v(Y ) = V (D )

A

where

a sin t

D() =

a cos t

and

Z q Z

2 2 2

V (D ) = a (sin t + cos t) = a = a.

0 0

Now from the definition of centroid 5.22

Z Z

1 1

C1 (Y ) = 1 V = a2 cos tdt = 0

v(Y ) A a 0

Z

2 a2

Z

1 1 2a

C2 (Y ) = 2 V = a2 sin tdt = = .

v(Y ) A a 0 a

25

v(Y ) = 2a2 .

Z Z

1 1 ax

C1 (Y ) = 1 V = dxdy

v(Y ) A 2a2 A (a2 x2 y 2 )1/2

Z a Z a2 y2

1 ax dx

= 2

dy 2 2 2 1/2

2a a a2 y 2 (a x y )

Z a a2 y2

1

= dy(a2 x2 y 2 )1/2 = 0.

2a a a2 y 2

C2 (Y ) = 0. Let us now compute C3 (Y ()). That is

Z Z

1 1 az

C3 (Y ) = 3 V = dxdy

v(Y ) A 2a A (a x2 y 2 )1/2

2 2

Z

1

= a dx dy

2a2 A

1

= aa2

2a2

a

= . (5.23)

2

Problem 4.

The following exercise gives a strong plausibility argument justifying our

definition of volume. We consider only the case of a surface in R3 , but a

similar result holds in general.

Given three points a, b, c in R3 , let C be the matrix with columns b a

and c a. The transformation h : R2 R3 given by h(x) = C x + a carries

0, e1 , e2 to a, b, c, respectively. The image Y under h of the set

is called the (open) triangle in R3 with vertexes a, b, c. See Figure 22.5. The

area of the parameterizedsurface Yh is onehalf the area of the parallelepiped

with edges b a and c a, as you can check.

26

a map of class C r defined in an open set containing Q. Let P be a partition

of Q. Let R be a subrectangle determined by P , say

R = [a, a + h] [b, b + k].

Consider the triangle 1 (R) having vertexes

(a, b), (a + h, b), and (a + h, b + k)

and the triangle 2 (R) having vertexes

(a, b), (a, b + k), and (a + h, b + k).

We consider these two triangles to be an approximation to the curved rect-

angle (R)00 . See Figure 22.6. We then define

X

A(P ) = [v(1 (R)) + v(2 (R))],

R

number is the area of a polyhedral surface that approximations (Q). Prove

the following:

Theorem: Let Q be a rectangle in R2 and let : A R3 be a map of

class C r defined in an open set containing Q. Given > 0, there is a > 0

such that for every partition P of Q of mesh less than ,

Z

A(P ) V (D) < .

Q

Proof.

(a) Given points x1 , , x6 of Q, let

D1 1 (x1 ) D2 1 (x4 )

D(x1 , , x6 ) = D1 2 (x2 ) D2 2 (x5 )

D1 3 (x3 ) D2 3 (x6 )

Then D is just the matrix D with its entries evaluated at different

points of Q. Show that if R is a subrectangle determined by P , then

there are points x1 , , x6 of R such that

1

v(1 (R)) = V (D(x1 , , x6 )) v(R).

2

Prove a similar result for v(2 (R)).

27

sln. The following solution was taking from Yan Zengs document 2 .

The reader needs Adobe Flash Player installed to be able to access the

information there.

Z

v(1 (R)) = V (D),

A

(a + h, b + k). V (D) is a continuous function on the compact set A, so

it achieves its maximum M and minimum m on A. Let x1 , x2 A such

that V (D(x1 )) = M and V (D (x2 )) = m, respectively. Then

ering the segment connecting

R x1 and x2 , we can find a point 1 A such

that V (D( 1 ))v(A) = A V (D). This shows that there is a point 1

of R such that

Z

1

v(1 (R)) = V (D) = V (D( 1 ))v(A) = V (D( 1 )) v(R).

A 2

A similar result for v(2 (R)) can be proved similarly. Here we find a

second point 2 .

I like Yan Zengs solution to the problem. I still do not get why Munkres

require six different points in the rectangle R.

(b) Given > 0, show one can choose > 0 so that if xi , y i Q with

|xi y i | < for i = 1, , 6, then

compact set Q.

2

http://www.docin.com/p-306958076.html

28

sln.

Z Z

X

A(P ) V (D) v(1 (R)) + v(2 (R)) V (D)

Q R

R Z

X 1

= [V (D( 1 (R))) + V (D( 2 (R)))]v(R) V (D)

2

R

Z

X V (D( (R))) + V (D( (R)))

1 2

V (D)

R R

2

Z

1X

|V (D( 1 (R))) V (D)| +

2 R R

|V (D( 2 (R))) V (D)|

Given > 0, there exists a > 0 such that if x1 , x2 Q with |x1 x2 | <

, we must have V ((D(x1 ))V (D(x2 ))| < v(Q) . So for every partition

P of Q of mesh less than ,

Z XZ

A(P )

V (D) < = .

Q R R v(Q)

Problem 3.

(a) Show that the unit circle S 1 is a 1manifold in R2 .

sln. We can cover the circle with the following four patches, each half

a circle and with an overlapping of a quarter of circle between patches.

i : R R2

t 7 (cos t, sin t)

and the patch Vi is the circular arc corresponding to the angle swept by

Ui . It is easy to verify the three conditions to be a manifold for each of

the three patches. That is

(i) i is of class C .

29

(iii) D(t) = ( sin t, cos t) has rank 1.

(b) The problem of letting the circle close (or in other words to let the domain

interval be of length 2), is that the point corresponding to 0 and 2 is

the same, and so 1 can not be continuous at that point, since the

inverse image of a neighborhood of that point can be as closed to 2 as

we want, or as closed to 0 as we want. Topologically we can see it like

this. Take the open set [0, 2), in H1 . The image under the mapping

is the whole circle which is a closed set in the relative topology of the set

S 1 in R2 . Hence, 1 can not be continuous.

Problem 6.

(a) Show that I = [0, 1] is a 1manifold in R.

Let U = [0, 1) which is open in H1 . We use two coordinate patches.

1 : U V1 = [0, 1)

x 7 x

and

2 : U V2 = (0, 1]

x 7 1 x

Note that the purpose of the second mapping 2 is just to add the number

1 missing from V1 . The mapping could be defined in smaller set [0, s)

with 0 < s < 1.

belongs to the next section. It is hard to prove without the definitions

and properties of the next section.

30

sln. The answer is: no. The reason is because of the corners. To

better understand the reasons let me show first what type of unit squares

are manifolds, and then show why the answer is no.

be the only coordinate patch needed.

The square A = (0, 1) [0, 1) is a manifold. Again, the identity

mapping from H1 to itself satisfy the manifold definition.

The square B = (0, 1) (0, 1] is a manifold. Here the coordinate

patch is given by

(x, y) 7 (x, 1 y).

two items cover this union.

The square C = [0, 1) (0, 1). The mapping

(x, y) 7 (y, x).

The square D = (0, 1] (0, 1). The mapping

(x, y) 7 (1 y, x).

serve to cover this union.

Note that in all these sets no corner of the square is included. Any

set with a corner, such as for example [0, 1) [0, 1) can not be a

manifold. If the manifold, is a manifold with boundary, then the

boundary will come from the y = 0 line (the xaxis). Pick any

point in the boundary which maps to a corner. If we approach

that point from the left we will be approaching the corner from

a given direction. If we change direction in the domain (say that

we approach the point from the right), then we will approach the

31

y

a

(b, 0, 0)

x

image under from the other side of the corner. That is from

a side which is 90 degrees out of phase with the first direction. A

directional derivative can not depend on the sign where we approach

the point to. So there is not differentiable function which satisfies

a mapping with the manifold prerequisites.

Problem 1.

1. Show that the solid torus is a 3manifold, and its boundary is the torus

T . (See the exercises 17). [Hint: Write the equation for T in Cartesian

coordinates and apply Theorem 24.4.]

Figure 5.1 shows an sketch of the torus. Referring to Problem 7 of section

17, the solid tours is the image under the cylindrical coordinate transforma-

tion

g(r, , z) = (r cos , r sin , z),

for all (r, , z) satisfying

(r b)2 + z 2 a and 0 2.

The solid torus is generated by rotation the vertical circle centered at

(b, 0, 0) with radius a an angle ofp

2. This is given, in Cartesian coordinates,

by the points (x, y, z) such that x2 + y 2 b)2 + z 2 a.

32

We define f as follows:

f : R3 R

p

(x, y, z) 7 f (x, y, z) = a ( x2 + y 2 b)2 z 2

So the points for which f (x, y, z) = 0 are the surface of the torus while those

where f (x, y, z) 0 are the volume of the torus. We see that f is of class C

in the set points such that f (x, y, z) = 0 and Df (x, y, z) has rank 1, since

f p x 2xb

= 2( x2 + y 2 b) p = 2x + p

x 2

x +y 2 x2 + y 2

similarly

f 2yb

= 2y + p

y x2 + y 2

and f /z = 2z so

2x + 2xb

x +y 2

2

Df (x, y, z) = 2y + 2yb

x2 +y 2

2z

should show that the tree components of Df can not be simultaneously 0,

for which if this happens then

xb yb

z = 0, x= p , and y = p

x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2

is assumed to be strictly positive.

So the solid torus N is a manifold of rank 3 with boundary T = N a

2manifold.

To appreciate the power of this theorem let us consider a different ap-

proach to prove that the surface and solid torus are manifolds. We can use to

parameters to characterize the surface of a torus. These are the azimuth an-

gle of a circular cross-section, and the angle along the circular crosssection.

Figure 5.2 shows the representation of the two parameters. The azimuthal

33

The azimuthal angle provides the location of the circular cross-section.

The angle , locates the point within the circular crosssection.

y

(x, y, z)

.

as

(x, y, z) = (b + a cos ) cos , (b + a cos ) sin , a sin ).

So formally we can write

: R2 R3 (5.24)

(, ) A 7 ((b + a cos ) cos , (b + a cos ) sin , a sin ) (5.25)

with A = [0, 2)[0, 2). To cover the torus in a unique way we need several

patches, since at the points 0 and 2 the inverse of the mapping function is

not continuous. It is not hard to prove that this mapping is differentiable

and the inverse is continuous for small (smaller than 2 length) intervals.

Also that the differential is of rank 2. However, this representation does not

tell us anything about the solid body, and without using the resources in

Theorem 24.4 it seems hard to come up with an easy proof.

Problem 2.

2. Prove the following:

34

all x such that f (x) = 0. Assume that M is nonempty and that Df (x) has

rank m for x M . Then M is a kmanifold without boundary in Rm+k .

Furthermore, if N is the set of all x for which

(f1 , , fm1 )

x

has rank m 1 at each point of N , then N is a k + 1 manifold, and N = M .

Lemma 1. Let f : Rm+k Rm be of class C r . Assume Df has rank

n at a point p, then there is an open set W Rm+k and a C r function

G : W Rm+k with C r inverse such that G(W ) is an open neighborhood of

p and f G : W Rn is the projection mapping to the first m coordinates.

x2 Rk . We know from the hypothesis that Df has rank m. Without

loss of generality we can assume that the independent columns of the matrix

Df are the first columns, otherwise we could permute the columns until

that happens. Since any permutation P has a determinant equal to (1)(P )

where (P ) is the order of the permutation, the nonzero hypothesis for the

Dx1 is still valid for the composition of the permutation with the function

f.

Define F (x) = (f (x), x2 ), then

Dx1 f Dx2 f

DF = .

0 Ik

So, det DF (p) = det Dx1 f (p) 6= 0. By the inverse function theorem, there

is an open set U of Rm+k containing p such that F carries U in a onetoone

I use m instead of n00 because it is more convenient for the solution of Problem 4

3

below

35

fashion onto the open set W of Rm+k and its inverse is of class C r . Denote

the projection

: Rm+k Rm

x 7 x1

Then

on W .

With this we proceed to prove the theorem.

Pick p M . By the preceding lemma there is a C r diffeomorphism G

between an open set W of Rm+k and an open set U of Rm+k containing p,

such that f G = on W .

So, by calling, the mcoordinate vector

0

0m = ...

0

we have

U M = {x U : f (x) = 0}

= G(W ) (f G G1 )1 ({0m })

= G(W ) ( G1 )1 ({0m })

= G(W ) G 1 ({0m })

= G(W 1 ({0m }))

= G(W {0m } Rk )

dinate patch on M about p. Since p was arbitrarily chosen, we have proved

that M is a kmanifold without boundary in Rm+k .

Now, p N = {x : f1 (x) = fm1 (x) = 0, fm (x) 0},

there are two cases:

to that of M , we can find a C r diffeomorphism G1 between an open set

36

mapping to the first (m 1) coordinates

= G1 (W ) {x : f1 (x) = fm1 )(x) = 0} {x : fm (x) 0}

= G1 (W ) (F G1 G1 1

1 ) ({0}m1 ) {x : fm (x) 0}

= G1 (W ) (1 G1 1

1 ) ({0}m1 ) {x : fm (x) 0}

= G1 (W ) G1 11 ({0}m1 ) {x : fm (x) 0}

= G1 (W ) G1 ({0}m1 Rk+1 ) {x : fm (x) 0}

G1 W ({0}m1 Rk+1 ) {x : fm (x) 0}

=

fm (p) > 0, we can assume fm (x) > 0, x U . so

= G1 W ({0}m1 Rk+1 ) {x : fm (x) > 0}

= G1 W ({0}m1 Rk+1 ) G1 G1

1 {x : fm (x) > 0}

= G1 W ({0}m1 Rk+1 ) G1

1 {x : f m (x) > 0}

dimensional manifold patch on N about p.

2. fm (p) = 0. Here we note that p is necessarily in M . So Df (p) is of

rank m and there is a C r diffeomorphism G between an open set W of

Rm+k and an open set U of Rm+k containing p, such that f G = on

W . So

U N = {x U : f1 (x) = fm1 (x) = 0, fm (x) 0}

= G(W ) (f G G1 )1 ({0m1 } [0, ))

= G(W ) ( G1 )1 ({0m1 } [0, ))

= G(W ) G( 1 )({0m1 } [0, ))

= G(W 1 ({0m1 } [0, ))

= G(W 0m1 [0, ) Rk ).

37

(k + 1)dimensional coordinate patch on N about p.

In summary, we have shown that N is a (k + 1)manifold. Lemma 24.2

shows that N = M .

define hypersurfaces in the mdimensional space of rank at most, m 1.

For example a function f (x1 , x0 ) = 0 defines a curve in the twodimensional

space, a function f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) define a surface in the threedimensional space.

Then to define a hypervolume we change the symbol = by the symbol

yielding f (x) 0. We learned this from linear algebra or linear optimization

by selecting lines, planes and hyperplanes.

We also know that the intersection of surfaces yields curves. In this way

saying F : Rm Rk is like saying that we have a set of hypersurfaces

F = (f1 , , fk ) of rank at most m 1 each, but as the number of surfaces

start intersecting the rank of the intersection starts reducing at most by 1.

So the rank of the resulting surface is at most m k.

This is a powerful theorem and the rest of exercises on this section are

applications of this theorem.

Problem 4.

Show that the upper hemisphere of S n1 (a), defined by the equation

E+n1 (a) = S n1 (a) H n

is an n 1 manifold. What is its boundary?

the Theorem shown in exercise 2.

Let us define

f : Rm+k R2

x 7 (f1 , f2 ) = (kxk a2 , xn ),

We have the following associations

M = {x : f1 (x) = 0 f2 (x) = xn = 0}

E+n1 (a) = N = {x : f1 (x) = 0 f2 (x) = xn 0}

38

Now

2x1 2xn1 2xn

Df =

0 0 1

The matrix Df has rank 2 at M , where xn = 0, but at least one of the other

components xi , 1 < i < n should be different from zero (since the sum of all

squares is a2 ) so (using the Theorem in exercise 2) M is a k = n2manifold

without boundary in Rn .

Now,

f1

= (2x1 , 2xn )

x

has rank 1, since not all components could be zero at the same time, so again

using the Theorem on exercise 2 we see that N is an n 1 manifold such

that N = M = S n2 (a).

a Manifold

Before going to the Problem I want to go over the Definition of measure

zero set. I find it confusing as well as the proof of equivalence right after it.

D of M is said to have measure zero in M if it can be covered by countable

many coordinate patches i : Ui Vi such that the set

Di = 1 (D Vi ) (5.26)

First, there is a typo in equation 5.26. The mapping is missing its

subindex i. Let us rewrite it correctly:

Di = i1 (D Vi ) (5.27)

Second, let us work the equivalence after the definition. Munkres says: An

equivalent definition is to require that for any coordinate patch : U V ,

on M , the set 1 (D V ) has measure zero for each i. And this follows from

39

the fact that the set i1 (D V Vi ) has measure zero because it is a subset

of Di , and that 1 i is of class C r .

I find Munkres proof confusing, so I want to rephrase it. Being an equiv-

alence, let us prove it in two steps. The obvious implication is that if for

any coordinate patch : U M , 1 (D V ) has measure zero in Rk , then

in particular for each set of {i } countable coordinate patches which form a

covering of M the measure of Di = 1 (D Vi ) is zero. The, not obvious

implication is this. Assume that for each countable covering patches of M

as defined above, we have that the measure of Di is zero. Then given any

arbitrary patch : U V , we want to prove that the measure of 1 (D V )

is zero. We can create a new set with all countable patches i and the patch

. Let us index this new patch as J . Adding one patch to a countable set,

will leave it countable. So we can apply the hypothesis of the new countable

set to say that 1 (D VJ ) = 1 (D V ) is of measure zero.

Problem 2.

Let (t), (t), f (t) be realvalued functions of class C 1 on [0, 1], with f (t) > 0.

Suppose M is a 2manifold in R3 whose intersection with the plane z = t is

the circle

(a) Set up an integral for the area of M . [Hint: Proceed as in Example 2.]

sln. We define the following patch from A = (0, 2) [0, 1] into our

manifold M . Note that from equation 5.28 we find that

f (t) sin = y (t)

y = (t) + f (t) sin

40

By definition

Z

v(M ) = V (D)

A

and

f (t) sin 0 (t) + f 0 (t) cos

0 1

To simplify notation let us define

c = cos , s = sin

and

g 2 (t) = (D)22

= (0 (t) + f 0 (t)c)2 + ( 0 (t) + f 0 (t)s2 + 1

= 1 + f 02 (t) + 02 (t) + 0( t) + 20 (t)f 0 (t)c + 2 0 (t)f 0 (t)s,

then

1/2

f (t)( 0 (t)c.0 (t)s)

f 2 (t)

V (D) = det

f (t)( 0 (t)c 0 (t)s) g 2 (t)

= (f 2 (t)g 2 (t) f 2 (t)( 02 (t)c2 + 02 (t)s2 ))1/2

p

= f (t) (g 2 (t) 02 (t)c2 02 (t)s2 )

p

= f (t) (1 + f 02 (t) + 02 (t)c2 + 02 (t)s2 + 20 (t)f 0 (t)c + 2 0 (t)f 0 (t)s

q

= f (t) 1 f 02 (t) + (0( t)c + f 0 (t))2 + ( 0 (t)s + f 0 (t))2

Z 1 Z 2 q

v(M ) = dt df (t) 1 f 02 (t) + (0( t)c + f 0 (t))2 + ( 0 (t)s + f 0 (t))2

0 0

(5.29)

41

Before proceeding to the next part of the exercise, let us check our answer

for the simplest case

(t) = const

(t) = const

f 2 (t) = a2 t2

So,

t

2f (t)f 0 (t) = 2t f 0 (t) =

f (t)

Z 1 Z 2 p

v(M ) = dt df (t) 1 + f 02 (t) (5.30)

Z0 1 Z0 2 p

= dt df (t) 1 + t2 /f 2 (t)

Z0 1 Z0 2 p

= dt d t2 + f 2 (t)

0 0

Z 1 Z 2

= dt d a this is good news

0 0

= 2a

We do not get 4a2 because t [0, 1]. If |t| < a we would get 4a2 as in

example 2.

(b) Evaluate when and are constant and f (t) = 1 + t2 .

Z 1 Z 2 p

v(M ) = dt df (t) 1 + f 02 (t)

Z0 1 Z0 2

= dt d(1 + t2 ) 1 + 4t2

0

Z 1 0

= 2 dt(1 + t2 ) 1 + 4t2

0

= 13.1022.

42

(c) What form does the integral take when f is constant and (t) = 0 and

(t) = at? (This integral cannot be evaluated in terms of the elementary

functions.)

Z 1 Z 2 p

v(M ) = dt df 1 + (a sin + f )2

0 0

Z 2 p

= f 1 + (a sin + f )2 d

0

Problem 3.

Consider the torus T of Exercise 7 of 17.

(a) Find the area of this torus. [Hint: The cylindrical coordinate transfor-

mation carries a cylinder onto T . Parameterize the cylinder using the

fact that its crosssection are circles.

Let us rewrite parameterization 5.24 for the torus T

Then

a sin cos sin (b + a cos )

D = a sin sin cos (b + a cos )

a cos 0

so

T a2 0

V (D) = (det[(D) D] = det )1/2 = a(b + a cos ).

0 (b + a cos )2

and so

Z Z 2

v(M ) = a(b + a cos ) = 2a (b + a cos )d = 2a(2b) = 4 2 ab.

A 0

43

It seems obvious that this corresponds to half of the surface. That is

2 2 ab, however this is tricky. The inside of the donut has less surface

than the outside.

The outside comes from integrating only in the interval [/2, /2].

Note that in parameterization 5.31 this corresponds to values of x and y

larger than b.

We have

Z /2

v(M ) = 2a (b + a cos )d = 2a(2a + b) = 2 2 ab + 4a2 .

/2

Similarly the inner part of the donut is between the angles [/2, 3/2].

Note that in parameterization 5.31 this corresponds to values of x and y

smaller than b. So,

Z 3/2

v(M ) = 2a (b + a cos )d = 2a(2a + b) = 2 2 ab 4a2 .

/2

is the excess of area in the outside, or the defect area in the inside.

Problem 4.

Let M be a compact kmanifold in Rn . Let h : Rn Rn be an isometry;

let N = h(M ). Let f : N R be a continuous function. Show that N is a

kmanifold in Rk , and

Z Z

f dV = (f h)dV.

N M

We start by showing that N is a kmanifold in Rn .

Let {j } be a family of coordinate patches that covers M . We show that

{h j } is a family of coordinate patches that covers N .

44

is if if |h(x) h(y)| = |x y| then whatever is done in one domain does

not changes distances in the other domain. Theorem 20.6 indicates that each

isometry is an orthogonal transformation followed by a translation. That is

h(x) = Ax + p.

So the differential of h is Dh = A and since A is orthogonal

Now, let the family of coordinate patches {j } cover the manifold M .

That is

M i i (Ui ) = Vi ,

so

N = h(M ) i (h i )(Ui )

so the family {h j } covers N and since h is a diffeomorphism we can assure

that this family is an atlas covering N . Hence, N is a manifold.

To evaluate the volume we follow Zeng. Supprose 1 , l is a partition

of unity on M that is dominated by {j }, then 1 h1 , l h1 is a

partition of unity on N that is dominated by h j . I prove this.

We want to show the three attributes under the Lemma 25.2. That is:

(a) i h1 0.

Since i is a partition of unity, then for all x Rn (x) 0. In particular

h1 (x) 0. for each x Rn .

(b) Since, for each i, the support of i is compact and there is a coordinate

patch i : Ui Vi belonging to the given covering such that

((Support i ) M ) Vi ,

then there is a coordinate patch h i such that

((Support h i ) N ) Wi ,

(c)

X X

i h1 (x) = i (y)

X

i h1 (x) = 1.

45

i } is a partition of unity on N

dominated b y {h j }.

Let us now evaluate the integral

Z l Z

X

f dV = (i h1 )f dV

N i=1 N

Xl Z

= (i h1 h i )(f h i )V (D(h i ))

i=1 IntUi

Xl Z

= (i i )(f h i )V (Di )

i=1 IntUi

Xl Z

= i (f h) dV

M

Zi=1

= (f h) dV.

M

Problem 5.

(a) Express the volume of S n (a) in terms of the volume B n1 (a). [Hint:

Follow the pattern of Example 2.]

= {(x1 , , xn1 ) , x21 + + x2n1 = a2 cos2 }

{(xn , xn+1 ) , x2n + x2n+1 = a2 sin2 }

Then we parameterized the sphere based on the single parameter which

we integrate between 0 and /2. That is

Z /2

n

v(S (a)) = v(S n2 (a cos )) v(S 1 (a sin ))Jd

0

46

The product of the two volumes is taken because we are integrating over

cross product of independent spaces (for each fixed ). The Jacobian

J = a comes from the transformation from rectangular coordinates to

polar (a, ) coordinates. To get this Jacobian requires a good amount of

work. It is obvious for 2D when we say that if x21 + x22 = a2 , x1 = a cos

and x2 = a sin , then the Jacobian

(x1 , x2 )

J = det = a.

(a, )

We then have,

Z /2

n

v(S (a)) = a v(S n2 (a cos )) 2(a sin ))d

0

Z a

= 2a v(S n2 ())d

0

= 2av(B n1 (a)).

Z a

n1

v(B (a)) = v(S n2 ())d. (5.32)

0

This integral is easy to see as thinking that an onion is the union of all

its concentric shells.

To verify the result let us consider a few cases.

For n = 2

2aB 1 (a) = (2a)(2 a) = 4a2

For n = 3

v(S 3 (a)) = 2 2 a3 ,

2aB 2 (a) = (2a)( 2 a2 ) = 2 2 a3

47

and for n = 4

8

v(S 4 (a)) = 2 a4 ,

3

4 8

2aB 3 (a) = (2a)( a3 ) = 2 a3

3 3

So,

v(S n (a))

= 2a. (5.33)

v(B n1 (a))

: Rn Rn+1

(x1 , xn ) = (x1 , xn , f (x1 , , xn )) (5.34)

with

v

u n

X

u

2

f (x1 , xn ) = a

t x2 i

i=1

Then,

1 0 0

0 1 0

D =

.. ... .. ..

. . .

0 1

f,1 f,n

where

f xj

f,j = = p Pn 2 (5.35)

xj a2 i=1 xi

So

1 + f,12 f,1 f,2 f,1 f,n

f,1 f,2 1 + f,22 f,2 f,n

A = (D)T (D) =

.. .. .. ..

. . . .

2

f,1 f,n 1 + f,n

48

putation is trivial and yields

n

X

det A = 1 + f,i2 . (5.36)

i=1

To evaluate the determinant of this matrix we observe that any entry

has the form of

aij = ij + f,i f,j ,

and using the index notation for the determinant, we see that

det A = i1 in a1i1 anin

= i1 in (1i1 + f,1 f,i1 ) (nin + f,n f,in )

XY

= P Q IP f,I f,Q

P,Q P,Q

Where P and Q are all possible two ordered partitions of the set 1, , n,

and I = (1, , n).

Here

IP = 1i1 kik , P = (i1 ik )

f,Q = f,j1 f,jnk , Q = (j1 , j,nk ).

#P = n then P is a permutation of I. Any permutation of P of I that

is not the identity will produce some ij = 0, so the only contribution

to the sum of permutations of #P = n comes from the identity and this

contribution is 1, since the f,Q does not even enter into the picture (Q is

the empty set ).

Next let us assume #P = n 1. Then #Q = 1, so each term in this

collection will have n 1 factors of s and one factor of the type f,i f,j .

If i 6= j then one of the deltas is of the form mn = 0 with m 6= n, since

if all of them roll along the diagonal, the reminding i has to be that in

the set Q. The total contributions for this case (#P = n 1) is given by

n

X

f,i2

i=1

49

If #P = n 2, so #Q = 2, then. For the not to be zero, all the P

members should be images of the identity, but 2 Q members are free to

be permuted. Half of the permutations of those two members is even and

half is odd. From the definition of the antisymmetric tensor, this brings

the sum to 0.

If, in general, #P < n 1, #Q > 2, we see that half of the permutations

of those elements of Q are even and half are odd. This yields a total sum

of 0.

We found then that

n n

X X x2 a2

det A = 1 + 2

f,i = 1 + Pi n = Pn (5.37)

i=1 i=1

a2 j=1 x2j a2 i=1 x2i

as indicated in equation 5.36.

From the theory of manifolds, the volume surface volume can be com-

puted as

Z

a

v(S n (a)) = 2

a2 ni=1 x2i

p P

B n (a)

The 2 comes about because the two patches for in the function f .

That is the upper and lower hemisphere, which have the same volume.

To evaluate this integral we assume that we can apply Fubinis rule.

When the denominator goes to zero, the function is not bounded and

hence the Fubinis rule will be invalid. Instead we assume that the de-

nominator is bounded away from zero (that is, we are not yet in the

sphere but inside) and apply Fubinis rule. Then we can take the limit

as we approach the sphere after Fubinis rule.

That is,

Z Z b

a

v(S n (a)) = 2 lim dx1 dxn1 dxn p

0

B n1 (a) b+

b2 x2n

with

n1

X

2 2

b =a x2i .

i=1

50

which yields

Z arcsin(1)

a

d

b cos

,

b cos

arcsin(1+)

then

Z

v(S n (a)) = 2a dx1 dxn1 = 2aB n1 (a).

B n1 (a)

[Hint: Use the result of Exercise 6 of 19.] I use equation, 5.32, for n + 1,

instead of n 1, and t instead of a. That is,

Z t

n+1

v(B (t)) = v(S n ())d.

0

integrating along the radial direction concentric isotropic shells.

So from, the fundamental theorem of calculus, it is obvious that

Problem 6.

The centroid of a compact manifold M in Rn is defined by a formula like

that given in Exercise 3 of 22. Show that if M is symmetric with respect to

the subspace xi = 0 of Rn , then ci (M ) = 0.

51

sln. It seems natural that the centroid of anything should lie in its center

of symmetry. This is an easy exercise of calculus. However the formality of

this using manifold rhetoric needs to be trained. I copied this proof from

Yang Zengs who has a good grasp on the language.

Let Hi+ = {x Rn : xi > 0}. Then M Hi+ is a manifold, for if

: U V is a coordinate patch on M , : U 1 (Hi+ ) V Hi+ is a

coordinate patch on M Hi+ . Similarly, if we let Hi = {x Rn : xi < 0},

then M Hi is manifold.

Theorem 25.4 implies

Z "Z Z #

1 1

ci (M ) = dV = dV + dV .

v(M ) M v(M ) M Hi+ M Hi

partition of unity on M Hi+ that is dominated by (j ), then

Z l Z

X l Z

X

i dV = (j i )dV = (j j )(i j )V (Dj ).

M Hi+ j=1 M j=1 Int Uj

(f j ) is a family of coordinate patches on M Hi and 1 f, , l f

is a partition of unity on M Hi that is dominated by (f j ). Therefore

Z l Z

X

i dV = (j f f j )(i f j )U (D(f j ))

M Hi j=1 Int Uj

l Z

X

= (j j )(i f j )U (D(f j )).

j=1 Int Uj

(i j )V (Dj ) = (i f j )V (D(f j )V (D(f j )).

Indeed,

V 2 (D(f j ))(x) = V 2 (Df (j (x))Dj (x))

= det (Dj (x))T Df (j (x))T Df (j (x))Dj (x)

= V 2 (D(x))

52

Z Z

i dV = i dV,

M Hi M Hi+

and so

ci (M ) = 0.

Problem *7.

Let E+n (a) denote the intersection of S n (a) with the upper halfspace H n+1 .

Let n = v(B n (1)).

(a) Find the centroid of E+n (a) in terms of n and n1 .

sln. From exercise 4 of the section 25, we know that E+n (a) is a manifold

whose boundary is S n1 (a).

From the definition 5.22 we have

Z

1

Ci (Y ) = i V, (5.39)

v(Y ) A

Here Y = E+n .

To find the volume v(Y ) we observe that, from equation 5.33,

= 2an B n1 (1)

= 2an n1 .

v(Y ) = an n1 . (5.40)

with respect to any direction k = 1, , n is 0, since the manifold is

symmetric around those directions and each xk takes both positive and

negative values there. That is

ck = 0 1 k n.

53

We use the coordinate patch defined in equation 5.34. That is,

: Rn Rn+1

(x1 , , xn ) = (x1 , , xn , f (x1 , , xn ))

with

v

u n

X

u

2

f (x1 , , xn ) = a

t x2i

i=1

a2

det(D)T (D) = Pn

a2 i=1 x2i

and so

a a a

V (D) = p Pn 2 = = (5.41)

2

a i=1 xi f xn+1

where

f = xn+1 ,

So, from equations 5.39, 5.40 and 5.41

Z

1 a

cn+1 = n

xn+1

a n1 A xn+1

x21 + + x2n a2 ,

(I show the second equation in my notes on PDE) then

1

cn+1 = an+1 n

an n1

a n

= ,

n1

54

and

a n

ci = i n+1 , (5.43)

n1

Let us check this formula against known cases in small dimensions. Some

first few values of i are

0 = 1

1 = 2

2 =

4

3 =

3

So, the last (only nontrivial) coordinate cn+1 on each case is

2a

c1 = semicircle

a2 a

c2 = = see 5.23

(2a) 2

4/3 a3 4a

c3 = 2 2

=

a 3

n1

(b) Find the centroid of E+n (a) in terms of the centroid of B+ (a). (See the

exercises of 19.)

From equations 5.43, and 5.42 we find

av(B n (a))/an 1 v(B n (a))

ci = i n+1 = i n+1

v(B n1 (a)/an1 v(B n1 (a))

It is interesting to observe that as n , v(B n (a)) 0, v(S n a) 0

and ci 0, even for i = n + 1.

Problem 8.

Let M and N be compact manifolds without boundary in Rm and Rn , re-

spectively,

(a) Let f : M R and g : N R be continuous. Show that

Z Z Z

f gdV = f dV g dV .

M N M N

[ Hint: Consider the case where the supports of f and g are contained

in coordinate patches.]

55

patches on M and 1 , , l a partition of unity on M dominated by

{i }. Let {j } be a family of coordinate patches on N and 1 , , k

a partition of unity on N dominated by {j } . Then it is easy to

show that {(i , j )}i,j is a family of coordinate patches on M N

and {m n }1ml,1nk is a partition of unity on M N dominated

by {(i , j )}i,j .

Z X Z

f gdV = (m f )(n g)dV

M N 1ml M N

1nk

X Z

= (m m f m )V (Dm )

1ml IntUm IntVn

1nk

(n m g n )V (Dn )

X Z

= (m m f m )V (Dm )

1ml IntUm

1nk

Z

(n n g n )V (Dn )

IntVn

" #

X Z

= (m m f m )V (Dm )

1ml IntUm

" #

X Z

(n n g n )V (Dn )

1nk IntVn

Z Z

= f dV g dV .

M N

(c) Find the area of the 2manifold S 1 S 1 in R4 . In (b), we see that

v(S 1 S 1 ) = v(S 1 ) v(S 1 ) = (2)(2) = 4 2 .

56

Chapter 5: Differential Forms

Problem 4.

Determine which of the following are tensors in R4 , and express those that

are in terms of the elementary tensors in R4 .

(a)

f (x, y) = 3x1 y2 + 5x2 x3 .

linear in both x and y. However the crossing term x2 x3 spoils linearity

since

f (c x, y) = 3 c x1 y2 + 5 c2 x2 x3 6= c (f (x, y).

(b)

g(x, y) = x1 y2 + x2 y4 + 1,

0. We see that

g(c x, y) = c x1 y2 + c x2 y4 + 1 6= c g(x, y).

(c)

h(x, y) = x1 y1 7x2 y3 .

57

58

Problem 5.

Repeat Exercise 4 for the functions

(a)

f (x, y, z) = 3x1 x2 z3 x3 y1 z4 .

(b)

g(x, y, z, u, v) = 5x3 y2 z3 u4 v4 .

g = 5 3,2,3,4,4 .

Problem 6.

Let f and g be the following tensors in R4 .

f (x, y, z) = 2x1 y2 z2 x2 y3 z1 ,

g = 2,1 53,1

sln.

and

59

sln.

(f g)(x, y, z, u, v) = 2 x1 y2 z2 u2 v1 10 x1 y2 z2 u3 v1

x2 y3 z1 u2 v1 + 5 x2 y3 z1 u3 v1 .

Problem 7.

Show that the four properties stated in Theorem 26.4 characterize the tensor

product uniquely, for finitedimensional spaces V.

P P

sln. Assume

P the following tensors f 1 = I f I1 I in V , g1 = J gI1 J .

If f2 = K fK2 K = f1 , then because the tensor is uniquely Pdefined, then

I = K, I = K , and fI1 = fK2 . In the same way, if g2 = L gL2 L = g1

then J = L, J = L , and gJ1 = gL2 .

So

! !

X X

f 1 g1 = fI1 I gJ1 I

I J

!

XX

= fI1 I gJ1 I

I J

X

= fI1 gJ1 I J

I,J

X

= fK2 gL2 K L

K,L

!

XX

= fK2 L gJ2 K

K L

= f2 g2 ,

Problem 8.

Let f be a 1tensor in Rn ; then f (y) = A y for some matrix A of size 1 by

n. If T : Rm Rn is the linear transformation T (x) = B x, what is the

matrix of the 1tensor T f on Rm ?

60

Problem 1.

Which of the following are alternating tensors in R4 ?

(a)

f (x, y) = x1 y2 x2 y1 + x1 y1

sln. f is a tensor. Now There are only two options f (x, y) and f (y, x),

where

f (y, x) = y1 x2 y2 x1 + y1 x1 ,

(b)

g(x, y) = x1 y3 x3 y3 .

g is a tensor. Now,

g(y, x) = y1 x3 y3 x3 6= (x1 y3 x3 y3 )

alternating.

(c)

61

Problem 2.

Let S5 be a permutation such that

Use the procedure given in the proof of Lemma 27.1 to write as a composite

of elementary permutations.

sln. I personally believe that Lemma 27.1 is quite confuse and this exercise

shows my point.

Here i = 0 according to the definition in the Lemma. That is, no element

is fixed. So, the sequence 1, , i 1 = 1 does not have sense and this

invalidate some of the statements in the Lemma. What is (0) ? We have

then to assume to get started that i = 1, otherwise we can not even get

started.

Instead I proof the theorem stating the bubble sort algorithm from com-

puter science.

Let us assume that we have a sequence = (a1 , an ), that we want to

sort into ascending order. If the sequence is of numbers from 1 to n then the

final sequence, after sorting is 0 = (1, , n).

The bubble sort algorithm consists of two loops. The internal loop takes

the largest of each of the remainder (non yet sorted) elements to the top.

This is done by comparing each element with the next neighbor and pushing

it up if it is bigger than its following neighbor. Once the largest element is

on the top, then the outer loop takes control by sorting only the remaining

elements, in the same fashion.

Here there is a C++ implementation of the bubble sort algorithm:

void bubbleSort(int arr[], int n) {

bool swapped = true;

int j = 0;

int tmp;

while (swapped) {

swapped = false;

j++;

for (int i = 0; i < n - j; i++) {

if (arr[i] > arr[i + 1]) {

// swap two consecutive elements

tmp = arr[i];

arr[i] = arr[i + 1];

arr[i + 1] = tmp;

swapped = true;

}

62

}

}

}

final result is the identity array 0 , and so

0 = k k1 1 ,

because each elementary permutation is its inverse, we can write

= 1 2 k .

We illustrate the bubble sort with this exercise. Pop up the first bubble

(that is, take 5 to the top)

Pop up the second bubble (that is, take 4 to the the fourth place)

e3 e4 e1 = (1, 3, 2, 4, 5).

e2 e3 e4 e1 = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) = 0 .

= e1 e4 e3 e2 .

e2 = (1, 3, 2, 4, 5)

e3 e2 = (1, 3, 4, 2, 5)

e4 e3 e2 = (1, 3, 4, 5, 2)

= e1 e4 e3 e2 = (3, 1, 4, 5, 2)

as desired.

63

Problem 3.

Let I be an elementary ktensor on V corresponding to the basis a1 , , an

for V . If j1 , , jk is an arbitrary ktuple of integers from the set {1, , n},

what is the value of

I (aj1 , , ajk )?

ascending then

0 if I 6= J

I (aj1 , , ajk ) =

1 if I = J

where J = (j1 , , jn ).

It could happen that that the sequence J is not in ascending mode. To put

J in ascending mode we need to perform some number m of permutations,

and each permutation would reverse the sign, so,

0 if {I} =

6 {J}

I (aj1 , , ajk ) =

sgn(J) if {I} = {J}

where, for example, the symbol {I} means I as a set, that is, the order does

not matter.

Problem 4.

Show that if T : V W is a linear transformation and if f Ak (W ), then

T f Ak (V ).

permutation of {1, , k}. So,

(T f ) (v 1 , , v k ) = T f (v 1 , , v k )

= f (T (v 1 , v k ))

= (f T ) (v 1 , v k ))

= sgn f (T (v 1 , v k )) since f Ak (W )

= sgn (T f )(v 1 , v k ),

hence T f Ak (W ).

64

Problem 5.

Show that

X

I = (sgn )I ,

(I ) = I .]

Let us assume some kbase vectors

v i(1) , , v i(k) ,

so

1 6 I

0 if I =

(I ) (v i(1) , , v i(k) ) = (I )(v i1 , , v ik ) =

1 if I = I

In other words

1 0 if I 6= I

(I ) (v i(1) , , v i(k) ) =

1 if I = I

= I (v i(1) , , v i(k) ).

From which

(I ) = (I ) .

X

I = (sgn )(I )

Before starting to solve the problems of this section, let me do a simple

exercise implied in step 4 of Theorem 28.1.

Show that the number of inversions in the permutation

65

and so forth until swapping it with k + 1, we need to swap it ` times and end

up with

(1, k + 1, k + 2, , k + `, 2, k)

We do the same for 2, moving it to the second plane; and so forth until k.

This is k times `, or in other words k `.

Problem 1.

Let x, y, z R5 . Let 4

F (x, y, z) = 2x2 y2 z1 + x1 y5 z4 ,

G(x, y) = x1 y3 + x3 y1 ,

h(w) = w1 2w3 .

Write F and G in terms of elementary tensors and use step 9 of the

preceding proof to compute AI . ]

sln.

F = 2 2 2 1 + 1 5 4 .

AF = 2 2 2 1 + 1 5 4 = 1 4 5 = 1,4,5 .

Similarly

G = 1 3 + 3 1 AG = 1 3 + 3 1 = 0.

4

note the typographical error for the third variable of F in Munkres statement

66

sln.

AF h = (1 4 5 ) (1 23 )

= 2 1 4 5 3

= 2 1 4 3 5

= 2 1 3 4 5

= 2 1,3,4,5 .

xi yi zi

i,j,k (x, y, z) = det xj yj zj

xk yk zk

In particular

x1 y1 z1

(AF )(x, y, z) = 1,4,5 = det x4 y4 z4

x5 y5 z5

That is,

(AF )(x, y, z) = z1 (x4 y5 x5 y4 ) x1 (y4 z5 y5 z4 ) + y1 (x4 z5 x5 z4 )

= x4 y5 z1 + x5 y4 z1 x1 y5 z5 + x1 y5 z4 + x4 y1 z5 x5 y1 z4 .

Problem 2.

If G is symmetric, show that AG = 0. Does the converse hold?

are two arbitrary indices with m 6= n.

G = f1 fm fn fk = f1 fn fm fk

and so

AG = f1 fm fn fk = f1 fn fm fk

67

f1 fn fm fk = f1 fm fn fk

so

AG = 2f1 fm fn fk = 0

AG = 0.

AG = 0 is still valid.

The converse should hold since by definition

X

AG = (sgn)F = 0,

then since the sgn changes for each transposition we can divide the sum

in two sets, the even and the odd transpositions. We can map each index

array for the tensor F (assuming it is or rank k) i1 , i2 , im in . . . ik to

its transpoed i1 , i2 in im ik where we just switched the index in with

the index im . If F is nonsymmetric then the terms will not cancel under

the transposition, so we would not have the whole sum equal to 0.

Problem 3.

Show that if f1 , , fk are alternating tensors of order `1 , , `k , respectively,

then

1

A(f1 fk ) = f1 fk .

`1 ! `k !

1

f g = A(f g),

k!`!

where f and g are tensors of order k and ` respectively.

68

is,

1

A(f1 fk1 ) = f1 fk1 .

`1 ! `k1 !

Let us define

g = f1 fk1

The order of g is given by `1 ! `k1 ! . Now we apply the definition (using

associativity) to the product

1

g fk = A(g fk ).

(`1 ! `k1 !)`k !

That is

1

A(f1 fk ) = f1 fk .

`1 ! `k !

Problem 4.

Let x1 , , xk be vectors in Rn ; let X be the matrix X = [x1 xk ]. If

I = (i1 , , ik ) is an arbitrary ktuple from the set {1, , n}, show that

i1 ik (x1 , , xk ) = det XI .

A(i1 ik )(x1 , , xk ) = i1 ik (x1 , , xk ).

(also look at the previous Problem 3, where each tensor is of order 1).

Also, from I = AI we find

A(i1 ik )(x1 , , xk ) = AI (x1 , , xk ) = I (x1 , , xk ).

and from Theorem 27.7

I (x1 , , xk ) = det XI ,

so the result

i1 ik (x1 , , xk ) = det XI ,

follows.

69

Problem 5.

Verify that T (F ) = (T F ) .

T (F )(v 1 , , v k ) = F (T (v 1 ), , T (v k ))

= F (T (v (1) ), , T (v (k) ))

= T F (v (1) , , v (k) )

= (T F ) (v 1 , , v k ),

Problem 6.

Let T : Rm Rn be the linear transformation T (x) = B x.

form

X

T I = cJ J ,

[J]

the coefficients cJ ?

notation let us define

f is an alternating tensor in Rm , then this can be written as

X

f (ai1 , , aik ) = cJ J (ai1 , , aik ) (5.44)

|J|

vectors aj .

70

The only contribution to the sum (see theorem 27.5) comes from I = J.

That is

= I (B ai1 , , B aik ).

We want to use Theorem 27.7. Assume that the vectors ai are the

canonical vectors ei we define the matrix

X = [B ei1 , , B eik ] = BI

Then, from Theorem 27.7,

B.

Then from equations 5.44, 5.45, and 5.46, we find

det BJJ if I = J

cI =

0 if I 6= J

where BII is the matrix formed by taking the I rows and columns of B.

P

of the elementary alternating ktensors on Rm .

sln. My opinion is that this should be part (a), and what we solved as

(a) should be part (b).

As in part, (a), assume I = (i1 , , ik ) is an ascending order for the

vectors ai , from a basis {a1 , , am }. Let us name

71

X

g(ai1 , , aik ) = cJ J (ai1 , , aim ).

|J|

That is,

g(ai1 , , aik ) = cI I (ai1 , , aim ) = cI ,

so all we have to evaluate is

g(ai1 , , aik ) = T f (ai1 , , aik )

= f (T (ai1 ), , T (aik ))

and so

f (T (aj1 ), , T (ajk )) if I = J

cI =

0 if I 6= J

Forms

Problem 1.

Let : R Rn be of class C r . Show that the velocity vector of corre-

sponding to the parameter t is the vector (t; e1 ).

(t; e1 ) = ((t); D(t) e1 )

= ((t); (t))

d1 (t)/dt

(t) =

..

.

dn (t)/dt

and e1 = [1].

72

Problem 2.

If A is open in Rk and : A Rk is of class C r , show that (x; v) is the

velocity vector of the curve (t) = (x + tv) corresponding to parameter

t = 0.

sln. By definition

(x + tv) (x) (t) (0)

0 (x, v) = lim = lim = (0).

t0 t t0 t

On the other hand, from Theorem 5.1

0 (x, v) = D(x) v.

Hence

Problem 3.

Let M be a kmanifold of class C r in Rn . Let p M . Show that the tangent

space to M at p is welldefined, independent of the choice of the coordinate

patch.

tangent space, Tp (M ) is a linear space spanned by the vectors of the form

(p; /xj ) as shown in the text. Let us assume that there is another coor-

dinate patch around the point p, : U V . For this coordinate patch the

tangent space is generated by the points (p; /yj ). We want to show that

the two tangent spaces are actually two representations of the same object.

I follow, Yan Zengs argument. Let W = V V (the set is not empty

since p W ). Let us call U0 = 1 (W ) and U0 = 1 (W ). Then from

73

chain rule,

{D(x) v, v Rk } = {D(y) w, w Rk }

number in Rk as x is. Also w = D( 1 )(x) v, where again, since 1

is a diffeomorphism then v is as arbitrary as w is.

In conclusion the tangent space Tp is independent of the coordinate patch

around p.

Problem 4.

Let M be a kmanifold in Rn of class C r . Let p M M .

(a) Show that if (p; v) is a tangent vector to M , then there is a parameterized

curve : (, ) Rn whose image set lies in M , such that (p; v) equals

the velocity vector of corresponding to parameter value t = 0. See

Figure 29.4

sln. The idea is to pick a small line segment inside the open set in the

domain of and map this segment of a curve (x) where x rides along

this small line segment. Also, the direction of the segment should be

along the direction of the tangent vector v. Since p M M , and

1 : V U is continuous, we can pick a small open set Ov around p

and its inverse image under , that will generate an open set Ou U .

So, x = 1 (p) U is inside some open ball B(p, ) in the domain U of

, of radius . We can find a small segment such that it is totally within

this ball. To find the direction of the segment we know that since v is

tangent to M then there exist u U , such that v = D(x) u. The

segment is given by the points x + tu, and the mapping

(t) := (x + tu)

where |t| < , maps points from U to the manifold M . Also, from the

definition of directional derivative

74

d

(t) = D(x) u = v.

dt t=0

(b) Prove the converse. [Hint: Recall that for any coordinate patch , the

map 1 is of class C r . See Theorem 24.1]

sln. We assume that if the vector (p, v) is such that v equals the velocity

of : (, ) Rn . Then we show that (p, v) is tangent to the manifold M ,

that is we show that

for some u and (x) = p. In the previous problem we used the definition

v = D(x) u. Using the hint, since 1 is of class C r then we can uniquely

and in the same way define

u = (D)1 (x) v.

= (p; (D)(x) (D)1 (x) v)

= (p, v)

Problem 5.

Let M be a kmanifold in Rn of class C r . Let q M .

parameterizedcurve : (, ) Rn , where carries either (e, 0]

or [0, ) into M , such that (q, v) equals the velocity vector of corre-

sponding to the parameter value t = 0.

75

sln. This is quite similar to Problem 4, but now we are on the bound-

ary of the manifold. Still, the details are bit more difficult because the

boundary. I will mimic Problem 4 solution here.

Since p is in M then 1 (p) is in H k , then from the counterreciprocal

of part (b) of Lemma 24.2, we have that x = 1 (p) / H+k . So xk = 0.

Because is C r then for any open set OM in M having p the inverse

1 is an open set OU in the domain of .

We want to construct a small segment in the domain of . The segment

is the set of points x + tu, with x, such that (x) = q, and u such that

v = D(x) u. The existence if u is guaranteed because v is tangent to

M and the definition of v TM .

There could be three possibilities

hyperplane interface. In this case we can have t (, ) such that

x + tu is totally within the domain of , U .

(b) The direction of u is toward H+k , and in this case t [0, ) would

be such that the segment x + tu is completely immersed in U .

(c) The direction of u is toward Hk , and in this case t (, 0] is such

that the set x + tu is contained in U .

In any case, the definition

(t) = (x + tu),

d

(t) = D(x) u = v.

dt t=0

where A is an interval that could be (, ), (, 0] or [0, ), according

to the three cases considered above. We want to prove that

76

since 1 is of class C r , then we can uniquely define

u = (D)1 (x) v.

= (p; (D)(x) (D)1 (x) v)

= (p, v)

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