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Report of Committee on
Automatic Sprinklers
I. L. Lam~tr, C h a i r m a n ,
Insurance Services Office - - Southeastern Region, P.O. Box 4653. Atlanta, GA 30302
,, -,', J . C . T h o m s o n , J r . , t Secretary,
North Caroline Fire Insurance Rating Bureau, Box 2021, Raleigh, NC 27602

S Auck,e Underwriters'
. e yLaboratorice, R i c h a r d E. H u g h e y , Insurance Services
Office - - Midwestern Region
wL~f~:E~.A~t, .N~.~o~ AutomaticSp~- Roll H. Jensen, ~linois Institute of Tech-
~lre It.JonT..rol-q'-~L nology
~J. setm, ~ I~te of ~ - W. N. Lawton, National Automatic Sprin-
kler & Fire Control Assn.
j.A~v.Blrdwell, Manufacturing Chemiste' Donald L McGflllvray, Underwriters' Labo-
ratories of Canada
Ja~u~.d~Bffiihrc,ia~ternational Conference of H. K. Meyers, Insurance Services Office - -
Pacific Region
R o b e r t L. Retalle, Insurance Servicce Office
j ~ n . , F~tory Mutu~ E n ~ c e ~ - - New England Region
E. J. Schlffhauer, Ecetman Kodak Co.
John L. Defoe, Union Carbide Corp.
C h e s t e r W. S c h l r m e r , Schirmer Engineer-
Robert E..Duke, National Automatic Sprin- ing Corp.
gier ~ r l r e ~ontrol Assn. W. J. Swlngler, Factory Insurance Assn.
Frank J. Fee, Jr., National Automatic H a r r y W i n c h e l l , American Mutual Insur-
Sprinkler & Fire Control Assn. ance Alliance
D. B. G r a n t , Canadian Underwriters' Assn. J. A. Wood, National Automatic Sprinkler
& Fire Control Assn.
D. M. H a m m e r m a n , Fire Marshals Assn. D. M. Yarlas, Industrial Fire Protection
of North America Section, NFPA

Donald H. Adickes, American Mutual In- A. J. Mercurio, Factory Insurance Assn.
surance Alliance (Alternate to Harry (Alternate to W. J. Swingler)
J. L. Norcliffe, Grinnell Fire Protection Sys-
Collins C. Diboll, American Institute of tems, Inc. (Alternate representative: Na-
Architects (Alternate to Charles J. Bette) tional Automatic Sprinkler & Fire Control
John O. E u b a n k , Insurance Seivices O~ce Assn.)
of Tennessee (Alternate to Richard E. W i l l i a m Testa, Grinnell Fire Protectiov Sys-
Hughey) tems, Inc. (Alternate for National Auto-
John K. G e r h a r d , Fire Marshals Assn. of matic Sprinkler & Fire Control Assn.)
North America (Alternate to D. M. Ham- F. A. Wiliits, Jr., Raisler Corporation (Al-
ternate representative: National Auto-
W.L. Henry. Manufacturing Chemists Assn. matic Sprinkler & Fire Control Aa~n.)
(Allternate to J. R. Birdwell)
R o b e r t C. W o r t h i n g t o n , Star Sprinkler
John L. J a b l o n s k y , American Insurance Corp. (Alternate for National Automatic
Association (Alternate to I. L. Lamar) Sprinkler & Fire Control Assn.)

Nonvoting Members
G. C. Ackroyd, Fire Offices' Committee, Aldermary House, London, England
H. W. M a r r y a t t , Australian Fire Protection Assn., Melbourne, Australia.


The Committee on Automatic Sprinklers presents for official

adoption the revision of the Standard on Installation of Automatit
Sprinkler Systems, NFPA No. 13. NFPA No. 13 is published i~
Volume 6 of the 1972-73 National Fire Codes and in separate
pamphlet form.
This report has been submitted to letter ballot oJ the Committee on Auto.
marie Sprinklers which consists oJ 24 voting members oJ whom 23 have vow
affrmatively and one (Mr. Ault) has not returned a ballot.

Proposed Standard for the Installation of

Sprinkler Systems
NFPA No. 1 3 ~ 1973

NOTICE: .An .asterisk (*) following the number or letter designating

a subdivision matcates explanatory material on that subdivision in Ap-
pendix A.

Chapter 1 General Information

1-1 Scope.
1-1.1 This standard is the minimum for the installation of
sprinkler systems for fire protection in buildings and for the char-
acter and adequacy of water supplies to sprinkler systems where
such water supplies are not covered by other NFPA Standards.
Requirements relating to water supplies and sprinkler installation
in separate NFPA Standards are amendments to this standard.
1-1.2 Occupancy classifications in this standard relate to
sprinkler installations, and their water supplies only and are not
intended to be a general classification of occupancy hazards.

1-2 Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to provide a

reasonable degree of protection for life and property from fire
through installation requirements for sprinkler systems based upon
sound engineering principles, test data and field experience. The
standard endeavors to continue the excellent record that has been
established by standard sprinkler systems and meet the needs of
changing techxiology.

1-3 Definition of a Sprinkler System. A sprinkler system, for

fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of underground
and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection
engineering standards. The installation includes a water supply,
such as a gravity tank, fire pump, reservoir or pressure tank a n d / o r
connection by underground piping to a city main. T h e portion
of the sprinkler system above ground is a network of specially
sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a building,
structure or area, generally overhead, and to which sprinklers are
connected in a systematic pattern. The system includes a con-
.trolling valve and a device for actuating an alarm when the system
m operation. The system is usually activated by heat from a
fire and discharges water over the fire area.
E T h e desi n and installation of water supply facilities such as gravit~
NOT : g d i" -"
tanks, fire pumps, reservolrsor pressure tanks, and u nder_grooU~rp p l p m g . a r e
covered by the following N F P A ~tanaarns: w a t e r . t a n ~ r u rate rtre
Protection, No. 22, 1971 ; Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pumps, No. 20,
1972; a n d Outside Protection, No. 24, 1970.

1-4 Other Publications. A selected list of other publications

related to the installation of sprinkler systems is published at the
end of this standard.

1-5 Maintenance.
1-5.1 A sprinkler system installed under this standard shall
be properly maintained for efficient service. The owner is responsible
for the condition of his sprinkler system and shall use due diligence
in keeping the system in good operating condition.
1-5.2 The installing contractor shall provide the owner with:
(a) Instruction charts describing operation and proper main.
tenance of sprinkler devices.
(13) Publication entided: Care and Maintenance of Sprinkler
Systems, NFPA No. 13A, 1971.

1-6 Classification of Sprinkler Systems

1-6.1 This standard covers automatic sprinkler systems of the
types described below, also systems of outside sprinklers for protec.
tion against exposure fires covered specifically in Chapter 6. Man.
ually operated deluge systems, used for certain special hazard con-
ditions, are not specifically covered in this standard but certain
provisions of this standard will be found applicable. The types
of automatic sprinkler systems are listed in subsections 1-6.2 through
1-6.2 Wet-Pipe Systems. (See Section 5-1.)
1-6.3 Dry-Pipe Systems. (See Section 5-2.)
1-6.4 Pre-action Systems. (See Section 5-3.)
1-6.5 Deluge Systems. (See Section 5-3.)
1-6.6 Combined Dry-Pipe and Pre-actlon Systems. (See
Section 5-4.)
1-6.7 Limited Water Supply Systems. (See Section 5-6.)
1-6.8 Sprinkler Systems - - Special Types. Special pur-
pose systems employing departures from the requirements of this

dard, such as special water supplies and reduced pipe sizing

be installed in accordance with their listing.

1.7 Classification of Occupancies.

1-7.1 Light Hazard Occupancies.
1-7.1.1 Light hazard occupancies are those where the quan-
tity and/or combustibility of the contents is low, and fires with
rel'afively low rates of heat release are expected. This class in-
cludes occupancies such as:
Churches Libraries, except large stack rooms
Clubs Museums
Educational Nursing or convalescent homes
Hospitals Offices including Data Processing
Institutional Residential
Restaurant seating areas
Theatres and Auditoriums excluding
stages and prosceniums.
1-7.1.2 The requirements for the installation of sprinkler
systems in light hazard occupancies shall apply to all light hazard
portions of the occupancies listed above or similar light hazard
0ccupancles and may also apply to small stores and similar occu-
pancies incidental to the properties listed above provided such oc-
cupancies do not individually exceed 3,000 square feet of floor area.
In other areas used for ordinary or extra hazard occupancy, the
requirements for such areas shall apply.
1-7.2 Ordinary Hazard Occupancies.
1-7.2.1 Ordinary hazard (Group 1) occupancies are those
~vhere combustibility is low, quantity of combustibles is moderate,
~ock piles of combustibles do not exceed eight feet and fires with
moderate rates of heat release are expected. This class includes
occupancies such as:
Automobile Parking Garages Glass and Glass Products
Bakeries Manufacturing
Beverage Manufacturing Laundries
Dairy Products Mfg.
and Processing
Electronic Plants
1-7.2.2 Ordinary hazard (Group 2) occupancies are those
where quantity and combustibility of contents is moderate, stock
1o v

piles do not exceed 12 feet, and fires with moderate rate o f heat
release are expected. This class includes occupancies such as:
Manufacturing Leather Goods Manu-
Cereal Mills facturing
Chemical Plants - - Ordinary Machine Shops
Confectionary products Metal Working
Manufacturing Printing and Publishing
Textile Manufacturing Tobacco Products Manu-
Distilleries facturing
Cold Storage Ware-
Libraries J Large Stack
Room Areas
1-7.2.3* Ordinary hazard (Group 3) occupancies are those
where quantity and/or combustibility of contents is high, and fires
of high rate of heat release are expected. This class includes occu.
pancies such as:
Manufacturing Piers a n d Wharves
Feed Mills Repair Garages
Flour Mills Warehouses (having':moderate to
higher combustibility of con-
Paper & Pulp Mills tents such as paper, household
Paper Process P l a n t s fumimreo paint, general storage,
Exhibition Halls whiskey, etc.) 1
Tire Manufacturing

1-7.3" Extra H a z a r d O c c u p a n c i e s -
1-7.3.1 Extra hazard includes occupancies or portions of
other occupancies where quantity and combustibility of contents
is very high, flammable liquids, dust, lin.t or other .materials-
present introducing the probability ot raplaiy aevelopmg nres w,m
high rates of heat release. This class includes occupancies such as:
Aircraft Hangars Plastic Manufacturir/g and
Manufacturing Processing
Chemical Works (Extra Hazard)
Cotton Picker and Opening Operations
Explosives and Pyrotechnics
' " h- iled stor e as defined in 4-1.3.8, see Appen.dix for separatd.y ~u~
~ h h i ~ q ~ A s t a n ~ t s relating to water suppsy reqmrements, paruc~,~,1
Indoor General Storage, No..231, 1972 and Rack Storage of Materials, ~a
231C, 1972.

and other occupancies involving processing, mixing, storage and

dispensing flammable or combustible liquids. Consult the authority
having jurisdiciton.
1-7.4 Under favorable conditions, the requirements for the
immediately preceding occupancy in each case may be applied,
subject to the approval of the authority having jurisdiction, to the
following occupancies:
Leather Goods Manu- Flour Mills
facturing Paper & Pulp Mills
Machine Shops Cotton Picker &
Metal Working Opening Operations
Cold Storage Warehouses Plastics Manufacturing
Mercantiles & Processing
Feed Mills
1-7.5 For distilleries and exhibition halls see Chapter 7,
Hydraulically Designed Sprinkler Systems, a n d the Appendices for
listing of separately published standards relating to water supply
requirements for these occupancies.

1-8 D e s i g n a n d Installation.
1-8.1 Devices and Materials.
1-8.LI Only new sprinklers shall be employed in the in-
stallation of sprinkler systems.
1-8.1.2" When a sprinkler system is installed only approved
materials and devices shall be used.

1-9 W o r k i n g Plans.
1-9.1 Working plans shall be submitted for approval to the
authority having jurisdiction before any equipment is installed or
remodeled. Deviation from approved plans will require permission
of the authority having jurisdiction.
1-9.2" Working plans shall be drawn to an indicated scale,
on sheets of uniform size, with plan of each floor, made so that
they can be easily duplicated, and show the following data:
(a) Name of owner and occupant
Co) Location, including street address
(c) Point of compass
(d) Ceiling construction
(e) Full height crees section
(f) Location of fire walls
(g) Locationof partitions
(h) Occupancy of each area or room
(i) Location and size of blind spaces and c k ~ t s , see 4-4;3 to 44.17 in.
inclusive, except Paragraphs 44.5 and 4-4.6.
inst~')e~.Any questionable small enclosures in Which no sprinklers are to he

(k) Size of city main in street, pressure and whether dead-end or circu.
lating and if dead-end, direction and distance to nearest circulating main,
c~ty main test results (See 2-3.2.)
(I) Other sources of water supply, with pressure or elevation
(m) Make, type and orifice size of sprinkler ' ' '
(n) Temperat~we rating and location of high temperature sprinklers
(o) Number of sprinklers on each riser and on each system by floors
and total area protected by each system on each floor
(p) Number of sprinklers on each riser and total per floor
( q ) Make, type, model and size of alarm or dry-pipe valve
(r) Make, type, model and size of pre-action or deluge v a l v e
(s) Kind and location of alarm bells ' .
(t) Total number of sprinklers on each dry-pipe system or pre-action
deluge system ,
(u) Approximate capacity in gallons of each dry-pipe system
(v) Cutting lengths of pipe
N O T E : Where Wpieal branch lines prevail, it will be necessary to size
only one line.
(w) .Crosses, riser nipples and size
(x) Type of hangers, inserts and sleeves ,
(y) All control valves, checks, drain pipes and test pipes
(z) Small hand hose and hose equipment
(aa) When plans include underground pipe, ~ e weight or el .a~.and size
and material of ptpe; the type of valves, meters, anct valve plt~; ano me aeptll
that the top of the pipe is to be laid below grade.
(bb) Provision for flushing (See Paragraph 3-7.3.)
(cc) When the equipment to be installed is an addition to an.oldgrou p
sprinklers without additional feed from the yard system, enough ot me om
system shall be indicated on the plans to show the total number of sprinklers
to be supplied and to make all conditions clear.
(dd) Name and address of contractor.

1-10 Approval of Sprinkler Systems. Before asking final ap-

proval of an automatic sprinkler equipment by:the authority having
jurisdiction the installing company shall furnish a written state-
ment to the effect that the work covered by its contract has been
completed and tested in accordance with the approved specifi-
cations and plans. '(See Section 1-12.)
1-11 Acceptance Tests.
1-11.1 Performance.. All tests required by this standard for
new work shall be performed by the installer. When the authority
having jurisdiction desires to be present during the conduct of tests,
the installer shall' give the authority having jurisdiction advance
notification of time tests will be performed., When the representa-
tive of authority having jurisdiction is not available and permission
is granted by that authority, tests may be Witnessed b~; the owner
or his representative and the ContractOr's Material a n d Test
Certificate (see Section 1-12) shall be completed an.d forwarded
to the authority having jurisdiction. "
1-U.2" Flushing of Underground Connections. Under-
ground mains and lead-in connections to system risers shall be
flushed before connection is made to sprinkler piping in' order to
remove foreign materials which may have entered the underground
during the course of the installation. Underground mains supply-
ing wet pipe, dry pipeor pre-action sprinkler systems shall be flushed
at a rate of flow of not less than 750 gallons per minute for 6-inch
Pniipe,i li000 gallons per minute for 8-inch, pipe, 1,500 gallons per
nute for 10-inch pipe and 2,000 gallons per minute for 12-inch
pipe. The minimum rate of flow for flushing underground con-
nections to open sprinkler, deluge, and hydraulically designed sys-
tems shall not be less than the Water demand rate of the system
which is. determined by system design. For all systems, the flushing
operations shall be continued until water is clear. When planning
the flushing operations, consideration shall be given to disposal of
the water issuing from the test outlets. If the water supply will
not produce the stipulated flow rate, the maximum flow rate avail-
able shall be used.
1-11.3 Hydrostatic Tests.
1-11.3.1" Test Pressure. All new systems including yard
piping shall be tested hydrostatically at not less than 200 pounds
per square inch pressure for two hours, or at 50 pounds per square
inch in excess of the maximum static pressure when the maximum
static pressure is in excess of 150 pounds.
1-11.3.2 The hydrostatic test pressure shall be measured at
the low point of the individual system or zone being tested.
1-11.3.3 Permissible Leakage. The inside sprinkler piping
shall be installed in such a manner that there will be no visible
leakage when t h e system is subjected to the hydrostatic pressure
test. Refer to Standard for Outside Protection (NFPA No. 24-
1970) for permissible leakage in underground piping. The amount
of leakage may be measured by pumping from a calibrated container.
1-11.3.4 Fire Department Connection. Piping between
the check valve in the fire department inlet pipe and the outside
connection shall be tested the same as the balance of the system.
1-11.3.5 Corrosive Chemicals. Brine or other corrosive
chemicals shall not be used for testing systems.
1-11.3.6 Whenever a test blank is used it shall be of the
self-indicating type. Test blanks shall have red painted lugs pro-
truding beyond the flange in such a way as to clearly indicate
their presence. The installer shall have all test blanks numbered
so as to keep track of their use and assure their removal after the
work is completed.
1-11.4 Tests of Dry Pipe Systems.
1-11.4.1 Hydrostatic Test. New dry-pipe systems shall be
tested hydrostatically as specified in Paragraph 1-11.3.1, except
that at seasons of the year which will not permit testing with ,~ater
they shall be tested for two hours with at least 50 lbs. per sq. in.
air pressure. The clapper of a differential-type dry-pipe valve
shall be held off its seat during any test at a pressure in excess of
50 lbs. per sq. in., to prevent injuring the valve.
1-11.4.2 Air Test. In dry-pipe systems an air pressure of
40 lbs per sq. in. shall be pumped up, alltwed to stand 24 hours,
and all leaks which allow a loss of pressure over 1 ~ pounds for the
24 hours shall be stopped.
1-11.4.3 Operating Test of Dry-Pipe Valve. A working
test of the dry-pipe valve and quick opening device, if installed,
shall be made before acceptance.
1-11.5 Tests of Drainage Facilities. Tests of drainage fa-
cilities shall be made while the control valve is wide open. The
main drain valve shall be opened and remain open until the sys-
tem pressure stabilizes. (See 2-9.1).

1-12 Contractor's Material and Test Certificate.

Part "A" General
Upon completion of work, inspection and tests shall be made by the con-
tractor's representative and witnessed by an owner's representative. All de-
fects shall be corrected and system left in service before contractor's men finally
leave the job.

A certificate shall be filled out a n d signed by both representatives. Copies

shall be prepared for approving authorities, owners, and contractor. It is
understood the owner's representative's signature in no way prejudices any
claim against contractor for faulty material, poor workmanship, or failure to
comply with approving authority's requirements or local ordinances.
Property name ............. Date ................................
Property address .........................................................................................

Accepted by approving authority(s) names ............................................................
Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation conforms to accepted plans: Yes E1 No [ ]
Equipment used is approved Yes [ ] No [ ]
If no, state deviations ....................................................................................................

Has pe.rson, in charge of fire equipment been instructed
as to locaUon of control valves and care of this new
equipment? Yes [ ] No [ ]
If no, explain ................................................................................................................
Has a copy of instruction and maintenance chart
been left at plant? Yes [ ] No [ ]
If no, explain ................................................................................................................

Flushing: Flow the required rate until water is clear as indicated by no
collection of'foreign material in burlap bags at outlets such as hydrants and
Flush at flows not less than 750 G P M for 6 - i n c h p i p e and smaller, 1000
GPM for 8-inch pipe, 1,500 G P M for 10-inch pipe, a n d 2,000 G P M for 12-inch
pipe. When supply cannot produce stipulated flow rates, obtain maximum
Hydrostatic: Hydrostatic tests shall be made at not less than 200 psi for
two hours or 50 psi above static pressure in excess of 150 psi. Differential
dry-pipe valve clappers shall be left open during test to prevent damage. All
aboveground piping leakage shall be stopped.
Leakage: New pipe laid with rubber gasketed joints shall, if the workman-
ship is satisfactory, have little or no leakage at the joints. The amount of leak-
age at the joints shall not exceed 2 quarts per hour per 100 joints irrespectively
of pipe diameter. The leakage shall be distributed over all joints. If such leak-
age occurs at a few joints the installation shall be considered unsatisfactory and
necessary repairs made.
New pipe laid with caulked lead or lead-substitute joints, shall if the workman-
ship is satisfactory, have little or no leakage at the joints. Any joint having leak-
a~h~lor more than a "slight drip" or "weeping" shall be repaired. Leakage
I not exceed 1 oz. (liquid measure) per hour per inch of pipe diameter per
joint. The leakage shall be distributed over all joints. If such leakage occurs
almost entirely at a few joints, the installation shall be considered unsatisfactory
and necessary repairs made.
13--14 S P R I N K L E R SYST~IMS

Pneumatic: Establish 40 PSI air pressure and measure drop which .shall
not exceed 1 ~2 PSI in 24 hours. Test pressure tanks at normal water level and
air pressure and measure air pressure drop which shall not exceea t Y2 pal
in 24 hours.

P a r t "B" U n d e r g r o u n d P i p i n g

Feeds bldgs ....................................................................................................................


Pipe types and class ............................................ Type joint ........................................
Conforms to ........................................ Standard Yes [ ] No [ ]
If no, explain ................................................................................................................
Joints needing anchorage clamped, strapped, or backed
in accordance with .............................................. Standard Yes [ ] No [ ]
If no, explain ............ :...................................................................................................

R u s h i n g Tests
New underground piping flushed according to ........................ Standard Yes []
by (Company) ..............................................................................................................
How flushing flow was obtained:
Public water [ ] T a n k or reservoir [ ] Fire pump []
Through what type opening: Hydrant butt [ ] Open pipe []
Lead-ins flushed according to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Yes []
By (Company) ..............................................................................................................
How flushing flow was obtained:
Public water [ ] T a n k or reservoir [ ] Fire pump []
Through what type opening: Y conn. to flange & spigot [ ] Open pipe []

Hydrostatic Test
All new underground piping hydrostatically tested at ........ psi. For ........ hours

Leakage Test
Total amount of leakage measured ........................ gais ......................... hours
Allowable leakage ........................ gals ......................... hours

Number installed ...................................... Tyl~e and Make ......................................
All operate satisfactorily Yes [ ] No [ ]

Water control valves left wide open: Yes [ ] No [ ]
If no, state reason ........................................................................................................
Hose threads of fire department connections and hydrants interchangeable
with those of fire department answering alarm? Yes [ ] No [ ]
Date left in service.... . ...........................


Name of sprinkler contractor ..............................................
For sprinkler contractor (signed) ................................ Date ........................................
For property owner (signed)............................................ Title ................................
Tests Witnessed By ........................................ , Title .................... , Date ....................

part "C" Sprinkler and Water Spray Aboveground Piping

(Fill out separate Part " C " for each riser)
Serves buildings: ......................................................................................................

Hydrostatic: all piping.
Pneumatic: dry piping.
Equipment operation: all
Drain ** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Make Model Size Quantity Rating


Material and kind conforms to ........................................ Standard
If none, explain ............................................................................................................


Type Make Model Min Sec


Operating Test Results: Make ................ Model.....; .......... Serial No ...........
Time to T r i p Through
Test Pipe
Trip Timef
,Without With " Point Water
Q.O.D Q.O.D Reached
Water Air Air Test
Min 8ec Min Set: Pressure Pressure Pressure Outlet

Alarm operated properly? Yes [ ] No [ ]

If no, explain .................................................................. i:............................................

Operation: Pneumatic [ ] Electric [ ] Hydraulic [ ]
Piping supervised: Yes [ ] No [ ]
Detecting media supervised: Yes [ ] No [ ]
Does' valve operate from the manual trip a n d / o r remote control stations?
Yes [ ] No [ ]
Is there an accessible facility in each circuit for testing? Yes [ ] No []
If no, explain ..................................................... :..........................................................
Make ................................................................ Model ................................................
Does each circuit operate supervision loss alarm? Yes [ ] No [ ]
Does each circuit operate valve release? Yes [ ] No [ ]
M a x i m u m time to operate release: M i n ........................ Sec ........................

All piping hydrostatically tested at .................... PSI for..../. ....... ....... hours
Dry piping pneumatically tested: Yes [ ] No [ ]
Equipment operates properly: Yes [ ] No [ ]
If no, state reason....::. .......... ............ .. ............................................. .............. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Drain test:
.Reading of gage located near water supply test pipe:
Static pressure ........................ PSI
Residual pressure with valve in test pipe qpen wide:
........................ PSI

Number used ................ "....Locations ................................ Number removed ............

I f Yes, do you certify as the sprinkler contractor that the welders or brazers
are qualified for welding or brazing in accordance with the requirements of

Boiler a n d Pressure Vessel Code, Section I X , Qualification S t a n d a r d

f l V
Welding and Brazing Procedures, Welders, Brazers, a n d Welding and
~razing Operators-1968 Edition. Yes [ ]
No [Z]
~ s
Date left in service with all control v~lves open ....................................... :................


~atne of sprinkler contractor .....................................................................................
For sprinlder contractor (signed) ................... i..~....... ;................................. ~...............
For property owner (signed) ................................................. : Title ............................
Tests Witnessed By ............................................ , Title ................ , Date .................
Table 2-2.1(A)
Guide to Water Supply Requirements for Pipe Schedule Sprinkler Systems
Residual Pressure Acceptable Flow
Occupancy Required at Base of Riser Duration in Minutes- ;:
Classification (See Note 1 ) (See Note 2) (See Not e 4) =.
Light Hazard 15 psi 500-750 gpm 30-60 --
(See Note 3) . =
Ordinary Hazard 15 psi or higher 700-1000 gpm 60-90
(Group 1 )
Ordinary Hazard 15 psi or higher 850--1500 gpm 60-90
(Group 2)
Ordinary Hazard Pressure and flow requirements for sprinklers and hose streams 60-120 0
(Group 3) to be determined by authority having jurisdiction.
Warehouses Pressure and flow requirements for sprinklers and hose streams
to be determined by authority havmg jurisdiction. Aslo see P
Chapter 7 and NFPA 231 and NFPA 231C. 0
High-Rise Buildings Pressure and flow requirements for sprinklers and hose streams
to be determined by authority hawng jurisdiction. Also see
Chapter 8.
Woodworkers Pressure and flow requirements for sprinklers and hose streams
See Appendix A to be determined by authority having jurisdiction.
Extra Hazard Pressure and flow requirements for sprinklers and hose streams
to be determined by authority having jurisdiction.

1. The pressure required at the base of the sprinkler riser(s) is defined as the residual pressure required of the elevation of
the highest sprinkler plus the pressure required to reach this elevation.
2. The lower figure is the minimum flow including hoso streams ordinarily acceptable for pipe schedule sprinkler systems.
T h e higher flow should normally suffice for all cases under each group.
3. The requirement may be reduced to 250 gpm if building area is limited by size or compartmentafion or ff bu//d/ng (/n-
cluding roof) is noncombustible construction.
4. The lower duration figure is ordinari/y acceptable where remote staHon water H o w alarn2 s e r v i c e m" e q u l v a l ~ n t is p r o v i d e d .
The higher duration figure should normally m u d ~ c e fog" ~ ~ ~Lndca" ~ a ~ h , g r o u p .

Chapter 2 Water Supplies

2-1 G e n e r a l Provision. E v e r y automatic sprinkler system shall

have at least one automatic Water supply.*
NOTE: See Chapter 7 for special provisions applicable to de~rmination
of water supply requirements for hydraulically designed systems.

2-2* G u i d e t o Water S u p p l y R e q u i r e m e n t s for Sprinkler

Systems. ~'-

2-2.1 G u i d e Tables.
2-2.1.1 O n e of the following guide tables shall be used in
determining the m i n i m u m water supply requirements for light and
ordinary hazard groups 1, 2 a n d 3.
NOTE 1 : Table 2-2.1 (A) is a guide to determine the volume of water and
pressure normally required for a pipe schedule sprinkler system. THE
NOTE 2: Table 2-2.1 (B) is a guide to determine density, area of sprinkler
operation and water supply requirements for hydraulically design:d sprin-
kler systems. Systems shall be calculated to satisfy a single point on the
appropriate r design curve and interior piping shall be based on thin de-
sign point. It is not necessary to meet all points on the selected curve (see
Chapter 7). Total water supply available to the system at the oase ox
the riser at the residual pressure required by the design shall be not less
than shown in Tablc 2-2.1(B) but this total water supply need not be
calculated through the overhead piping.
2-2.1~2 Classification o f O c c u p a n c y . O c c u p a n c y classi-
fication in Tables 2 - 2 . 1 ( A ) a n d 2-2.1 (B) shall be determined from
Section 1-7.

2-3 C o n n e c t i o n s to W a t e r W o r k s Systems.
2-3.1 A c c e p t a b i l i t y .
2-3.1.1" A connection to a reliable water works system
shall be an acceptable water supply source.
2-3.1.2 M e t e r s . Meters are not recommended for use on
sprinkler systems; however, where required by other authorities,
they shall be o f approved type.

2-3.2 Capacity. T h e connection and a r r a n g e m e n t of under-

ground supply piping shall supply the volume as required in Tables
2-2.1(A) and 2-2.1(B).

T a b l e 2-2.1(B)
A Guide for Determining Density, Area of Operation of Water
Supply Requirements for Hydraulically Designed Sprinkler ~ystems.
Minimum Water Supplies
Hazard Sprinklers Inside & Outside Duration
Classification GPM Hose -- GPM in Minutes

Light 150 100 30

Ord. ~ Gp. 1 450 250 *60-90

Ord. ~ Gp. 2 600 250 *60-90

Ord. -- Gp. 3 750 500 "60-120

*NOTES : The lower duration figure is ordinarily acceptable where remote
station water flow alarm service or equivalent is provided.

6 .5~ o
i 5000 I I|l I 11 II I 111 I fiT1 1111]
Z 11111
nr" 4000 i" I '~I I ii :1 , ' !
bJ T P i . . . . : ....

I I ,
~,. :~000


!li ,,,; .... ;
n," 0,05 0.10 0.15 O.2O 0.25 0.30

]figure 2-2.1.2
For dry systems increase area of sprinkler operation by 30 percent.
For combustible construction with wet or dry systems the minimum area
of application shall be 3,000 sq. ft.
For hazard classifications other than those indicated see appropriate NFPA
Standards for design criteria.

2-4 Gravity Tanks.

2-4.1 Acceptability. An elevated tank sized in accordance
with Table 2-2.1(A) or 2-2.1(B) shall be an acceptable water
mpply source. (See Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection
~lo..22-1971 .)
2-4.2 Capacity and Elevation. The capacity and elevation
of the tank and the arrangement of the underground supply piping
shall provide the volume and pressure required by Table 2-2.1(A)
or 2-2.1(B) designs.

25* Pumps
2-5.1" Acceptability. A single automatically controlled fire
pump sized in accordance with Table 2-2.1 (A) or 2-2.1 (B) supplied
under positive head shall be an acceptable water supply source.
(See Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pumps No. 20-1972.)
2-5.2 Supervision. When a single fire pump constitutes the
sole sprinkler supply, it shall be provided with supervisory service
from an approved central station, proprietary, remote station sys-
tem or equivalent.

2-6 Pressure Tanks.

2-6.1 Acceptability.
2-6.1.1 A pressure tank sized in accordance with Table
2-2.1(A) or 2-2:1(B) is an acceptable water supply source. (See
Standard Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection NFPA No. 22-
2-6.1.2" Pressure tanks shall be provided with an approved
means for automatically maintaining the required air pressure.
When a pressure tank is the sole water supply there shall also be
provided an approved trouble alarm to indicate low air pressure
and low water level with the alarm supplied from an electrical
branch circuit independent of the air compressor.
2-6.1.3 Pressure tanks shall not be used to supply other than
sprinklers and hand hose attached to sprinkler piping.
2-6.2 Capacity.
2-6.2.1 The size of the pressure tank required shall be in
accordance with Table 2111 or 2112 and shall include the extra
capacity needed to fill dry pipe systems when installed. Minimum
requirements when pressure tanks are not the sole water supply
source shall be as indicated in 2-6.2.2, 2-6.2.3, and 2-6.2.4.

2-6.2.2 LIOHT HAZARD OCCUPANCY. Amount of available

water, not less than 2,000 gallons.
2-6.2.3 ORDINARYHAZARD OCCUPANCY. Amount of avail.
able water, not less than 3,000 gallons for Groups 1 and 2. For
Group 3, refer to authority having jurisdiction.
Rcfcr to authority having jurisdiction.
2-6.2.5 For High Risc Buildings scc Chapter 8.
2-6.3* Water Level and Air Pressure. Unlcss otherwise ap.
provcd by the authority having jurisdiction, thc pressure tank shall
bc kept two-thirds full of watcr, and an air pressure of at Icast
75 Ibs. by thc gage shall bc maintained. W h e n thc bottom of
the tank is located below the highest sprinklers scrvcd, the air
pressure by the gagc shall bc at least 75 Ibs. plus three timcs the
pressure caused by the column of water in the sprinkler system
above the tank bottom.

2-7 Fire Department Connections.

2-7.1 When Required. A connection through which a fire
department can pump water into the sprinkler system makes a
desirable auxiliary supply. For this purpose, a fire department
connection shall be provided in all cases except when permission
of the authority having jurisdiction is obtained for their omission.

,- 3 ,H W A . E . P . O O F - . . . .

I I Y//J "o s z



Fig. 2-7.1 Fire Department Connection.
2-7.2 Size. On systems designed using Table 2-2.1(A) as
~ater supply guide, pipe size shall be not less than 4 inches for fire
e~gine connections and not less than 6 inches for fireboat connec-
tionS, except that 3-inch pipe may be used to connect a single hose
connection to a 3-inch or smaller riser. For hydraulically designed
sprinkler systems the size of the fire department connection shall be
jficient to supply the sprinkler water demand developed from
Table 2-2.1 (B).
2-7.3* A r r a n g e m e n t . See Paragraph 3-13.2.5.
2-7.3.1 On wet pipe systems with a single riser the connec-
tion shall be made on the system side of approved indicating,
eck and alarm valves to the riser, unless the sprinklers are sup-
led by fire department pumper connection in the yard. (See
2-7.3.2 On dry pipe systems with a single riser the connec-
tion shall be made between the approved indicating valve and the
dry pipe valve, unless the sprinklers are supplied by fire depart-
ment pumper connection in the yard.
2-7.3.3 On systems with two or more risers the connection
shall be made on the system side of all shutoff valves controlling
other water supplies, but on the supply side of the riser shutoff
valves so that with any one riser off, the connection will feed the
remaining sprinklers, unless the sprinklers are supplied by fire
department pumper connection in the yard.
2-7.3.4 Fire department connections shall not be connected
on the suction side of booster pumps.
2-7.4 Valves.
2-7.4.1 An approved check valve shall be installed in each
fire department connection, located as near as practicable to the
point where it joins the system.
2-7.4.2 There shall be no shutoff valve in the fire depart-
ment connection.
2-7.5 D r a i n a g e . The piping between the check valve and the
outside hose coupling shall be equipped with an approved auto-
rustic drip.
2-7.6 Hose Connections.
2-7.6.1 Hose coupling threads shall conform to those used
by the local fire department. National (American) Standard Fire
Hose Coupling Screw Threads shall be used whenever they will
fit the local fire department hose.

2-7.6.2 Hose connections shall be equipped with listed

plugs or caps.

2-8 Size and Arrangement of Water Supply connections.

2 - 8 . 1 " Size. On systems designed using Table: 2-2.1(A) as
water supply guide, pipe size shall be at least as large as the riser
but not less than 4-inch where unlined cast iron pipe is used. For
hydraulically designed sprinkler systems size of the piping shall, be
sufficient to supply the water demand developed from Table
2-8.2* connection Between Underground and System
Piping. The connection between the system piping and under.
ground piping shall be made with a cast iron flanged piece, prop.
erly strapped, or fastened by other approved devices.

2-9 Water Supply. Test Pipes and Gage s.

2-9.1" Test Pipes. Test pipes, which "may also be used as
drain pipes, shall be provided at locations that will permit flowing
tests to be made to determine whether water supplies and connec.
tions-a~re in order. Such test pipes shah b e not less than the sizes
specified in Section 3-11.2 and equipped with a shutoff valve.
They shall be so installed that the valve may be opened wide for
a sufficient time t o assure a proper test without causing water
damage. (See Sections 3-11.2 and 3-11.4.)

- -
I~ soF'rut:'rAL .C::~.,......


Fig. 2-9.1 Water Supply Connection with Test ]Pipe.

Located o n t h e system:slde of t h e gate valve, one test p l p e m y serve for
more t h a n one d r y connection. It will also .indicate t h e condit~ion of the
gate valve. Located o n t h e supply ~side o f t h e check valve, it will serve
to test o u t c h e c k valve b y closing t h e waterworks gate o r o t h e r o u t s i d e valve.
2-9.2 Gages.
2-9.2.1 A pressure gage shall be installed on the ~iser o r
feed main, at or near each" test pipe, with a connection not smaller
tha-n 1/~ inch. T h i s gage connection shall be equipped" with: a
shutoff valve and with provision for draining.
2-9.2.2 T h e required pressure gages shall be of approved
type and shall have a maximum limit not less than twice the normal
working pressure at the point where installed. They shall be in-
stalled to permit removal, and shall be located where they will
not be subject to freezing.

Chapter 3 System Components

3.1 P i p i n g .
3.i.1 Piping Specifications. Pipe or t u b e used in sp.rinlder systems shall be of
the m a t e r i a l s listed in T a b l e 3-1.1.1 o r m a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 3-1.1.2.
T h e c h e m i c a l properties, physical properties a n d dimensions of
the m a t e r i a l s listed in T a b l e 3-1.1.1 shall be a t least e q u i v a l e n t to
the Standards cited in the table designed to w i t h s t a n d a working
pressure of n o t less t h a n 175 psi.

Material and Dimensions Standard
Ferrous Piping (Welded and Seamless)
Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe For Ordinary Uses,
Spee. For Black and Hot-Dipped Zinc Coated
(Galvanized) . . . . . . . . ....... ~. ASTM A 120-72a
Spec. for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe . . . . . ASTM A 53-72a
Wrought-Steel and Wrought Iron Pipe . . . . . . ANSI B 36.10-702
Nonferrous Tube (Drawn, Seamless)
Spec. For Seamless Copper Tube . . . . . . . . . ASTM B 75-72 or
Spec. For Seamless Copper Water Tube . . . . . . ASTIV[B 88-72
Spec. For General Requirements for Wrought Seamless
Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube . . . . . . . . ASTM B 251-71
Brazing Filler Metal . . . . .......... AWS A 5.8-69
IWhen pipe is joined by welding, pipe of thickness 0.188 in. is permitted for
Dressures Ul~ to 300 psi in sizes 4 in. and larger, and schedule 108 pipe as sped.
iied in ANSI Standard B36-19--1965 (R1971), Stainless Steel Pipe, is per.
mired in sizes smaller than 4 in.
2Standard Wall Schedule 40 pipe permitted for pressures up to 300 psi. Sched-
ule 30 pipe acceptable in sizes 8in. an d larger. . O t h e r types of p i p e or t u b e m a y be used, b u t only

those investigated a n d listed for this service b y a n a t i o n a l l y recog-
nized testing a n d inspection a g e n c y l a b o r a t o r y . W h e n e v e r the w o r d p i p e is used in this s t a n d a r d it
shall be u n d e r s t o o d to also m e a n tube.

3-2" D e f i n i t i o n s . (See Fig. A-3.2.)

R i s e r s m e a n s the vertical s u p p l y pipes in a sprinkler system;

Feed M a i n s means mains supplying risers or cross mains;

Gross M a i n s means pipes directly supplying the lines in which
the sprinklers are placed;
Branch Lines means lines of pipe, from the point o f attachment
to the cross m a i n (or similar connection) to the e n d sprinkler, in
which the sprinklers are directly placed;
Fire Section means a n a r e a bounded by the exterior walls of the
building or by construction having a fire resistance w i t h rating at
least equal to water supply duration indicated in Tables 2-2.1(A)
and 2-2.1(B) and with openings protected in an approved manner;
and for hydraulically designed systems, calculations are based
upon areas of sprinkler operation indicated in Table 2-2.1(B), or
upon the size of the fire section being considered, whichever is

5-3* P i p e Schedules.
3-3.1 Except as provided in 3-3.2 and 3-3.3 the number of
automatic sprinklers on a given size pipe on one floor of one fire
section shall n o t exceed the n u m b e r given in Sections 3-4, 3-5 or
3-6 for a given occupancy.
3-3.2 T h e pipe schedule provisions do not apply to hy-
draulically designed systems.
3-3.3 T h e m a x i m u m floor area to be protected by one sys-
tem on any one floor shall be as follows:
Light Hazard _ 52,000 sq. ft.
Ordinary Hazard " " ~ ~:'-- 52,000 sq. ft.
ISolid piled storage in excess of 15 feet in height Or
palletized or rack st6rage in excess of .12 feet in
height 40,000 sq. ft.
Extra Hazard " 25,000 sq. ft.
1See NFPA Standards, Indoor General Storage, No. 231, 1972
and Rack Storage of Materials, No. 231C, 1972 for definitions
of solid piled, palletized or rack storage.
Sprinkler spacing requirements contained in Chapter 4 still apply.
3-3.4 Size of Risers. Each system riser shall be sized to supply
all sprinklers on the riser on any one floor of one fire section as
determined by the standard schedules of pipe sizes, Sections 3-4,
3-5, or 3-6. Sprinklers in one fire section may be supplied from a
system riser in the adjacent fire section when approved by the
authority having jurisdiction.
3-3.5 Slatted Floors, Large Floor Openings, Mezzanines,
and Large Platforms. Buildings having slatted floors,.or large
unprotected floor openings without approved stops, shall be treated

as one area with reference to the pipe sizes, and the feed mains Qr
risers shall be of the size required for the total number of sprinklers.

3-4 Schedule for Light H a z a r d Occupancies.

3-4.1 Branch lines shall not exceed eight sprinklers on either
side of a cross main except as modified in 3-7.2.
Pipe sizes shall be as follows, except as modified by 3-4.2, 34.3
and 3-7.2.
Table 3-4.1
Steel Copper
1 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 2 sprinklers 1 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 2 sprinklers
1~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 3 sprinklers 1~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 3 sprinldex~
1~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 5 sprinklers 1~ in. tube . . . . . . . . 5 sprinklers
2 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 10 sprinklers 2 in. tube . . . . . . . . 12 sprinklers
2~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 30 sprinklers 2~ in. tube . . . . . . . . 40 sprinklex~
3 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 60 sprinlders 3 in. tube . . . . . . . . 65 sprinlders
3~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 100 sprinklers 3~ in. tube . . . . . . . . 115 sprinlder~
4 in. pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . See 3-4.2 4 in. tube . . . . . . . . . . . . See 3-4.2

3-4.2 The area supplied by any one 4-inch pipe or robe size
on any one floor of one fire section shall not exceed 52,000 square
3-4.$ Each area requiting more than 100 sprinklers and with.
out subdividing partitions (not necessarily fire walls)' shall be sup.
plied by feed mains or risers sized for ordinary hazard occupancies.

Fig. 5-4.3(A). A r r a n g e m e n t o f B r a n c h L i n e s S u p p l y i n g S p r i n k l e r s
A b o v e a n d Below a Ceiling.

. . . . . . . . . . . ]hi


Fig. 3-4.3(B). S p r i n k l e r o n R i s e r N i p p l e f r o m B r a n c h L i n e
in L o w e r Fire Area.

5-4.4* W h e n sprinklers a r e installed a b o v e a n d b e l o w a

ceiling a n d such sprinklers a r e s u p p l i e d f r o m a c o m m o n set of
branch lines, such b r a n c h lines shall n o t e x c e e d e i g h t sprinklers
above a n d e i g h t sprinklers b e l o w t h e ceiling on e i t h e r side o f the
cross m a i n . P i p e sizing, u p to a n d i n c l u d i n g 2 ~ inch, shall be as
~ o w n in T a b l e 3-4.4.
Table 3-4.4
N u m b e r of Sprinklers
Above and Below
Steel Copper
1 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 sprinklers 1 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 sprinklers
1~4 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 sprinklers 1 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 sprinklers
1~ in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 sprinklers 1 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 sprinklers
2 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 sprinklers 2 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 sprinklers
2P~ in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 sprinklers 2 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 sprinklers
W h e r e t h e t o t a l n u m b e r of s p r i n k l e r s a b o v e a n d b e l o w the ceiling
exceeds 50, t h e p i p e s u p p l y i n g m o r e t h a n 50 sprinklers shall b e in-
creased to t h r e e inch, a n d sized t h e r e a f t e r a c c o r d i n g to the sched-
ule s h o w n in P a r a g r a p h 3-4.1 for t h e n u m b e r of sprinklers above
or below the ceiling, w h i c h e v e r is larger.

3-5 S c h e d u l e f o r O r d i n a r y Hazard Occupancies.

3-5.1 B r a n c h lines shall n o t e x c e e d e i g h t sprinklers on e i t h e r
side of a cross m a i n e x c e p t as m o d i f i e d in 3-4.2.
Pipe sizes shall be as follows, e x c e p t as m o d i f i e d b y 3-5.2, 3-5.3
and 3-7.2.
Table 3-5.1
Steel Copper
1 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 2 sprinklers 1 in. tube . . . . . . . . 2 sprinklers
1~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 3 sprinklers 1~ in. tube . . . . . . . . 3 sprinklers
1~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 5 sprinklers 1 in. tube . . . . . . . . 5 sprinklers
2 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 10 sprinklers 2 in. tube . . . . . . . . 12 sprinklers
2~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 20 sprinklers 2 in. tube . . . . . . . . 25 sprinklers
3 in. tube . . . . . . . . 40 sprinklers 3 in. tube . . . . . . . . 45 sprinklers
3~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 65 sprinklers 3 in. tube . . . . . . . . 75 sprinklers
4 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 100 sprinklers 4 in. tube . . . . . . . . 115 sprinklers
5 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 160 sprinklers 5 in. tube . . . . . . . . 180 sprinklers
6 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 275 sprinklers 6 in. tube . . . . . . . . 300 sprinklers
8 in. pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . See 3-5.2 8 in. tube . . . . . . . . . . . . See 3-5.2

3-5.2 T h e a r e a s u p p l i e d b y a n y o n e 8 - i n c h p i p e o r t u b e
size o n a n y o n e floor o f one fire section shall n o t e x c e e d 52,000
square feet e x c e p t t h a t for solid piled storage in excess of 15 feet
in h e i g h t o r p a l l e t i z e d o r r a c k s t o r a g e in excess of 12 feet the a r e a
served b y a n y o n e 8 - i n c h p i p e o r t u b e size shall n o t e x c e e d 40,000

square feet. W h e r e single systems serve b o t h such storage and

o r d i n a r y h a z a r d areas, storage a r e a covered shall n o t exceed
40,000 s q u a r e feet a n d total a r e a covered shall n o t exceed 52,000
square feet.
3-5.3 W h e n the distance b e t w e e n sprinklers on the branch
lines exceeds 12 feet or the d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n the b r a n c h lines ex.
ceeds 12 feet, the n u m b e r of sprinklers shall be as follows for given
sizes of p i p e :
T a b l e 3-5.3
Steel Copper
2 ~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 15 sprinklers 2 ~ in. tube . . . . . . . . 20 sprinklers
3 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 30 sprinklers 3 in. tube . . . . . . . . 35 sprinklers
3 ~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 60 sprinklers 3~ in. tube . . . . . . . . 65 sprinklers
For other pipe and tube sizes, follow 3-5.1.

3-5.4* W h e n sprinklers a r e installed a b o v e a n d b e l o w a ceil.

ing a n d such sprinklers a r e supplied from a c o m m o n set of branch
lines, such b r a n c h lines shall n o t exceed eight sprinklers above and
eight sprinklers below the ceiling on either side of the cross main.
P i p e sizing u p to a n d i n c l u d i n g three inch shall be as shown in the
following schedule:
T a b l e 3-5.4
Number of Sprinklers
Above and Below
Steel Copper
1 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 sprinklers 1 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 sprinklers
1~ in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 sprinklers 1 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 sprinklers
1~ in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 ~prinklers 1~ in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 sprinklers
2 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 sprinklers 2 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 sprinklers
2~ in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 sprinklers 2~ in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 sprinklers
3 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 sprinklers 3 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 sprinklers

W h e n the total n u m b e r of sprinklers a b o v e a n d below the ceiling

exceeds 60, the pipe supplying m o r e t h a n 60 sprinklers shall be in-
creased to 3 ~ - i n c h a n d sized thereafter a c c o r d i n g to the sched-
ule shown in 3-5.1, for the n u m b e r of sprinklers a b o v e or below
the ceiling, whichever is larger.

3-6 S c h e d u l e for Extra H a z a r d Occupancies.

3-6.1 B r a n c h lines shall n o t exceed six sprinklers on either
side of cross main. T h e following p i p e schedules are given only a~
a guide. See separate N F P A S t a n d a r d s for further guidance for
specific hazards.

T a b l e 3-6.1
Steel Copper
1 in. plpe . . . . . . . . 1 sprinkler 1 in. tube . . . . . . . . 1 sprinkler
1 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 2 sprinklers 1 ~ in. tube . . . . . . . . 2 sprinklers
in. pipe . . . . . . . . 5 sprinklers 1~ in. tube . . . . . . . . 5 sprinklers
2 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 8 sprinklers 2 in. tube . . . . . . . . 8 sprinklers
2~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 15 sprinklers 2 ~ in. tube . . . . . . . . 20 sprinklers
3 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 27 sprinklers 3 in. tube . . . . . . . . 30 sprinklers
3~ in. pipe . . . . . . . . 40 sprinklers 3 ~ in. tube . . . . . . . . 45 sprinklers
4 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 55 sprinklers 4 in. tube . . . . . . . . 65 sprinklers
5 in. plpe . . . . . . . . 90 sprinklers 5 in. tube . . . . . . . . 100 sprinklers
6 in. pipe . . . . . . . . 150 sprinklers 6 in. tube . . . . . . . . 170 sprinklers
8 in. pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . See 3-6.2 8 in. tube . . . . . . . . . . . . See 3-6.2

3-6.2 T h e a r e a served b y a n y one 8-inch p i p e o r t u b e size

on a n y one floor of one fire section shall not exceed 25,0/)0 s q u a r e
3-6.3 F o r open sprinkler a n d d e l u g e systems p i p e schedule
see 3-6.1.

3-7 S p e c i a l P r o v i s i o n s A p p l i c a b l e to P i p i n g .
3-7.1 B r a n c h L i n e s . W h e n the o c c u p a n c y is classified as
light or o r d i n a r y h a z a r d o c c u p a n c y a n d w h e n m o r e t h a n e i g h t
spri.nklers on a b r a n c h line a r e necessary, lines m a y be increased
to nine sprinklers b y m a k i n g the two end lengths one inch a n d
1 ~ inch, respectively, a n d the sizes thereafter s t a n d a r d . Ten
sprinklers m a y be placed on a b r a n c h line b y m a k i n g the two e n d
lengths one a n d 11/~ inch, respectively, a n d feeding the t e n t h
sprinkler b y a 2 ~ i n c h pipe. (See 7-1.1.2.)

3-7.2 F o r sprinklers in storage racks see N F P A S t a n d a r d R a c k

Storage of M a t e r i a l s , No. 231C-1972.

3-7.3* P r o v i s i o n for F l u s h i n g S y s t e m . D r y p i p e a n d pre-

action systems a n d wet pipe systems h a v i n g n o n - p o t a b l e w a t e r sup-
plies shall be p r o v i d e d with flushing connections consisting of a
threaded c a p p e d n i p p l e four inches long on the end of cross mains.
All cross m a i n s shall t e r m i n a t e in 11/~-inch or larger pipe. T h e
nipples shall be the same d i a m e t e r as the end p i p e b u t not l a r g e r
than two inches.

3-7.4 S t a i r T o w e r s . Stairs, towers o r o t h e r construction w i t h

incomplete floors, if p i p e d on i n d e p e n d e n t risers, shall be t r e a t e d
as one a r e a with reference to p i p e sizes.

3-7.5 R e t u r n B e n d s . W h e n p i p i n g on w e t systems is c o n -

cealed, with sprinklers installed in pendent position below a ceil.

ing, return bends shall be used when the water supply to the sprin.
kler system is from a raw water source, millpond, or from open tol~
reservoirs. Return bends shall be connected to the tops of branch
lines in order to avoid accumulation of sediment in the drop' nipples.
In new systems the return bend pipe and fittings shall be o n e inch
in size. In revamping existing systems, where it is not necessary
to retain sprinklers in the concealed space, I/2-inch or 3/~-ineh
close nipples inserted in the existing sprinkler fittings may be used
with one-inch pipe and fittings for the other portions of the return
bend. When water s u p p l y is potable, return bends are not re.
quired on wet systems. (See Fig. 3-7.5.)

l"f ~ i - TI ~r~ne.~ll,'~

O,P m
j~-~'~,J.,.a b . ~ , , c.f~.g ~ a~.,~,~.a a, ~ ~ .

. F i g . 3"7.5. Pendent Sprinklers at Suspended Ceiling.

3-7.6 Dry P i p e U n d e r g r o u n d . When necessary to place

pipe which will be under air pressure underground, the pipe shall
be protected against corrosion (see 3-10.2), or unprotected gasketed
joint cast-iron pipe may be used.
3-7.7 Hand Hose Connections (small). Hand hose, to be
used for fire purposes only, may be attached to sprinkler pipes
subject to the following restrictions: " "
(a). Piping shall be one-inch, size for runs up to 20 feet and
1 l~-inch size for runs between 20 and 80 feet.
(b) Hose,shall not be larger than l l~inch. ,
(c) Nozzle discharge' shall not exceed the discharge from two
nominal I/z-inch orifice sprinklers. (See 3-15.5.)
(d) Hose shall not be connected to any sprinkler pipe smaller
than 21~inch and shall not be attached to a dry-pipe system. For
details of hand hose installation, see the NFPA Standard for the
Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems No. 14-1971.
3-7.8 Hose Connections for Fire Department Use. In
buildings of light or ordinary hazard occupancy, 21~inch hose
valves for fire department use may be attached to wet pipe sprinkler
systems subject to the following restrictions:
( a ) T h e riser and hose valves shall be located in a fire-re-
stive stair enclosure.
(b) Sprinklers shall be under control of separate floor control
valves located in the fire-resistive stair enclosure.
(c) T h e minimum size of the riser shall be 4 inches unless
hydraulic calculations indicate smaller size riser will satisfy sprin-
lder and hose stream demand. .
(d) Tl~e water supply shall satisfy demand for sprinkle~ and
standpipes combined,
(e) For fire department connections, serving standpipe and
sprinklers' refer to A-2-7.3.

3-8 System Test'Pipes. '

3-8.1 Wet Systems.
3-8.1.1" A test pipe of not less than 1-inch diameter ter-
minating in a smooth bore corrosion resistant outlet giving a flow
equivalent to one sprinkler shall be provided for each system.
3-8.1.2" I n multistory buildings where waterflow alarm
devices are provided at each riser on each floor or where more than
one alarm device is provided in one sprinkler system, a test pipe shall
be provided for testing each alarm device.
3-8.2* D r y - P i p e Systems. A l=inch inspector's test with a
smooth bore corrosion resistant outlet to provide a flow equivalent
to one sprinkler of a type installed on the particular system shall be
installed on the end of the most distant sprinkler line in the upper
story and be ecluipped with a 1-inch shutoff valve and cast-iron
or brass p l u g . " " ".

3-9 J o i n i n g of Pipe a n d Fittings.

5-9.1 All threaded fittings and pipe shall have threads cut to
ANSI Standard B2.1. Care shall be taken that the pipe does not
extend i n t o the fitting sufficiently to reduce the water-way.
3-9.2 Pipe shall be reamed after cutting to remove all burrs
and fins. . . .
3-9.3 Joint compound or tape shall be applied to the threads
of the pipe and not in the fitting.
3-9.4 Other types of joints shall be made or installed in ac-

co/dance with the.requirements of the. listing thereof by a nationally

recognized testing laboratory. ":
' 3-9.5" Brazed joints for the connection of pipe Or tube and
fittings may be used.

3-10 Protect/on of Pipingi '

3-10.1 Protect/on Against Freezing. ' '
" 3-10~1.1 S u p p l y Pipes. w h e n supply pipes or:risers pass
through unheated basements or open spaces under buildings, they
shall be pr0tected against freezing by at/enclo.~ure heated or in.
sulated to maintain minimum temperature of 40F. ' '
3-10.1.2 Feed M a ~ s in Unheated ,Areas. Whe.n neces.
sary to extend feed mains of wet pipe systems through an open area
or through cold rooms, passageways or ~other areas exposed to
freezing, the pipe shall be protected against freezing by insulating
coverings, frostproof casings, or other means capable of maintain.
!ng a minimum of 40F.
, 3-10.2,* Protection of Pipe Against Corrosion.- : -
3-10.2.1 Where-cor/osive conditions exist, suc h as at
ble~/cheries, dye-houses, metalplating, processes, animal pens,
certain-chemical plants and. at other locations, .where corrosive
fumes or moisture may be' present, types of pipe, tube, fittings and
hangers, protective coatings that resist corrosion shall be used.
3-10.2.2 Steel pipe in overhead feed,mains running from
one building to another where exposed to the weather, shall be
galvanized, unless otherwise protected against corrosion.
3-10.2.3 W h e n steel pipe' is used u'nderground hs a con-
nection from a system to sprinklers in a detached building, the pipe
shall be protected against corrosion before being buried. "

3-11 Drainage. .
3-11.i Pitching of Piping for DFaihage.
3-11.1.1" All sprinkler pipe and fittings shall l~e so installed
that the system may be drained.
3-11.1.2 On wet pipe systems, sprinkler pipes may:be in-
stalled level. Trapped piping shall be drained in accordance with
Section 3-11.3. ', "
3-11.1.3 On dry pi~e systems sprinkler pipe on branch lines
shall be pitched at least ~ i f i c h in .10 feet and the pipe Of cross
and feed mains shall be given a pitch of not less than 1/~-inch in 10
feet A pitch
1. of. ~/~-inch
. . to . 1-inch shall be P rovided for short bra nch
lines and ~ m c h m 10 feet for cross and feed mains in refri'l~(erate ed
areas arid in buildings Of light construction where floor ma~, settle
under heavy loads.

3-11.2 S y s t e m or M a i n Drain Connections a n d D r a i n

Valves. (See Fig. 3-11,,2.) -
3-11.2.1 Provisions shall b e m a d e to properly drain all
parts of the system. . . . . . " .-" . "
3-11.2.2 On all risers 4 inches or larger, 2-inch drain pipes
and valves shall be provided.


~ Pressure
Angle Gauge
~ TestPlug
e hn4 " I

warmroombeyond Drain
valvewhenpipeextends Pipe
throughwall to outside.

Fig. 3-11.2. Drain Connection for Sprinkler Riser.

3-11;2.3 On risers.21/~ inches to 31/~ inches inclusive, drain

pipes and valves not smaller than 1 ~ inch shall b e provided.
3-11.2.4 O n smaller risers, drain pipe and valves not smaller
than 3/~ inch shall be provided.
3-11.2.5 All interior sectional control valves shall bc pro-
dded with an auxiliary drain valve so located as t o drain that por-
tion of the system controlled by the sectional valve. These drains
shall discharge either outside or to a drain connection.
3-11.2.6 The test valves required by 2-9.1 may be used as
main drain valves.

3-11.3 Auxiliary Drains.

3-11.3.1 Auxiliary drains shall be provided when a char~
in piping direction prevents drainage of sections of branch lines~
mains through the main drain valve. Auxiliary drains are not re,
quired for piping to a single sprinkler on a wet pipe system or to
drop nipple on a dry pipe system installed in accordance with 5-2.~
3-11.3.2 Auxiliary drains on trapped sections cif wet pil~
systems shall be a minimum of one inch in size except ,that existi~
systems having a/~-inch auxiliary drains from two. inch. and smallest
pipe do not require change.
3-11.3.3 Auxiliary Drains For Wet Pipe Systems.
3- When capacity of trapped sections of pipe is
five gallons or less, the auxiliary drain shall consist of a one inch
nipple and cap or brass plug except as provided for in Paragraph
3- When capacity of trapped sections of pipe is
more than five gallons, the auxiliary drain shall consist of a one inch
valve complete .with nipple and cap or brass plug.
3-11.3.4 Auxiliary Drains For D r y Pipe a n d Pre-Actioa
3- When capacity of trapped sections of pipe is
five gallons or less, the auxiliary drain shall consist of a ~ i n c h
valve complete with nipple and cap Or brass plug, except as pr0.
vided f o r . i n 3-11.3.1.
3- When capacity of trapped sections of pipe is
more than five gallons, the auxiliary drain shallconsist of two one
inch valves, and one 2 inch by 12 inch condensate nipple or equiv-
alent. (See Fig. 3-11.3.4.)
3-11,3.5 Tie-In Drains. Tie-in drains for branch lines on
dry pipe or preaction systems shall be a minimum ,of one inch in
size. Tie-in drains are not required on wet pipe systems.

3-11.4 Discharge of Drain Valves. '

3-11.4.17 Direct interconnections: shall not be, made be-
tween sewers 'and sprinkler drain s: Of systems supplied by public
water. The drain discharge shall be in, confoi'mity with any health
or water department regulations.
3-11.4.2 When drain :pipes are buried underground, ap-
proved corrosive resistant pipe shall be Used.

D r y System
Auxiliary Drain Wet Pipe System

1" ,Valve

Angle I I
, V=ve .

[ 12"X12';
; I ipp e or quivalent

" i " Valve . :. _

1"Nipple and Cap or Brass Plug

Fig. 5-11.3.4

3-11.4.3 Drain piPes shall not terminate in blind spaces

under the building.
3-11.4.4 Drain pipes when exposed fitted with a
turned down elbow.
3-11:4.5" Drain pipes s h a l l b e ai'ranged as not tO expose
any part of the sprinkler system to freezing conditions.

3-12 F i t t i n g s .
3-12.1 T y p e of Fittings.
3-12.1.1 "Fittings shall be of a :type specifically approved for
sprinkler systems and of a design suitable for the w.orking pres-
sures involved, but not less than 175 psi cold water pressure.
3-12.1.2" If fitiirigs are of cast iron, extra heavy pattern shall
be used in sites larger than two inches where the normal pressure
in the piping system exceeds i 75 psi. If fittings are of malleable iron,
standard weight pattern shall be acceptable in sizes up to six inches
inclusive when the normal pressure in the pipe system does not ex-
ceed 300 ps!. Fittings made of materials other than cast iron or
malleable iron and specifically approved for use in sprinkler sys.
terns may be used at piping system pressures up to the working
pressure limits specified in their approval.
3-12.1.3 Where water pressures are 175 to 300 psi, the ANSI
Standards permit the use of standard wall pipe and extra heavy
valves. Until pressure ratings for valves are standardized, the
manufacturers' ratings shall be observed.
3-12.1.4" When risers are three inches in size or larger, a
flange joint shall be used at the riser at each floor.
3-12.2" Couplings a n d Unions. Screwed unions shall not
be used on pipe larger than two inches. Couplings and unions of
other than screwed type shall be of types approved specifically for
use in sprinkler systems. Unions, screwed or flexible gasketed cou.
plings, or flanges may be used to facilitate installation.
3-12.3 Reducers, Bushings. A one-piece ,reducing fitting
shall be used wherever a change is made in the size of the pipe,
except hexagonal or face bushings may be used in reducing the size
of openings of fittings when standard fittings of the required size
are not available. ,. . . . . . . .
3-12.4 W e l d e d P i p i n g . ~ ....
3-12.4.1 Sections of branch lines, crossmains, feed maim,
or ri~rs shop welded.
3-12.4.2 Sections of welded piping shall be joined by means
of screwed flanged or flexible gaskctcd joints or other approved
f i t t i n g s . . , :
3-12.4.3 Torch cutting shall not be permitted as a means
of modifying o r repairing sprinkler systems.
3-12.4.4 Welding'and brazing shall be done in accordance
with the methods set forth in the American National Standards
Institute for Power Piping, ANSI B.31.1.0-1967 and including
Addenda ANSI B.31.1.0a, 1971 and ANSI B.31.10b, 1971,
3-12.4.5 Welding fittings should comply ~vith ANSI Stan-
dard on Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttweld Fittings, ANSI
No. B16.9-1971, ANSI Standard on Buttwelding Ends for Pipe,
Valves, and Fittings ANSI No. B16.25"1964 and ASTM Standard
Specifications'forPipe Fittin'gs of Wrought" C~irbon Steel and Alloy
Steel for Moderate and Eievated' "l~emi~eratures, ASTM No.
A23/~'--71. . - ,' ' ' : 'i ' : , ' -' " "
" 3-12.4.6 CertificatiOn of Welders a n d Brazers. ~Welders
or, brazers shall be certified by contractor as being qualified for
welding and/or brazing in accordance with the requirements of
ASME Boilerand Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX, Qualification
Standard for Welding and Brazing Procedures, Welders, Brazers,
~ d Welding and Brazing Operators 1968 Edition. (See Ap-
pc-ndix C.)
3-12.4.7. When welding is planned, contractor shall specify
the section to be shop weided on drawings, and the type of welding
fittings to be used.
3-12.4.8 Welding fittingsshall comply with ANSISt~mdard
0n Factory-Madc Wrought Stccl Buttwcld Fittings, A N S I NO.
B16.9-1971, A N S I Standard Buttwelding Ends for Pipe, Valves,
Flanges and Fittings A N S I No. B16.25-1964, and A S T M Standard
Spccificationsfor Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Stccl and All
-- - ~ oy

Stccl for Modcratc and Elcvated Temperatures, A S T M No.


3-13.1~ Types of Valves to be Used. ~ .... ,,
3-13.1.1 All valves on connections t~ ~water supplies'and in
supply : pipes to sprinklers shall be approved indicating valves,
unless a: nonindicatihg valve,,such as~an underground ~gate valve
with approved road way boxcomplete .with T-wrehch is accepted
by the authority having jurisdiction. " . . -.

Such.valves shall:not close in less than five seconds when operated

at maximum possible 'speed from the fully open position. This is
to avoid damage to piping b~, :water hammer. '
The following may not incorporate indicating devices as part'of
the valve, but the valve assembly described shall qualify as an ap-
proved indicating valve:
(a)' ~' an utlderground .gate valve Of approved type equipped
with an approved indicator post,
(b) ar~ approved water control valve-assembly which is
n0rmally:bpen ~ar/d ~ciuires.Cons.tant energy application to close
and keep closed, ," :
(c) an approved, water control valve assembly which has
a reliable.position indication connected to a remote supervisory
station. . . "- :- ....
3-13.1.2 Drain valves and test valves shall be of approved
3-13-1.3 Check valvcs shall be of approved type and m a y
be installedin "a vcrtical or horizontal position.
3-13.2 Valves Controlling Sprinkler Systems.
1 5 ~0
13.2.1 Each s stem shall be provided with an approved
. . ..3" vatvc
inatcatln~ " - so locaSySd as to control all sources of water supl~lv
except fire d p artment conneCtions when arranged
v e . a s;~
Section 2-7.3.
3-13.2'2 At least one approved indicating valve shall
installed in each source: of water supply except fire department
3-13.2.3 Valves controlling sprinkler systems, except under.
ground gate valves with roadway boxes, shall be supervised open
by one of the following methods:
(a) Central station, proprietary or remote station: alarm
(b) Local a'larm service which will cause the sounding of an
audible signal at a constantly attend ed point,
(c) Locking valves open,
(d) Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded in.
spection when valves are located within fenced enclosures under
the control of the owner.
3-13.2.4 When there is more than one source of water
supply, a check valve shall be .installed in each connection, except
that where cushiontanks are used with: automatic fire pumps no
check valve is required in the cushion tank connection.
3-13~2.5" A check valve shali b e installed in each water
supply connection ifthere is a fire department connection on the
system. ,
3-13.2.6 When a single wet pipesprinkler system is equipped
with a fire department connection the alarm valve is considered a
check valve and an additional check valve shall not be required.
3-13.2.7 I n a city connection serving as onesource of supply
the city valve in the connection may serve as one of the required
valves. An approved indicating valve or an~indicator post valve
shall be installed on the system side of the check valve, t
3-13.3" Identification of Valves., .When there is more than
one control valve, identification signs ir/dicating theportion of the
system controlled by each valve shall be provided.

3-14 H a n g e r s .
3-14.1" G e n e r a l .
3-14.1.1 Sprinkler piping slfall he' substantially supported

1See Figure A-3-13.2.5


froIn the building structure which must support the added load of
the water-filled pipe plus a minimum of 250 pounds applied at the
point of hanging.
3-14.1.2 Types of hangers and installation methods shall be
in accordance with the requirements of Section 3-14, unless they
are certified by a registered professional engineer for the following:
(a) Designed to support five times the weight of the water-
filed pipe plus 250 pounds at each point of piping support,
(b) These points of support a r e enough to support the
sprinkler system,
(c) Ferrous materials are used for hanger components.
Detailed calculations shall be submitted, when required by the
reviewing authority, showing stresses developed both in hangers
and piping and safety factors allowed.
3-14.1.3 Sprinkler piping shall be supported independently
of the ceiling sheathing, except asprovided in 3-14.1,8.
3-14:1.4 When sprinkler piping is installed below duct-
work, piping shall be substantially supported from the building
structure or from the steel angles supporting the duct work provided
the angles conform to Table 3-14.1.6.
3-14.1.5 Hangers shall be approved for use with the pipe
or tube involved, except mild steel " U " hooks as defined in 3-14.4.2.
3-14.1.6 For trapeze hangers, tlie minimum size of steel
angle or pipe span between purlins or joists shall be as shown in
Table 3-14.1.6, all angles to be used with longer leg vertical. Any
other sizes or shapes giving equal or greater section modulus will be
acceptable. The trapeze bar shall be secured to prevent slippage.
3-14.1.7 The size of hanger rods and fasteners required to
support the steel angle iron or pipe indicated in Table 3-14.1.6
shall comply with Section 3-14.4.
3-14.1.8 Eye rods and ring hangers shall be secured with
necessary lock washers to prevent lateral motion at the point of
support. Toggle hangers shall b e used only for the support of
branch lines under ceilings of hollow tile or metal lath andplaster.
3-14.2 Hangers in Concrete,
3-i4.2.1 Approved inserts set in concrete may be installed
for the support of hangers. : Wood plugs shall not be used.
3-14.2.2 Holes through concrete beams may also be con-
sidered as a substitute for hangers for the support of pipes.
T a b l e 3-14.1.6
T r a p e s e B a r s - - F o u r - to 10-Foot S p a n s

Pipe 2 ~ " or
Size Less 3" 3~" 4'* 5'* 6" 8" 10"
2~xl~x~ 2~xl~x~ 2~ xl~ x~ 3x2x~6 3x2xaA'6 3x2x~ 3 ~ x 2 ~ x6/~ 4x3x~6
1 ~ " Pipe 1 ~ " Pipe 1 ~ " Pipe 1 ~ " Pipe 2" Pipe 2" Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 3 ~ " Pipe
2~xl~x~ 2~ xl~ x~ 3 x 2 x~o 3 x 2 xl,~6 3x2x~ 3 ~ x 2 ~ x~o 4x 3x~o 5 x 3 ~ x~o
1 ~ " Pipe 1~*' Pipe 1 ~ " Pipe 2 " Pipe 2" Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 2 ~ i' Pipe 4" Pipe
2~xl~x~ 3x2x~e 3x2x~e 3x2x~ 3~x2~x~ 4x3x~ 4x3x~e 5x3~x~
1 ~ " Pipe 2 " Pipe 2 " Pipe 2 " Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 3" Pipe 4" Pipe
3x2x~ 3x2x~e 3x2x~ 3x2x~ 3~x2~ x~ 4x3x~ 5 x 3 ~ x6/~ 6x4x~
2" Pipe 2" Pipe 2" Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 3" Pipe 3" Pipe 4" Pipe
3x2x~ 3x2x~ 3x2x~ 3 ~ x 2 ~ x~e 3 ~ x 2 ~ x ~ 4x3x~ 5x3~x~ 6x4x~
2" Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 3" Pipe 3" Pipe 3 ~ " Pipe 4" Pipe
3x2x~ 3x2x~ 3~x2~x~ 3~x2~x~ 3~x2~ x~ 4x3x~ 5 x 3 ~ x~e 6x4xS/~
2 " Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 3" Pipe 3 ~ " Pipe 3 ~ " Pipe 4 " Pipe 5" Pipe
3x2x~ 3x2x~ 3~ x2~ x~ 3~ x2~ x~ 4x3x~ 5x3~x~ 6x4x~ 6 x 4 x ~/~
2 ~ " Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 2 ~ " Pipe 3" Pipe 3 ~ '* Pipe 3 ~ " Pipe 4 " Pipe 5 " Pipe

3-14.2.3 Approved expansion shields for supporting pipes

t~der concrete construction may be used in a horizontal position
in the sides of beams. In concrete having gravel or crushed stone
aggregate: expansion shields may be used in the vertical position to
support pipes four inches or less in diameter.
3-14.2.4 For the support of pipes 5 inches and larger, ex-
pansion shields if used in the vertical position shall alternate with
hangers connected directly to the structural members such as
trusSeS and girders, or to the sides of concrete beams. In the absence
of convenient structural members, pipes five inches and larger may
be supported entirely by expansion shields in the vertical position,
but spaced not over 10 feet apart.
3-14.2.5 Expansion shields shall not be used in ceilings of
slugyp,sum or similar soft material. In cinder concrete, expansion
elds shall not be used except on branch lines where they shall
alternate with through bolts or hangers attached to beams.
3-14.2.6 When expansion shields are used in the vertical
PO~eition, the holes shall be drilled to provide uniform contact with
shield over its entire circumference. Depth of the hole shall be
not less than specified for the type of shield used.
3-14.2.7 Holes for expansion shields in the side of concrete
beams shall be above the center line of the beam or above the
bottom reinforcement steel rods.

3-14.3 Powder Driven Studs and Welding Studs.

3-14.3.1" Powder driven studs, welding studs, and the tools
used for installing these devices shall be listed by a nationally rec-
ognized testing laboratory and installed within the limits of pipe
~se, installation position, and construction material into which they
are installed, as expressed in individual listings or approvals.
3-14.3.2 The ability of concrete to hold the studs varies
widely according to type of aggregate and quality of concrete,
and it shall be established in each case by testing concrete on the
job to determine that the studs will hold a minimum load of 750
lbs. for two-inch or smaller pipe, 1000 lbs. for 21/~, 3, or 3 ~ i n c h
pipe, and 1200 lbs. for four- or five-inch pipe.
3-14.3.3 When increaser couplings are used, they shall be
attached directly to the powder driven stud or welding stud.
3-14.3.4 Welded studs or other hanger parts shall not be
attached by welding to steel less than U. S. Standard, 12 gage.
3-14.4 Rods and "U" Hooks.

3-14.4.1 R o d s . T h e size o f r o d s for h a n g e r s shall n o t be

less t h a n t h a t g i v e n in the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , . e x c e p t t h a t rods o f smaller
d i a m e t e r m a y be used w h e n the h a n g e r a s s e m b l y has b e e n tested
a n d listed by~ a n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d testing l a b o r a t o r y a n d in.
stalled w i t h i n the limits o f p i p e size as e x p r e s s e d in i n d i v i d u a l
listings o r a p p r o v a l s . F o r roiled t h r e a d s the r o d size shall be not
less t h a n t h e r o o t d i a m e t e r of the t h r e a d .

'- " T a b l e 3-14.4.1

Pipe Size Dia. of Rod : i Pipe Size - Dia. of Rod
U p t o :, . 5, 6 a n d 8 in. ~" ,
eluding 4 in. 3/~,, 10 axed 12 in. s/~,, .

' :3-14.~,2 ' : " U ' ' H o o k s . T h e s i z e o f : t h e : r o d m a t e r i a l of " U "

hooks shall be n o t l e s s t h a n t h a t givefi i n , h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :

" ' T a b l e 3-14.4.2 . . . . .

Pipe Size Hook Material Dia. Pil~ Size Hook Material Dia.
Up ito 2 in. ~ in. 5 in. ~2 in.
2 ~ in., 3 in. 3/~ in. 6 in. " 8/~ in.
3 ~ in., 4 in. ~in. 8in. sAin.
~ ,
3-14.4.3 S c r e w s . F o r c e i l i n g flanges a n d h o o k s screw
d i m e n s i o n s shall be n o t l e s s t h a n t h o s e g i v e n , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g table,
e x c e p t as p r o v i d e d in 3-14.4.7.

" T a b l e 3-14.4.3
:: , "Pipe Size' . " 2 Screw Flanges:~,
, Up to 2 in. , Wood.,Screw No. 18:x 1 ~ in.
.- Pipe Size 3 Screw Flanges '
U p to 2 i n . W~cxi Screw No. 18 x 1 ~ in.
2 ~ in., 3 in., 3 ~ in. Lag Screw .a/~'.m. x 2 in.
4 in., 5 in., 6 in. Lag Screw Y2 in. 'x 2 in.
~ 8in. Lagi_screw 6/~ in . x 2 in.
" Pipe Size -4, Screw Flanges :
.Up to 2 in. " Wood. Screw No, 18 x 1 ~ in.
2 ~ in., 3 in., 3 ~ in. Lag Screw 8/~ in. X 1 ~ in.
4 in., 5 in., 6 in. Lag Screw ~ in. x 2 in.
8 in. Lag Screw ~/~ in: x 2 in.
Pipe Size " U " Hoo
U p t o 2 in. , ." Drive Screw No. 1 6 x 2 :. in.
.., 2 ~ in., 3 in., 3 ~ in. : . Lag Screw 8/fi in. x 2F~ in.
4 in., 5 in., 6 in. Lag Screw . ~ in. x 3 in.
8 in. Lag Screw ~. s/~in, x 3 in.

3-14.4.4 The size bolt or lag (coach) screw used with an eye
rod or flange on the side Of a beam shall not be less than indicated
in the following table, except as provided in Paragraph 3-14.4.7.

T a b l e 3-14.4.4
Length of Lag Screw
Size of Pipe Size of Bolt or Lag Screw Used with Wood Beams
Up to and in-
cluding 2 i n . . f " 8/~,, 2~ '"
2 to 6 in. (inclusive) ~" 3"
8 in. ~" 3"

3-14.4.5 Drive screws shall be used only in a horizontal po-

sition as in the side of a beam. Wood screws shall not be driven.
Nails are not acceptable for fastening hangers.
3-14.4.6 Screws in the side of a timber or joist shall be not
less than 2 ~ inches from the lower edge when supporting branch
lines, and not less than three inches when supporting main lines.
This shall not apply to two-inch or thicker nailing strips resting
on top of steel beams.

3-14.4.7 When the thickness of planking a n d thickness of

flange does not permit the use of screws two inches long, screws
1 ~ inches long may be permitted, with hangers spaced not over
10 feet apart. When the thickness of beams or joists does not
permit the use of screws 2 ~ inches long, screws 2 inches long may
be permitted, with hangers spaced not over 10 feet apart.
3-14.4.8 The minimum thickness of plank arid the m i n i -
mum width of lower face of beams or joists m which lag screw
rods are used shall be a s given in the following table:

T a b l e 3-14.4.8
Nominal Plank Nominal Width
Pipe Size Thickness of Beam Face
Up to 2 in. 3in. 2in.
2~ in. to3 in. 4in. 2 in.
4in. and 5in. 4in. 3in.
6in. 4in. 4in.
Lag screw rods shall not b'e used for support of pipes larger than
six inches. All hole for lag screw rods shall be pre-driUed ~ inch
less in diameter 'than t h e r o o t diameter of the lag screw thread.

3-14.5 M a x i m u m Distance B e t w e e n Hangers. With steel

pipe or copper tube as specified in Paragraph 3-1.1.1, the maxi-

m u m distance between hangers shall not exceed 12 feet for 1- and

ll/~-inch sizes nor 15 feet for sizes l ~ i n c h and larger except as
provided in 3-14.7 and 3-14.4.8. See Figure 3-14.5.

LESS T H A N 6 ' - 0 " /---~BAFFLES

I,,,---..I /
r~TCT--r--r- 7 ,~
I ~ l O ~ ...... O ,v / 0 / 0/ /
12'-O" FOR li/4" 6 S M A L L E R
15'-0" FOR It12" P- LARGER
2'-0" 2'-0" 2'-0" 2'-0" 12LO"
L. . . . . . . . . . I
7;. 7- -,- -,
',,Ji .~ -'/- o / o,' ,'o
l- _L_ A_ A__, J_,
GREATER T H A N 12'-0"

(A) (B)

Fig. 3-14.5. Distance Between Hangers.

3-14.6 Location o f H a n g e r s o n B r a n c h Lines.

NOTE: This subsection applies to the support of steel pipe or copper tube as
specified in 3-1.1.1, subject to the provisions of 3-14.5.
3-14.6.1 O n branch lines there shall be at least one hanger
for each length of pipe except as provided in paragraphs 3-14.6.2
to 3-14.6.6 inclusive.
3-14.6.2 T h e distance between the hanger and centerline
of upright sprinkler shall be no less than 3 inches.
3-14.6.3 T h e unsupported length between the end sprin-
lder and the last hanger shall be not more than 36 inches for one-inch
pipe, or 48 inches for 1 l~-inch pipe. When these limits are exceeded,
the pipe shall be extended beyond the end sprinklers and s u p -
ported by an additional hanger.

3"UrN. ROUND ROD a/2 OR L[S$


L^ IL^~ 4L^,
I ~ ~1
L^ iL_-~'Lr-
1 ~ C 40
/ _ I'ro,, ," 1 I /
-7 r--t..-Fo.,,.;t .... J .i
, ~ ^~ ^v I^L ^1, ^1, ^1,.
J ~1 -1 -1 '-1 21 "~-1i

Fig. 3-14.6.3. Distance Sprinkler to Hanger.


3-14.6.4 When sprinklers are less than six feet apart, hangers
may be spaced up to, but not exceeding 12 feet. See Fig. 3-14.5(a).
3-14.6.5 Starter lengths less than six feet do not require a
hanger, except on the end line of a side-feed system, or where an
intermediate cross main hanger has been omitted.
3-14.6.6" Hangers are not required on one-inch arms not
over 12 inches long for copper tube, n o r 24 inches long for steel
pipe from branch lines or cross mains.

,~/~e feect-/taogdr, f e g u / r ' e d oh..,

O-, v O v v v G O

if i/~rermecliate o m H f e d ~ r.
0",~0 i C f ~, - I 0 0 I 0
OM/7" /~I'~'/~A./~'#/.4 T.~~ , , ~ ~ee Pa,".~.9.'a~ 3-14. 6 6

<>,o o/;1,,,,]~lI #
^ _L
i-]~1 ^
v, o

f h ~ n 6 "-0 regu/reJ n o n ~ n g e r
~,o o, o, i~ I l Vl ]~l ] 1
Fig. 5-14.6.6. Hanger Omissions.

3-14.7 Location of H a n g e r s on Cross Mains.

NOTE: This subsection applies to the support of steel pipe or copper tube
as specified in 3-1.1.1, subject to the provisions of 3-t4.Sz
3-14.7.1 O n cross mains there shah be at least one hanger
between each two branch lines, except intermediate hangers may
be omitted as outlined in 3-14.7.2 to 3-14.7.4, inclusive.
3-14.7.2 I n bays having two branch lines, the intermediate
hanger m a y be omitted provided that a hanger attached to a purlin
is installed on each branch line located as near to the cross main
as the location of the purlin permits. (See Figure 3-14.7.2). Re-
maining branch line hangers shall be installed in accordance with

0 v v ,.,'i w

0 "C 0 . 0 : C '~; qO


0 'C


= Fig.'3"14.7-1. Elangers oli'Cross M,ain. :

3-14.7.3 I n b a y s having three:or more branch lines, either

side or center feed,: one (only) intermediate hanger m a y be omitted
provided that a hanger attached to a purlin is installed on each
branch line located as near to the cross main as the location of
the purlin permits. ( S e e Figure 3-14.7.3(A) and 3-14.7.3(B).)
R e m a i n i n g b r a n c h line hangers shall be ~iastalled in accordance
with 3 - 1 4 . 6 . ~ "

O N O/V'.~ .C,~0.,'3 d t A / N p / E C E
:;,L r~L I~L !oL
i~ infermea/ere ornlrrea

. 1 1,'LI "
" s/z:)~ ,4"z'~z) .:.

Fig. 3-14.7.3(A). H a n g e r Omission on Side Feed System.


O, 0 0 v v v

0 1 0 ,0~ O
~c~re. ~f~Tch line hanoet~ /N7"E,~MCD/ATW /ANGER
on D o r n d~/~e~ o f c/'o s g
/,cA), 8 ~ oM/rrsn

T ioi O

C N T E R F'~'D
Fig. 3-14.7.3(B). Hangers on Cross Main - - Center Feed System.

3-14.7.4 At the end of the cross main, intermediate trapeze

hangers shall b e installed unless the cross main is extended to the
next framing member with an ordinary hanger installed at this
point, in which event an intermedia'te h a n g e r may be ornitted in
accordance with3-14.7.2 and 3-14.7.3.
, .. ;
.... !' ,

3814.8 Location of H a n g e r s o n F e e d M a i n s . o n feed mains

there shah be at least one hanger for each 15 feet of pipe.
NOTE: This subsection applies to the support of steel pipe or copper tube
as specified in Paragraph 3-1.1.1, subject to provisions contained in Sec-
don 3-14.5.
3-14.9 Support of Risers.
3-14.9.1 Risers shall be supported by attachments directly
to the riser or by hangers located on the horizontal connections
dose to the riser.
3-14.9.2 In buildings de'signed for live floor loads in excess
of 125 pounds per square foot, riser supports shall be provided at
the ground level and at each fourth level above. In buildings de-
signed for l i v e floor loads less than 125 pounds per square foot,
riser supports shah be provided at ground level and at each third
level above. Where risers aresupported from the ground, the ground
support constitutes the first level of riser support. Where risers are
offset or do not rise from the ground the first ceiling level above
the offset constitutes the first level or riser support.
3-14.9.3 Sprinkler a n d tank risers in vertical shafts, or in
buildings with ceilings over .25 feet high shall have at least one
support for each riser pipe section.
3-14.9.4 Clamps supporting pipe by means of set screws
shall not be used. :

3-15 Sprinklers. _
3-15.1 S t a n d a r d and Old Style Sprinklers.
3-15A.1 The standard sprinkler is the type commonly manu.
factured since 1953, incorporating a uniform, hemispherical dis.
charge pattern. Water is discharged i i a all directions'below the
plane of the deflector. Little or no water ,is~discharged upward
to wet the ceiling. Sprinkler deflectors are stamped as,follows:
UpriglCt SI~rinkle'r Marked S S U - - ,
Pendent Sprinkler M a r k e d SSP
3-15.1.2 The old style s rinkler is the type commonly
P . . -

manufactured: before 1953. It" discharged approximately 50 per.

cent of the water upward to the ceiling.
" .... '.' 3-15:.1.3 Standard spfirllde~ may be used to replace 61d style
sprini~lers without system'changes except f o r installation under
piers'and wharveg where construction features require upward dis,
charge to wet the underside of declcs and structural~ meiiabers sup.
porting the decks. In these cases, a sprinkler 'that" projects water
upward to wet the overhead shall beused.- This can be accomplished
by ilsing the;standard pendent sprinkler~ installed in an upright
position or by 'the use of the old style sprinklers.
- 3 - 1 5 . 1 . 4 0 i d ~style sprinkiers may be used 'to replace old
style sprinklers.
3-15.1.5 Old style sprinklers shall not be used to replace
standard sprinklers without a complete engineering review of the
system which ma~ result in major changes." ,
3-15.2 T y p e s o f Sprinklers.
3-15.2.~i Only listed sprit~klers shall b e used. ' Spr!nklers
shall not be altered in any "reSpect, nor have any 'type 0I orna.
mentation o r coatings applied after sh!pment from the place of
manufacture. . . . . . ~
! i~" 3-i5.2~2 The character of .the discharge of sprinklers is
such that it is necessary to use two distinct designs ~ one approved
for the upright and the other for the Pendent position. ~
3-15.2.3 Sprinklers used for the special purposes and loc,
tions described in .3'-15.2.4 to 3-15.4;.inclusive, .qhall~be of types
specifically approved f~r such use. : " .... : . ~ ::. .

3-15.2.4 Open sprinklers may b e used to protect special

hazards, for' protection against exposures, or in other special loca-
tions. ' "":

3-15.2.5 For locations or conditions not requiring as much

v~ater as is discharged by a nominal ~ i n c h orifice sprinkler,
sprinklers-having a smaller orifice may be used.
3-15.2.6" For locations or conditions requiring more water
than is discharged by a nominal ~ i n c h orifice sprinkler, a sprin-
lder having a larger orifice may be used. Large orifice sprinklers
having ~ i n c h iron pipe thread shall not be installed in new sprin-
kler systems.
3-15.2.7 In situations involving special problems of water
distribution, sprinklers having a discharge other than that which
is characteristic of the ordinary types may be used. These will
usually have special deflectors. Sprinklers having special discharge
characteristics may be required where either a fine spray or di-
rectional discharge of water is needed, (e.g., directional discharge
may be needed to properly protect substructures of piers and wharves
due to the arrangement of structural supporting members. See
NFPA Standard for the Construction and Protection of Piers and
Wharves, No. 87-1971.)

3-15.3 Corroslon-Resistant Sprinklers.

3-15.3.1 Listed Corrosion-Resistant or special coated sprin-
klers shall be installed in locations where chemicals, moisture or
other corrosive vapors exist sufficient to cause corrosion of such
devices as in paper mills, packing houses, tanneries, alkali plants,
organic fertilizer plants, founderies, forge shops, fumigation, pickle
and vinegar works, stables, storage battery rooms, electroplating
rooms, galvanizing rooms, steam rooms of all descriptions, including
moist vapor dry kilns, salt storage rooms, locomotive sheds or
houses, driveways, areas exposed to outside weather such as piers
and wharves exposed to salt air, areas under sidewalks, around
bleaching equipment in flour mills, all portions of cold storage
buildings where a direct ammonia expansion system is used, por-
tions of any plant where corrosive vapors prevail.
3-15.3.2 Wax-coated or Similar Sprinklers.
3- Care shall be taken in the handling and in-
stallation of wax-coated or similar sprinklers to avoid damaging
the coaiing.
3- The color identification for coated sprinklers
may be a dot on the top of the deflector, the color of the coating
material or colored frame arms.
3- Color identification is not required for plated
sprinklers, ceiling sprinklers or similar decorative types.

3-15 3 "3 Corrosion-resistant coatings shall n o th be

. _
to sprinklers by anyone other than the manufacturer of t c sprinklers
except that in all cases any damage to the protective coating ~
curring at the time of installation shall bc rcpaired at once usin~
only the coating of the manufacturer.. of. the sprinkler in approve. -.,
manner so that none of the sprinkler will be exposed after mstalla.
tion has been completed. Otherwise corrosion will attack the ex.
posed metal and will in time creep under the coating.
3-15.4 Sidewall Sprinklers. Sidewall sprinklers are special
sprinklers and their use shall be confined to lighthazard, occupancies
as defined in Paragraph 1-8.1.1, unless specific'aU~' designed and
listed" for ordinary hazard occupancies, or unless used in accordance
with 3-15.2.6.
3-15.5" Discharge Capacities.' Table 3-15.5 shows the K
factor, relative discharge and identification for sprinklers having
different orifice sizes.
Table 3-15.5

Nominal P e r c e n t of
Orifice "K"t Nominal ~-inch
(In.) Factor Discharge Identification2
1.3--1.5 ' 25 ~ in. I P T - - Pintle
1.8=2.0 33.3 ~ . ~ in. I P T - - Pintle
2.6:-2.9 50 ~ in. I P T ~ Pinth
" 4.024.4 ' : -75 ' : ~ it/. I I P T ~ Pintle
5.3--5.8 100 ~ in. I P T
7.4-8.2 : 140 ~ in. I P T
.~ - or ~ in. I P T - - Pinde

t " K " f a c t o r is t h e c o n s t a n t i n t h e f o r m u l a . ,
Q = Kv'P . W h e r e Q -- F l o w i n G P M
p -- P r e s s u r e i n P S I

,with the excep~on of ~-inch orince ~ d 'pinch o~ce, ~-in. Ivr (~o~
~ t h r e a d ) s p r i n k l e r s , t h e n o m i n a l orifice size ns c a s t o r S t a m p e d o n t h e wrench
of the sprinkler frame.

3-15.6" TemperatureRatings.

3-15.6.1 The standard temperature ratings of automatic

sprinklers are shown in Table 3-15.6.1. Automatic sprinklers shaLl
have their frame arms colored in accordance with the color code
designated in Table 3-15.6.1 with the following exceptions:
Exception 1: The color identification/or coated sprinklers may be a dot
on the top of the deflector, the color .of the coating material or colored fiarM

flxception 2: Color identification is not required for plated sprinkler, ceiling

sp4nklers or similar decorative types.

T a b l e 3-15.6.1
Temperature Ratings, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a n d C o l o r Codings
Maximum Ceiling Temperature Temperature
Temperature OF i Rating F Classification Color Code
100 : 135 to 170 Ordinary Uncolored
150 175 to 225 Intermediate White
225 ' 250 to 300 High Blue
300 325 to 375 Extra High Red
' 375 . 400 to 475 Very Extra High Green
475 500 to 575 Ultra High Orange

3-15.6.2 When higher temperature sprinklers are neces-

sary to meet extraordinary conditions, special sprinklers as high as
650F. are obtainable and may be m.ed.

3-15.6.3 The use of sprinklers with temperature ratings

higher than ordinary shall be in accordance with the maximum
ceiling temperatures given in Table 3651, except that intermediate
or high temperature sprinklers may be used in other than light
hazard occupancies. For situations involving high filled or rack
storage, refer to NFPA Standards on Indoor General Storage No.
231-1972 and Rack Storage of Materials No. 231C-1972.

3-15.6.4 The following practices shall be observed when in-

ata!ling high temperature sprinklers, unless maximum expected
temperatures are otherwise determined or unless high temperature
sprinklers are used throughout.
(a) Sprinklers near unit heaters. Where steam pressure is
not more than 15 pounds, sprinklers in the heater zone shall be
high and sprinklers in the danger zone intermediate temperature

(b) Sprinklers located within 12 inches to one side or

30 inches above an uncovered steam main, heating coil or radiator,
shall be intermediate temperature classification.

(C) Sprinklers 'within 7 feet of a low pressure blowoff valve

which discharges free ifi a large room, shall be high temperature
classification, :: . ~ ,
(d) Sprinklers under glass or plastic skylights exposed t o the
direct rays o f the st/n shall be intermediate temperature classifi-
T a b l e 3-15.6.4(?.)
D i s t a n c e of S ) r i n l d e r s f r o m H e a t S o u r c e s
Ordinary Intermediate High
Type of Heat Condition Degree Rating Degree Rating Degree Rating
1. HBA~NC DUCTS a. More than a. 2'~6" o r less
a. Above 2'-6"
b. Side and Below b. More than 1'-0" b. 1'.0" or less
c. Diffuser c. Downward.- Cylinder with 1'4)" radius
from edge, extending 1'-0" below and 2'-6"
Downward Discharge above
c. Any distance e~ c. Horizontal: Semi~'ylinder with 2'-6"
Horizontal Discharge cept as shown undel radius in direction of flow. extending 1',0"
INTERMEDIATE below and 2'~6" above
2. UNIT HEATER a. D/scharge S/de: 7',4)" m 20'-0" radius a. 7'-0" radius cy!-
a. Horizontal p ~ c~'l~..~ [See ~l~: 34~56(a)] ex- indet extending 7'- ge
D~dmrge -- tending 7-0 above and 2-0 below Unit 0" above and 2'~0"
Heater; also 7'-0" radius cylinder more below Unit HeaU~
than 7'-0" above Unit Heater

b. Vertical b. 7'-0" radius cylinder .eaten~.~ upward b. 7'-0" radins cyb

Downward Discharge from an elevation 7'-0" above Unit Heater inder eztendin8
[Note: For Sprinklers Be- from the top of the
low Unit Heater See Fig. Unit Heater to an
3656(a)] e l e v a t i o n 7' 0"
above Unit H e a m
(Uncovered) a. More than2'.6" a. 2'-6" or less
o. Above
b. Side and Below b. Moredmnl'.4)" b. 1'~0" or less
c. Blow*o~Valve c. / ~ m ' e e h m , 7e~O*a -- r c. 7 " - 0 e m - l e s s
T a b l e 3-15.6.4(B)

Ratings of Sprinklers in Specified Locations

Ordinary Degree

Vendlm:ixl Unventilated
Intermediate Degree
R ,'aing ing 1
I~AY..BD R o o f
Metal or thin boards; con-
cealed or not conouded; Ventilated Unvemilauxl
insulated or uninsulated
I~AT Roof
Metal Note: For uninsulated roof, climate and
.not concealed; V~mdlauxl or o c t . panty may require I N T E R M E D I A T E
insulated or unventilated sprinklers. Check on job.
Metal; concealed; insulated Ventilated Unventilated
or uninsulated

SHOWWINDOWS Ventilated Unventilated

N o ~ : A check of job condition by means of thermomet~s may be necessary.


B ".5774 a A'

// ,IR II. bl
,,ow 6
\ \\

Fig. 3-15.6.4(a). Heater a n d Danger Zones at Unit Heaters.

(e) Sprinklers in an unventilated concealed space under an

uninsulated roof, or in an unventilated attic, shall be of inter-
mediate temperature classification.
(f) Sprinklers in unventilated show windows having high-
powered electric lights near the ceiling shall be' intermediate tem-
perature classification.
(g) Where a locomotive enters a building, sprinklers shall
be located not nearer than 5 feet from the center-line of the track.
(h) For sprinklers protecting commercial-type cooking
equipment and ventilation systems, temperature classifications of
intermediate, high or extra high shal~ be provided as determined
by use of a temperature measuring device (see 4-4.!8.2).
$-15.6.5 In case of change of occupancy inyolving tempera-
ture change, the sprinklers shall be changed accordingly?,

$-15.7" Stock of Spare Sprinklers.

$-15.7.1 There shall be maintained on the premises a supply
of spare sprinklers (never less than six) so that any sprinklers that

have operated or been damaged in any way may promptly be re-

placed..These sprinklers shall correspond as to types and tempera-
ture ratings with the sprinklers in the property. The sprinklers
shall be kept in a cabinet located where t h e temperature to which
they are subjected will at no time exceed i00F.
3-15.7.2 A special sprinkler wrench shall also be provided
and kept in the cabinet, to be:used in the removal and installation
of sprinklers.
3-15.7.3 The stock o f spare sprinklers shall be as follows:
For equipments n o t over 300 sprinklers, not less than
6 sprinklers
For equipments 300 to 1,000 sprinklers, not l&s than
12 sprinklers
For equipments above 1,000 sprinklers, not .less than
24 sprinklers
Stock of spare sprinklers shall include all types and ratings
3-,15.8" Guards a n d Shields. Sprinklers which are so located
as to be subject to mechanical injury (in either the upright or the
pendent position) shall be protected with approved guards.
3-15.9 Painting a n d OrnamentalFinishes.
3-15.9.1" When the sprinkler piping is given any kind of
coating, such as whitewash or paint, care shall be exercised to see
that no automatic sprinkler~ are coated.
3-15.9.2" Sprinkler frames may be factory painted or
enameled for the purpose of identifying sprinklers of different
temperature ratings in accordance with Paragraph 3-15.6.1 or as
ornamental finish in accordance with Paragraph 3-15.9.3. Other-
wise, sprinklers shall not be painted and any sprinklers which have
been painted, except for factory applied coatings shall be replaced
with new.listed, sprinklers~
3-15.9.3 Ornamental finishes shall not be applied to sprin-
lders by anyone other than the sprinkler manufacturer a n d only
sprinklers listed with such finishes shall be used.

3-16 Sprinkler Alarms.

3-16.i Definition. A local alarm unit is an assembly of ap-
paratus approved for the service and so constructed and installed
that any flow of water from a sprinkler system equal to o r greater
than t h a t from a single automatic sprinkler will result in anaudible
alarm signal on the premises.
3-16.2" W h e r e Required. Local waterflow alarms shall h~
provided on all sprinkler systems having more than 20 sprinklers~.

3-16.3 Water Flow Detecting Devices.

3-16.3.1 Alarm Check Valves. The alarm apparatus for
a wet-pipe system shall consist of an approved alarm check valve
or other approved waterflow detecting alarm device with the neees.
sary attachments required to give an alarm.
3-16.3.2 D r y - P i p e Valves. The alarm apparatus for a
dry-pipe system shall consist of approved alarm attachments to
the dry-pipe valve. When a dry-pipe valve is located on the system
side of an alarm valve, the actuating device of the alarms for the dry.
pipe valve may be connected to the alarms on the wet-pipe system.
3-16.3.3" Preaction and D e l u g e Valves. The alarm ap-
paratus for preaction and deluge systems shall consist of approved
electric alarm attachments, actuated by a detection system inde.
pendent of flow of water in the system.
3-16.3.4 Waterflow alarm indicators (paddle type) shall not
be installed in dry-pipe, preaction or deluge systems. The surge
of water when valve trips may seriously damage the device.

3-16.4 Attachments - - General.

3-16.4.1" An alarm unit shall include an approved me-
chanical alarm, horn or siren, or an approved weatherproof elec-
tric gong, bell, horn or siren.
3-16.4.2" Outdoor mechanical or electrically operated bells
shall be of weatherproof and guarded type.
3-16.4.3 On each alarm check valve used under conditions
of variable water pressure, a retarding, device shall be installed.
Valves shall be provided in the connecttons to retarding chambers,
to permit repair or removal without shutting off sprinklers; these
valves shall be so arranged that they may be locked or sealed in
the open position.
3-16.4.4 Dry-pipe, preaction and deluge valves shall be
fitted with a test connection for electric alarm switch and/or
water motor gong. This pipe connection shall be made on the water
side of the system and provided with a control valve and drain for
the alarm piping. A check valve shall be installed in the pipe
connection to the intermediate chamber of the dry-pipe valve.
3-16.4.5 A control valve shall be installed in connection
with pressure-type contactor or water-motor-operated alarm de-

vices and such valves shall be of the type which will clearly indicate
~hether they are open or closed and be so constructed that they
aY be locked or sealed in the open position. The control valve
the retarding chamber on alarm check valves of wet-pipe systems
~ay be accepted as complying with this paragraph.
3-16.5" A t t a c h m e n t s - - M e c h a n i c a l l y O p e r a t e d . For all
types of sprinkler systems employing water-motor-operated alarms,
aa approved a/~-inch strainer shall be installed at the alarm oudet
of the waterflow detecting device except that when a retarding
chamber is used in connection with an alarm valve, the strainer
shall be located at the outlet of the retarding chamber unless the
retarding chamber is provided with an approved integral strainer
in its outlet. Water-motor-operated devices shall be protected from
the weather, and shall be properly aligned and so installed as not
to get out of adjustment. All piping to these devices shall be gal-
vanized or brass or other approved corrosion resistant material of
a size not less than a/~ inch.

3-16.6 A t t a c h m e n t s - - Electrically O p e r a t e d .
3-16.6.1 Electrically operated alarm attachments forming
part of an auxiliary, central station, proprietary or remote station
signaling system shall be installed in accordance with the following
applicable NFPA standards.
(a) Central Station Protective Signaling Systems (NFPA
No. 71-1972)
(b) Auxiliary Protective Signaling Systems (NFPA No.
(c) Remote Station Protective Signaling Systems (NFPA
No. 72C-1972)
(d) Proprietary Protective Signaling Systems (NFPA No.
3-16.6.2 Electrically operated alarm attachments forming
part of a local sprinkler watertiow alarm system shall be installed
in accordance with the local alarm system provisions of NFPA
Standard Local Protective Signaling Systems, No. 72A-1972 and
in accordance with the provisions of the following Paragraphs
3-16.6.3, 3-16.6.4, and 3-16.6.5. These standards permit local
electrical waterflow alarms to be of open circuit type.
3-16.6.3 Waterflow detecting devices, including the associ-
ated alarm circuits, shall be tested by an actual waterflow through
use of a test connection (see Section 3-16.7).
3-16.6.4 Switches which will silence electric alarm sound-

ing devices by interruption of electrical current are not desirable;

however, if such means are provided, then the electrical alarm
sounding device circuit shall be arranged so that when the soundiw,
device is electrtcally sdenced, that fact shall be indicated by means
of a conspicuous light located in the vicinity of the riser or alarm
control panel. This light shall remain in operation during the entire
period of the electrical circuit interruption.
3-16.6.5 Outdoor electric alarm devices shall be of a type
specifically listed for outdoor use, and the outdoor wiring shall ]~e
in approved conduit, properly protected from the entrance of water
in addition to the requirements of 3-16.6.1.
3-16.7 Drains. Drains from alarm devices shall be so ar-
ranged that there will be no danger of freezing, and so that there
will be no overflowing at the alarm apparatus at domestic con-
nections or elsewhere with the sprinkler drains wide open and under
system pressure. (See Section 3-11.4).

Chapter 4 Spacing, Location and Position of Sprinklers.

4-1 General Information.
4-1.1 Basic Principles.
4-1.1.1 The basic principles for providing proper protec-
tion are namely: (1) Sprinklers installed throughout the premises,
including basements, lofts and all of the locations herein specified.
(2) Definite maximum protection area per sprinkler. (3) Mini-
mum interference to discharge pattern by beams, bracing, girders,
trusses, piping, lighting fixtures and air conditioning ducts. (4) Cor-
rect location of automatic sprinklers with respect to ceilings, or
beams and wood joists to obtain suitable sensitivity.
4-1.1.2 The installation requirements are specific for the
normal arrangement of structural members. There will be arrange-
naents of structural members not specifically detailed by the require-
rnents. By applying the basic principles, layouts for such construc-
tion can vary from specific illustrations provided the maximum
specified for the Spacing of Sprinklers (Section 4-2) and Position
of Sprinklers (Section 4-3) are not exceeded.
4-1.1.3 Special Sprinklers may be installed with larger
protection areas or distances between sprinklers than are specified in
Sections 4-2 and 4-5 when such installations are-made in accordance
with approvals or listings of a nationally recognized testing labo-
4-1.1.4 Clearance between sprinklers and structural mem-
ber shall comply with this standard unless tests are performed which
show that deviations offer no obstruction to spray discharge.
4-1.2" Partial Installations. When such partial, sprinkler in-
stallations are installed, the requirements of this standard shall be
used in so far as they are applicable. The authority having juris-
diction shall be consulted in each case.
4-1.3 Definitions.
4-1.3.1 Smooth Ceiling Construction. The term smooth
ceiling construction as used in this standard includes:
(a) Flat slab, pan type reinforced concrete, concrete joists
less than three feet on centers.
(b) Continuous smooth bays formed by wood, concrete
or steel beams spaced more than 71/~ feet on centers - - beams
supported by columns, girders or trusses.
(c) Smooth roof or floor decks supported directly on girders
or trusses spaced more than 71/~ feet on centers.
(d) Smooth monolithic ceilings of at least ~/~-mch of plast,.
on metal lath or a 'combination of materials of equivalent fire.
resistive rating attached to the underside of wood or bar joists.
(e) Open web type steel beams regardless of spacing.
(f) Smooth shell type roofs, such as folded plates, hyperbolic
paraboloids, saddles, domes and long barrel shells.
, (g) In (b) through (f) above, the roof I and floor decks
ma] be noncombustible or combustible. Item (b) would include
standard mill construction.
(h) Suspended ceilings of noncombustible construction.
(i) Suspended ceilings of combustible construction where
there ~s a full corn
. . P lement of .
. .
space immediately
n " "
above such a ceihng a n d the space is unnoorect ana u occupled.
(j) smooth monolithic ceilings with fire resistance less than
that specified under item (d)' attached to, the underside of wood or
bar joists.
(k) Combustible suspended ceilings arranged other than as
specified under item (i).
4-1.3.2 Beam and Girder Construction. The term bear.
,and girder construction as used in this standard includes non.
combustible and combustible roofor floor decks supported by wood
beams Of 4 inches or greater nominal thickness or concrete or steel
beams spaced 3 to 7 ~ feet on centers and either supported on or
framed into girders. [ W h e n supporting, a wood plank deck, this
includes Semi-mil), and panel construcuon and when supporting
(with steel framing): gypsum plank, steel/deck, Concrete, tile, or
similar material would include much of the so-called noncombustible
coustruction.] "m

4-1.3.3 B a r Joist Construction. T h e term bar joist con~

struction refers to construction employing joists consxstmg ox steea
truss-shaped m e m b e r s . . T h i s definition includes nonciombytible
and combustible roof and tloor aecv,s supporteo on u~r ju
4-1.3.4 Panel C o n s t r u c t i o n . Tlae term "panel construc-
tion as used in this standard includes bays which m a y b e wider than
71 feet , if t h e P anel does not exceed 300 ,square feet in are~
Nailing strips not exceeding 2 inches nominal thickness on beams
only will not prevent the use of the panelarea credit.
4-1;3.5 Standard Mill ConstrUiztion. "" The term standard
mill construction as used in this standard' refers to heavy timber
construction as defined in NFPA Standard Types of Building
Construction, No. 200-1961.

4-1.3.6 Semi-Mill Construction. The term semi-mill con-

struction .as used in this standard refers t o a modified standard mill
constructmn where greater column spacing is" used and beams rest
on girders. .. ',:" "

4-1.3.7 Wood Joist Cons~uction.

4-1'..3,7.1 The term wood joist construction.refers to wood
boards or planks on wooden beams spaced less than 3 feet on centers.
Wooden be.ares less than 4 inches nomina! thickness spaced more
than 3 feet on centers are also considered as ~vood joist construction.

4-1.3.8 I-Iigh Piled Storage. High-piled storage is defined

as solid piled storage in excess of 15 feet in height or palletized or
rack storage m excess of 12 feet in height. See Appendix for avail-
ability of information for sprinkler protection of high piled storage.

4-2 Spacing a n d Location of Sprinlders.'" (See also Sections

4-3 and 4-4.) . . . . . -

4-2.1 Distance Between t h e Branch L i n e s and Between

Sprinklers on the Branch L i n e s . "- ~-

4-2.1.1 For lighthazard occupancies the distance between

branch lines and between sprinklers on the branch lines shall not
exceed 15 feet.

4-2.1.2" For ordinary hazard occupancies, except high-

piled stock, the distancebetween the branch lines and between
sprinklers on branch lines shall not e x c e e d 15 feet. In buildings
used for high-piled storage (as defined in 4- the distance
between the.:branch lines and between sprinklers on the branch
lines shall not exceed 12 feet, except in bays 25 feet wide, a spacing
of 12 feet 6 inches between b r a n c h lines is permitted provided the
allotted area of 100 square feet per spr'mkler is not exceeded.

4-2.1.3 For extra hazard occupancy, the distance between

the branch lines "and between sprinklers on the branch lines shall
not exceed 12 feet.

4-2.1.4 Distance from Walls. The distance from the walls

to the end sprinklers on tlie bra'nch lines shall n0t;exceed one-half
of the allowable distance between sprinklers o n the branch lines.
The distance from the walls to the end branch lines shall not ex-
ceed one-half the allowable distance ,between the branch lines.
For exception relating to small rooms, refer to Paragraph 4-4.20.

4-2.2 Protection Area Limitations.

4-2.2:1 Light Hazard Occupancy.
4- Under' smooth ceiling construction and und~
beam and girder construction (as defined in Paragraph 4.1.~ i
items (a)through (k), and 4q.3.2 )the protection area per sprinkler
shall not exceed 200 square feet. For hydraulically designed sprin.
kler systems the protected area limit pe r sprinkler may be increased
to 225 square feet. ,
4-2.2.1,2"" Under open wood joist construction (as de.
fined in 4-'1.3.7) the protection area per sprinkler shall not exceed
130 square feet.
4-2.2.1,3 For other types of construction the protection
area per sprinkler shall not exceed 168 square feet.
4-2.2.2" Ordinary Hazard Occupancy. For all types of
construction the protection area per sprinkler shall not exceed
130 square feet, except that in buildings used for high piled storage
(as defined in Paragraph 4- tl3e protection area per sprinkler
shall not exceed 100 square feet. (See also NFPA Standards on
Rack Storage of Materials NFPA 231C-1972, Indoor and General
Storage NFPA No. 231-1972.)
4-2.2.3 Extra Hazard Occupancy. The protection area
per sprinkler shall hot exceed 90 square feet for any type of building
construction, except protec'tion area per sprinkler shall not exceed
100 square feet where the system is hydraulically designed.
~2.3" Location .of Sprinklers and B r a n c h Lines w i t h Re-
spect to Structural Members.

n n n n~n l~n-n n n n I~ n n L~__tL

I _.i ... W F , oo.,<,.o

Fig. 4-2.3.2. Arrangement.of Sprinkler(under Two Sets o f O p e n Joists - -

n o s h e a t h i n g o n l o w e r joists."

4-2.3.1 Sprinklers may be located under beams, in bays, or

combination of both, but the locations must meet the provisions
oudined in 4-2.4 and 4-3.
4-2.3.2 Where there are twosets of joists under a roof or
ceiling and there is no flooring over the lower set, sprinklers shall be
instaltect above and below the lower set of joists w h e r e there is a
clearance of from 6 inches to 12 inches between the top of the
lower joist and bottom of the upper joist. (See Fig. 4-2.3.2.).

4-2.4 Clearance Between Sprinklers and Structural Mem-

4-2.4.1 Trusses. Sprinklers shall be at least two feet
laterally from truss members (web or chord) more than four inches
wide, and at least one foot laterally from truss members four inches
or less in width. When sprinkler lines run above or through trusses,
the sprinklers may be located on center line of truss, provided chord
members are not more than eight inches wide, and the deflector is
at least six inches above the chord member. When sprinklers are
located laterally beside chord members, clearances between the
chord members and the sprinkler deflectors shall be in accordance
with 4-2.4.6.
4-2.4.2 Girders. When sprinkler lines are located perpen-
dicular to and above girders, sprinklers shall be at least three feet,
nine inches from girders except that they may be located directly
above girders with the top flange not more than eight inches wide,
in which case the deflectors shall be at least six inches above the top
of the girder.
4-2.4.3 When sprinkler deflectors are in accordance with
Table 4-2.4.6, the girders may be disregarded in the spacing of the
branch lines.
4-2.4.4 Open Web-Type Steel Beams. See Fig. 4-2.4.4.
When branch lines are run across and through openings of open
web type steel beams, sprinklers may be spaced bay and beam
(a) the distance between sprinklers and between branch
lines conforms to Section 4-2.1,
(b) sprinklers in the beam openings are located within one
inch horizontally of the opening center line,
(c) the branch llne is located within one inch horizontally
of the opening center line, and
(d) sprinklers on alternate lines are staggered.

Open W e b - T y p e Steel B e a m s


' j _


3, FT. 9 IN.& NOT

~ v 4_ or BeAM
-- "" L


. L "~'- . . .

"Fig. 4-2.4.4. Location of Branch Lines and Sprinklers. ~

4 - 2 . 4 . 5 B a r J o i s t s . Sprinklers shall be at leastthreeinches

laterally from web members of open bar-joists which do'n0t exceed
one-half, i n c h o r a t least six i n c h e s l a t e r a l l y f r o m w e b m e m b e r s
w h i c h d o n o t e x c e e d o n e inch. : W h e n t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f the web
m e m b e r e x c e e d s o n e inch, see 4-2.4.1.

- 4-2.4.6. Beams. Deflectors of sprinklers in bays shall be

at sufficient distances from the bearr~ as shown in Table 4-2.4.6
and Figure .to avoid obstruction to the sprinkler discharge
pattern. Otherwise the spacing of sprinklers on Opposite sides of
the beam shall be measured from the beam.
4-2.4.7 Position of Deflectors." Deflectors o f Sprinklers
shall be parallel to ceilings, roofs, or the incline of st,3irs, but when

Table 4-2.4.6
Position of Deflector when Located above Bottom of Beam
M a x i m u m Allowable Dis-
Distance from Sprinkler tance Deflector above
to Side of Beam - . B o t t m of Beam
Less than l'ft~ ~. ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '... i ...
0 m. . .

1 ft. to less t h a n 2 ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '1 m.

2 ft. tO less t h a n 2 ft. 6 in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~" "~" i. ~ 2 m.
2 f t . 6 i n . toless, than.3ft.,.,: .... : ........... -..... ; ,,,,:. 3 i n .
3 ft. to less t h a n 3 f t . 6 i n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
, . . r. . , , . ,
4 m.

3ft. 6 i n ; to less t h a n 4 ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : ........ 6 m.

4 ft. to less titan 4 ft. 6 in.. 7 in.
4 ft. 6 in. to less t h a n 5 ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 m.
5ft.toless~ t h a n ' , 5 f t . 6 i n . . . . . . . . . . . .: ..... :,.. ~. llm.
5 ft. 6 in. to less t h a n 6 ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 m.


lqo~ to exceed maximum

' specified for ~.vpeOf'constructidn

. ,~ I
Maximum dmtance '1 i

d~flector" above bottom I

of beam. " Ii
~Distance.from near, .]
side, of' b e a m , .
" "Fig. 4-2.4.6. Positlon of Deflector, U p r l g h t : o r ' P e n d e n t ;
" " W h e n L o c a t e d A b o v e Bottom' of Beanl. , . . ,

i n s t a l l e d i n t h e p e a k o f a. p i t c h e d r o o f t h e y s h a l F be~ h o r i z o n t a l .
Low-pitched roofs having slopes not greater than, one inch per:foot
m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d a s l e v e l i n the. a p p l i c a t i o n Of t h i s r u l e " a n d
sprihklers may be installed with deflectors horizontal. ~

4-2.5* Clear Space Below Sprinklers. A minimum o f 18

inches clearance shall be maintained between top of storage and
(ceiling) s p r i n k l e r d e f l e c t o r s .
- ~,~ - . ~ ',,~ :. . .

4-3 Position of Sprinklers.

4-3;1 Smooth Ceiling: Construction (as defined in Par.
4-t.3.1.) _ " "
4-3.1.1 Deflectors of sprinklers in bays shall be located ota,
inch to 10 inches below combustible ceilings or 12 inches belo~
noncombustible ceilings.
4-3.1.2 Deflectors of sprinklers under beams shall be 1o.
cated 1 inch to 4 inches below beams, and not more than 14 inches
below combustible ceilings or not more than 16 inches below non.
combustible ceilings.
4-3.1.3 When sprinklers approved for pendent use are in.
stalled in the pendent position under smooth ceilings the deflectors
shall be not less than 21/~ inches from ceiling. Special approved
type pendent sprinklers (flush type, ceiling type) may have de.
flectors nearer the ceiling.
4-3.2 Beam and Girder Construction. (as defined in Par.
4-3.2.1 Deflectors of sprinklers in bays shall be located one
inch to 16 inches below combustible or noncombustible roof or
floor decks.
4-3.2.2 Deflectors of sprinklers under beams shall be lo-
cated one inch to four inches below beams and not more than 20
inches below combustible or noncombustible roof or floor decks.
4-3.2.3 Deflectors of sprinklers in bays formed by beams
framed into girders resulting in panels up to 300 square feet shall be
located one inch to 18 inches below combustible or noncombustible
roof or floor decks.
4-3.2.4 Deflectors of sprinklers under beams framed into
girders forming panels up to 300 square feet shall be located one
inch to four inches below beams and not more than 22 inches
below combustible or noncombustible roof or floor decks.
4-3.2.5 When concrete tee construction is encountered with
the stems of the tees spaced less than 7 ~ feet on centers but more
than three feet on centers, the sprinklers m a y be spaced midway
between and above the bottom of the stems in violation of Para-
graphs 4-3.2.1, 4-3.2.2 and 4-3.2.3 provided that Table 4-2.4.6 is
4-3.3 Open Bar Joist Construction. (as defined in Par.
4-1.3.3.) Deflectors of sprinklers shall be located one inch to 10
inches below combustible or not more than 12 inches below non-
combustible roof or floor decks.
4-3.4 Open Wood Joist Construction. (as defined in Par.
4-1.3.4.) I n open joist construction with joists spaced three feet or

less on centers, sprinklers shall be located with deflectors one inch

to six inches below the bottom of the joists. If open joists are spaced
gaore than three feet on centers, sprinklers shall be located with
deflectors placed in accordance with Sections 4-3.1 or 4-3.2.
4-3.5 Location Under Sheathed or Suspended Ceiling
under Any T y p e of Construction. The position of sprinklers
under sheathed or suspended ceilings with any type of construc-
tion shall be the same as for smooth ceiling construction, 4-3.1.1
and 4-3.1.3.

4-4* Locations or Conditions Involving Special Consideration.

4-4.1 Combustible Form Board. When roof and floor
decks consist of poured gypsum or concrete on combustible form
board supported on steel.supports, the position of sprinklers shall be
the same as for noncombustible construction.

4,-4.2 Metal Rc~fDecks. When roof decks are metal with com-
bustible adhesives or vapor seal, the position of sprinklers shall be
the same as for combustible construction.
4-4.3 Spaces Under Ground Floors. Sprinklers shall be in-
stalled in all spaces below combustible ground floors, except that
by permission of the authority having jurisdiction, sprinklers may
be omitted when all of the following conditions prevail:
(a) The space is not accessible for storage purposes or en-
trance of unauthorized persons and is protected against accumu-
lation of wind-borne debris;
(b) The space contains no equipment such as steam pipes,
electric wiring, shafting, or conveyors;
(c) The floor over the space is tight;
(d) No flammable liquids are processed, handled or stored on
the floor above.
4-4.4 BHnd Spaces. Sprinklers shall be installed in all blind spaces en-
closed wholly or partly by exposed combustible construction, as in
walls, floors and ceilings, except as modified by 4-4.4.2 and 4-4.4.3
below. In spaces formed by studs or joists, sprinklers should be
provided where there is six inches or more clearance between the
inside or near edges of the studs or joists which form the opposite
sides of the space; the distance from the first sprinkler to the wall,
however, need not be less than specified in 4-2.1.4. In partly or
wholly combustible bar joist construction, sprinklers shall be in-

stalled wherever the total depth of the space exceeds six inches be.
tween roof or floor deck and ceiling; the spacing of sprinklers in
that case may be on the basis of light hazard classification provided
the space does not exceed 24 inches in depth.
4-4.4.2 Sprinklers may be omitted from combustible blind
spaces when any of the following conditions prevail:
(a) When the ceiling is attached directly to the Under.
side of the supporting beams of a combustible roof or floor deck.
(b) When concealed space is entirely filled with a non.
combustible insulation. In solid joisted construction the insula.
tion need fill only the space from the ceiling to the bottom edge
of the joist of the roof or floor deck.
(c) When there are small concealed spaces over rooms
that do not exceed 50 square feet in area.
4-4.4.3 In blind spaces having exposed combustible con.
struction or containing exposed combustibles in localized areas,
the combustibles shall bc protected as follows:
(a) If the exposed combustibles are in the vertical par-
titions or walls around all or a portion of the enclosure a single
row of sprinlders spaced not over 12 feet apart nor more than six
feet from the inside of the partition may be intsaUed to protect the
surface. The first and last sprinklers in such a row shall not be
over five feet from the ends of the partitions.
(b) If the exposed combustibles are in the horizontal
plane, permission may be given to protect the area of the com-
bustibles on a light hazard spacing and add a row of sprinklers
not over six feet outside the outline of the area and not over 12
feet along the outline. When the outline returns to a wall or other
obstruction, the last sprinkler should not be over six feet from wall
or obstruction.
4-4.5 Spacing of Sprinklers Under Pitched Roofs.
4-4.5.1 Branch lines parallel to peaks of pitched roofs and
sprinklers on lines perpendicular to peaks shall be spaced through-
out the distance measured along the slope. This will place a row
of sprinklers either in the peak or one-half the spacing down the
slope from the peak.
4-4.5.2 Under saw-toothed roofs, the row of sprinklers at
the highest elevation shall be not more than three feet down the
slope from the peak.
4-4.5.3 In 4-4.5.1 or 4-4.5.2 sprinklers in or near the peat

shall have deflectors not more than three feet vertically down from
the peak. (See Fig. 4-4.5.3.)


- 3~ o 0 7


suredon S I o p o ~ Measured On Slope

S w spacing of sprinklers on branch slopes

Fig. 4-4.5.3. Sprinklers at Pitched Roofs, Branch Lines Run Up the Slope.

4-4.5.4 I n a steeply pitched roof, the distance from the

peak to deflectors may be increased to maintain a horizontal clear-
ance of not less than two feet. (See Fig. 4-4.5.4.)


Fig. 4-4.5.4. Desirable Horizontal Clearance for Sprinklers

at Peak of Pitched Roof.

4-4.6 Spacing of Sprinklers U n d e r Curved Roof Buildings.

4-4.6.1 When roofs are curved down to the floor line, the
horizontal distance measured at the floor level from the side wall
or roof construction to the nearest sprinklers shall not be greater
than one-half the allowable distance between sprinklers in the same
4-4.6.2 Deflectors of sprinklers shall be parallel with the
curve of the roof or tilted slightly toward the peak of the roof.
Deflectors of sprinklers shall be located as described for beam and
girder construction or for the closest comparable type of ceiling
4-4.6.3 When extra hazard :occupancy spacing.of sprinklers
is used under curved ceilings of other than fire-resisttve construe.
tion, as in aircraft storage or servicing areas, the spacing as pro-
jected on the floor shall be not wider than required for extra haz.
ard occupancies, but in no case shall the spacing on the roof or
ceiling be wider than required for ordinary hazard occupancies.
4-4.7 Narrow Pockets. Girders, beams or trusses formir~
narrow pockets of combustible construction along walls when of~
depth which will obstruct the spray discharge pattern may require
additional sprinklers positioned in accordance with Table 4-2.4.6.
4-4.8* Elevators, Stairs and Shafts.
4-4.8.1" Vertical Shafts.
4- Within vertical shafts having combustible sides,
sprinklers shall be provided for each 200 square feet of combustible
surface, in addition to sprinklers at tops of shafts. Such sprinklers
shall be installed at each floor level when shaft is trapped.
4- When vertical openings are not protected by
standard enclosures, sprinklers shall be so placedas to fully cover
them. This necessitates placing sprinklers close to such openings
at each floor level.
4-4.8.2* Stairways
4- Stairways of combustible construction shall be
sprinklered underneath whether risers are open or not.
4- Stairways of noncombustible construction with
combustible storage beneath shall be sprinklered.
4- When moving stairways, large monumental
staircases, or similar floor openings are unenclosed, the floor open-
ings involved shall be protected by draft stops in combination with
close spaced sprinklers.
4-4.8.3 Noncombustible stair shafts ordinarily will require
sprinklers only at the top and lower tiers except when serving two
or more separate fire sections when sprinklers will also be required
at each floor landing.
4-4.9* Buildin~ Service Chutes. Building service chutes
(linen, rubbish, etc.) shall be protected internally by automatic
sprinklers. This will require a sprinkler a t the top of the chute

sad, in addition, a sprinkler shall be installed within the chute

at alternate floor levels in buildings over two stories in height.
The room or. area~into which the chute discharges shall also be
p otected by automatic sprinklers.
4-4.10 Exterior Canopies, Docks and Platforms.
4-4.10.1 Sprinklers shall be installed under roofs over out-
side loading platforms or docks.
4-4.10.2 Sprinklers shall be installed under exterior canopies
except where construction is noncombustible and areas under the
canopies are not used for storage.
4-4.10.3 Sprinklers shall be installed under exterior docks
and platforms of combustible construction unless such space is
dosed off and protected against accumulation of debris.
4-4.1.1 Decks. Sprinklers shall be installed under decks and
galleries which are over four feet wide. Slatting of decks, walk-
ways or open gi'ates as a substitute for sprinklers is not acceptable.
4-4.12 L i b r a r y Stack Rooms. For Single tier stacks where
18 in. clearance can b e provided between sprinkler deflectors and
top of stacks, sprinklers shall be located without regard to stacks.
For multi-tier stacks and for single tier stacks where 18 in. clearance
is not available between sprinkler deflectors and tops of stacks,
branch lines shall be located in alternate aisle or in each aisle, de-
pending on the arrangement of vertical shelf divider~ When ver-
tical shelf dividers are incomplete, branch lines should be located
in alternate aisles. If there are ventilation openings through floors
or walkways, the location of branch lines shall be staggered in a
vertical plane. When vertical shelf dividers are complete, so that
lateral spread of sprinkler ~discharge. will be prevented, branch
lines shall be located in each aisle. See Fig. 4-4.12.
4-4.13" D u c t s . Sprinklers shall be installed beneath ducts
over four feet wide unless ceiling sprinklers can be spaced in ac-
cordance with Table 4-2.4.6.
4-4.14 G e n e r a t o r a n d T r a n s f o r m e r Rooms. When sprin-
kler protection is provided in generator and transformer rooms,
hoods or shield installed to protect important electrical equip-
ment shall be noncombustible.
4-4.15" O p e n G r i d Ceilings. T h e following requirements
are applicable to open grid .ceilings in which the openings are one-
quarter inch or larger in least dimension, when the thickness, or-
depth of the material does not exceed the least dimension of. the

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nings 'and when such openings constitute at least 70 percent of

~_p~carea of the ceiling material:
(a) In light hazard occupancies when spacing of sprinklers
of either standard Or old style is not wider than 10 by 10 feet,
a minimum clearance of at least 18 inches shall be provided be-
tvceen the sprinkler deflectors and the upper surface of the open
g(.id ceiling. When spacing is wider than 10 by 10 feet but not
wider than 10 b y 12 feet, a clearance of at least 24 inches shall be
provided from standard sprinklers and at least 36 inches from
old style sprinklers. When spacing is wider than 10 by 12 feet, a
clearance least 48 inches shall be provided.
(b)~ In ordinary hazard occupancies, open grid ceilings may
be installed beneath sprinklers only where such use is approved:
by the' authority having jurisdiction, and shall be installed beneath',
standard sprinklers only. When sprinkler spacing is not wider than
10 by 10feet, a minimum clearance of at least 24inches shall be
provided between the sprinkler deflectors and the upper surface of
the open ~ i d ceiling. When spacing is wider than 10 by 10 feet,
a clearance of at least 36 inches shall be provided.
Other"tyt/es of open grid ceilings shall not be installed beneath
sprinkler~ unie~ they are listed by a nati0rially recogniz~ testing
laboratory and are installed in accordance with the instructions
contained in each package of the ceiling material. Ceilings made 'of
highly flammable-material may spr'ead fire faster, than sprinkrl.ers
can cdnfirol, i "" , ""
': i.~
'. . . . . . L -r. .i

424.1"6"'Translucent Ceilings. Translucentc~ilings shall not

be installed beneath sprinklers unless such Ceilings a'/e listed: b y a ~
nationally recognized fire testing laboratory_ and a r e installed in
accordance with their listing.' The authority having-jurisdiction
shall he'consulted in all csaes., . , -. - .
4-4.17 Fur Vaults.

424.17.1 Sprinklei~ in fur storage vaults shall be located

centrally'Over the aisles-between racks and shall b e spaced r/ot'
o~erfiVefdet a p a n along the' aisles. ' '
. A-4.17.2 -When sprinklers are spaced five feet apart a l o n g
the sprinkler,branch.lines, pipe sizes may be in accordance with
the following schedule: . ,
I in. pipe . . . . . . . . " 4,sprinklers " , 2 in. pipe. .... ; . . . 20 sprinklers
1~ in. pipe... . . . . . 6 sprinklers 2~ in. pipe... ~. . . . 40 sprinlders
1~ in. pipe. - ,.. 10 sprinklers 3 .in. pipe . . . . . . . . 80 sprinlders
.4-4.17.3, Sprinklers shall be of approved old style having
orifice .qiZes selected to provide as closely aspossible b u t not less,

than 20 gallons per minute per sprinkler, based on the water

pressure available.
N O T E : See Standard on Fur Storage, Fumigation and Cleaning (NFPA
No. 81, 1969). For tests of sprinkler performance in fur vaults see Fact
Finding Report on Automatic Sprinkler Protection for Fur Storage Vaults
of Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., dated November 25, 1947.

4-4.18" Commercial-type Cooking Equipment and Ventk

lation Systems.
4-4.18.1 In cooking areas protected by automatic sprinklers.
sprinklers shall be provided to protect commercial-type cookin~
equipment and ventilation systems that are designed to carry
away grease laden vapors unless otherwise protected. (See NFPA
Standard for Vapor Removal from Cooking. Equipment, No. 96-
1971.) Sprinklers shall be so located as to give complete coverage
of cooking surfaces, within exhaust ducts, within exhaust hood
plenum chamber, and under filters, if any.
4-4.18.2 Sprinklers with temperature classifications of In-
termediate, High or Extra High will be required as determined by
use of a temperature measuring device. Sprinkler systems shall be
designed so that a cooking surface fire will operate sprinklers pro-
tecting the cooking surface prior to or simultaneously with sprm-
lders protecting the plenum chamber and ventilation ducts. This
may be accomplished by installing sprinklers in the plenum chamber
and ducts at least two temperature ratings higher than those pro-
tecting the cooking surfaces and not less than 325 F. or by use of
thermal control valves.
4-4.18.3 Distance between sprinklers shall not exceed 10
feet within and under exhaust hoods and in horizontal ducts. The
first sprinkler in a horizontal duct shall be installed at the duct
4-4.18.4 A standard one-half inch orifice pendent sprinkler
with the frame parallel to the front edge of the deep fat fryer(s)
shall be centered over each single or pair of fryers. A single sprin-
lder shall not protect more than 30 inches of deep fat fryer surface
in any dimension. Sprinklers protecting deep fat fryers shall have
their deflectors located at least one inch below the lower edge of
the hood, and not less than two feet nor more than three feet
six inches above the deep fat fryer cooking surface.
4-4.18.5 Other sprinklers shall be arranged so that their run-
off does not fall into deep fat fryers. This may be accomplished by
the use of a shield or unducted hood placed above the deep fat
fryer. The shield or hood shall be placed above the sprinkler pro-

tecting the deep fat fryer and so located that it will not interfere
with the sprinkler discharge.
4-4.18.6 One sprinkler shall be installed at the top of each
vertical riser and an additional sprinkler shall be installed under
any offset. Subject to the approval of the authority having juris-
diction, sprinklers may be omitted from a vertical riser located out-
side of a building provided the riser does not expose combustible
material or the interior of a building and the horizontal distance
between the hood outlet and the vertical riser is at least 25 feet.
4-4.18.7 Sprinklers and piping located at the top of a vertical
riser, near the extremity of an exhaust duct, or in other areas
subject to freezing shall be properly protected against freezing by
approved means.
4-4.18.8 Release devices shall be checked at least twice a
year for proper operation. Fusible links and automatic sprinklers
all be replaced annually. Other actuating devices shall be prop-
erly cleaned.
4-4.19 Baffles. Baffles (except for in-rack sprinklers, see
NFPA Standard on Rack Storage of Materials No. 231C-1972)
shall be installed whenever sprinklers are less than six feet apart to
prevent the sprinkler first opening from wetting adjoining sprinklers,
thus delaying their operation. Baffles shall be located midway be-
tween sprinklers and arranged to baffle the actuating elements.
Baffles may be of sheet metal about eight inches wide and six
inches high. When placed on branch line piping, the top of baffles
shall extend two to three inches above the deflectors.
4-4.20 Small Rooms. In small rooms such as rest rooms,
toilets, closets and offices with smooth ceilings, sprinlders may be
located a maximum distance of seven feet s'-m inches from any two
walls of this room providing the total area of the room divided by
the number of sprinklers does not exceed the limitation of 4-2.2.1
and 4-2.2.2. The maximum area of such a room is defined as 800
sq. ft. for Light Hazard and 520 sq. ft. for Ordinary Hazard Oc-

4-5 Sidewa//Sprlnlders. (See 3-15.4.)

4.5.1 Distance Between B r a n c h Lines and Sprinklers on
Branch Lines.
4-5.1.1 Distance Between B r a n c h Lines. Rooms or bays
having widths in excess of 15 feet up to 30 feet shall have sprin-
lders on two opposite walls or two opposite sides of bays with
spacing as required in Section 4-5 and sprinklers regularly staggered.

Construction may necessitate additional branch lines of sprinklers

in rooms over 20 feet in width. (See Fig. 4-5.1.1.)

400' 0 "

6 -o o o "
Si e, ,l, Sp,ikle,,
6 "o- b 5

_[ p o o o O. .0 o 0 o c

Fig. 4-5.1.1. Spacinl~ of Sidewall Sprinklers under Smooth Ceilings,

wtth Light Hazard Occupancy.

4-5.1.2" Distance B e t w e e n Sprinklers on Branch Lines.

Sidewall sprinklers shall be located not more than 10 feet apart on
walls for ordinary hazard occu.pancies and not more than 14 feet
apart for light hazard occupanctes.
4-5.2 Protection Area Limitations for Light Hazard Oc-
4-5.2.1 With noncombustible smooth ceiling the protection
area allotted per sprinkler shall not exceed 196 square feet with
the distance between sprinklers on lines not in excess of 14 feet.
4-5.2.2 With combustible smooth ceiling sheathed with
plasterboard, metal, or wood lath and plaster the protection area
allotted per sprinkler shall not exceed 168 square feet with the
distance between sprinklers on lines not in excess of 14 feet. When
sheathing is combustible such as wood, fiberboard or other com-
bustible material the protection area allotted per sprinkler shall not
exceed 120 square feet with the distance between sprinklers on
lines not in excess of 14 feet.
4-5.3 Protection Area Limitations for Ordinary Hazard
4-5.3.1 With noncombustible smooth ceifing the protection
area allotted per sprinkler shall not exceed 100 square feet with
the distance between sprinklers on lines not in excess of 10 feet.
4-5.3.2 With combustible smooth ceiling sheathed with
plasterboard, metal, wood lath and plaster, wood, fiberboard or
other combustible material, the protection area per sprinkler shall
not exceed 80 square feet per sprinkler with the distance between
sprinklers on lines not in excess of 10 feet.

4-5.4* Position of Sidewall Sprinklers. (See Fig. 4-5.4.)

Sprinkler deflectors shall be at a distance from walls and ceilings
not more than six inches or less than four inches, unless special
construction arrangements make a different position advisable for
prompt operation and effective distribution.

Fig. 4-5.4. Suggested Arrangements for Sidewall Sprinklers - - placed to

receive early heat waves and provide effective distribution.

Chapter 5.Types of Systems

. ~-1 Wet-Pipe Systems.

5-1.1" Definition. A system employing automatic sprinklers
attached to a piping system containing water and connected to a
water, supply so that water discharges immediately from sprinklers
opened by a fire.
5-1.2 P r e s s u r e Gages. Approved pressure gages conforming
to 2-9,2.2 shall be installed in sprinkler risers, above and below
each alarm check valve.

5-2 Dry-Pipe Systems.

5-2.1" Definition. A system emplo.ying automatic sprinklers
attached to a piping system containing atr or nitrogen under pres-
sure, the release of which as from the opening of sprinklers permits
the water pressure"to open a valve known as a dry-pipe valve.
The water then flows into the piping system and out the opened
5-2.2 D r y Pendent Sprinklers. Automatic sprinklers in.
stalledin the pendent position shall be of the approved dry pendent
type if installed in an area subject to freezing. The use of standard
pendent sprinklers installed on return bends is permitted when both
the sprinklers and the return bends are located in a heated area.

5-2.3 Size of Systems

5-2.3.1 Sprinkler and Volume Limitations.
5- Except as provided in 5-2.1.2, not more than
750~gallon system capacity shall be controlled by one dry-pipe
valve, unless check valves are installed in branches of the system
as provided for in 5-2.3.2.
5- Where the piping volume exceeds 750 gallons
the system shall deliver water to the inspector's test pipe in not more
than 60 seconds, starting at the normal air pressure on the system.
5-2.3.2* C h e c k Valves in D r y Pipe System.s. Check
valves m a y be installed in branches of the system to assist in more
rapidly reducing t h e air pressure above the valve seat ,to the dry
pipe valve trip point. Using such an arrangement, no system branch
shall have a capacity exceeding 500 gallons, nor shall the total of
a system branch plus c o m m o n piping exceed 750 gallons'. A hole
~ - i n c h in diameter shall be drilled in the clapper Of each check
valve to permit equalization of air pressure among the various

parts of the system. An approved indicating drain valve, con-

nected by a bypass around each check valve shall be provided as
a means for draining the system. All check valves shall be located
in.heated enclosures to prevent the formation of ice.
5-2.4* Quick-Opening Devices.
5-2.4.1 The quick-opening device shall be located as close
as practical to the dry pipe valve. To protect the restriction orifice
and other operating parts of the quick opening device against sub-
mergence, the connection to the riser shall be above the point at
which water (priming"water and back drainage) is not to be ex-
pected when the dry pipe valve and quick opening device are set,
except where design features of the particular quick opening de-
vice make these requirements unnecessary.
5-2.4.2 A soft disc globe or angle valve shall be installed
in the connection between the dry-pipe sprinkler riser and the
quick-opening device provided to accelerate operation of dry-pipe
5-2.4.3 A globe or gate valve shall also be installed in the
connection between the quick-opening device and the intermediate
chamber of the "dry-pipe ,valve whenever necessary to prevent the
escape of water if the dry-pipe valve trips with the quick-opening
device disconnected. A check valve may be used instead of a gate
valve whenever it will serve the same purpose.
5-2.4.4 An approved antiflooding device shall be installed
in the connection between the dry-pipe sprinkler riser and the quick
opening device, unless the particular quick-opening device has built-
in antiflooding design features.
5-2.5* Location and Protection of Dry-Pipe Valve.
5-2.5.1 The dry-pipe valve and supply pipe shall be pro-
tected against freezing and mechanical injury.
5-2.5.2 Valve rooms shall be lighted and heated.
5-2.5.3 The supply for the sprinkler in the dry-pipe valve
enclosure shall be from the dry side of the system.
5-2.5.4 Protection against accumulation of water above the
clapper shall be provided for a low differential dry-pipe valve.
This may be an automatic high water level signaling device or an
automatic drain device.
5-2.6* Cold Storage Rooms.
5-2.6.1 Fittings for Inspection Purposes.
5- Fittings for inspection purposes shall be pro-

-- '-Cross Main
Blind Flan~e at AorB

(o) Bevatlon at Riser and Cross Main

,.a.. ,.... :. -,..a....~,,,..; .,-a,.,." ; ..,,,4.. ..'a.. ~ .. ;,,4,.;;;.~.~

Feed M a i n - - ' - ~ \'CrossMmn

at a or ol mo rlange ~ D
(b| Elevation at Feed Main and Cross M~|a
Fig. 5-2.6.1(A). Fittings to Facilitate Examination of Feed Mains, Risers, and
Gross Mains in Freezing Areas.

vided whenever a cross main connects to a riser or feed main.

This may be accomplished by a blind flange on a fitting (tee or
cross) in the riser or cross main or a flanged removable section 24
inches long in the feed main as shown in Fig. 5-2.6.1(A). Such
fittings in conjunction with the flushing connections specified in
3-7.3 would permit examination of the entire lengths of the cross
mains. Branch lines m a y be examined by backing the pipe out of
5- Whenever feed mains change direction, fa-
cilities shall be provided for direct observation of every length of
feed main within the refrigerated area. This may be accomplished
by means of two-inch capped nipples or blind flanges on fittings.
5- Fittings for inspection purposes shall be pro-
vided whenever a riser or feed main passes through a wall or floor
from a w a r m room to a cold room. This may be accomplished at
floor penetrations by a tee with a blind flange in the cold room
and at wall penetrations by a 24-inch flanged removable section
in the w a r m room as shown in Fig. 5-2.6.1(B).

,Tee with
Blind Flan~e

II WARM ROOM ~!';:~1Feed

R ie e r . . ~ l a
[:~CI . . . . .

Fig. 5-2.6.1(B). Fittings in Feed Main or Riser Passing Through Wall or

Floor from Warm Room to Cold Room.

5-2.6.2 A local low air-pressure alarm shall be installed on

sprinlder systems supplying freezer sections.
5-2.6.3 Piping in cold storage rooms shall be installed with
pitch, as outlined in Section 3-11.1.
5-2.6.4 The air supply for dry-pipe systems in cold storage
plants shall be taken from the freezers of lowest temperature or
through a chemical dehydrator. Compressed nitrogen gas from
cylinders may be used in place of air in dry-pipe systems to eliminate
introducing moisture.
5-2.7 Air Pressure a n d Supply.
5-2.7.1 Maintenance of Air Pressure. Air or nitrogen
pressure shall be maintained on dry-pipe systems throughout the
5-2.7.2* Air Supply. The compressed air supply shall be
from a source available at all times and having a capacity capable
of restoring normal air pressure in the system within 30 minutes,
except for low differential dry-pipe systems where this time may be
60 minutes. Where low differential dry-pipe valves are used, the
air supply shall be maintained automatically.
5-2.7.3 Air Filling Connection. The connection pipe from
the air compressor shall not be less than three-quarter inch and

shall enter the system above the priming water level of the dry.
pipe valve. A check valve shall be installed in this air line and a
shutoff valve of renewable disc type shall be installed on the SUpply
side of this check valve.
5-2.7.4 Relief Valve. An approved relief valve shall be
provided between compressor and controlling valve set to relieve
at a pressure five pounds in excess of maximum air pressure which
should be carried in the system.
5-2.7.5 Shop Air Supply. When the air supply is taken
from a shop system having a normal pressure greater than that
required for dry-pipe systems and an automatic air maintenance
device is not used, the relief valve shall be installed between two
control valves in the air line and a small air cock, which is normally
left open shall be installed in fitting below relief valve.

Fig. 5-2.7.5. Air Supply from Shop System.

L Check Valve 4. RellefValve
2. Control Valve (Renewable Disc Type) 5. Same as No. 2
3. Small Air Cock (Normally Open) 6. Air Supply

5-2.7.6 Automatic Air Compressor. When a dry-.pipe sys-

tem is supplied by an automatic air compressor or plant air system
any device or apparatus used for automatic maintenance of air
pressure shall be of a type specifically approved for such service
and capable of maintaining the required air pressure on the dry-
pipe system. More than one dry-pipe system shall not be connected
to a single automatic air maintenance device when the air supply
piping to the systems is subdivided only by check valves.
5-2.7.7 Air Pressure to b e Carried. The air pressure to be
carried shall be in accordance with the instruction sheet furnished

with the dry-pipe valve, when available, or 20 lbs. in excess of the

calculated trip pressure of the dry-pipe valve, based on the highest
normal water pressure of the system supply. The permitted rate
of air leakage shall be as specified in 1-11.4.2.
5-2.7.8 When used, nitrogen shall be introduced through
a pressure regulator set to maintain system pressure in accordance
with 5-2.7.7.
5-2.8 Devices for Test and Maintenance Purposes/Pres-
sure Gages. Approved pressure gages conforming to 2-9.2.2 shall
be connected :
(a) On the water side and air side of dry-pipe valve
(b) At the air pump supplying the air receiver
(c) At the air receiver
(d) In each independent pipe from air supply to dry-pipe
(e) At exhausters and accelerators.

5-3 Pre-Action and Deluge Systems.

5 3 . 1 Definitions.
Pre-Action System means a system employing automatic
sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air that may or
may not be under pressure, with a supplemental fire detection
system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers; actuation of the
fire detection system as from a fire, opens a valve which permits
water to flow into the sprinkler piping system and to be discharged
from any sprinklers which may be open.
D e l u g e System means a system employing open sprinklers
attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through
a valve which is opened by the operation of a fire detection system
installed in the same areas as the sprinklers; when this valve opens
water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers
attached thereto.
5-3.2* Description. Pre-action and deluge systems are
normally without water in the system piping and the water supply
controlled by an automatic valve operated by means of fire de-
tection devices and provided with manual means for operation which
are independent of the sprinklers. Systems may have equipment of
the types described in (a) through (f) below. (See Paragraph 5-3.5.1)
(a) Automatic sprinklers with both sprinkler piping and fire
detection devices automatically supervised,
(b) Automatic sprinklers with sprinkler piping and fire de.
tection devices not automatically supervised,
(c) Open sprinklers with only fire detection devices auto-
maticaUy supervised,
(d) Open sprinklers with fire detection devices not auto-
matically supervised,
(e) Combination of open and automatic sprinklers with fire
detection devices automatically supervised,
(f) Combination of open and automatic sprinklers with fire
detection devices not automatically supervised.
5-3.3* General.
5-3.3.1 A supply of spare fusible elements for heat-respon-
sive devices, not less than two of each temperature rating, shall
be maintained on the premises for replacement purposes.
5-3.3.2 When hydraulic release systems are used, it is pos-
sible to water column the deluge valve or deluge-valve actuator
if the heat-actuated devices (fixed temperature or rate-of-rise) are
located at extreme heights above the valve. Refer to the manu-
facturer for height limitations of a specific deluge valve or deluge
valve actuator.
5-3.3.3 All new pre-action or deluge systems shall be tested
hydrostatically as specified in 1-11.3.1. In testing deluge systems,
plugs shall be installed in fittings and replaced with open sprin-
klers after the test is completed, or automatic sprinklers may be
installed and the operating parts removed after test is completed.
5-3.4 Location and Spacing of Fire Detection D e~'ce.s.
Spacing of fire detection devices shall be in accordance wtm men:
listing by nationally recognized testing laboratories or in ac-
cordance with manufacturer's specification.
5-3.5* Pre-Action Systems.
5-3.5.1 Supervision. Sprinkler piping and fire detection
devices shall be automatically supervised when there are more
than 20 sprinklers on the system.
5-3.5.2 Pipe Schedule. See 3-4, 3-5, 3-6 and Chapter 7.
5-3.5.3 P e n d e n t Sprinklers. Automatic sprinklers on pre-
action systems installed in the pendent position shall be of the
approved dry pendent Wpe if installed in an area subject to freezing.
5-3.6* Deluge Systems. The fire detection devices or systems

shall be automatically supervised when there are more than 20

sprinklers on the system.

5-3.7 Devices for Test Purposes and Testing Apparatus.

5-3.7.1 When fire detection devices installed in circuits
are located where not readily accessible, an additional fire detec-
tion device shall be provided on each circuit for test purposes at
an accessible location and shall be connected to the circuit at a
point which will assure a proper test of the circuit.
5-3.7.2 Testing apparatus capable of producing the heat or
impulse necessary to operate any normal fire detection device shall
be furnished to the owner of the property with each installation.
Where explosive vapors or materials are present, hot water, steam
or other methods of testing not involving an ignition source shall
be used.
5-3.7.3 Pressure Gages. Approved pressure gages con-
forming to Paragraph 2-9.2.2 shall be installed as follows:
(a) Above and below pre-action valve and below deluge
(b) O n air supply to pre-action and deluge valves.

5-4 Combined Dry-Pipe and Pre-Action Systems.

5-4.1 General.
5,4.1.1" Definition. A Combined Dry-Pipe and Pre-
Action S p r i n k l e r System means a system employing automatic
sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air under pres-
sure with a supplemental fire detection system installed in the same
areas as the sprinklers; operation of the fire detection system, as
from a fire, actuates tripping devices which open dry-pipe valves
simultaneously and without loss of air pressure in the system. O p -
eration of the fire detection system also opens approved air exhaust
valves at the end of the feed main which facilitates the filling of the
system with water which usually precedes the opening of sprinklers.
The fire detection system also serves as an ~iutomatic fire alarm
5-4.1.2 Combined automatic dry-pipe and pre-action sys-
tems shall be so constructed that failure of the fire detection sys-
tem shall not prevent the system from functioning as a conven-
tional automatic dry-pipe system.
5-4.1.3 Combined automatic dry-pipe and pre-action sys-
tems shall be so constructed that failure of the dry-pipe system of
2514, spRINKLER ~Y,%TEMS


r, Pr


Fig. 5-4.2. Header for Combined Dry-Pipe and Pre-Action Sprinkler System.
Standard Trimmings Not Shown.
automatic sprinklers shall not prevent the fire detection system
from properly functioning as an automatic fire alarm system.
5-4.1.4 Provisions shall be made for the manual operation
of the fire detection system at locations requiring not more than
~00 feet of travel.
5-4.1.5 Except as indicated in 5211, automatic sprinklers
i~stalled in the pendent position shall be of the approved dry
pendent type.

5-4.2 D r y - P i p e Valves.
5-4.2.1 Where the system consists of more than 600 sprin-
tiers or has more than 275 sprinklers in any fire area, the entire
system shall be controlled through two 6-inch dry-pipe valves
connected in parallel and shall feed into a common feed main.
These valves shall be checked against each other. (See Fig. 5-4.2.)
5-4.2.2 Each dry-pipe valve shall be provided with an ap-
proved tripping device actuated by the fire detection system. Dry-
pipe valves shall be cross connected through a one-inch pipe con-
nection to permit simultaneous tripping of both dry-pipe valves.
This one-inch pipe connection shall be equipped with a gate valve
so that either dry-pipe valve can be shut off and worked on while
the other remains in service.
5-4.2.3 The check valves between the dry-pipe valves and
the common feed main shall be equipped with one-half inch by-
passes so that a loss of air from leakage in the trimmings of a dry-
pipe valve will not cause same to trip until the pressure in the feed
main is reduced to the tripping point. A gate valve shall be in-
stalled in each Of these bypasses so that. either dry-pipe valve can
be completely isolated from the main riser or feed main and from
each other.
5-4.2.4 Each combined dry-pipe and pre-action system
shall be provided with approved quick opening devices a t the d r y
pipe valves.

5-4.3* Air Exhaust V a l v e s . . One or more approved air ex-

haust valves of two-inch or larger size controlled by operation of
a fire detection system shall be installed at the end of the common
feed main. (See Fig. A-5-4.3.). These air exhaust valves shall
have soft seated globe o r angle valves in their intakes, also ap-
proved strainers shall be installed between these globe valves and
the air exhaust valves.

5-4.4 Subdivision of System Using Check Valves.

5-4.4.1 Where more than 275 sprinklers are required in a
single fire area, the system shall be divided into sections of 275
sprinklers or less by means of check valves. If system is installed
in more than one fire area or story, not more than 600 sprinklers
shall be supplied through any one check valve. Each section shall
have a 11/~-inch drain on the system side of each check valve Supple.
mented by a drum drip.
5-4.4.2 Section drain lines and drum drips shall be located
in heated areas or inside of thermostatically controlled electrieallv
heated cabinets of sufficient size to enclose drain valves and drut~
drips for each section. Drum drips shall also be provided for all
low points except that heated cabinets need not be required for
20 sprinklers or less.
5-4.4.3 Air exhaust valves at end of feed main and associ.
ated check valves shall be protected against freezing.

5-4.5 T i m e Limitation. The sprinkler system shall be so

constructed and the number of sprinkler heads controlled shall be
so limited that water shall reach the furthest sprinkler within a period
of time not exceeding one minute for each 400 feet of common feed
main from the time heat responsive system operates. Maximum
time permitted not to exceed three minutes.

5-4.6 Inspector's Test Connection. The end section shall

have an inspector's test connection as required for dry-pipe systems.

5-5 AntiFreeze Solutions.

5-5.1" Where Used. The use of antifreeze solutions shall be

in conformity with any state or local health regulations.

5-5.2 Antifreeze Solutions.

5-5.2.1 When sprinkler systems are supplied by public
water connections the use of antifreeze solutions other than water
solutions of pure glycerine (C.P. or U.S.P. 96.5 percent Grade) or
propylene glycol shall not be permitted. Suitable glycerine-water
and propylene glycol-water mixtures are shown in Table 5-5.2.1.
5-5.2.2 I f public water is not connected to sprinklers, the
commercially available materials indicated in Table 5-5.2.2 are
suitable for use in antifreeze solutions.

T a b l e 5-5.2.1
Antifreeze Solutions

Glycerine ~ ~ 5 0 ~ Water 1.133 --15

C~t'. or u.~.t-. Grade* 4 0 ~ Water 1.151 --22
3 0 ~ Water 1.165 --40
Hydrometer Scale 1.000 to 1.200

propylene Glycol 7 0 ~ Water 1.027 +9

6 0 ~ Water 1.034 --6
5 0 ~ Water 1.041 --26
4 0 ~ Water 1.045 ---60
Hydrometer Scale 1.000 to 1.120 (Subdivisions 0.002)
'C.P. - - Chemically Pure.
U.S.P. - - United States Pharmacopoeia 96.5~.

T a b l e 5-5.2.2
Antifreeze Solutions
Glycerine If glycerine is used, see Table 5521.
Diethylene Glycol 5 0 ~ Water 1.078 --13
45 ~ Water 1.081 --27
4 0 ~ Water 1.086 --42
Hydrometer Scale 1.000 to 1.120 (Subdivisions 0.002)
Ethylene Glycol 61 ~ Water 1.056 --10
5 6 ~ Water 1.063 --20
51 ~ Water 1.069 --30
4 7 ~ Water 1.073 --40
Hydrometer Scale 1.000 to 1.120 (Subdivisions 0.002)
Propylene Glycol If propylene glycol is used, see Table 5521.
Calcium Chloride Lb. CaCl~ per
80~ "Flake" Gal. of Water
Fire Protection Grade* 2.83 1.183 0
Add corrosion inhibitor 3.38 1.212 --10
of sodium bichromate 3.89 1.237 --20
oz. per gal. water 4.37 1.258 --30
4.73 1.274 ---40
4.93 1.283 --50
'Free from magnesium chloride and other impurities.
5-5.2.3* An antifreeze solution shall be prepared with a
freezing point below the expected minimum temperature for the
locality. The specific gravity of the prepared solution shall be
checked by a hydrometer with suitable scale.

5-5.3* Arrangement of Supply Piping and Valves. All

permitted antifreeze solutions are heavier than water. At the
point of contact (interface) the heavier liquid will be below the
lighter liquid in order to prevent diffusion of water into the un-
heated areas. In most cases, this necessitates the use of a five-foot
drop pipe or U-loop as illustrated in Fig. 5-5.3. The preferred
arrangement is to have the sprinklers below the interface between
the water and the antifreeze solution.

Fillinq C u p ~
Water -

H I ~ omifled whenscrlnkltr8
U .~..a re bdw I'vd f valveA
O,:S I N DiC.,A'I:I~IG [1"~.!
'^' " E E"
.SATe= I'1 ; I~1"~ - U N H E A T E . D

Check Valve/ 7 ~ Pi~ch "~odrain

('/~ hole~ Chl~r~ gl~'~inValve
NOTE" The l/~ inch hole in the check valve clapper is needed to allow
f-orexpansion o-f the solution during a temperature rise and thus prevent
damage to sprinkler heads.
Fig. 5-5.3. Arrangementof Supply Piping and Valves.

If sprinklers are above the interface, a check valve with H-inch

hole in the clapper shall be provided in the U-loop. A water
control valve and two small solution test valves shall be provided
as illustrated in Fig. 5-5.3. An acceptable arrangement of filling
cup is also shown.
5-5.4* Testing. Before freezing weather each year, the solu-
tion in the entire system shall be emptied into convenient containers
and brought to the proper specific gravity by adding concentrated
liquid as needed. The resulting solution may be used to refill the

5-6 Limited Water Supply System

5-6.1 Definition. Limited Water Supply System means a
system employing automatic sprinklers and conforming to this
standard but with a water supply less than required by Tables
2-2.1 (A) or 2-2.1 (B).
5-6.2 Maintenance of Water Supply. See 2-6.1.2.

Chapter 6 Outside Sprinklers for

Protection Against Exposure Fires.

6-1 Water Supply and Control.

6-1.1 Water Supply.
6-1.1.1 Sprinklers installed for protection against exposure
fires shall be supplied from a standard water supply as defined
in Chapter 2, or other supply such as manual valves, pumps or fire
department connections when approved by the authority havin~
6-1.1.2 When automatic systems of sprinklers are installed
water supplies shall be from an automatic source.
6-1.1.3 The water supply should be capable of furnishing
total demand for all exposure sprinklers operating simultaneously
for protection against the exposure fire under consideration for a
duration of not less than 60 minutes.
6-1.1.4 When water supply feeds other fire protection ap.
pliances, it shall be capable of furnishing total demand for such
appliances as well as the outside sprinkler demand.
6-1.1.5 When fire department connections are used for
water supply, they shall be so located that they will not be affected
by the exposing fire.

6-1.2 Control.
6-1.2.1 Each system of outside sprinklers shall have an
independent control valve. Where more than one valve is required,
the division between sprinklers on each valve shall be vertical and
not horizontal, except as noted in Sections B-6.2.2 and B-6.2.3.
6-1.2.2 Manually controlled open sprinklers shall be used
only where constant supervision is present.
6-1.2.3 Automatic systems may be open or closed sprinkler
head type. Closed sprinklers in areas subject to freezing shall be
on dry pipe or nonfreezing systems. (When not prohibited by local
public health authorities.)
6-1.2.4" Automatic systems of open sprinklers shall be con-
trolled by the operation of a heat responsive system designed for the
specific application.

~ 2 System C o m p o n e n t s
6-2.1" Valves
6-2.1.1 Control valves shall be of the approved indicating
10~nand shall be distinctively marked by letters not less than
ch high to clearly explain their Use.
6-2.1,2 D r a i n Valve, Each system of outside sprinklers
~all have a separate drain valve installed on s stem side of each
ntrol valve. Drain valves shall be in accordance with Section
3.11.2, except that in no case shall valves be smaller than one inch.
6-2.1.3 Check galves~ When sprinklers run on two ad-
jacent sides of a building, protecting against two separate and dis-
tinct exposures, with separate control valves for each side, the end
lines shall be connected together with check valves so located so
that one sprinkler around the corner will operate. The intermediate
pipe between the two check valves shall be arranged to drain.
As an alternate solution, an additional sprinkler shall be installed
on each system located around the corner from the system involved.

System B

System A

Arrangement of Check Valves.

Alternate Arrangement
Fig. 6-2.L4.

6-2.1.4 When one exposure affects two sides of the pro-

tected structure, the system shall not be subdivided between the
two sides, but rather shall be arranged to operate as a single system.
6-2.2 P i p e a n d Fittings. Approved corrosion-resistant p i p e
and fittings shall be used for the equipment as far back as the con-
trol valve on the water supply.
6-2.3 Strainers. An approved strainer shall he provided in
the riser or feed main which supplies sprinklers having orifices
smaller than s~ inch.

6.2.4 G a g e Connections. Pressure gage shall be installed

just below control valve of each system.

6-3 Sprinklers.t Only sprinklers of such type as are approve~

for window, cornice, sidewall, or ridge pole service shall be install~
for such use except where adequate coverage by use of other typ~
of approved sprinklers a n d / o r nozzles has been demonstrated.
Sprinklers m a y be of small orifice (1~ inch, We inch and ~ inch),
or large orifice (1~ inch, 5~ inch and z/~ inch).

6-4 P i p i n g S y s t e m
6-4.1 Pipe sizes of lines, risers, feed mains, and water supply
shall be hydraulically calculated in accordance with Chapter 7
to furnish a minimum of seven psi at any sprinkler with all sprin.
klers facing the exposure operating, or pipe sizes shall be in ac-
cordance with Section 6-4.2 and 6-4.3.
6-4.2 Branch line sizes on pipe schedule systems shall be as
T a b l e 6-4.2
M a x i m u m N u m b e r of S p r i n k l e r s Supplied on L i n e
Orifice Size - - Inches
Size of Pipe
Inch~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
1 4 3 2 2 1 1 1
1~ 8 6 4 3 2 2 1
1~ 9 6 4 3 3 2
2 5 4 4 3

6-4.3 Risers and feed main sizes on pipe schedule systems

shall be as follows for central feed risers:
Pipe Size ~ " or. smaller Number of Sprinklers
orifice ~ " orifice ~ " orfi/ce
1~ 6 3 2
2 10 5 4
2~ 18 9 7
3 32 16 12
3~ 48 24 17
4 65 33 24
5 120 60 43
6 100 70

1For additional information on outside sprinklers see Appendix B, Section B-6.1.


6-5 Testing and Flushing

6-5.1 Tests
6-5.1.1 All piping shall be tested hydrostatically as specified
i~ 1-11.3.
6-5.1.2 Operating tests shall be made of the system when
completed, except where such tests may risk water damage.

6-5.2 Flushing. Flushing shall be conducted in accordance

~th Section 1-11.2.

Chapter 7 Hydraulically Designed Sprinkler Systems

7-1 General.
7-1.1 D e f i n i t i o n :
7-1.1.1 A hydraulically designed sprinkler system is one ha
which i e sizes are selected on a pressure loss basis to provide
PP " i " -
prescribed density (gallons per minute per square, foot) d strlbuted
with a reasonable degree of uniformity over a specified area. This
permits the selection of pipe sizes in accordance with the char.
acteristics of the water supply available. The stipulated design den.
sity and area of application will vary with occupancy hazard.
7-1.1.2 The design basis for such a system supersedes the
rules in the sprinkler standard governing pipe schedules, except
that all systems continue to be limited by area, and pipe sizes shall
be no less than one inch nominal. The size of pipe, number of
sprinklers per branch line and number of branch lines per cro~
main are otherwise limited only by the available water supply.
However, sprinkler spacing and all other rules covered in this and
other applicable standards shall be observed.
7-1.2" Nameplate Data. Unless an alternate means of identi.
fication is provided by owner, the installer shall properly identify
a hydraulically designed automatic sprinkler system by a per.
manently attached placard indicating the location, number of
sprinklers in the hydraulically designed section, and the basis of
design (discharge density over designed area of discharge, including
gallons per minute and residual pressure demand at base of riser).
Such signs shall be placed at the controlling alarm valve, or d ry
pipe valve, for the system containing the hydraulically desxgned

7-2 Information R e q u i r e d .
7-2.1 Basic D e s i g n Information. Basic design criteria for
hydraulically designed sprinkler systems shall be obtained from
this or other applicable standards. Where no standards exist,
the authority having jurisdiction shall be consulted.
7-2.2 Sprinkler System Requirements. The following in.
formation shall be included when applicable:
(a) Area of water application . . . . . . . . . . . . sq. ft.
(b) Minimum rate of water application (density). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gpm/sq, feet.
(c) Area per sprinkler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sq. ft.
(d) Allowance for inside hose and outside hydrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gpm.
(e) Allowance for in-rack sprinklers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gpm

7-2.3 Water Supply Information. The following information

should be included:
(a) Description of existing or proposed water supply.
(b) Water flow data with existing or proposed water supply
Location and elevation of static and residual test gage.
(i) Flow location.
(ii) Static pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . psi.
(iv) Residual pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . psi.
(v) Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gpm.

7-2.4 Information Required on the Drawing.

7-2.4.1 In addition to the requirements of Section 1-9, the
drawings shall also contain the information mentioned in the re-
mainder of this Section 7-2.4.
7-2.4.2 Hydraulic Reference Points. Reference points
may be shown by a number and/or letter designation and shall
correspond with comparable reference points shown on the hy-
draulic calculation sheets.
7-2.4.3 Sprinklers. Description of sprinklers used.
7-2.4.4 System Design Criteria. The minimum rate of
water application (density) , the design area of water application
and the water required for hose streams both inside and outside
shall be included.
7-2.4.5 Actual Calculated Requirements. The total
quantity of water and the pressure required shall he noted at
a common reference point for each system.
7-2.4.6 Elevation Data. Relative elevations of sprinklers,
junction points and supply or reference points shall be noted.

7-3 Data Sheets and Abbreviations

7-3.1 General. Hydraulic calculations shall be prepared on
form sheets that include a summary sheet, detailed work sheets and
a graph sheet. (See copy of typical forms, Figures A-7-3.3 and

7-3.2 Summary Sheet. The summary sheet shall contain the

following information, when applicable:
(a) Date
(b) Location
15-100 S P R I N K L E R SYSTEMS

(c) Name of owner and occupant

(d) Building number or other identification
(e) Description of hazard
(f) Name and address of contractor or designer
(g) Name of approving agency
(h) System design requirements
(1) Design area of water application . . . . . . . . . . . . sq ft.
(2) Minimum rate of water application (density) . . . . . . . . . .
gpm square feet.
(3) Area per sprinkler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . square feet.
(i) Total water requirements as calculated including allow.
ance for inside hose and outside hydrants.
(j) Water supply information.

7-3.3" Detailed Work Sheets. Detailed work sheets (for sample

work sheet, refer to Fig. A-7-3.3) or computer printout sheets
shall contain the following information:
(a) Sheet number.
(b) Sprinkler description and discharge constant (K).
(c) Hydraulic reference points.
(d) Flow in gpm.
(e) Pipe size.
(f) Pipe lengths, center to center of fittings.
(g) Equivalent pipe lengths for fitting and devices.
(h) Friction loss in psi per foot of pipe.
(i) Total friction loss between reference points.
(j) Elevation head in psi between reference points.
(k) Required pressure in psi at each reference point.
(1) Velocity pressure and normal pressure if included in
(m) Notes to indicate starting points, reference to other sheets
or to clarify data shown.

7-3.4* Graph Sheet. Water supply curves and system re-

quirements, plus hose demand when applicable, shall be plotted
on semilog paper so as to present a graphic summary of the com-
plete hydraulic calculation.

7-3.5 A b b r e v i a t i o n s a n d Symbols. T h e following standard

abbreviations and symbols shall be used on the calculation form:
Symbol or Abbreviation Item
P Pressure in psi
gpm U.S. Gallons per minute.
q Flow increment in g p m to be added at a
specific location.
Q Summation of flow in g p m at a specific
Pt Total pressure in psi at a point in a pipe.
Pf Pressure loss due to friction between points
indicated in location column.
Pe Pressure due to elevation difference between
indicated points. This can be a plus value or
a minus value. Where minus, the (--) shall
be used; where plus, no sign need be indicated.
Pv Velocity pressure in psi at a point in a pipe.
Pn Normal pressure in psi at a point in a pipe.
E 90 Ell.
EE 45 Ell.
Lt.E Long T u r n Elbow
Cr Cross
T Tee - - flow turned 90
GV Gate Valve
BV Butterfly Valve
Del V Deluge Valve
DPV Dry-Pipe Valve
ALV Alarm Valve
CV Swing Check Valve
WCV Butterfly (Wafer) Check Valve
St. Strainer
psi Pounds per square inch
V Velocity of Water in pipe in feet per second.

7-4 Calculation.
7-4.1 Friction Loss Formula. Pipe friction losses shall be de-
termined on the basis of Hazen and Williams formula.
4.52 QLs5
p = C;.S 5 d4.S7
Table 7-4.2' ..:
Equivalent Pipe Length Chart
Fittings and Valves Fittings and Valves Ezpressed in Equivalent Feet of Pipe.
~in. l~in. 1~in. ~ i n . ~in. Sin.,Sin. 4in. 5in. 6in. 8in. lOin. l~in.
45 Elbow - I- 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 5 7 9 11 13
90 Standard Elbow 2 3 4 5 6 7 8-10 12 14 18 22 27
90 o Long Turn Elbow 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 .6 8 9 13 16 18
Tee or Cross 5 6 8 10 12 -. 15 17 20 25 3o 35 50 60~
(Flow Turned 90 )
Butterfly Valve 6 7 10 - 12 ,9 ~10 12 19 21
Gate Valve: ' 1 . 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6
Swing Cheek* 6 :: 7 .. 9 11 14 16 19 22 27- 32 45 55 65'

r- -. - !-

Use with Hazen and Williams' C ffi120 only. For other values of C, the figures in Table 7321 bhouid be multiplied by the factors
indicated ,below: ~ ~ "
: Value of C 100 120 130 140
Multiplying factor 0.713 1.00 1.16 1.32 ~
(This is based upon the friction i0ss through the fitting being independent of the C factor applicable to the piping.)
Specifc friction loss values or equivalent pipe lengths for alarm valves, dry-pipe valves, deluge valves, strainers and other
devices shall be made available to the authority having jurisdiction.
*Due to the variations in design of swing cheek valves, the pipe equivalents indicated in the above chart to be considered average.
r the frictional resistance ' i n p o u n d s pressure per square

inch per'feet of pipe, Q is the gallons per minute flowing and d
is the actual internal diameter of pipe in inches with C as the
friction loss coefficient. . '

7-4.2 ' E q u i v a l e n t Pipe L e n g t h s Of Valves a n d Fittings.

Table 7-4.2 shall be used to determine the equivalent length of pipe
for fittings and devices unless manufacturer's test data indicates
other faetocslare appropriate.
* , A

7-4.3 C ~ c u l a t i n g P r o c e d u r e ,
7-4.3:1 In order to maintain consistency in calculating a

sprinkler system, manually or by computer, the following rules

shall be followed.
(a)* T h e design area ,shall be the hydraulically most re-
mote:area and usually includes sprinklers 'Or/both sides of the cross
(b) E a d i s p r i n k l e r in the design area'shall discharge at a
flow rate at least equal to the stipulated minimum water applica-
tion rate (density). Begin calculations at the sprinkler hydraulically
farthest from the supply connection. With common system con-
figurations this will be the end sprinkler on the end branch line.
(c) Calculate pipe friction loss in accordance with Hazen
and Williams formula for a " C " value of 100 for black steel pipe
in dry pipe systems, C-120 for black steel pipe in other than dry
pipe systems, C-140 for copper tube and cement-lined cast-iron
pipe, and C-100 for unlined cast-iron pipe. The authority having
jurisdiction may recommend other " C " values.
(d) T h e density shall be calculated on the basis of the floor
(e) Include pipe, fittings and devices such as valves, meters
and strainers and calculate elevation changes which affect the
sprinkler discharge.
(f) Calculate the loss for a tee or a cross where flow direction
change occurs based on the equivalent pipe length of the piping
segment in which the fitting is included. The tee at the top of a riser
nipple shall be included in the branch line; the tee at the base
of a riser nipple shall be included in the riser nipple; and the tee or
cross at a cross main - - feed main junction shall be included in the
crOss main. Do not include fitting loss for straight thru flow in a
tee or cross.
(g) Calculate the loss of reducing clbows based on the
equivalent feet valuc of the smallest outlct. U s c the equivalent

feet value for the "standard elbow" on any abrupt ninety-degree

turn, such as the screw-type pattern. Use the equivalent feet value
for the "long t u r n e l b o w " on any sweeping ninety-degree turn,
such as a flanged, welded or mechanical joint-elbow type.
(h) Friction loss' shall be excluded for tapered reducers,
for reducing elbows serving a sprinkler a t the end of a branch
line, and for all fittings directly supplying a sprinkler.
(i) Orifice plates or sprinklers of different orifice sizes shall
not be used for balancing the system, except for special use such as
exposure protection, small rooms or enclosures or directional dis.
charge. (See paragraph on small rooms for definition.)
(j) Feed mains, cross mains and branch lines within the
same system m a y be looped or gridded to divide the total water
flowing to the design area.
(k) The water allowandes for inside hose and for outside
hydrants may be combined and added to the system requirement
at the system connection to the underground main. T h e total water
requirement shall be calculated through the underground main to
the point of supply.
: 7 ~ . 3 2 2 Minimum 0perating pressure of any sprinkler shall
be7 psi. ~.

Chapter 8 High-Rise Buildings

8-1 Application and Scope. T h i s chapter deah with auto-
~atie sprinkler system design for life safety and fire protection in
high-ri~ buildings of noncombustible, protected noncombustible
or fire-resistive construction as defined in NFPA Standard, Standard
Types of Building Construction, No. 220-1961, which are used pr~-
dominantly for light hazard occupancies. It is intended to cover
totally sprinklered buildings only, and shall not apply to partially
sprinklered buildings.

8-2 Definitions. '

High-Rise Building means one in which fire must be fought
internally because of height.
Compartmented Area means an area divided by solid partitions
extending from floor to ceiling. Openings in these partitions shall
not exceed 25 percent of the area of the partition.

8-3 Design Criteria

8-3.1' T h e installation may be either a pipe schedule system
or a 'hydraulically designed System. Pipe schedule systems shall
comply' ~;ith Chapters 1 through 6 of this/standard. Hydraulically
designed systems shall comply with Chapters 1 through 7 of this
standard as modified by 8-3.2 through 8-3.6, and shall comply
with Chapter 8.
8-3.2 In light hazard occupancies, special sprinklers may be
imtalled with larger protection areas than indicated in 4-
or greater distances-between sprinklers or branch lines than indi-
cated in 4:2.1.1 when: such installations are made:in accordance
with approvals or listings of a nationally recognized testing labo-
ratory. :
8-3.3 System piping shall be hydraulically designed through-
out all areas using design densities as follows:
(a) .Light hazard occupancies - - .10 gallonsper minute per
square :foot.,. ,,~ .... .
(b) Ordinary hazard occupancies with compartmented areas
less than 3,000 square feet - - .15 gallons per minute per square foot.
The area of application for hydraulically designed systems in
high-rise "buildings shall not exceed 1,500 square feet except as in-
dicate.d inP~iragraphs 8-3.4 and 8-3,5.
13-106 S P R I N K L E R SYSTEMS

8-3.4 Areas of application in ordinary hazard compartmented

occupancies shall be based on an area of application equal to the
area of the largest ordinary hazard compartment but not less than
1,500 square feet or more than 3,000 square feet. Ordinary hazard
corn artments larger than 3,000 square feet in area shall be hv
dra~Pically designed to satisfy the density-area design curve fro~
Table 2-2.1(B) appropriate to the ordinary hazard occupancy
8-3.5 Sprinkler discharge in closets, washroom and similar
small compartments requiring only one sprinkler may be omitted
from hydraulic calculations within the area of application. (Sprin.
lders in these small compartments shall, however, be capable of dis-
charging minimum densities as indicated in Paragraph 8-3.3.)
8-3.6 Systems shall be designed with a minimum operating
pressure of 10 pounds per square inch at any sprinkler.

8-4 Water Supplies

8-4.1 Acceptable water supplies are as follows:
(a) Public water system where pressure and discharge ca-
pacity meet the design requirements of the system as calculated.
(b) Automatic fire pumps supplied under head from a water
supply source adequate to meet hydraulically designed system re-
quirements, including public mains, reservoirs and wells.
(c) Pressure tanks.
(d) Gravity tanks.
8-4.2 Each water supply source shall be automatic and of
adequate capacity and pressure to supply the sprinkler system
calculated demand for a period of not less than 30 minutes.
8-4.3 Hose connections may be supplied from sprinkler risers.
See paragraphs 3-7.7 and 3-7.8.
8-4.4 Where hose connections are supplied from sprinkler
risen, total supply shall be a minimum of 500 gpm and in accord-
ance with NFPA Standard, Installation of Standpipes and Hose
Systems, No. 14-1971. Calculated sprinkler system demand need
not be added to this supply.

8-5 Alarms.
8-5.1 A separate and distinct supervisory signal shall be pro-
vided to indicate a condition that will impair the satisfactory op-

eration of the sprinkler system. This shall include, but need not
be limited to monitoring of control valves, fire pump power supplies
and runnin.g.conditions, water tank levels, and temperatures. Pres-
sure supervmlon shah also be provided on pressure tanks.
8-5.2 Where each sprinkler system on each floor is equipped
with a separate waterflow device, it shall be connected to an alarm
system in such a manner that operation of one sprinkler will actuate
the alarm system, and the location of the operated low device
shah be indicated on an annunciator a n d / o r register. Annunciator
or register shall be located at grade level at the normal point of fire
department access, at a constantly attended building security con-
trol center, or both locations.
8-5.3 When the location within the protected building where
supervisory or alarm signals are received is not under constant su-
perv~.""on. by. qualified
. . personnel in the employ of the owner, a con-
nectton snail be prowded to transmit a signal to a remote monitor-
ing station.
8-5.4 Alarm and supervisory systems in connection with the
sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with NFPA Stan-
dards Central Station Protective Signaling Systems (NFPA No.
71-1972), Remote Station Protective Signaling Systems (NFPA No.
72C-1972), or Proprietary Protective Signaling Systems (NFPA
No. 72D--1972), as appropriate.
13-108 . S P R I N K L E R S Y S T E M S :' ," -

'-- Appendix A
The following notes bearing the same, number as the text of the
Standard for the Installation. of Sprinkler Systems to which they apNv-
contain useful explanatory material an d references to standards'. "
This Appendix is not a part of this NFPA Standardfor the Installation
of Sprinkler Systems but is i~luded for information,purposes only.
" ..

.... A-1-7.2.3 When hazards in those, buildings or portions of

buildings Of thit occupancy group are severe, the authority having
jurisdiction should:be consulted for special rulings regarding water
supplies, types of equipment, pipe sizes, types of,sprinklers and sprin.
kler s p a c i n g . . . .
[ A-1-7.3 [New insial!ations protecting[extra haZard~ occupancies
should be hydraulically designed in all c a ~ where standards giving
design criteria are available. Pipe schedule systems are normally
satisfactory in existing installations and in small segregated areas.
A-14.1.2 Under special conditions u~d,equipment may be
i'eused by. the:original owner; subject to the approval of the au.
thority having jurisdiction. Second hand a)arm~valves, retarding
chambers~ circuit closers, ~water motor alarms, dry pipe valves,
qui~:k~opening devices and otherdevices may be used as replacement
equipment m existing systems subject t the approyal of the au-
thority having jurisdiction.
A-1-U.3.1 To reduce the possibility of serious water dam-
age in ease of a break, pressure may be maintained by a small pump,
the main controlling gate meanwhile being kept shut.
A-2-1 Water supplies should have adequate pressure, capacity
and reliability.
The water supply needed for various occupancies, including
extra hazard occupancies is determined by evaluating the number
of sprinklers which may be expected to operate from any one fire
plus quantities needed simultaneously for hose streams.
Determination of the water supply needed for extra hazard oc-
cupancies will require special consideration of the four factors:
(1) area of sprinkler operation, (2) density of discharge, (3) required
time of discharge, and (4) amount of water needed simultaneously
for hose streams.
When the occupancy presents a possibility of intense fires re-
quiring extra heavy discharge, this may be obtained by an increase
in the pressure and volume of the water supply, by a closer spacing
of sprinklers, by the use of larger pipe sizing, or by a combination of
these methods. In such cases, consideration should be given to
hydraulically designed systems. See Chapter 7.
h--~--.p-- o".--.f.--~o-_.l.__ ~.__.i._~o.__.1._.~.~_ -

,T , . , ~,~,. . ,

> ' -I ,~l- I , c ~ ' ~ ..~..o.: I : ~ -
~ ~I, , I ! I--

:~!~'~I~~ ~ I~,~ I~,~'~" ~


~-I ~.~ F 18" le. I ~


~, ' t

, .~- ~
l, I



Note. ~ ~"~" / ........ ~ .....

" " Merked T h , s ~ O ~ m t e g a o ~; ~ ~ , >J
D~n ~ h . ~ T o ~ or ~-- -IF- - - ~ g~.Lm I . I

, .I..e City GafeVOl~l 8"Cily J~

~ ' ~ S t o t i c Pressure
7 0 '~' Resld.ol N.SE(CON9 81".
~ 0 0 GP.IA FIo,,dng
LTOTALmCO,WlA~r ! SO ]Se,~C ly'.O'l


- mpnm, c~,~, ,

Upright Sprinklers
[~ oo esAya ~ Io"-o - Ioo'-o" iI N
'-~"~ I ,,-----'---.

J 11 T.9.m TMII'i-iT rs..mT rs-loT }-roT Is-mT . ~,.,o 4 II TT]IX

l_ II_ : I _t -I/IL-I 171 I~I =I i~ l ~,= II_ III~

i I ~ ..... W ,Si. I il --~----J I "* III k

L-II=2I~:]=. 1 ": ~ I ~ . 1 ~ D_'I,.'.:;~[" II~..~ 111\\

] r - - - l ~ l
Seo~o F~oo~ oe R.ooF PL~I I JOH~l DO[ CO. I
I A I I[J~'.q Hr..~EOND . ~ I " * ~ M I T H V I I . L E , N . Y * I
: ~ N ~.~_o_~ No~e-l, l l , l m i s I,,,,IAmiliD Tz4u8 ~- [ ~ . ' - ,.4.~o,,~...: , ~o-.-~ *~ I
I ~,~l/ oe.o're o.s'r,~.,:- ~w. ,.,, ~o~*': ::.~::I~.: .":.~ 11~1-4341 /
v INCHE~ FROM (:EII.INQ OR. ~L~femm~ I - I - l l ) l B i . "I:I.~ |'i ~ /
BOTTOM OF TRUSS TO CENTER, ~ J ~ i ~ s . i r l r qo. I ol,, I /

4" steel pipe ~/ye or siamese connection

/-" with clappers removed

or 8" x 4"
ell6"x i"
2~" hose flowthrough
L < ~
r%,.Cast iron flanked spigot
Pipe from underground
Employing horizontal run of 4-Inch pipe.and reducing flttin8 near base of riser.

Installa plugor a nipple F.e Oel~rtment Watermaybe alL,charged

and cap end flushunder, checkvel~e ~ -throughopenend o! 4"
glrOundbeforeOverhead / ~/*F/J ~ p,peor throughy or
L ~ ,i siamesecennechonwilh

~emovectepDor ~ ' / / ~ .... " ~

.__~ durmgflushing I / . / / ~ ,

Install e plug or a topple Removeclapper
and Capend Push dur,ng Pushln8 a.
undergroundbeforedry ooerat,on Watermaybe d[scharEed
I~,PevaSve,s m ~ ..- throughopenend of 4"
~ p,peor throughy or
/ s,ameseconnectionwith
A P P R O V F"D ... I"
"..I ~
; hoseas shownabove
r " ~ n ~'." ~ - ' ~ T ~ , ~ --'IF"
VALVE ""~.

. ~ From u n d e r g r o u n ~

Employ/ng i r e department connections.

Fig. A-LIL2. Methods of F]ushing Water Supply Connections.
W h e n separately published standards on various subjects contain
specific provisions for water supplies, these should bc consulted.
(See Appendix E for availabilityof Standards.)
A-2-2 Tbe water supply requirement for sprinkler protection is
determined by the number of sprinklers expected to operate in
event of fire. The primary factors affecting the number of sprin.
klcrs which might open are:
(1) Occupancy
(2) Combustibility of contents
(3) Area shielded from proper distribution of water
(4) Height of stock piles
(5) Combustibility of construction (ceilings and blind spaces)
(6) Ceiling heights and draft conditions
(7) Horizontal and vertical cutoffs
(8) Wet or dry sprinkler system
(9) High water pressure
(10) Housekeeping
(11) Temperature rating of sprinklers
(12) Water flow alarm and response thereto.
A-2-3.1.1 l~eliability of public water supply should take
into account probable minimum pressure condition prevailing dur-
ing such periods as at night, or during summer months when heavy
usage may occur, also possibility of interruption by floods, or ice
conditions in winter.
Pressure Regulating Valves.
Pressure regulating valves should not be used except with per-
mission of the authority having jurisdiction.
A-2-5 See sections dealing with sprinkler equipment super-
visory and water flow alarm services in the Standard for Central
Station Protective Signaling Systems, Watchman, Fire Alarm and
Supervisory Service (NFPA No. 71-1972), the Standard for Local
Protective Signaling Systems, (NFPA No. 72A-1972), the Standard
for Auxiliary Protective Signaling Systems (NFPA No. 73B-1972),
Remote Station Protective Signaling Systems for Fire Alarm and
Supervisory Service (NFPA No. 72C-1972), or the Standard for
Proprietary Protective Signaling Systems (NFPA No. 72D-1972).
See also separately published Standard for the Installation of Cen-
trifugal Fire Pumps (NFPA No. 20-1972), and Outside Protection
(NFPA No. 24-1970).

A-2-5.1 A n a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d v e r t i c a l t u r b i n e p u m p
taking s u c t i o n f r o m a reservoir, p o n d , lake, r i v e r o r w e l l c o m p l i e s
with 2-5.1.

A - 2 - 6 . 3 T h e air pressure to b e c a r r i e d a n d t h e p r o p e r p r o p o r -
tion of air in t h e t a n k m a y b e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m the f o l l o w i n g
formulas, in w h i c h ,
P = Air pressure carried in pressure tank.
A = Proportion of air in tank.
H = Height of highest sprinkler above tank bottom.
When tank is placed above the highest sprinkler P = 30 _ 15.
A = ~,~ then P = 90 --15 = 75 pounds per sq. in.
A = ~ then P = 60 - - 1 5 = 45 pounds per sq. in.
A = 2/~ then P = 45 --15 -- 30 pounds per sq. in.
When tank is below level of the highest sprinkler
p = 30 --15 + 0.434H
A = ~thenP =75 +1.30H
A ffi ~ then P -- 45 + 0.87H.
A = 2~ then P ffi 30 + 0.65H.
The respective air pressures above are calculated to ensure that
the last water will leave the tank at a pressure of 15 lbs. per square
inch when the base of the tank is on a level with the highest sprinkler,
or at such additional pressure as is equivalent to a head correspond-
ing to t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e base of t h e t a n k a n d t h e h i g h e s t
sprinkler w h e n t h e l a t t e r is a b o v e t h e tank.
T h e final p r e s s u r e r e q u i r e d a t t h e p r e s s u r e t a n k for systems d e -
signed f r o m T a b l e 2-2.1 (B) will n o r m a l l y b e h i g h e r t h a n t h e 15 psi
a n t i c i p a t e d in t h e p r e v i o u s p a r a g r a p h . The following formula
should be used to d e t e r m i n e t h e t a n k p r e s s u r e a n d r a t i o o f a i r to
water in h y d r a u l i c a l l y d e s i g n e d systems.

Pi - Pt + 15 15
Pi = Tank Pressure
Pt -- Pressure Required from
Hydraulic Calculations
A = Proportion of Air
E x a m p l e : Hydraulic calculations indicate 75 psi is required to
supply the system. What tank pressure will be required?

Pi 75 -at- 15 15
Pi = 1 8 0 - - 15 = 165 psi

In this case, the tank would be filled with 50 per cent air and
50 per cent water and the tank pressure would be 165 psi. If the
pressure is too high the amount of air carried in the tank will have
to be increased.
Location of P r e s s u r e Tanks. Pressure tanks should be located
above the top level of sprinklers but may be located in the base.
ment or elsewhere.
A-2-7.3 Hose connections should be located on the street side
of the building and arranged so that hose lines can be readily and
conveniently attached to the inlet without interference from any
nearby objects including buildings, fences, posts, or other fire de-
partment connections.
Fire department connections to sprinkler systems shall be desig.
nated by a sign having raised letters at least one inch in size cast
on plate or fitting reading for service designated: Viz. - - " A U T O .
SPKR.", " O P E N S P K R . " o r " A U T O SPKR. AND STANDPIPE."
A-2-8.1 In private underground piping systems for buildings
of other than Light Hazard Occupancy, any dead-end pipe which
supp.lies both sprinklers and hydrants should be not less than 8 inches
In size.
A-2-8.2 Where riser is close to outside wall underground
fittings of proper design and type should be used in order to avoid
pipe joints being located in or under the wall.
Preeem'e O u p tm be

Tee~ ~ p e or drala
~ e e ~ ~ a l eeat ~obe valve
~ t h arreage~en~e for d r a i n l ~
l~l~ between ~auge and ~ l v e .

Fig. A-2-9.1 Test Pipe on Water Supply w i t h Outside Control

Also applicable to an interior riser.


A-3"2 Building Elevation Showing Parts of Sprinkler Piping System.

A - - Riser; B - - Feed Main; C - - Cross Main; D - - Branch Lines;
E - - Underground Supply.

A-3-3 L o n g R u n s o f Pipe. W h e n the construction or con-

ditions introduce unusually long runs of pipe or m a n y angles, in
risers or feed mains, an increase in pipe size over that called for in
the schedules m a y be required to compensate for increased friction

A-3-4.4 For example, a 2 ~ i n c h steel pipe, which is permitted

to supply 30 sprinklers in one fire section, m a y supply a total of
50 sprinklers where not more than 30 sprinklers are above or
below the ceiling.

A-3-5.4 For example, a three-inch steel pipe, which is permitted

to supply 40 sprinklers in one fire section, m a y supply a total of
60 sprinklers where not more than 40 sprinklers are above or below
the ceiling.

m E



Fig. A-3-7.3 Flushing Connection.

PreFerably from end .~ tin. -~

oF remote branch 3
Smooth bore cor-
I irL globe volve--~ rosion resistant
not over 7 ft. " ~ outlet giving
above floor ~=( flow equivalent
to one sprinkler.
-" : _ - ~
I in. 45
ELEVATION .~FL_. elbow
NoT~: Not less than 4 feet of exposed test pipe in warm room
beyond valve when pipe extends through wall to outside.
Fig. A-3-8.1.1.
Angle valve ~(~

~1 t /
"j~---~Sprinkler riser] |

~. ~-Drow-off riser
.--Check valve
Fig. A-3-8.1.I One-Inch System Test Pipes on Wet-Pipe Systems.
Connect to top of main riser or to sprinkler pipe in the highest part of system.
The drawing on the upper portion of the page shows the preferred arrange-
ment. In special cases, the connection may be made in the m a n n e r shown
in the lower drawing.

A-3-8.1.1 This test pipe should be in the upper story, and

the connection should preferably be piped from the end of the
most remote branch line. The discharge should be at a point where
it can be readily observed. In locations where it is not practical to
terminate the test pipe outside the building, the test pipe may ter-
minate into a drain capable of accepting full flow under system
pressure. (See A-3-11.4.1.) In this event, the test connection should
be made using an approved sight test connection containing a




SE~ ~~




Fig. 5-8.1.2 Floor control valve.

i" I in. Globe

"Angle Valve
tln.hnch tin:. .i Sm~h bore cor-
Line VlU9 / ~ rosion resistant
outlet giving flow
TernP0rary.] equivalent to one
Tutl~j Corm. sprinkler.


Fig. 3-8.2 One-inch System Test Pipes on Dry-Pipe Systems.

smooth, bore corrosion resistant orifice giving a flow equivalent to
one Sprinkler. (See Fig. A-3-8.1.) The test valve should be located
at, an accessible point, and preferably not over seven feet above the
floor. The control valve on the test connection should be located
at a p o i n t not exposed to freezing. ~' "
:.I ' .. . - , ;

':/ A-3-9.5 The fire hazard, of the brazing proc~s, should be

suitably safeguarded.

A-3-10.2 If corrosive conditions are not of great intensity and

humidity is not abnormally high, good results can be obtained by
a protective coating of fed tea d and ,arnish Or by~ a~good grade of
commercial acid-resisting paint. The paint manufacturer's instrue.
tions shoUld be followed in the preparation of the surface and in
the method Of applicati0n- --:
Where moisture conditions are severe but corrosive conditions
are not of great intensity, copper tube' or galvanized'steel pipe,
fittings and hangers may be suitable. The threaded ends of steel
pipe should be painted. : " , "" ~.,
In instances where the'pipin~i" ' not readily accessible and where
the exposure to corrosive fumes is severe, either a.protective coating
of high quality may be employed or resort ma~/be made to the use
of some form of corrosion resisting material.
_. . f o

A-3-11.Li A l l piping should be/trranged where practicable

to drain to the main drain:valve . . . . -~: ..,

A-3-11.4.1 w h e n possible, the m a ~ sprinkler riser drain

should discharge outside the building at a point free from the
possibility of causing, water damage. When not possible to discharge
outside the building wall, :the~drain shoUld .be piped to a sump
which in turn 'should discharge by gravity or be pumped to a waste
water drain or sewer. , T h e main sptqxikler riser :.drain connection
should be of a size .to carry off ..Water fi:om `the fully~ open drain
valve while it isdischarging under hormal:water system pressures.
When this is nOt:possible, a supplementary'drain of equal size should
be provided for'test purpo~s with free discharge, located at or above

A-3-11.4.5 When exterior ambient temperatures are sub-

ject to freezing, 32 F. or less, at least 4 feet of pipe should be in-
stalled beyond the valve, in a ,warm room.


,t ,

Fig. A-3-L2.L4 One Arrangement of Flanged Joint at Sprinkler Riser.

A-3-12.2 Approved flexible connections are permissible and
encouraged for sprinkler installations in racks to reduce possibility
of physical damage. When flexible tubing is used it should be lo-
cated so that it will be protected against mechanical injury.

A-3-13.2.5 :

' ':'' L] T .. Connection

City Main.~ o System

;-~ City Control Valve ' I Ball Drip
- Nonindicating Valve
Fig. A-3-13.2.5 Pit for Gate Valve, Check Valve a n d Fire Department


q .

H ! J g

N p
," ".L M . . . . " ; " ' ;
F i g . A-3-14.1 Common T y p e s of Acceptable H a n g e r s .
A - - U - t y p e H a n g e r for B r a n c h Lines.
B - - U-type H a n g e r for Cross Mains a n d Feed Mains.
C - - Adjustable Cllp for B r a n c h Lines.
D - - S i d e Beam Adjustable H a n g e r .
E - - Adjustable Coach Screw Clip for Branch Lines.
F - - Adjustable Swivel Ring H a n g e r with Expansion Shield.
G - - Adjustable Flat Iron H a n g e r .
H - - Adjustable Clevis H a n g e r .
I - - Cantilever Bracket.
j - - " U n i v e r s a l " I-beam Clamp.
K - - " U n i v e r s a l " C h a n n e l Clamp.
L - - C-type Clamp with Retaining Strap.
M ---"Center I-beam Clamp f o r B r a n c h l a n e s .
N - - T o p Beam Clamp. "- "'"
O - - "CL~Unlversal" Concrete Insert.
P - - C-type C~amp without Retain;ng Strap.
" Q ~ Eye Rod a n d Ring H a n g e r . ,
R - - W r a p - a r o u n d U Hook.

A-3-13.2.6 When a system having only one dry-pipe valve

is supplied With city water and fire department connection it will
be satisfactory to install the main check valve in water supply con,
nectien immediately inside of the building; in case .there is no out,
side control the system indicating valve should be placed at the wall .,.
flange ahead of all fittings.
A-3213.3 All control, drain, and valve tests should be provided
~ t h identification signs.
A-3-14.1 Branch line hangers Under metal d e c k i n g m a y be at-
tached by drilling or punching vertical members and using through
bolts~ The distance from the bottom of the bolt hole to the bottom
of the vertical member Should be not less than ~-inch.
A-3-14.3.1 Powder-driven studs should not be used in steel
less than ~ , i n c h total thickness, ,
A-5-14.6.6 To take care of the thrust in a steeply pitched
roof branch line, a clamp should be installed on the pipe just above
, .

the lowest hanger.

A-3-15.2.2, Upright sprinklers should be installed with the
frame parallel to the branch line pipe to reduce to minimum the
obstruction of the discharge pattern.
:A-3-15.2.6 Large orifice sprinklers should, not be used with
pipe schedule systems unless their use is acceptable to the authority
having jurisdiction a n d supported by hydraulic calculations.
A-3-15.5 The following Table A-3-15.5 shows the nominal
discharge capacities of approved sprinklers having a nominal
yz-inch orifice at various pressures up to 100 psi.
Table A-.%LS.5
Pressure at Sprinkler Discharge Pressure at Sprinkler' Discharge~
Lb. Per Sq. In. Gal. Per Min. Lb. Per Sq. In. Gal. Per Min.
10 18 35 34
15 22 - 50 . 41
20 25 75 : : ' 50'
25 28 100 58

A-3-15.6 Information regarding the highest temperature that

, may be encountered in any location in a particular installation
may be obtained by use of a thermometer that will register the high-
est temperature encountered, which should be hung for several
days in the questionable location with the plant in operation.
When an occupancy hazard normally may be expected to pro-
duce a fast developing fire or a rapid rate of heat release, the use
of sprinklers of high temperature classification, as a means of

.. the . total . number
. of sprinklers which might open in a fire
lis recogmmended Since the :number of.sprinklers which might
expected to open will be reduced where the:water pressure effee,
tive in first operating sprinklers is at least.75 psi without the dis-
advantage of a potential increase in fire damage,.t.his alternative
shouldbe given first consideration. - ' ;~ -' ~:
:- N O T E : Fire tests have sh.own.that ~ num be.r.of sprhakle~ which might
- be expected to open, p aruc..mar. Iy u n a e r eonalt~_ns_~Vnnk~erersto~t~v~l~Pmg
fires may expected c a n b e l m ~ t e a oy t h e u s e o i s p l . l l l l s J . . 15 &cm-

perature Classification. This. may. be of adv.antagel.n?th~C~rgethe..num-

bei;of sprinklers which would,omerwme open ou~slae.m mreeuy
.involved in a fire and dkcrease the over-all Water demand.- However,
some increase in fire damage, and ~ temperatures imay be expected
whefi sprinklers of Intermediate or. High xemperature Classification
are used. .
': Some occupanCies employ l~lgh tempefat~r~ fumigation processes
requiring consideration in the selection of sprinlder temperature
ratings. . ' " " :. . . . . .
"A'~-15.7 For equipment aboard'vessels 'or in isolated loca-
tions, a greater number of sprinklers should be provided to permit
equipment- to be ,put back into promptly after, a fire. When
a great number of sprinklers ~are likely to ,.be opened by a flash fire,
a greater number of sprinklers should be ,provided. - _
A-~15.8 Sprinklers :.under, open grating :should be. provided
with shieids. Shields over automatic' sprirdders should not be less,
in least- dimension,, than four, times the distance between the shield
and: fusible element, except special Sprinklers incorporating a
built in shield netd n o t comply with this requirement . if approved
for the particular application. " ". . . . .
A-3-15.9.1 When painting sprinkler piping or painting in
areas near sprinklers, the sprinklers may be protected by covering
with a bag which should be removed immediately'after the painting
has been finished.
A-3-15.9.2 Painting of sprinklers m a y retard the thermal
response of the fusible element, may interfere w i t h the free move-
ment o f parts and may render the sprinkler inoperative. Moreover,
painting may invite the application o f subsequent coatings, thus
increasing the possibility of a malfunction of the sprinkler.
A-3-16.2 Central. station, auxiliar;/, remote, station, or pro-
prietary protective signaling systems are a highly desirable supple-
ment to local alarms, especially from a safety to life standpoint.
(See Section 8-5.) ......
: A-3-16.3.3 A mechanical a l a r m (water :motor.gong) may required. ' " :~ '

A-3-16.4.1 Audible alarms are normally located on the

outside of the building: Approved electric "gong, bells, horns, or
sirens inside the building or a combination inside a n d outside are
sometimes advisable.

A-3-16.4.2 All alarm apparatus should be so located and

installed that all parts are accessible for inspection, removal, and
repair, and should be substantially supported.

A-3-16.5 Water-motor-operated devices should be located as

as near as practical to the alarm valve, dry-pipe valve or other
~vaterflow detecting"device. The total length of the pipe to these
devices should not exceed 75 feet nor should the water-motor-
operated device be located over 20 feet above the alarm device
or dry-pipe valve. If absolutely necessary to exceed 75 feet, the
pipe line to the water-motor-operated device should be increased
one or more sizes to compensate for loss of pressure due to hy-
draulic friction.

A--4=1.2 Installation of sp/inklers throughout the premises is

necessary for protection of life and property. In some cases partial
sprinkler installations covering hazardous sections and other areas
are specified in codes or standards or are required by authorities
having jurisdiction, for minimum protection to property or to pro-
vide opportunity for safe exit from the building.
When buildings or portions of buildings are of combustible con-
m'uction or contain combustible material, standard fire barriers
should be provided to separate the areas which are sprinkler pro-
tected from adjoining unsprinklered areas. All openings should be
protected in accordance with applicable standards and no sprinkler
piping should be placed in an unsprinklered area unless the area
is permitted to be unsprinldered by this Standard.
Water supplies for partial systems should be adequate and de-
signed with due consideration to the fact that in a partial system
more sprinklers may be opened in a fire which originates in an un-
protected area and spreads to the sprinldered area than would be
the case in a completely protected building. Fire originating in
n0nsprinklered area may overpower the partial sprinkler system.
Propylene glycol or other suitable material may be used as a sub-
sdtute for priming water, to prevent evaporation of the priming
fluid, and thus reduce ice formation within the system. (See 5-5.1.)

A-4-2.1.2 For examples of sprinkler layouts under smooth

ceiling construction, refer to Figures A- and A-

F l a t S l a b or P a n T y p e R e i n f o r c e d Concrete
Maximum Spacing: 130 Square Feet Per Sprinkler
LXS = 130 or less

Wall or Parkition~


C = Column spacing.
L = Distance b e t w e e n branch lines, limit 15 feet.
S = Distance b e t w e e n sprinklers on branch lines, limit 15 feet.
C L S (Max.) C L S (Max.)
2tft. Sin. lOft. lOin. ~.ft. Oin. 21ft. sin. loft. Oin. ~ft. ~in.
24ft. Sin. 12ft. tin. 10ft. 9;,,.

A-4-2.1.2(A) Layout of Sprinklers Under Smooth Ceiling Construction m

O r ~ a r y Hazard Occupancy.
Continuous Smooth Bays with Beams Supported on Columns
Maximum Spacing: 130 Square Feet Per Sprinkler
LXS = 130 or less

~_ Wall or Partit;on'~

L -- Distance between branch lines, limit 1.5 feet.
S = Distance between sprinklers on branch lines limit 15 feet.
X = Width of bay.
X L S (Max.) X L S (Max.)
lOft. lOin. lOft. lOin. 12ft. Oin. lOft. 9in. lOft. Oin. 12ft. 1in.
z2ft. 1in. 12ft. li~. lOft. oin.

A'4"2.L2(B) Layout o ~ . ~ v e ~ s Under Smooth Ceiling Construction - -

d/nary Hazard Occupancy.

J o i s t s A b o v e G i r d e r s or F r a m e d i n t o G i r d e r s ;
Branch Lines Uniformly S p a c e d b e t w e e n Girders
M a x i m u m S p a C e S 1 3 0 Square Feet Per Sprinkler
= 130 or less

Wall or Partition~

L = Distance between branch lines, limit 15 feet.
S --- Distance between sprinklers on branch lines, limit 15 feet.
Y = Maximum distance between girders.
y L S (Max.) Y L S (Max.)
10ft. 9 i n . 10ft. 9 i n . 12ft. l i n . 10ft. 10in. 10ft. 10in. 12ft. 0in.
12ft. l i n . 12ft. l i n . 10ft. gin.

A-4- Layout of Sprinklers Under Open Wood.Jolst Construction

Fig. - - Light and Ordinary n a z a r o u c c u p a n a e s .

A-4-2.3 The arrangement of branch lines depends upon such

construction features as the distahce between girders or trusses,
columns of mushroom type reinforced concrete, and beams of
standard mill construction. Each space or bay should usually
be treated as a unit, installing the same number of branch lines
uniformly in each space. When single branch lines will suffice,
they should be placed midway in each bay or space. The arrange-
ment of branch lines also depends upon the structural members
available and suitable for the attachment of hangers and upon the
need for properly locating sprinkler deflectors in accordance with
Sections 4-2.4 and 4-3.
The direction in which branch lines are usually run in the com-
mon types of ceiling construction and framing is shown in Table
APPENDIX A 13--127

Table A-4-2.3
SmOOth Continuous:
Concrete mushroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Either direction.
Concrete pan-type or flat. . . . . . . . . . . Either direction.
Sheathed (ceiling attached to bottom of
beams, wood joists or bar joists):
Girders beneath sheathing . . . . . . . . . Across the beams or joists.
No girders beneath sheathing . . . . . . Whichever direction facilitates
easy and proper hanging.
Bays more than 7 ~ feet wide:
Formed by beams supported on
columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel to beams.
Formed by beams supported on gird-
ers or trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Either across beams or parallel
to beams in the bays above
girders or trusses.
Supported directly on girders . . . . . . Parallel to girders.
Supported directly on trusses . . . . . . Either direction, parallel to or
through t r i m s .
Beam and Girdcr:
Wood or steel beams spaced 3 to 7 ~
feet apart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Across beams.
Open Bar Joist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Across the joist or trusses (either
through or under them).
Open Joists (wood, steel or concrete) . . . Across joists.

A-4-2.5 A m i n i m u m of 36 inches c l e a r a n c e should be m a i n -

mined b e t w e e n ceiling sprinkler deflectors a n d t o p of storage in
excess of 15 feet high in solid piles, or in excess of 12 feet high in
rack or palletized storage, except as n o t e d in A-3692.
F o r solid piled storage in excess of 15 feet high or palletized
storage in excess of 12 feet high w h e r e sprinkler spacing, density
and a r e a of a p p l i c a t i o n a r e designed for s u c h conditions, c l e a r a n c e
less t h a n 36 inches b u t n o t less t h a n 18 inches is permissible.

A-4-4 S p e c i a l O c c u p a n c y C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . (a) S u b j e c t to the

approval of the a u t h o r i t y h a v i n g jurisdiction, sprinklers m a y be
omitted in r o o m s or areas where sprinklers are considered u n -
desirable because of the n a t u r e of the contents, or in rooms or areas
of n o n c o m b u s t i b l e construction w i t h wholly n o n c o m b u s t i b l e con-
tents a n d w h i c h a r e not exposed b y o t h e r areas. Sprinklers should
not be o m i t t e d from a n y r o o m m e r e l y because it is d a m p or of fire-
resistive construction.
(b) It is not advisable to install sprinklers when the application
of water, or of flame and water, to the contents may consitute a
serious life or fire hazard, as in the manufacture of storage of quan.
titles of aluminum powder, calcium carbide, calcium phosphide,
metallic sodium and potassium, quicklime, magnesium powder,
and sodium peroxide. The manufacture and storage of such ma-
terials should be confined to specially.cut-off, unsprinklered rooms
or buildings of fire resistive construcuon.


Fig. A-4-4.8 Sprinklers Around Escalators

*See paragraph 44.17
APPI~.NDIX A 15-129

A-4-4.8.1 The draft stops should be located immediately

adjacent to the opening, should be 18 inches deep and should be
of substantially noncombustible material. Sprinklers, spaced not
more than 6 feet apart, should be placed 6 inches to 12 inches from
the draft stop on the side away from the opening to form a water
curtain. Sprinklers in this water curtain should be hydraulically
designed to provide a discharge of three gallons per minute per
lineal foot of water curtain, measured horizontally around the open-
ing, with no sprinkler discharging less than 15 gpm. Normal one-
inch orifice closed head systems using sprinklers of Ordinary Tem-
perature Classification are adequate for this purpose. When sprin-
klers are closer than six feet, cross baffles should be provided in
accordance with 4-4.17. When sprinklers in the normal ceiling pat-
tern are closer than six feet from the water curtain, it may be
preferable to locate the water curtain sprinklers in recessed baffle
pockets. (See Fig. 4-4.4.8.)
A-4-4.8.2 Floor or wall openings tending to create vertical
or horizontal drafts, or other structural conditions that would delay
the prompt operation of automatic sprinklers by preventing the
banking up of the heated air from the fire, should be properly
stopped in order to permit control of fire at any point by local
A-4--4.9 The installation of sprinklers at floor levels should
be so arranged as to protect the sprinklers from mechanical injury,
from falling materials, and not cause obstruction within the chute.
This can usually be accomplished by recessing the sprinkler in the
wall of the chute or by providing a protective deflector canopy
,~ver the sprinkler. Sprinklers should be placed so that there will
be minimum interference of the discharge therefrom. (See also
4-1.2.) Sprinklers with special directional discharge character-
istics may be advantageous.
Aq-4.13 For ducts less than 4 feet wide which obstruct dis-
tribution from ceiling sprinklers, see Pargaraph B-4.2.3.
A-4--4.15 The installation of open grid egg crate, louver or
honeycomb ceilings, beneath sprinklers restricts the sidewise travel
of the sprinkler discharge and may change the character of discharge.
A-4-4.18 Sprinklers over each single or pair of fryers should
be arranged to operate at not less than 30 psi.
Automatic sprinklers protecting commercial-type cooking equip-
ment and ventilation systems should be controlled by separate,
readily accessible indicating type control valves that are prop-
erly identified. (See Paragraph A-3.13.3.)

A-4-5.1 2 The installation of sidewall sprinklers other than

beneath smooth ceilings Will require special comideration.
.A-4-5.4 Sidewall sprinklers should b e placed to i'eceive heat
from a fire and at the same time most effectivelydistribute the water
discharged by them. This is likely to be particularly important when
heavy decorative molding is encountered near the junction of walls.
and ceilings.
A-5-1.1 A dry-pipe:, pre-action or deluge system m a y be sup,
plied from a larger wet-pipe system, providing the water supply
is adequate. ; , "
: A-5:-2.1 A dry=pipe sysiem should be installed 0nly where a
wet, pipe system is impracticable, a s in rooms or. buildings which
c a n n o t b e properly heated. T h e use of an approved dry-pipe sys-
tem is preferable to entirely shutting off the water supply during
cold weather.
. W h e n two or more dry-pipe valves are used, systems should
preferably, be divided horizontally~to. prdvcnt simultaneous opera-
tion of. more thar/ one system and resultant increased time delay
in fillingsystems and discharging water plus ~ccipt of more than
one water flow alarm signal. :
~ A-5-2.3..2 W h e n check valves are installed i n dry,. systems,
the systems should deliver water to the inspector's test ptpe m not
more than 60 seconds, starting at-the normal air pressure..
The-c/tpacities of the various sizes of p!pe. given in Table A-5-2.2
are for convenience in calculating, the mr capacity of a system.

:' Table A-5-2.~2

c a p a c i t y of I Foot of Pipe
(Based on actual internal diameter)
Diameter Gallons _D i a m e t e r Gallons
in. 028 " 3 in: .383
1 in. .045 3 ~ in. .513
1 in~ .078 - 4 in. .660
1 ~ in. .106 5 in. .. 1.040
2 in. .i74 , 6 in. 1.501
2 ~ in. .248 8 h. 2.66

Eight.Inch Systems.. ,Where-an eight-inch riser is employed in

connection with a dry-pipe system, a six-inch dry-pipe valve and a
six-inch gate valve between taper: reducers may be used.
D r y - P i p e System Serving Sevei'al Remote Unheated Areas.
Where a single dry-pipe valve is" used to supply piping and sprin-
APPENDIX A 15-'13!

klers located in several small unheated areas which are remote from
each other, the dry-pipe valve and riser may be sized according to
the number of sprinklers in the largest ai~a. (Also see 5-2.3.2.)
A-$-2.4 In the case of dry-pipe valves having relatively small
priming chambers and in which the normal quantity of priming
water fills, or nearly fills, the entire priming chamber, the objec-
tive contemplated by this rule will be.met by requiring connection
of the quick-opening device at a poifit on d~e riser above the dry-
pipe valve, which will provide a capacity measure between the
normal priming level of the air chamber and the connection of
11/~, 2 and 3 gallons for 4-, 5- and 6-inch risers, respectively. Making
the connection 24 inches above the normal priming water level will
ordinarily provide this capacit//. .:
A-5-2.5 The dry-pipe valve s h o u l d b e located in an ac-
cessible place near the sprinkler system it controls.
W h e n exposed to cold, the dry-pipe valve should be located in
an approved valve room or enclosure and, where this is not pos-
sible, in an underground pit acceptable to the authority having
jurisdiction. R o o m should be of sufficient size to give at least 21/~
fcct of frec space at the sides and in front of, also above and below
the dry-pipe valve or valves, and this room, if feasible, should not
bc built until the valve is in position.
Size of enclosures should be governed by the number and ar-
rangement of dry-pipe valves, so as to give ready access to these
' A-5-2.6 Careful installation and maintenance, and some
special arrangements of piping and devices as outlined in this
section arc needed to avoid thc formation of ice an I frost inside
piping in cold storage rooms which will be maintained at or below
32 F. Conditions arc particularly favorable to condensation where
pipes enter cold rooms from rooms having temperatures above
freezing. .
Whenever the opportunity offers, fittings such as specified in
Paragraph 5-2-6.1 and illustrated in Figs. 5-2.6.1 (A) and 5-2.6.1 (B),
as well as flushing connections specified in Paragraph 3-7.2, should
bc provided in existing systems.
When possible, risers should be located in stair towers or other
locations Outside of refrigerated areas. This would reduce the
probabilities of ice or frost formation within the riser (supply) pipe.
Cross mains should be connected to risers or feed mains with
flanges. =In "general, flanged fittings should be installed at points
which would" allow easy dismantling of the system. Split ring or
other easily removable types of hangers will facilitate the dis-
A-5-2.7.2 The compressor should draw its air supply from
a place where the air is dry and not too warm. Moisture may cause
trouble from condensation in the system.
A-5-3.2 Pre-action and deluge systems may also have outside
sprinklers for protection against exposure fire.
A-5-3.3 Conditions of occupancy or special hazards may re.
quire quick application of large quantities of water and in such
cases deluge systems may be needed.
Fire detection devices should be selected to assure operation,
yet guard against premature operation of sprinklers, based on
normal room temperatures and draft conditions.
In locations where ambient temperature at ceiling is high, from
heat sources other than fire conditions, heat-responsive devices
should be selected which operate at higher than ordinary tempera.
ture and which are capable of withstanding the normal high tern.
perature for long periods of time.
When corrosive conditions exist, materials or protective coatings
which resist corrosion should be used.
To help avoid ice formation in piping because of accidental trip-
ping of dry-pipe valves in cold storage rooms, a deluge automatic
water control valve may be used on the supply side of the dry-pipe
valve. When this combination is employed:
Dry systems may be manifolded to a deluge valve, the protected
area not exceeding 40,000 square feet. The distance between valves
should be as short as possible to minimize water hammer.
The dry-pipe valves should be pressurized to 50 pounds per
square inch to reduce the possibility of dry-pipe valve operation
from water hammer.
A-5-3i5 Size of Systems. Not more than 1,000 closed sprin-
klers shall be controlled by any one pre-action valve.
A-5-3.6 Deluge systems are usually applied to severe condi-
tions of occupancy. In designing piping systems the pipe sizes
should be calculated in accordance with the standards for hy-
draulically designed sprinkler systems as given in Chapter 7, ex-
cept for installations of not more than 20 sprinklers the pipe sched-
ule for extra hazard occupancies may be used. (See 3-6.1.)
When eight-inch piping is employed to reduce friction losses in
a system operated by heat-responsive devices a six-inch pre-action
or deluge valve and six-inch gate valve between taper reducers may
be used.
APPENDIX A 13--133


Typicel l~'pinf Loyocrf (in One ~rory Shed - $ 5ecPion 3ysfem)

Fig. A-5-4.t.1 Typical Piping Layout for Combined Dry-Pipe

a n d Pre-Aetion Sprinkler System.

When installed. Combined dry-pipe and pre-action systems

may be installed when wet-pipe systems are impractical. They are
intended for use but not limited to structures where a number of
dry-pipe valves would be required if a dry-pipe system were in-

T U B I N G OR W I R I N G T O r- -
Ii "

if:l_ __L_ "-, .;~ ZI. i r.... ,-.3 ~- L._~*~

', " ', ",' l_ _;

FROM SPRINKLER~,L.~. ~ - - _d~_ 2" J-~


gig. A-5-4.3 Arrangement of Air Exhaust Valves for Combined Dry-Pipe

and Pre-Action Sprinkler System.
A-5-5.1 Antifreeze solutions may be used for maintaining auto-
matic sprinkler protection in small unheated areas. Antifreeze
solutions are recommended only for systems not exceeding 20
Because of the cost of refilling the system or replenishing small
leaks, it is advisable to use small dry valves where more than 20
sprinklers are to be supplied.
A-5-5.2.3 Beyond certain limits, increased proportion of
antifreeze does not lower the freezing point of solution. (See Fig.
A5-5.2.3.) Glycerine, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol and pro-
pylene glycol should never be used without mixing with water in
proper proportions because these materials tend to thicken near
32 F.


Fig. A-M~.3 Freezing Points of Water Solutions of Ethylene Glycol

and Diethylene Glycol

A-5-5.$ To avoid leakage, the materials and workmanship

should be excellent, the threads clean and sharp, and the joints
tight. Use only metal-faced valves.
A-5-5.4 Tests should be made by drawing a sample of the
solution from valve B two or three times during the freezing season,
especially if it has been necessary to drain the building sprinkler
system for repairs, changes, etc. A small hydrometer should be
used so that a small sample will be sufficient. When water appears
at valve B or when the test sample indicates that the solution has
become weakened, empty the entire system and recharge as previ-
ously described.

A-6-1.2.4 S p a c i n g of a p p r o v e d fire d e t e c t i o n devices should

not exceed 30 feet a p a r t on buildings of less t h a n three stories in
height, a n d n o t exceed 40 feet a p a r t on buildings three or m o r e
stories in height. O n buildings in excess of eight stories in height,
there shall be a t least one line of fire detectors for e a c h eight stories
with fire detectors staggered. O n e line of fire detectors should be
located close u p u n d e r the cornice, eave o r outside p a r a p e t .

A-6-2.1 Valves should be so located as to be easily accessible.

A-6-4.1 H y d r a u l i c calculations should include all o t h e r fire

protection systems or devices, such as inside sprinklers a n d hydrants,
to d e t e r m i n e t h a t there is no d a n g e r of i m p a i r i n g their operation.


This system as shown on ........................ c o m p a n y

p r i n t no ................................. d a t e d ............................
or .................................................................................

a t ............................................ c o n t r a c t no .................
is designed to discharge a t a rate of. ................... g p m
p e r square foot of floor a r e a over a m a x i m u m a r e a
of. ........................... square feet w h e n supplied with
w a t e r a t a r a t e of .................... g p m a t ................... psi
a t the base of the riser.

Fig. A-7-L2 Sample Nameplate.


. Ss'ec~ N o . ~ o d ' ~ - - _ , _ _ , _ . _

~ Ncn'~d
~,~ ~, ~ ~, ~ ~,~ t~/f~. ~"
- - - - . Pt Pt

" Pc ~n
Q. tot,
Pt F~
q . ,--
Pt Pn
L I ~ Iit" Pv
q f__.f_f_f_f_f_f_f_f~- ~ 1:~ --
F~ Ps
~' rf ~
~,~ _ --~ -~
Q tot.
Pt Pt

Pt Pt
Igth. Pv

q --
I~ Pn
Pt ' Pt

Q tot.
Pl P1
Pe Pn
:Q tot. '
Pt P~
pf rv '

- - I~th. 'Pt Ih
q--- ~ ~ ~ -

Ih P1
M Pv - -

Q tot.
Pt Ih

- - Fe Pn
Q tot

q ~ ---~-~-~
- - Pe
Q ~.
Pt Pt
tot. F~ Pn
~th. Pt Pt - -
pf ~" --

Q , m~
Pt P~
q f~. ,
Q ~.

Iq t . A-7-~.5 B a m p l e W o r k ~hec*.
'APPENDIX A 13~-137


"li'0 ]



fl" 70
~ eo


I00 200 300. 400 500 600 700 800 900 I000


Fig. A-7-3.4 Sample Graph Sheet.

A-7-4.3.1(a) When it is not obvious by comparison that the

rate of.water appl.ication (density) in other areas is equal to or greater
than the minimum Specified then additional calculations should be

Appendix B
T h e following contains useful and explanatory information about
subjects related to the,installation of sprinkler systems but not cov-
ered in the text of the Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler
This Appendix is not 'a part of this ~rFPA Standard for the. Installation
of Sprinkler. Systems but is includedfor information purposes onty.
13-1 General Information
B-I.1 Impairments.
B-1-1.1 Before shutting off a section of the fire service system
t6 make sprinkler system connections, notify the authority having
jurisdiction, plan the work carefully, and assemble a l l materials
to enable completion in shortest possible time.. Work started on
connections should be rushed to completion without interruption,
and protection restored as promptly as possible. During the im-
pairment, provide emergency hose lines, additional fire pails and
extinguishers , and rriaintain extra watch service in the areas affected.
B-l-l.2 When changes involve shutting off water from any
considerable number of sprinklersfor more than a few hours,
temp6rary water supply connections should be-made to sprinkler
systems so that reasonable .protection can be maintained. In adding
to old systems or revampmg them, protection should be restored
each night so far as possible. The members of the "private fire bri-
gade as well as public fire department should be notified as to con-
B-l-2 Workmanship.' A'sprinkler system is fi specialized fire
protection System and requires kfiowledgeable and experienced
design and iristall~don. "
B-1-3 Preliminary Plans.
B-1-3.1 Preliminary layouts should be submitted for review
to the authority having jurisdiction before any equipment is in-
stalled or remodeled in order to avoid error or subsequent mis-
understanding. Any material deviation from approved plans will
require permission of the authority having juridiction.
B-1-3.2 Preliminary layouts should show:
(a) Name of owner and occupant
{b) Location, including street address
(c) Point of compass
(d) Construction and occupancy of each building
| "i " ' "

L~ i18 1L~dert

I I I Ill I I Iii IJl' I, I I

[ I
" " I

i I "
~:A.~vED ,,DlcATI.o vA~v~

~l.t~,.lO:O o G'nde
~i~'6Abovn ,
t ,~.,IN 00(~ CO.

II ~ r~.:I~ 1IT #,l I COll'Tnic,r NO.I

o.4, lay i,~ I
II dN,,,,,,~ i
I m~t~ ~ s~m ~z~Z2~ I~T I~t C~ t
I'r~I I#I(T ilyl i i I


NOTE: Data on special hazards should be submitted as they may require
special rulings.
(e) Building height in feet
ma(if)n if it is proposed to use a city main as a supply, whether the
is dead-end or circulating, size of the main and pressure in
pounds; and if dead-end, direction and distance to nearest cir-
culating main '
(g) Distance from"nearest pumping station or reservoir,
(h) I n cases where reliable information is not avail.
able, that a water-flow test of the city main has been conducted by
the contractor in accordance with Section 2-3.2. (The preliminary
plan should specify who conducted the test, date and time, the loca-
tion of the hydrants where flow was taken and where static and
residual pressure readings were recorded, the size of main .supply-
ing these hydrants, and the results of the test, giving size and
number of open hydrant butts flowed; also data covering minimum
pressure in connection with city main should be included.)
(i) Data covering waterworks systems in small towns in order to
expedite the review of plans
( j ) Fire Walls, fire doors, unprotected window openings, large
unprotected floor openings, and blind spaces. - - --
( k ) Distance to and construction and occupancy o f exposing
buildings '=-e:g., lumber yards, brick mercantiles, fire-resistive
office buildings~ etc.
(1) Spacing of Sprinklers, number of sprinklers in each story or
fire area and total number of sprinklers, number of sprinklers on each
riser and on each system by floors, total area protected by each sys-
tem on each floor, total number of sprinklers on each dry pipe system
or preaction or deluge system, and if extension to ~present eqmp-
ment, number of sprinklers o n riser per floor, sprinklers already in-
(m) Capacities of dry pipe systems with the bulk pipe included
(See Table 5-2.3.2.), an~d if an extension is made to an existing dry
pipe system, the ktotal capacity of the exis.ting and also extended
portion of the system
(n) Weight or class, and size and material of any proposed under-
ground pipe . . . . .
(o) Whether property is located in a flood area requiring con-
sideration in the design of sprinkler system
(p) Name andaddress of party submitting the layout.
APPENDIX B 13--141

B-l-4 Sprinkler Systems in Buildings S u b j e c t to Hood.

When sprinkler systems are installed in buildings subject to recur-
ring floods the location of control valves, alarm devices, dry pipe
valves, pumps , compressors, power and fuel supplies should be such
that system operation will be uninterrupted by high water.

B-2 Water Supplies.

B-2-1 Testing of Water Supply.
B-2-1.1 T o determine the value of public water as a supply
for automatic sprinkler systems, it is generally necessary to make
a flow test to determine how much water can be discharged at a
residual pressure at grade sufficient to give the required residual
pressure under the roof (with the volume flow hydraulically trans-
lated to the base of the riser) - - i . e . , a pressure head represented
by the height of the building plus the required residual pressure.
B-2-1.2 The proper method of making such test is to use two
hydrants in the vicinity of the property. The static pressure should
be measured on the hydrant in front of or nearest to the property
and the water allowed to flow frorri the hydrant next nearest the
property; preferably the one farthest from the source of supply if
main is fed only one way. The residual pressure will be that indi-
cated at the hydrant where water is not flowing.
B-2-1.3 Referring to Fig. B-2 the method of conducting the
flow tests is as follows:
(1) Attach gage to hydrant (A) and obtain static pressure.
( 2 ) Either attach second gage to hydrant (B) or use pitot
tube at outlet. Have hydrant (B) opened Wide and read pressure at
both hydrants.
(3) Use the pressure at (B) to compute the gallons flowing
and read the gage on (A) to determine the residual pressure or that
which will be available on the top line of sprinklers in the property.
B-2-1.4 Water pressure in pounds for a given height in feet
equals height multiplied by 0.434.

~vt.e Arraotta ra ~.vT" ~u*a#e~,~Trgr~,zte

ra aaow arAr/c aao r e . r t e l s r l f f ~Lar.,~o
,~',.#tao,AI. P ~ * ~ e A ' E 3 P,ft.favR~"

Fig. B-2 Method of Conducting Flow Tests.

15-2-5 In making flow tests, whether from hydrants or from
nozzles attached to hose, always measure, the size of the orifice.
While hydrant outlets are usually 21/~ in. they are sometimes
smaller and occasionally larger. The Underwriter's play pipe is
1 ~ in. and 13/~ in. with tip removed, but occasionally nozzles will
be 1 in. or 11/~ in. and with the tip removed the opening may be
only 11~ in.

B-2-6 The pitot tube should be held approximately one-half

the diameter of the hydrant or nozzle opening away from the
opening. It should be held in the center of the stream, except
that in using hydrant oudets the Stream should be explored to get
the average pressure.

B-2-2 Interconnection of Water Supplies

" 15-2:2.1 All main water supplies shovel be connected with the
sprinkler system at the base of riser, except that where a gravity
or pressure tank or both constitutes the only automatic source of
water supply, permission may be given to connect the tank or tanks
with the sprinkler system at the top of the riser. :

B-2-2.2 Where a gravity tank and a pressure tank are con-

netted to a common riser approved means should be provided to
prevent residual air pressure in the pressure tank (after water has
been drained from it). from holding the gravity tank check valve
dosed, a condition known as air lock. Under normal conditions, air
lock may be conveniently prevented in new equipment by con-
necting die gravity 'tank arid pressure tank discharge pilaeS together
45 feet or more below the bottom of the gravity tank and placing
the gravity tank check valve at the level of this connection.

B-2-3 Special Provisions.

B-2.3.1 Domestic Connections. Connections for domestic
water service should be made on the water supply side of the check
valve in the Water supply main so that the use of the firedepartment
connection w i l l n o t subject the domestic wattr system to high
pressure. If the domes'tic Consumption will significantly reduce the
sprinkler water supply an increase in the size of the pipe supplying
both the domestic and sprinkler water may be justified. Gircula~
tion of water in sprinkler pipes is objectionable, owing to increases
corrosion, deposits of sediment, and condensation drip from pipes.
APPENDIX B 13--143

4- t~" CONNECT ION "

I-- . . . . -1

t M

I_ . . . . . _.1


ig. B-2.3.1 C o n n e c t i o n s for D o m e s t i c W a t e r .

B-2-3.2 W a t e r H a m m e r . When connections are made from

water mains, subject to severe water h a m m e r (especially when
pressure is in excess of 100 pounds), it m a y be desirable to provide
either a'relief valve, properly connected to a drain, or an air chamber
in the connection. I f an air chamber is used it should be located
close to where the pipe comes through wall and on the. supply side
of all other valves and so located as t o take the full forc_e of'water
hammer. Air chambers should have a capacity of not less than 4
cubic feet, should be controlled by an approved indicating valve,
and should be provided with a drain at the bottom, also an air vent
with control valve and plug to permit inspection,
B-2-3.3 Penstocks, Flumes, etc. Water supply ~onnections
from: penstocks, flumes, rivers or lakes should be arranged to avoid
mud and sediment, and should be provided with approved double
removable screens or approved strainers installed in an a p p r o v e d

B-3 System Components

B-3-1 Sleeves for Pipe Risers. (See Fig. B-3-.1.)
]$-3-1.1 Sprinkler piping passing through floors of concrete
or waterproof :construction should have properly designed sub-
stantial thimbles or sleeves projecting three to six inches above
the floor to prevent possible floor ,leakage, except in areas subject
to earthquakes. (See Section B-3.2.) T h e space between the pipe
and sleeve should be caulked with o a k u m or equivalent material.
If floors are of cinder concrete, thimbles or sleeves should extend
all the way through to protect the piping against corrosion.

B-3-1.2 Ordinary floors through which pipes:pass should be made

reasonably tight around the risers, except in areas subject to earth-
quakes. (See Section B-3.2.)

Fig. B-3.1 Watertight Riser Sleeves.
A - - For wood or concrete floors; B and C - - for concrete floors.

B-3-2 Protection of Piping Against Damage Due to E a r t h -

quakes. Protection against damage due to earthquakes should be
provided in some areas T h e history, the intensity and the frequency
of earthquakes should be considered in determining the need for
protection of piping against earthquake damage. The authority
havingj~iCtion should be "consulted relative t o definite areas
requiring protecuon. '
15-3-2.2 Breakage of sprinkler piping :cafised b y building
movement can be greatly lessened arid in many cases prevented by
inereasin the fleXibility between major parts of the sprinkler sys-
~g _. _r the ,-i,,in~ should never be held rig.idly and
' tern "_ "u n. e P art:_ut__2_~ vt" ~' ~nro~isions for
without - ' relieving
" the strai n .
another De [ree to luu*~ v
Flexibility c a n be provided by the use of flexible couplings at
critical points and allowing clear ances at walls and floors.
B-3-2.3 The top and bottom of risers are critical points and
e installation of approved flexible couplings on the riser within
th " . .......... mended In addition' an approved
24 inches ot sucn points xs ,c~v,,,
exible coupling should be installed at the ceiling of each inter-
flmeediate floor in a muhistory buildi/~g. Flexible couplings are gen-
II unnecessary in risers which are' under' three feet in length
era y . . . . . ,,^~:~a~ rou,qin~,, will be adequate for risers
a n a a single approvcu ,,~,.,,.,-,- ,- r o
which are three to seven feet in le/~gthyl '
B-3-2.4 One- to three-inch clearance should b e provided
around pipes at allfloors includingmezzanine floors and platforms.
'The pipe clearance space at the ground floor may be filled with
asphalt mastic ;,a sleeve should be cast in upper concrete floors, ex-

tending three to six inches above the top of the wearing surface
and capped with a pipe collar, to prevent passage of water, smoke
or fire.~ T i g h t metal collars are advisable about pipes to cover such
holes through wooden floors in multistory buildings.
B-3-2.5 Drains, fire department connections and other aux-
iliary piping connected to risers should n o t be cemented into nearby
walls or floors; similarly, pipes which pass horizontally through walls
or foundations should not be cemented solidly or strains will ac-
cumulate at such point.
B-3-2.6 A p a i r of approved flexible couplings:htith a length
of pipe between, readily permits a considerable offset in any di-
rection. Piping crossing the joint between two buildings should be
provided with a pair of approved flexible couplings.
' B-3-2.7 Holes through fire walls should b e y acked with min-
eral wo01 or other suitable material held in pla~:e with pipe collars
on each side. When pipes pass through foundation walls o r pit
walls, the walls should be made watertight.
B-3-2.8 Tank risers or discharge pipes should be treated the
same as sprinkler risers for their portion within a building. The
discharge pipe of tanks on buildings should have a control valve
above the roof line so any pipe-break within the building can be
B~3-2.9 Flexible couplings may be omitted on pipes which
are less than 3 ~ i n c h diameter.
B-3-2.10 Sway Bracing for Protection Against Earthquakes.
B-3-2.10.1 Feed'a/~d cross mains should be braced to pre-
vent excessive oscillation. The tops of risers should be secured against
drifting,in any direction. Branch lines will not require bracing ex-
cept that where " U " hook hangers are used on branch lines the
pipe should be secured to the end hanger so that the pipe cannot
whip u p a n d , down and strike the ceiling ,or beams. This may be
done by using a wrap around " U " hook hanger as shown in Fig.
B-3-2.10.2 Feed and cross main pipingshould be laterally
braced So that it Will withstand a force under tension or compression
equal to 50 per cent of the weight of the piping, valve attachments
and water.
B-3-2.10.3 All piping outside of buildings which is not
buried shouldbe securely anchored to prevent swaying.
i]-3-2.10.4 Where a system is hung with U-type .hangers
they may satisfy nlost of the requirements for sway bracing except,
in general, the longitudinal hangers as numbered " 1 " in Figure
B-3.2A0.4 will be necessary in addition. U-type hangers are better
lateral braces when the legs are bent Out 10.''

F-~ob;t --~Abt,Of Abt.40,.-'~40,.

B~o~ch! ~ "
Li~es"~ :Feed:Main ~ l
~~ ~r: :'

i I
Cr2o:sns/. ,.~2 . '~Top of" Riser ;
(4 Way.Bracing)
Indicates suitable location of o.ppose
the movement of feed.and cross mares m r~e
direction along the main. One hanger will be
~ sufficient for each main unless it is ot exceptional
length or contains offsets or changes in direction.
Two-inch and smaller pipes do not require this
type of bracing.
Indicates suitable location of hangers to oppose
transverse (perpendicular to pipe) m o v e r n e n ~
I feed and cross mains. They should De. iota .
at intervals of 30 t o 40 feet. The end hanger of
this ~ should be on the last piece of cross or

1g.'B-3-2.10,4 Typical Locations of Sway Bracing Hangers.

B-S-2.10.5 When a system is hung with single rods it will

be necessary to provide all sway. the installation o
special hangers. (Very short rods, less than. 6 inches, are satis-
factory.) ~ . "
B-3-2.10.6 Sway bracing should be attached directly to
feed and cross mains.. Bracing of piping should not be attempted
by attaching the sway bracing to branch lines. The piping should
not be fastened to two dissimilar parts of the building such as a
wall and a roof which will move differently.

B-3-2.10.7 The last piece of pipe at the end of a feeder

or cross main should be provided with a transverse brace. Trans-
verse braces may also act as longitudinal braces if they are within 24
inches of the center line of the pipe being braced longitudinally,
except that branch lines may not hold cross mains.
B-3--2.10.8 In most cases specially placed U-type hangers,
or pipe clamps with rods or angle braces, will satisfy bracing re-
quirements. Any properly detailed design will be acceptable.
Fig. B-3-2.10.8 illustrates some acceptable arrangements of sway
B-3-2.10.9 In the design of sway braces, the slenderness
ratio 1/r should not exceed 200 where "1" is the distance between
the center lines of supports and " r " is the least radius of gyration,
both in inches. For example, a flat bar two inches by three-eighths
inch should not be over one foot nine inches between fastenings.
The maximum length of shapes used for sway bracing is shown in
Table B-3-2.10.9.
TaMe B-3-2.10.9

Ma~. Length Maz. Length

Item l / r ==200 Item l / r - 200

I~XI~x ~in. 4 ft. 10in. l~x ~in. 1 ft. 2in.
2 x2 x~in. 6ft. 6in. 2 x~in. l f t . 2in.
2~x2 x~in. 7ft. 0in. 2 x~in. lft. 9in.
2~x2~x ~in. 8ft. 2in. Pn, E
3 x2~x~in. 8ft. 10in. 1 in. 7ft. 0in.
3 x3 x~in. 9ft. 10in. l~in. 9ft. 0in.
RODS 1 ~ in. 10 ft. 4 in.
~in. 3ft. l i n . 2 in. 13ft. lin.
~in. 3ft. 7in.

B-3-3 Protection of Piping Against D a m a g e D u e to Fire.

Sprinkler piping should not be located in an unsprinklered area
of a building unless that area is permitted to be unsprinklered due
to lack of combustible construction and occupancy.
B-3-4 Valves Controlling Water Supplies.
B - M . 1 A water supply connection should not extend into
or through a building unless such connection is under the control
of an outside approved indicating valve or an inside approved
indicating valve located near outside wall of the building.

./~.opIPE oR L - +

~.~.~::::...::~.~'~:'.':'..... : :~';.. ~......; .'.~~::... ~...


ClipAngle / .~of Truss

Fig. B-3-2.10.8 Acceptable Types of Sway Bracing.


B-3-4.2 All valves controlling water supplies for sprinkler

system, or portions thereof including floor control valves should
be accessible to authorized persons during emergencies/. Permanent
ladders, clamped treads on risers, chain-operated hand wheels, or
other accepted means should be provided when necessary.
B-3-4.3 Outside control valves are suggested in the following
order of preference:
a. Approved indicating valves at each connection into the
building at least 40 feet from buildings if space permits.
b. Control valves installed in a cut-off stair tower or valve
room accessible from outside.
c. Valves located in risers with indicating posts arranged for
outside operation.
d. Key operated valves in each connection into the building.
B-3-4.4 Pits for underground valves, except those located at
the base of a tank riser, are described [n the Standard for Outside
Protection (NFPA No. 24-1970). For pits protecting valves lo-
cated at the base of a tank riser, refer to the Standard for Water
Tanks for Private Fire Protection (NFPA No. 22-1971).

13-3-5 Identification Signs. Approved identification signs

should be provided for outside alarm devices. The sign should
be located near the device in a conspicuous position and should
be worded as follows: SPRINKLER FIRE ALARM ! WHEN
(See Fig. B-3.5.)

Fig. B-3.5 Identification Sign.
B-4 Spacing, Location, and Position of Sprinklers.
B-4-1 Preparation of Building." ~

hi ghaSh~lV2nng,s ~ 2 ~ g h t r f l ~ Z = a ~ ; e particularly ~b~

ot.p pc . . ,
B.4-1.2 New partitions, closets, decks,: etc., should be put in
place, or provide~d for, so tha~ the sprinklcr equipment may conform
to same . . . . . '

. B-4-1 3 Frequently, additional s p r i n k l e r equipment can be

olded b reducing the width of decks or galleries and providing
av " . Y . . . . . . . =~a-'hs B4-4 11 and B- Slatting
prope r clearances " ~ e e raLa~,
- - v- - of onen " ~rating as a substitute
of decks or walkways or me use t- o-
for automatic sprinklers thereunder is not acceptable. The use of
cloth or paper dust tops for rooms forms obstruction to water dis-
tribution- If, employed, the a r e a b e l o w should ;be sprmvaerext.
1.4 Gutting holes throu'gh part]-tiom,,, ei~er.s.lid r "qlatt~.~,
to allow sprinklers, on one mde meret to ommoute wa,er ,o me
other side is n o t effective.
B-4-1.5 W h e n w o o d cornices on masonry buildings face an
the should be replaced with a parape.t, or the projecting
exposure Y .. _ . . . . . . . . ,~ ,~,~I flashin~ extended to cover
woodwork should tm cut away a . . . . . . . . .
the exposed edge of planking, or suitable Sprinkler protection should
be pro vided -.

B-4-2 Locations or Conditions Involving Special Consider-
B-4-2.1 Overhead Door.a When overhead doors form an
obstruction to water dmtrmuuon from sprinklers above, additional
.......... b e re,mired ,When piping can _~. attached
sprimfaer protecuon xxuxy . -1 -
to the door structural fra.n~. g,~ca!~,a~dr ~)~lesP:~laeraSr3n~)r
the d o o r s in accordance wxm u x ~ ,,,- . . . . . .
cuoancy. When piping cannot be attached to the door structural
fra'ming, space sprinklers not over 12 feet apart around the perimeter
of the three accessible sides of the doors and at least 12 inches in
from the edges of the doors. Deflectors should not be more than
10 inches below the doors in the open position. Sidewall sprinklers
may be used when their distribution would be more effective than
that from standard sprinklers. When doors are predominantly
glass construction and when those doors, in an open position,
will merely be over a traffic aisle, sprinkler protection is not neces-
sarily required. ~ .....
B-4-2.2 Tables.
B-d-2.2~l Sprinklers should be installed under cutting,
pressing, sewing machine and other work tables over four feet
wide. Sprinklers may be omitted under tables less than 51/~ feet
but wider than four feet if the tables are of temporary or semi-
permanent nature, as determined by the authority having juris-
diction, and tight vertical partitions of galvanized iron or other
noncombustible material are provided not over 10 feet apart.
B-4-2.2.2 Partitions should be full width of table, extend from
underside of table to floor and from front edge to back edge of
table; should be substantially fastened to the underside of table and
to floor, and Should b e reinforced with angle o r channel iron up-
B'4-2,2.$ The outer edges o f each partition should be
srnoothl~ finished (rounded if ofmetal) so as tO prevent injury to
B-4-2.2.4 Instructions should be obtained relative to the
installation of "stops" under tables of unusual construction.

B-4-2.3 Obstructions. Timbers, uprights, hangers, piping,

lighting fixtures, ducts, etc., are likely to interfere with the proper
distribution of water from sprinklers. Therefore, sprinklers should
be so located or spaced that any interference is held to a minimum.
The required clearance between such members and sprinklers is
dependent upon the size of the osbtruction to water distribution.
The clearances should not be less than those specified between
sprinklers and truss members in Paragraphs 4-2.4.1 and 4-2.4.5.
(See also Paragraph 4-2.4.6.)

B-4-2.4 Enclosures.
B-4-2.4.1 Sprinklers should be installed in enclosed equip-
ment where combustible materials are processed or where combus-
tible wastes or deposits may accumulate. Examples of such locations
may include ovens, driers, dust collectors, conveyors, large ducts,
spray booths, paper machine hoods," paper machine economizers,
parts of textile preparatory machines and similar enclosures.
B-4-2.4.2 .Sprinklers should be installed in small enclosed
structurds of cor~Ibustible construction or 'containing combustible
material.- Examples of such locations may include penthouses,
passageways, small offices, stock rooms, closets, vaults, or similar
B-4-2.4.3 For Small enclosures pipes may be outside
the enclosures and sprinklers installed in approved dome,shaped

covers about 10 inches in diameter, w h e r e sprinklers can be

nippled into the enclosure without forming an obstruction this
Should b e done and domershaped covers omitted.
1 'B-4-2A.4 Sprinkler, piping m a y be r u n above hoods over
paper machines and similar equipment where dripping of conden-
sation from Sprinkler piping must be avoided and the sprinklers
nippled through., The lower sprinklers under the hoods should be
located outside of the line of the cylinders' or rolls. '
- B-4-2.4.5 W h e n enclosures are subject to freezing tempera-
tures, special types of sprinkler protection should be provided.
Manually operated systems should not be used.
r . " ' ;

" B-4-2'.4.6" The provision o f other approved extinguishing

systems does not permit the omission of sprinklers except in special
situations, such as high value records~0 r museum displays in vaults,
commercial type cooking equipment, computer-or other electrical
equipment enclosures. The authority having jurisdiction should
beconsult , ._ .. " " ..-
B-4-2.4.7 Safe deposit Or other vaults of fire-resistive con-
struction will not ordinarily require sprinkler protection when used
for the storage of records, ,files and other d o(:uments, when stored
in metal cabinets. ,
B-4-2.4.8 Stock ,F'~tizres. Sprinklers should be installed in
all stock fixtures which exceed five feet in width, also in those
which are less than five feet but more than 21~ feet in width unless
bulkheaded with tight" par(itions. Sprinklers should be installed
in any" compartments which are l~irger than five feet deep, eight
feet long and three feet high.

!t-5 T y p e s of Systems.
B-5-1 Pre-Actlon a n d D e l u g e Systems - - Valves.
B-5-1.1 i n hazardous locations an approved indicating type
valve or manual means for operation of pre-action or deluge valve
should be installed in a location Where access to the control valves
is not likely to be prevented under fire erpergency conditions.
]]1-5-1.2 With deluge systems the deluge valve should be lo-
cated as close as possible to the hazard protected, bUtsi(ie any fire
or explosion hazard area: . . . . . .. . .
15-5-2 Filling with Antifreeze Solutions. With water supp y
valve closed and the system di'ained, fill-the piping through the fill-
ing cup, using a suitable ~antifreeze solution of the proper con-'
centration. Vent the air at the end sprinklers. Back out all sprinklers
slighdy until the liquid appears so that the piping will be completely
filled and all air expelled. If the filling cup is not above the highest
sprinklers, the piping may be filled through valve B by means of a
small pump or through a filling cup installed at the highest branch
sprinkler line. If the last-named method is used, the drop pipe
should be filled through the filling cup shown in diagram. T h e n
tighten the sprim~ler heads and open valve A until the 12-inch
section of pipe above this valve is empty and the level of the anti-
freeze solution in the drop pipe is at valve A. Close valve A. Close
the filling connection valve and slowly open. the supply valve wide.

13-6 Outside Sprinklers.


B-6-1 T y p e .
B-6-1.1 Small. orifice sprinklers will normally be used where
exposure is light or moderat% area of coverage is small, or'where
one horizontal line of window sprinklers is installed a t each floor
level.. :

B-~1.2 Large orifice sprinklers should b e used where ex-

posure is severe, or where one horizontal line of'sprinklers is used
to protect windows at more than one floor level.
B-6-2 W i n d o w Sprinklers.
B-.6-2.1 When exposure hazard is light or moderate, and only
one.horizorrtal line of sprinklers is installed, the sprinklers s h o u l d
have ~ inch orifices. Where conditions require more than one
fine of sprinklers, the sprinklers should have shown in
the following table:
Table B-6-2.1
2 Lines 3 Lines 4 Lines 5 Lines 6 Lines
Top line a/~ in. a/~ in. 8/~ in. " s/~ in. s/~ in.
Next below ~ in. ~ in. s/~ in. s/~ in. s/~ in.
Next below ~ in. ~ in. ~ in. ~ in.
Next below ~ in. ~ in. ~ in.
Next below ~ in. ~ in.
Next below ~ in.

B-6-2.2 When there are over six horizontal rows of windows,

:sprinklers over the first story may be omitted. Sprinklers may also
be omitted over second story windows ff field test indicates wetting
of all exposed surfaces.
B-6-2.3 If over six lines are used, system should be divided
horizontally with independent risers.

B-6-2.4 Large orifice sprinklers may be used for protecting

windows in two or three stories from one line of sprinklers. Tlais
will be determined by window and wall construction, such that all
parts of the windows and frames win be thoroughly wetted by a
single line of sprinklers.
B-6-2.5 For buildings not over three stories in height, one line
of sprinklers will often be sufficient, located at the top story windows.
For buildings more than three stories in height, a line of sprinklers
may be used in every other story beginning at the top. With an
odd number of stories, the lowest line can protect the first three
stories. When several lines are used, the orifice should be decreased
one size for each successive line below the top. In no case should
an orifice less than one-half inch be used.
B-6-2.6 For windows not exceeding five feet wide protected by
small orifice sprinklers, one sprinkler should be placed at center
near top, so located that water discharged therefrom will wet the
upper part of the window, and by running down over the sash
and glass wet the entire window. This may ordinarily be accom-
plished by placing one sprinkler in the center with deflector about
on a line with the top of the upper sash and seven inches, eight inches
and nine inches in front of the glass, with windows three feet, four
feet and five feet wide respectively. When windows are over five
feet wide, or where mullions interfere, two or more sprinklers should
be used.
B-6-2.7 When windows a r e three feet or less in width, a size
smaller orifice than required by Paragraph B-6-2.1 may be used,
but in no case smaller than one-quarter inch.
B-6-2.8 For windows up to five feet wide protected by large
orifice sprinklers, use one one-half inch sprinkler at center of each
window. For windows from five feet to seven feet wide, use ~ - i n c h
sprinkler at center of each window. F o r windows from seven feet
to 91~ feet wide, use one 3/~-inch sprinkler at center of each window.
For windows from 9 ~ feet to 12 feet wide, use two one-half-inch
sprinklers at each window.
B-6-2.9 Large orifice wide deflector sprinklers should be placed
with deflectors two inches below top of sash and 12 inches to "15
inches out from the glass., When face of glass is close to exterior wall,
cantilever brackets or similar type hangers may be used to main-
tain the window sprinklers 12 inches to 15 inches out from the glass.

B-6-3 Cornice Sprinklers.

B-6-$.1 The discharge orifice should be at least ~ inch in
APP~NDm B 1&-155

diameter except when exposure is severe, one-half inch or ~ inch

cornice sprinklers should be installed.
B-6-3.2 Sprinklers should not be over eight feet apart, except
as noted in Section B-6-3.6. Projecting beams or other obstructions
g~ay make additional sprinklers necessary.
B-6-3.3 For cornices with bays up to eight feet wide, sprin-
lders should be placed in center of each bay. With cornices with
bays from eight to 10 feet wide, sprinkler orifices should be increased
one size.

B-6-3.4 Cornice sprinklers should be located with deflectors

approximately eight inches below the roof plank.
B-6-3.5 When wood cornices are 30 inches or less above the
windows, cornice sprinklers may be supplied by the same pipe
used for window sprinklers.

"4 ~,-L.9,\\: ._

Fig. B-6-.33 Location of Window and Corn/ce Sprinklers.

B-6-$.6 When the overhang of the cornice is not over one foot,
window sprinklers should be used and be spaced as follows:
in. a n d ~ in. sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N o t over 7 ft. a p a r t
s~ in. sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N o t over 7 ft. a p a r t
in. sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N o t over 9 ~ ft. a p a r t

B-6-3.7 The window sprinklers should be placed above the

pipe near the outer edge of the cornice with deflectors not over
Lhree inches down from the cornice and such an angle as to throw
Se water upward and inward.
B-6-3.8 With an overhang of more than one foot, cornice
~prinklers should be used.

. . ' A p p- e n- 'd i x C " .

Of'Sorinkler Systems out u mduded fot , n j . . . . . ~. > r ~ .... -"

Automatic Sprinkler Protection In Woodworking. Plants

Woodworkin p r o p e r t i e s u s u a l l y involve, $ i n g l ~ / o r m . c o m b i n a .
g - - - ~ - - : - ' - " * ; n " a ~ a i n s t effective c o n s u l of
fion, a - n u m b e r of factors I I l l t A ~ a l - t 8 . ~ ..
a u t o m a t i c s p r i n i d e r s . S u c h factors m a y i n c l u d e h i g h corn-
fire b y . . . . . . :. . . . . . . a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n , h i g h ceil-
...;V, i l i,~
~ of . ,c o n t e n t s , oDSU'Uuuvtt
_. . . . a a ~ . . rL u o~,~nin~s
auct --
s -t e e _pl l_y -p- i .ttmeu

ings, o p e n slsaes,.unprte-Co~ suc~a Aropdrfies are n o t h e a t e d , thus

r0o" fs . I f i 'c i d e n t a n y , . m a'~n"y ' - ' - ' - z ~ ; :v.~ ' n w{ih" the r e s u l t a n t m h e r ent
invo l v m " g d r y p .ip e s.p n. n m. e.r .prutct.,*,, . ~-~ a r e T h e S n r i n k l e r S t a n d a r d
d e l a y ! m .t h e. a. D .o l i. c a. t l o n "ot w" a t"" e r o- -u- ' u,~is ~,dn o c c u p a ,-, .
f i c y classification
does n o t d e f i n e w o o a w o r K e r s , n u t "
assigned such Hsks. " ~"
. . . . . . , . . . . b e d e f i n e d so as to
as sawmills, p l a n i n g mills, f u r n i t u r e
mills, v e n e e r millsi b o x factories, basket
c r a t e factories, excelsior factories, c a b i n e t shops, m i l l w o r k
factories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '-- : - ~ i d e n t a l to such o c c u p a n c i e s
, ers" a l s o , D U I I O I I I ] ~ ltt~
shops a n d otl]. , , ' "" " - - ~ - d s sorting sheds, ~ s t a c k i n g sheds and
in d
i n d u d " g r y - .. KilnS, coolIng.sitc.
---'^--~ of hi o bei"
, ~. .
afiff p. r o d. u c t s. m a u e ot
b u i l d i n g s o C C U P l e a I o r . m_e . s. t o r a g e _. . ...t . ~m .,ro,,e~fies o c c u p i e d solely
w o o d . I t is n o t intenctea, n o w e y e r , t : , , , , v: v .. _ :_ ._,_
for the a s s e m b l y of prefabricateO' W 0 o d e n p arts or p r o p e r t i e s m v m v -
"n m i n o r i n c i d e n t a l w o o d w o r k i n g o p e r a t i o n s b e c o n s i d e r e d as
l g .I
woodworking properties. ~ z -

Spacing h a z a r d s p a c i n g (130 ~ . ft.) is r e c o m m e n d e d in wood-

Ordinary. _ ;L^. :;..~,~h~itplv e s t a b l i s h e d s t o r a g e areas
l a n t s except g l l g t l , ttt u. ........ I
w o r k i n g p . . . . ~ ^ - ~ ; ~ a n d in b u i l d i n g s used for s t o r a g e such a{,
m mese occupa-,. ....
heds. c o o l i n ~ sheds, d r y kilns, a n d fuel vaults, s p a c i n g snoma
l u m b e r s . _d . . . . . . 2".~ ; , P a r a t , r a u h s 4.112 a n d 4132, N F P A No. 13.
n o t e x c e e o gnat at,,~,- -* ~ o -
S c h e d u l e for U s e i n W o o d w o r k i n g P l a n t s
Pipp~pe sizes p r o v i d e d u n d e r P a r a g r a p l ~ 3051 ( e x t r a h a z a r d ) ' , N F P A
N o . 13, ' a r e r ~ c o m m e n d e d for a l l 0 f ' t h e f0i'egbing occupancies,
w i t h the f o l l o w i n g a m e n d m e n t s : N u m b e r of s p r i n k l e r s permitted
. i - - 275 " N u m b e r of s p r i n k l e r s p e r m i t t e d o n 8-inch
on 6 - i n c h p p e .. . as a u i d e only.
p i p e - 400 T h i s p i p i n g s c h e d u l e is r e c o m m e n d e d g
t e n t i o n s h o u l d b e g i v e n to b a l a n c e d systems, .or pot.
Particular at . . _ , _ _ a o;.4o~,, r a l feeds See.
tions of systems, using c e n t e r - c e m r a t a n u o , u , . - ~ n t
tions of p i p i n g t h a t are h y d r a i a l i c a l l y critical s h o u l d b e adjustc~
to assure efficient p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h a v a i l a b l e w a t e i supplies.

Pipe sizing and spacing rules applying to extra hazard occupan-

cies should be followed for areas in which painting, upholstering
or similar hazardous processes are conducted.
It is also recommended that sprinkler protection be installed .in
spaces under combustible ground floors regardless of whether or
not they are occupied. When such spaces are unoccupied and pro-
vided that they conform to Paragraph 4304 of the Sprinkler Stan-
dard, pipe sizing and spacing in accordance with standard for
Ord!nary Hazard Occupancy may be acceptable.
NOTEi Originally published by the American Insurance Association
(former!y National Board of Fire Underwriters), July, 1962.

Appendix C

4 Syst s b"t's :o, ,.:orm o, o,,,,.

Automatic Sprinkler' Protection in Woodworking Plants
Woodworking properties usually invOlve, singly or in combina.
t~on, a number of factors 'mitigating against effective control of
fire by automatic sprinl~lers. Such factors may include h,igh com.
bustibility of contents, obstruction to water aistrmuuon, mgn ceil.
ings, open sides, unprotected fl9or .openings and steeply pitched
rbofi. : Incidentally," many of such properties are not heated, thus
involving dry pipe sprinkler pr6tecti0nw~ththe~res.ul~ntinherent
. in
cletay . ~. ,. .:__ v.,,,,~y..
me appucau~m _r...~,~r on the. nre t h e ~prmKmr
does not define woodworkers, nor is an occupancy ctassmcauon
assigned such risks.
The term "woodwork!ng. ,~r,~nerties" may be defined so as to
include buildings" occuptect as sawmills, planing mills, furniture
factories, bobbin ~and shuttle mills, veneer millsi box factories, basket
factories, crate factbfies, excelsior factories, cabinet shops, millwork
shops and others; also, "buildings incidental to such occupancies
including dry kilns, cooling.sheds, sorting sheds; stacking sheds and
buildings occupied 'for ~the storage of ltiml~er and products made of
wood. It is not intended, however, that properties occupied solely
for the assembly of prefabricated Wooden parts or properties involv-
ing minor incidental woodworking operations be' considered as
woodworking properties'. . . . .
Ordinary hazard spacing (130 sq. ft,) is recommended in wood-
working plants, except that in definitely established storage areas
in these occupancies and in buildings used for storage such as
lumber sheds, cooling sheds, dry kilns, and fuel vaults, spacing should
not exceed that stated in Paragraphs 4.112 and 4132, NFPA No. 13.
Pipe Schedule for Use in Woodworking Plants
Pipe sizes provided under Paragraph 305i (extra hazard), NFPA
No. 13, are recommended for all 0 f t h e foregoing occupancies,
with the following amendments: Number of sprinklers permitted
on 6-inch pipe - - 2 7 5 . Number of sprinklers permitted on 8-inch
p i p e - 400. This piping schedule is recommended as a guide only.:
Particular attention should-be given to balanced systems, .or por-:
tions of systems, using center-central and side-central feeds. Sec-
tions of piping that are hydraulically critical should be adjusted
to assure efficient performance with available water supplies. "~

Pipe sizing and spacing rules applying to extra hazard occupan-

cies should be followed for areas in which painting, upholstering
or similar hazardous processes are conducted.
It is also recommended that sprinkler protection be installed-in
spaces under combustible ground floors regardless of whether or
not they are occupied. When such spaces are unoccupied and pro-
vided that they conform to Paragraph 4304 of the Sprinkler Stan-
dard, pipe sizing and spacing in accordance with standard for
Ordinary Hazard Occupancy may be acceptable.
NOTEi Originally published by the American Insurance Association
(formerly National Board of Fire Underwriters), July, 1962.

Appendix D "
This Appendix is not a part of this aVF.PA Sta.ndardJot the Installation
of Sprinkler Systems but is included for mJormatzon purposes only.

Summary of Spacing Rules

Maximum' Distance of Deflectors Below Ceiling (Inches)

, in bays* unaer beams
comb. noncomb, comb. noncomb

SMOOTH CEILING 10 12 14 16
BEAM AND GIRDER 16 16 20 20
Panel up to 300 sq. ft. 18 18 22 22
BAR JOISTS 10 12 - - - -

WOOD J o l s T ~ t e r
O P E N 3' or
less (see para. 4250 for centers
over 3') 6

Minimum below ceiling is Y' except 1" below open wood joists.
Minimum below beams !", maximum 4". Do not exceed maximum below
ceiling. 4"
*Not more than below beams where lines run across beams.

Maximum Coverage Per Sprinkler:

LIGHT HAZARD - - 200 sq. ft. smooth ceiling and beam and girder
130 sq. ft. open wood joist
168 sq. ft. all other types of construcuon
ORDINARY HAZARD - - 130 sq. ft. all t y p e . ofconstruction except
100 sq. ft. high piled storage (see para. 4132)
EXTRA HAZARD - - 90 sq. ft. all types of construction

Direction of Lines: Either direction to facilitate hanging except:

Across beams for beams on girders 3' to 7.~' on c~, _t~s
Across jobts for wood joists (open or snearneo) anu
bar joists (through or under)

Maximum Spacing Between Lines and Sprinklers:

LIGHT AND ORDINARY HAZARD - - ~5seeft. except 12 ft. for high piled storage
para. 4112)
EXTRA HAZARD - - 12 ft.

See Sections 3630 and 4400 for rules on Sidewall Sprinklers.


.Append/x E

E-1 R e f e r e n c e P u b l i c a t i o n s . .
E-l-1 NFPA Standards. This publication makes reference to
the following NFPA Codes and Standards and the year dates shown
indicate the latest edition available:
(a) NFPA No. 22-1971, Water Tanks for Private Protection
(b) NFPA No. 20-1972, Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pumps
(c) NFPA No. 24-1970, Outside Protection
(d) NFPA No. 13A-1971, Care & Maintenance of Sprinkler
(e) NFPA No. 231-1972, Indoor General Storage
(f) NFPA No. 231C-1972, Rack Storage of Materials
(g) NFPA No. 14-1971, Installation of Standpipe & Hose
(h) NFPA No. 87-1971, Construction of Piers & Wharves
(i) NFPA No. 81-1969, Fur Storage, Fumigation & Cleaning
(j) NFPA No. 71-1972, Central Station Protective Signal-
ing Systems .....
(k) NFPA No. 72B-1972, Auxiliary Protective Signaling
(1) NFPA No. 62C-1972, Remote Station Protective Sig-
naling Systems
(m) NFPA No. 72D-1972, Proprietary Protective Signaling
(n) NFPA No. 220-1961, Standard Types. of Building Con-
(o) NFPA No. 96-1971, Vapor Removal From Cooking
E-1-2 Other Codes and Standards. This publication makes
reference to the following codes and standards and the year dates
shown indicate the latest editions vailable:
(a) ANSI Standard No. B31.1.1-1967, with Addenda B31.1Oa
-1971 and B31.1Ob-q971~ Power Piping, American National
Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.
(b) ANSI Standard No. N16.9-1971, Factory-Made Wrought
Steel Buttweld fittings, American National Standards Institute,
1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.
(c) ANSI Standard No. B16.25-1964, Buttwelding Ends for
Pipe, Valves, Flanges and Fittings, American National Standards
Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018
(d) ASTM Standard No. 234-1971, Specifications for Piping
Fittings of Wrought-Carbon Steel and Alloy for Moderate & Ele-
vated Temperatures, American Society for Testing and Materials,
1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103
(e) ASTM Standard No. A120-1972a, Welded and Seamless
Steel Pipe for Ordinary Uses, Specifications for Black and Hot-
Dinned Zinc Coated (Galvanized), American Society for Testing
an[(l~aterials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103
(f) ASTM Standard No. A53-1972a, Specifications for Welded
and Seamless Steel Pipe, American Society for Testing and Ma-
terials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103
(g) ANSI Standard No. B36.10-1970, Wrought-Steel and
Wrought Iron Pipe, American National Standards Institute,
1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018
(h) ASTM Standard No. B75-1972, Specifications for Seam-
less Copper Tube, American Society for Testing and Materials,
1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103; or
(i) ASTM Standard No. 88-1972, Specifications for Seam-
less Copper Water Tube, American Society for Testing and Ma-
terials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103
(j) ASTM Standard No. B251-1971, Specifications For Gen-
eral Reouirements For Wrought Seamless Copper and Copper-
Alloy Tube, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race
Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103.
(k) AWS Standard No. A5.8-1969, Brazing Filler Metal.