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Communication - is a systematic process in which individuals interact through symbols to

create and interpret meaning.


- art of transmitting information or ideas and attitudes from one person to
another by any effective means.

Basic communication process:


1. Start with a message
2. Transmitter encodes the message
3. Encoded message is transferred
4. Encoded message is received
5. Receiver decodes the message.

The Process of communication involves


Sender: Who sends message
Encoding: Packaging of message.
Channel: Medium of message to send and receive
Noise: Disturbance while sending, encoding and decoding
Decoding: Interpretation of message
Feedback: Giving response to the received message.

ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION


1. Approach timing of communication, choice of medium and tone.
2. Development organization
3. Clarity word choice, presentation of the central argument.
4. Style word choice and tone of the voice.
5. Correctness rules and conventions of spelling, grammar, social and cultural
appropriateness.

MODELS OF COMMUNICATION
1. Linear Communication Model
- one way process where sender is the only one who sends message and receiver
doesnt give feedback or response.
2. Interactive Communication Model
- it is two linear models stacked on top of each other.
- characterizes communication as a two-way process.
3. Transactional Communication Model
- a sender and a receiver are linked reciprocally.

SOURCES OF COMMUNICATION MODEL


1. Shannon-Weaver Model
- referred to as the Transmission or Standard View Model
- it has three main parts; sender, channel, receiver
- absence of signal are considered noise.
2. Schramms Model of Communication
- the source at one time becomes the receiver, as the receiver becomes the source,
alternately encoding and decoding messages transmitted from one to the other.
3. Berlos SMCR Model of Communication
- expands the Shannon and Weaver Model. It includes elements that may affect the
transmission of information, encoding, and decoding.

9 EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS


(a) Active listening some ways to actively listen include: listen twice as much as you speak
and refrain from interrupting and reflecting back what you have heard.
(b) Non-verbal Communication sometimes you can be unaware of the messages you are
sending non-verbally.
(c) Asking Questions when you are in conversation with someone, asking a question
shows you are interested in them.
(d) Being clear when you are speaking, be clear, articulate and concise.
(e) Clarifying and Summarising to ensure hearing correctly you can reflect back to clarify
what you have heard and summarize what you have heard from the other person.
(f) Being Empathetic having empathy for another person is the ability to understand and
share the feelings of another.
(g) Providing feedback it doesnt matter whether you are giving or receiving feedback, the
feedback process is a vulnerable place to be.
(h) Developing Trust and Rapport how do you build trust with your friends, family and
colleagues.
(i) Being present accepting the other person you are communicating with.

FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
1. Regulation/Control
- used to control the behaviour of the people.
- used to regulate the nature and amount of activities people engaged in.
2. Social Interaction
- used to produce social relationships.
- used to develop bonds, intimacy, relations and connections with other people.
3. Motivation
- used to express preferences, desires, needs, wants decisions, goals and strengths.
- function of communication that aims to encouraged others to take action in order to
accomplish a desired goal.
4. Information
- refers to knowledge or facts about a certain subject.
- used for giving and getting information.

LISTENING
- Is an invisible mental process, making it difficult to describe.
- It is not simple/passive, but it is complex and active.

ELEMENTS OF LISTENING
1. Receptive orientation process of receiving what the speakers actually says.
2. Constructive orientation constructing and representing meaning.
3. Collaborative orientation negotiating meaning with the speaker and responding.
4. Transformative orientation creating meaning through involvement, imagination and
empathy.
Active listening is a communication technique used in counselling, training and conflict
resolution. It requires the listener to fully concentrate, understand,
respond and then remember what is being said.
Includes..
*Comprehending - shared meaning between parties in a communication
transaction. This is the first step in listening process.
*Retaining it is the second step in the listening process. Memory is essential to the
listening process because the information retained when a person is involved in the listening
process is how meaning from words is created.
* Responding listening is an interaction between speaker and listener.
*Tactic active listening involves the listener observing the speakers behaviour and
body language.
*Use active listening is used in a wide variety of situations, including public, interest
advocacy, community organizing, tutoring, medical workers talking to patients, counselling.

TYPES OF LISTENING
1. Informative listening
- Listeners primary concern is to understand the message.
2. Relationship listening
- The purpose of this is either to help an individual or to improve the relationship
between among other people.
3. Appreciative listening
- It includes listening for enjoyment.
4. Critical listening
- is listening in order to evaluate and judge, forming opinion about what is being said.
5. Discriminative listening
- the difference between different sounds.
6. Therapeutic listening
- the listener has a purpose of not only emphasizing with the speaker but also to use
this deep connection in order to help and understand speaker, change or develop in some
way.

METHODS FOR IMPROVING LISTENING


1. Repeating Information
2. Use Mnemonic device
3. Asking Questions
4. Paraphrasing

Prepared by:
JESSIE O. TABULA
Oral Communication Teacher