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Cellular Mobile Systems

April 26th, 2016

Department of System and Networking

Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering

Review: 26/4/2016(today) & 10/5/2016.

No Class on 3/5/2016 (Holiday-International

Labor Day Observed)

Final Test: Date and Room to be determined.

Will be announced later.
Review First Gen. (1G) Cellular Mobile Systems
Three main requirements of 1G Cellular Mobiles System
Interworking with PSTN
Easy of use
Voice quality
How is the voice quality of phone calls measured in 1G
Cellular Network?
Using Mean Opinion Score (MOS) testing
PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network
Main features of 1st Gen Cellular Mobile System
Call processing (Mobile to Land, Land to Mobile, Mobile
to Mobile calls)
Network management
Review First Gen. (1G) Cellular Network
Radio Access Technology used in 1G Cellular Mobile System
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
FDD (Frequency Division Duplex)
What is the difference between the cellular mobile system
and previous non-cellular mobile system?
Cellular mobile system increase the capacity of the
system by frequency re-use
Review First Gen. (1G) Cellular Network
What is co-channel interference: because the same
frequencies are reused, two separate phone calls using the
same frequency simultaneously at two separate cells can
interfere each other. This interference is called co-channel
How is the co-channel interference controlled?
The distance between the repeated frequency
determines the level of co-channel interference. This
distance is called the Reuse Distance.
Co-channel interference is controlled by
1. maintaining adequate Reuse Distance
2. controlling the transmit power level of BS
3. controlling the transmit power level of MS
Second Gen. (2G) Cellular Mobile Network
2G Cellular Mobile System Requirement
Spectral Efficiency and Capacity of the network
International Roaming, specially among European nations
Improvement of voice quality using digitized voice packets
Data service

Two types of popular 2G Cellular Mobile Systems

1. GSM using TDMA
2. IS-95 using CDMA

TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access

CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
Review GSM System
GSM Radio Channel Structure
RF band is divided into
200KHz channel
Each 200KHz channel is
divided into 8 timeslots
Review 2G GSM System
Three main services GSM system provided to the users
Teleservices (voice calls, emergency calls, voice messaging)
Bearer services (Low rate data, SMS, cell broadcast)
Supplementary services (call forwarding, call barring, call
holding, call waiting, call transfer, call hold, calling number
ID, closed user group, multi-party service, malicious call
identification, advice of charge, etc)
Review 2G GSM System Architecture
PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network
Four main areas
Main components of GSM systems
MSC (Mobile Switching Center)
VLR (Visitor Location Register)
HLR (Home Location Register)
EIR (Equipment Identity Register)
OMC (Operation and Maintenance
BSC (Base Station Controller)
BTS (Base Transceiver Station)
Main components of GSM Mobile Subscriber Unit
MS (Mobile Station)
SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)
Review 2G GSM System Architecture

MSC (Mobile Switching Center): a typical telephony

exchange which supports mobile communications
MSC delivers circuit switched telephony traffic within the cellular
The MSC also assists handovers between base stations for inter-BSC
MSC assists in creating billing records

VLR (Visitor Location Register): A database, part of the MSC,

contains the location of the active mobile stations
A particular VLR may serve one (or more) MSC component
The VLR does not have Ki ; stores triplets(RAND, SRES,Kc) from HLR
Review 2G GSM System Architecture
HLR (Home Location Register): The HLR maintains permanent
copies of user profiles and is the authoritative lookup for determining
where in the network a phone is (i.e., which MSC the phone is currently
attached to)
Authentication Center (AuC) - functionality subsumed in HLRs
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) - identifies all
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card - stores crypto keys (Ki)
and performs operations on the phone side
Device level authentication
Equipment Identity Register (EIR) - absorbed into HLR
o Includes a blacklist (e.g., for stolen phones)
International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) - identifies a
specific phone
Review 2G GSM System Architecture
OMC (Operation and Maintenance Center): is the central
location to operate and maintain the network
SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): contains the mobile user
identity, authentication algorithm, and also user data such as
contact information ( more detail on the later slides)
Review 2G GSM System Architecture
The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) links wireless devices to
the cellular network and consists of two subcomponents
Base Transceiver Station (BTS): the transmission radio
(multiple directional antennas dividing the cell into sectors)
Base Station Controller (BSC): intelligence for radios (include
scheduling and encryption), controlling one or more BTSs
The BSSs (commonly referred to as simply a base stations)
are often grouped into Location Areas (LAs) corresponding to
geographic regions
Devices can move between BSSs in an LA without re-
Active mobile (e.g. mobile station processing a voice call)
must still participate in handoffs
Topology of GSM Service Area
R I R LA 6
L L 2 5
R R LA 4
Service Area of a
L Service Area of an
Mobile Service MSC
Cell1 Cell5 Cell7
BSC Cell8
Cell4 Cell6 BTS BTS

Location Area 3
(locating & Paging
Review 1G and 2G Mobile Station
What are the important characteristics of 1G & 2G MS?
Material cost
Component count
What is a SIM card?
Subscriber Identity Module
In general terms, a SIM card is a smart card-like device that identifies
a user (account)
In Cellular Mobile Systems (started in GSM system first) and may be
transferred between devices.
SIM card often refers to both SIM hardware and software.
Before GSM, the subscriber identity was built-in to the mobile
Review SIM
Subscriber Identity Module
In general terms, a SIM card is a smart card-like device that identifies a user
(account) in a GSM system and may be transferred between devices.
SIM card often refers to both hardware and software.
In 3G UMTS system, the functionality of SIM has been enhanced and the
name has been changed to Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC).
In CDMA system, it is called R-UIM (Removable User Identity Module)

Hardware is typically a smartcard punchout (25 x 15 mm)

UICC contains CPU,ROM,RAM,EEPROM, and I/O circuits
SIM OSs are either proprietary or Java Card.
Java Card is:
Uses a subset of the Java language
Optimized byte-code format
Applets are firewalled from one another.
SIM Data
Integrated Circuit Card ID (ICC-ID), aka SIM Serial Number (SSN)
Uniquely identifies a SIM card
Conforms to ISO/IEC 7812 (19-20 digits)
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
Uniquely identifies the mobile subscriber (15 digits, ITU E.212 standard)
MCC (3 digits), MNC (2 or 3 digits), MSIN (9 or 10 digits
Authentication Key (Ki)
Key shared with provider
Never leaves the smartcard
GSM authentication algorithm performed on-chip
Location Area Identity (LAI)
Stores the last known location area (saves time on power cycle)
Address book and SMS messages
Higher capacity in more advanced cards
And more .
SMSC (Short Message Service Center) number
Service Provider Name (SPN)
Service Dialing Numbers (SDN)
Value added services
See GSM/3GPP TS 11.11 for more details
Mobile Phone Architecture
Most mobile handsets comprise of two main processors
(baseband and application) and peripheral-specific logic cores
Commonly, a System-on-Chip (SoC) for the application
processor and peripheral-specific logic. Sometimes the baseband
processor is included on that SoC
SoC means more efficient data transfers and lower exposure to
potential physical attackers

Camera Apps
Bluetooth Middleware Modem
AT cmds
Baseband Rx/Tx
RIL serial,
Display OS Kernel UART, radio stack
Keyboard App Processor memory Baseband processor Card

Baseband processor interfaces with Rx/Tx Modem, SIM

Card, and App Processor.
Smart Phone Components
Mobile Device Constraints


Size/Weight Battery

Expansion Material Cost/
Slot Flash
Total Cost Storage


Quality/ Memory
Review Mobile Device Constraints
Processor Constraints
Faster frequency processors are not power efficient
CPU needs to be power efficient, even in standby
Integrated GPU preferred to minimize the die space
Mobile market largely (>90%) dominated by ARM
o Apple, Qualcomm, NVIDIA, Samsung all license ARM
Storage Constraints
Mobile devices use flash, rather than hard disks
Draw back of flash: write is slower and erodes the device
Memory Constraints
Devices do not have swap
Sum of all virtual memory cannot exceed physical RAM
No Expansion slots: sold as-is
Mobile OS
Smartphone OS Competitive Landscape
iPhone OS (Apple) Window Phone (Microsoft) Android (Google)

Platform Closed Open Open

Source Code Closed Closed Open

2014 Q4 Market 17% 20%

Early momentum Manufacturer / carrier agnostic Manufacturer / carrier agnostic

Ease to use Distribution Open source innovation

Powerful Free OS
distribution channel

Microsoft stopped Windows Mobile

Apple dependant Android phone manufacturers are
Issues OS in 2010 and replaced it with
also developing with Window phones OS
Windows Phone OS in order to
compete with iOS and Android OS

Application 1.2 million 500,000

ecosystem 1.4 million
(Nov. 2014)

From CEG436 by Prabhaker Mateti

Layers of iPhone OS
Cocoa Touch
Multi-touch events and controls
Accelerometer support
View hierarchy
Localization (i18n)
Camera support
Audio mixing and recording
Video playback
Image file formats
EG436 4
Core Animation
OpenGL ES iPhone SDK
Core Services
Embedded SQLite database
Core OS (Mac OS X Kernel)
TCP/IP and Sockets
Power management
File system
Windows Phone
Windows Phone is a family of mobile operating systems for smartphones
Started with Windows Phone 7 in 2010, then Windows Phone 8.1 in
2014, and Windows 10 (mobile) expected in 2015
Not to be confused with Windows Mobile which was started in 2003
and has been deprecated since 2010
Aiming at the consumer market
User interface derived from Metro design language
Home screen, Start screen, is made up with Live Tiles
Tiles are linked to applications, features, functions and individual
such as contacts, web pages, applications or media items
Users can add, rearrange, or remove tiles
Tiles are dynamic and update in real time
Transparent tile where image is visible through
the transparent area of the tiles
Windows Phone (Contd)
Metro User interface (Contd)
Several features organized into "hubs", which combine local and online
content via Windows Phone's integration with popular social
networks such as Facebook, Windows Live, and Twitter
From the hub, users can directly comment and 'like' on social network
built-in hubs: Xbox Music and Video, Xbox Live Games, Windows
Phone Store, and Microsoft Office.
Multi-touch technology
Early response was generally positive
Office suite
Pre-installed with Microsoft office mobile
Allow most Microsoft Office files to be viewed and edited directly on a
Windows Phone device
built-in multimedia hubs, Xbox Music and Video, providing entertainment
and synchronization capabilities between PC, Windows Phone, and other
Microsoft products.
Open software platform for mobile development
A complete stack OS, Middleware, Applications
Started by Android Inc in 2003
o Google acquired Android Inc. in 2005
o Powered by Linux operating system
Became an Open Handset Alliance (OHA) project in 2007
First product in 2008
o HTC Dream smartphone
o Followed by many other companies such as Motorola, Samsung,
LG, etc.
Fast application development in Java
Open source under the GPL, BSD, and Apache 2 licenses
Android Architecture
Home Dialer SMS/MMS IM Browser Camera Alarm Calculator

Contacts Voice Dial Email Calendar Media Player Albums Clock

A p p l i c a t i o n Framework
Window View Notification
Activity Manager Manager Content Providers System Manager

Telephony Location
Package Manager Manager Resource Manager Manager

Li braries A n d r o i d Runtime
Surface Manager Media Framework SQLite Core Libraries

OpenGL|ES FreeType WebKit DalvikVirtual Machine


Linux K e r n e l
Shared Memory
Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Driver Binder (IPC) Driver

Audio Power
USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Drivers Management
Linux Kernel Enhancement for Android
Binder (IPC)
o IPC can introduce significant processing overhead and security holes
o Binder has additional features that sockets don't have: passing file
descriptors across processes
o Pipes cannot perform RPC (Remote Procedure Call)
o Object reference counting, Object mapping
o Binder has elaborate data referencing policies, it is not a simplistic
kernel driver
Power management
o Built on top of standard Linux PM
o Enhancement added to save the battery power more aggressively; CPU
(Application Processor) shouldn't consume power if no applications or
services require power
o Applications and services request CPU resources with "wake locks" through the
Android application framework and native Linux libraries.
o If there are no active wake locks, Android will shut down the CPU
Native Library and VM
o C/C++ libraries; Low level computation intensive library
o Custom and optimized for embedded mobile device
o Keep GPL out of user code (Copy-Left clause in GPL)
o Will be loaded in each process; need to be small in footprint and fast
o Based on Bionic libc; BSD License
o All native code must be compiled against libc
Dalvik Virtual Machine
o The Dalvik Virtual Machine (DVM) is an android virtual machine optimized for mobile
devices. It optimizes the virtual machine for memory, battery life and performance.
o The DVM provides application portability and runtime consistency throughout
various hardware platforms
o Optimization of memory use; Runs optimized file format (.dex) and Dalvik byte
Compact and efficient than java .class files
Java .class/.jar files coverted to .dex at build time
o Supports multiple VM processes per device
Class file to Dex file Conversion
Android Application Components
An Android APK is a collection of components
Every Android component has a managed lifecycle
Components share a set of resources: linux process, databases,
preferences, file space, etc.
Android Application Components
The following are the main Android application components:
o Process: Android process is the same as Linux process
o Activities: An Activity provides a screen with which users can interact in order to do
something, such as dial the phone, or take a photo. Each activity is given a window in
which to draw its user interface. Typically, one activity in an application is specified as
the "main" activity, which is presented to the user when launching the application for
the first time. Each time a new activity starts, the previous activity is stopped, but the
system preserves the activity in a stack (the "back stack").
o Services: A service is started by some other Component. A Service is an application
component that can perform long-running operations in the background and does not
provide a user interface. An Android component can bind to a service to interact with
it and even perform IPC
o Content Providers: Content providers manage access to a structured set of
data. Content providers are the standard interface that connects data in one
process with code running in another process.
o Intents: An Intent is a messaging object you can use to request an action
from another app component. Although intents facilitate communication
between components in several ways, there are three fundamental use-
cases: to start an activity, to start a service, and to deliver a broadcast.
Activity Life
Android Application Framework
Activity Manager: Manages the activity life cycle of applications
Content Providers: Manage the data sharing between applications
Telephony Manager: Manages all voice calls. We use telephony
manager if we want to access voice calls in our application.
Resource Manager: Manage the various types of resources such as
strings, color settings and user interface layouts which are used in
Location Manager: Location management, using GPS or cell tower
Application Framework (Contd)
View System: An extensible set of views used to create application user
Notification Manager: Allows applications to display alerts and
notifications to the user.
Package Manager: The system by which applications are able to find
out information about other applications currently installed on the device.
Window Manager: The Android WindowManager is a system service,
which is responsible for managing the z-ordered list of windows, which
windows are visible, and how they are laid out on screen. Among other
things, it automatically performs window transitions and animations when
opening or closing an app or rotating the screen
Review 3G UMTS
Goals set in early 1990s for 3G:
Internet in every pocket
Up to 2Mbps data rate
Peak data rate improvement
384 Kbps initially; 1.8~3.6 Mbps; later to 14.4 Mbps
Latency decreased from 200 ms to below 100ms

Voice, Video telephony, SMS, MMS, Instant messaging,
Multimedia streaming, Mobile email, Browsing, App/Content
downloading, Gaming, Mobile broadband connectivity for
laptop, VPN, Social networking apps, Mobile TV, Location
based services, M2M, Voice mail/Audio messaging,
Review 3G Radio Access Technology
WCDMA: Wideband direct-sequence Code Division Multiple
5MHz Channels
WCDMA Chip rate: 3.84 Mcps
Two modes: FDD and TDD
Processing gain is what gives CDMA systems the robustness
against self-interference (co-channel interference)
In CDMA system, reuse the available 5MHz carrier
frequencies over geographically close distances is possible.
Review 3G Radio Access Technology
WCDMA features
WCDMA is interoperable with GSM systems; handovers
between GSM and WCDMA supported
Service Multiplexing: Multiple services with different QoS
multiplexed on one connection
WCDMA supports highly variable user data rate; Bandwidth
on Demand
Soft handovers
Supports the operation of asynchronous base stations
No need to synchronize all base stations
Power control: tight and fast power control
o Downlink power control: 1500 times per second
Review 3G WCDMA
Done by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
Website address:
3G UMTS Architecture
Base Station
Network Subsystem
Mobile Station Subsystem
Iu CS Other Networks

Radio ME


WCDMA Node RNC Internet
Radio USIM

Iub CN


Note: Interfaces have been omitted for clarity purposes.

UMTS Network Interface Protocol Model

Controlled by the Transport Network Control Plane during real-time operation

Set up by O&M actions