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Comparing the conventional soil stabilization


methods to the consolid system used as an
alternative admixture matter in Isparta
Dardere material

Article in Construction and Building Materials July 2009


Impact Factor: 2.3 DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.01.002

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Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 24732480

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Review

Comparing the conventional soil stabilization methods to the consolid system


used as an alternative admixture matter in Isparta Dardere material
S . Eren *, M. Filiz
Sleyman Demirel University, Technical Education Faculty, Construction Education Department, 32260 Isparta, Turkey

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this study, it was aimed to improve the existing poor local soil without excavating it using mixed sta-
Received 19 February 2007 bilization method for soil stabilization. For this purpose, lime and cement which are commonly used as
Received in revised form 6 January 2009 conventional stabilization additives were used along with Consolid444 + Solidry additives which are
Accepted 8 January 2009
studied as alternative soil stabilization additives, and the results from the tests were compared. In this
Available online 7 February 2009
study, material from Isparta Dardere being used by Isparta Public Waterworks Administration to achieve
water and liquid impermeability in dam constructions, lling works, etc. was used as poor soil material
Keywords:
for the purpose of improving its bearing capacity. All additives added to Isparta Dardere natural soil
Soil stabilization
Consolid444
material which is inappropriate to be used as a bearing in any road construction signicantly increased
Solidry the bearing capacity of this material and enabled it to be used as sub-foundation and foundation material
Road construction in a road construction.
Bearing capacity Crown Copyright 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chemical stabilization
Wet CBR

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2474
2. The Consolid System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2475
3. Materials and test methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2475
3.1. Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2475
3.1.1. Soil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2475
3.1.2. Consolid444 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2475
3.1.3. Solidry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2476
3.1.4. Conservex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2476
3.2. Testing methods and testing program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2476
4. Results and discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2476
4.1. Determination of the engineering properties of the natural soil material from Isparta Dardere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2476
4.2. Chemical stabilisation of natural soil by consolid addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2477
4.2.1. Effect of consolid system in natural soil on OMC and maximum dry density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2477
4.2.2. Effect of consolid system in natural soil on wet CBR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2477
4.2.3. Effect of consolid system in natural soil on swelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2477
4.2.4. Effect of consolid system in natural soil on consistency limit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2477
4.2.5. Effect of consolid system in natural soil on specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2477
4.3. Chemical stabilisation of natural soil by lime addition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2477
4.3.1. Effect of lime in natural soil on OMC and maximum dry density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2477
4.3.2. Effect of lime in natural soil on wet CBR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2478
4.3.3. Effect of lime in natural soil on swelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2478
4.3.4. Effect of lime in natural soil on consistency limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2478
4.3.5. Effect of lime in natural soil on specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2478
4.4. Chemical stabilisation of natural soil by cement addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2478

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 544 6313469; fax: +90 246 211 14 16.
E-mail address: sevkierenn@hotmail.com (S
. Eren).

0950-0618/$ - see front matter Crown Copyright 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.01.002
2474 S. Eren, M. Filiz / Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 24732480

4.4.1. Effect of cement in natural soil on OMC and maximum dry density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2478
4.4.2. Effect of cement in natural soil on wet CBR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2479
4.4.3. Effect of cement in natural soil on swelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2479
4.4.4. Effect of cement in natural soil on consistency limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2479
4.4.5. Effect of cement in natural soil on specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2479
5. Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2480
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2480

1. Introduction Lime stabilization has been extensively used to decrease swell-


ing potential and swelling pressures in clays [6].
When the soils at a site are loose or highly compressible, or The other expansive soil-stabilizing agent is the cement which
when they have unsuitable consistency indices, too high perme- is composed of oxides of calcium, silica, alumina, and iron. Cement
ability, or any other undesirable property making them unsuitable stabilization is also similar to lime stabilization and produces sim-
for use in a construction project, they may have to be stabilized [1]. ilar results. Addition of cement reduces the swelling potential,
There are various stabilization methods one of which is chemical plasticity index, and liquid limit. The stabilization is due to cemen-
stabilization. titious links between the calcium silicate and aluminate hydration
The stabilization, especially with lime, is a common applied products and the soil particles [2]. Cement stabilization increases
method among the others due its effective and economic usage. the tensile strength, exural strength, durability, and stiffness
The ndings from the previous studies show that when lime is properties such as modulus and CBR. The permeability of sands
added to clay soils in the presence of water, reactions including and gravels is greatly decreased by the addition of cement whereas
cation exchange, occulation and pozzolanic reaction take place. silts, silty clays, and heavy clays show increased permeability [7].
It is stated that, occulation is primarily responsible for the modi- The most common admixture is Portland cement. The objective of
cation of the engineering properties of clay soils when treated other admixture materials is to provide articial cementation, thus
with even a small amount of lime. The studies reported in the lit- increasing strength and reducing both compressibility and hydraulic
erature showed that the addition of lime increased the optimum conductivity. It also reduces the expansion potential in clays [8].
water content, shrinkage limit and strength, and reduced the Soilcement mixtures can be made with almost any soil. The re-
swelling potential, liquid limit, plasticity index and maximum sult is equivalent to a low grade concrete, and much less expensive.
dry density of the soil [2]. Strengths obtained are often surprisingly high. Cement content
Bell [3] found that the optimum addition of lime needed for the generally varies between 8 and 12 per cent by volume [9].
stabilization of the soils is between 1% and 3%, while the other A clay sandy soil is usually used after being mixed with some
researchers suggested the use of lime between 2% and 8% lime cement or lime in the forms, hydraulically compacted and then
by weight [3]. cured. Hence, higher compressive and tensile strengths, better
In most cases the effect of lime on the plasticity of clay soils is cohesion and better water resistance are obtained thus improving
more or less instantaneous. In other words, the plasticity is re- its natural stability [10].
duced (this is brought by an increase in the plastic limit and reduc- Similar to lime, cement has the effect of decreasing plasticity
tion in the liquid limit of the soil), as is the potential for volume and increasing strength of the soil. The percentage of cement (by
change [4]. volume) required for the stabilization of sandy soil is in the range
Soil mixed with low lime content attains a maximum strength of 610, for clays and silts of low plasticity, it is 812 and for highly
in less time than that to which a higher content of lime has been plastic clays it is about 1014 [11].
added. Strength does not increase linearly with lime content and Adequate compaction is essential for successful stabilization but
in fact excessive addition of lime reduces strength. This decrease prolonged delays between mixing and compaction reduce the max-
is because lime itself has neither appreciable friction nor cohesion. imum density attainable. A length period of mixing brings about
The optimum lime content tends to range from 4.5% to 8%, the partial hydration of the cement with a resultant loss of strength at
higher values being required for soils with higher clay fractions. constant density. If compaction is delayed the cement begins to hy-
Curing time is another factor inuencing strength of limestabi- drate and therefore the soilcement begins to harden. As a result the
lized soil [4]. mixture becomes more difcult to compact. Compaction should be
Every soil has an optimum lime percentage. The optimum lime completed within 2 h of mixing. The strength of soilcement grad-
percentage of the soil is for a certain curing period. Different opti- ually increases as the time taken in curing increases. Also, the higher
mum lime percentages may be determined in different conditions. the temperature, the more rapid is the gain of strength. Excessive
Such that: After seven days of moist curing the determined opti- drying increases strength but tends to crack the soilcement [4].
mum lime may be 5%. When the same soil is cured in open air CBR test is used to measure the sliding resistance of the soil with a
for 28 days, the optimum lime rate may be found as 8% [5]. controllable water content and density. After the test a number indi-

Table 1
Soil classication and usage according to CBR.

CBR Denition of soil Usage Classication


USCS ASSHO
03 Very bad Subgrade OH,CH,MH,OL A5, A6, A7
37 Bad-middle Subgrade OH,CH,MH,OL A4, A5, A6, A7
720 Middle Subbase OL,CL,ML,SC,SM,SP A2, A4, A6, A7
2050 Well Base and subbase GM,GC,SW,SM,SP,GP A1b, A25, A3, A26
Bigger than 50 Very well Base GW,GM A1a, A24, A3
S. Eren, M. Filiz / Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 24732480 2475

cating the bearing capacity rate (CBR) is obtained. CBR is not a con- The use of consolid system in the eld has some economical
stant number and varies according to the water content and density advantages on cost. Using local soil as much as possible instead
of the soil. After the determination of the CBR number of the soil to be of bringing the material from outside, the digging of the local soil
used as base or lower base in highway or airelds, the base, lower and exchanging with the material brought from outside and avoid-
base and even exible covering thickness can be determined by using ing the cost of both transportations, one of the most important
a graph belonging to one of the many existing road covering projects. advantages of the consolid system is the opportunity to use and
A projecting graph related with the descriptions and usages of the develop the local material that generally causes costs to increase,
soils according to CBR numbers are given in Table 1 [12]. when local material needs to be exchanged with the material that
is brought from outside, the opportunity to pre-mixing the mate-
rial and saving construction time [16].
2. The Consolid System As cement and lime are additives with hydraulic binding prop-
erties, they signicantly increase the CBR values of any soil they
The producer of Consolid system is consolid AG company and are applied. However, consolid system does not have any binding
the competent of this company is Dr. A. Gnther Scherr. Consol- property. Although the natural soil sample used in this study is
id444, Solidry and Conservex products are commercial. not a type of soil on which consolid system has a maximum effect,
The consolid soil stabilisation/soil consolidation system was ex- it is considered that good CBR values are obtained.
pressly developed for soil stabilisation. Every cohesive soil pos- Since the consolid soil stabilisation products interact with the
sesses the characteristic to petrify again. It requires a very long ne particles that thanks to the treatment can be used as natural
time and high pressure. Through the addition of catalysts we can binders, sand has to be mixed with cohesive soil prior to the treat-
speed up this process. The consolid soil stabilization system speeds ment with the consolid soil stabilisation additives in order to ob-
up the natural process of solidication of all kinds of cohesive soil. tain a content of nes of approximately 20%30%. The soil mix
It improves and consolidates the soil [14]. The consolid system is prepared in this way can then be treated just as any other soil. In
changing the behaviour of any soil itself toward petrication and principle all cohesive or semi-cohesive soils or soils with a certain
does not act as a binder or chemical reactant. A soil, once treated amount of silt (0.0020.1 mm) lead to a permanent soil stabilisa-
remains treated for permanent and will keep the advantages of tion. The optimal soil mixture is 1/3 clay and silt (00.2 mm), 1/3
the upgrade without timely limitation [13]. sand (0.22 mm), and gravel and stones (2200 mm). Missing frac-
A treatment of soils with additives products of the consolid sys- tions are easily mixed in from nearby soils [14].
tem allows to upgrade any kind of soil to riskfree construction As the price of Solidry is higher than cement or lime, increasing
material. The improvement of the treated soil is substantial and al- solidry addition is not economic. In eld applications, Solidry is ap-
lows to incorporate up to 30% of clayey, silty nes material which plied to the soil in 1% or 2% of dry soil weight or 24 kg/m2 [14].
is usually classied as unacceptable for construction purposes in Analysis reported with relation to the consolid system [15] are
road construction or road rehabilitation. The treatment improves pointing out that under the use of the consolid-stabilisation of the
not only the stability and loading capacity; it enables also a tai- loess, the soil generally as well as the disposal ground and espe-
lored realisation of full impermeability, which allows to use trea- cially the base sealing, are experiencing a general improvement,
ted soil as lining in ponds or articial lakes, dams and other which is reecting also in the retarding, ad- and absorbing proper-
water exposed constructions. Such treated impermeable soil mate- ties of the treated soil. All these facts are proving the good suitabil-
rial is also excellent construction material for dams, railway ity of the Cernavoda site for the deposition of low- and
embankments and formations, but also of high value to form bot- intermediate level radioactive waste [15].
tom soil layers as well as covering soil material at disposal areas to In this study, it was aimed to improve the existing poor local
avoid seepage and the pollution of groundwater [13]. soil without excavating it using mixed stabilization method for soil
The consolid system for soil stabilization is always effected by stabilization, and the applicability of consolid system as an alterna-
two products, which are used together. It is either consolid444 tive to lime and cement which are used as conventional soil stabil-
and solidry or consolid444 and conservex. consolid and conservex ization additives was analyzed.
are liquid components and solidry is a powder like component. The
two components are mixed with the soil. Afterwards the soil is
completely compacted. The consolid soil stabilisation system can 3. Materials and test methods
be used by almost every kind of soil [14].
The consolid soil stabilisation system is a total system, not only 3.1. Material

compaction aid or something else. It allows to change the behav- 3.1.1. Soil
iour of the treated soil completely. Water is the most effective en- In this study, a soil sample with low bearing capacity was chosen to be used in
emy of stability; consolid ghts against the capillary rise of water mixed soil stabilization. Material from Isparta Dardere which is used in dam con-
and agglomerated the nes irreversible. Due to the fact that the struction, lling, etc. to achieve water and liquid impermeability has low perme-
ability and swelling rate with poor bearing capacity. Dardere is a district of
capillaries still exist, surface water could penetrate into the treated
Isparta, a town located in Turkey. There is a clay mine in there. Isparta Public
layer and reduce mechanically the effectiveness of the, treatment Waterworks Administration uses the soil taken out of the clay mine as lling in
with consolid444; therefore to prevent this, it is added in the top dam construction. However, no information could be gathered about the total re-
layer conservex (conservex) or solidry (solidry) to avoid this lling serve. It was decided to use this soil material in this study as it bears the required
up of the voids with seeping in water. Consolid is used alone only soil characteristics.

in the deeper layers; in the top it is needed the combination of both


3.1.2. Consolid444
additives to get the full protection besides other effects due to the Consolid444 consist of mixture of dissolved in water 20% Mono-molekler and
complexity of the stabilization process [14]. Poly-molekler CAS No 61791-550-7, dimetilamonyumklorit CAS No 61798-80-8,
A soil loses its bearing strength by taking up water. Therefore izopropenol (IPA) CAS No 67-63-0, solvents, emulgators and catalysts. Its density
any diminution of such water absorption will yield increased bear- (at 20 C) is 0.980 g/cm3 and its pH value (at 1.0 g/l H2O) is 5.56.5 [16].
Consolid444 is a chemical substance, which breaks up the adhering water lm
ing capacities. Is the CBR value (California Bearing Ratio) taken as
and leads to an irreversible agglomeration of nes, reducing the capillary rise of
an indicator for the bearing capacity of a soil, a CBR value of 35 water substantially. The high effectiveness of Consolid444 protects the soil, espe-
times that of an untreated soil can be expected by the consolid soil cially against the soaking in of water. It allows better compaction of the treated soil
stabilisation treatment [14]. and increases desired density during the time and under trafc [14].
2476 S. Eren, M. Filiz / Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 24732480

The additive consolid444 whose characteristics are presented above and which 1:85 tons 1:850:000 g
was supplied from [16] was used. 6000  0:8  1:850:000 0:003 lt 3 mlt consolid444 is required:

3.1.3. Solidry After the required amount of consolid444 was found the amount of water was
Portland cement (96.5%) and lime CAS CEM 266-043-4, 3.5% Solidry is mixture calculated.
of mono-molecular and poly-molecular interfacial active substances with a deter- 6000  15  100 900 g
mined content of alcylamines and dimethyl ammonia chloride CAS NO 61789-80-
8, polyacrylates and reactants. Its density (at 20 C) is 2.83.2 g/cm3 and its pH va- A suspension was formed by adding consolid444 into the determined water of
lue (at 1.0 g/l H2O) is 6.08.0 [16]. 900 g and agitating the same properly. Since we did not know the optimum mois-
Solidry is a dry, chemical/organic substance, which preserves the treated soil ture content while compacting the soil mixed with consolid444 using the proctor
and increases the soil specic bonding characteristics. Solidry prevents the treated method, after we made the initial compaction on the basis of the amount of water
soil from water soaking in by closing the capillary. The capacity of water absorption we determined for the suspension, we continued the compaction process by
is drastically reduced, which stops the swelling behaviour of the soil [14]. increasing the water at certain percentages. Thus, the optimum moisture content
Solidry is applied in dry state and mixed into the soil. This is an advantage par- and dry unit volume weight of the soil mixed with consolid444 was xed. After
ticularly on sites where due to an already high moisture content in the soil the addi- the soil was mixed, it was kept at rest for half an hour in order the moist to be fully
tion of aqueous solutions might cause problems in terms of compaction [14]. absorbed for the CBR test. After the soil was compacted with the values xed
If Solidry is used in addition with Consolid444, this product is applied in dry through the standard proctor test, and it was kept in the moist room for six days
state and mixed into the soil. This is an advantage particularly on sites where and four days inside water, and when no increase was observed in its swelling rate,
due to an already high moisture content in the soil the addition of aqueous solu- it was taken out of water and applied wet CBR test. The sample from the soil inside
tions might cause problems in terms of compaction [14]. the CBR mould was subjected to consistency limits and picnometer tests.
The additive solidry of the same property whose characteristics are presented As studies made with consolid444 + Solidry and Cement and Lime are taking too
above [16] was used in this study. much time and actually as Conservex and Solidry are used as second component of
consolid system to prevent capillarity, Conservex is not used in these studies.
3.1.4. Conservex Within this study, in order to improve the properties of the material from Ispar-
Conservex is a bituminous, water soluble solution. The colloid parts in Conser- ta Dardere, lime was added into the same material at the rates of 4%, 6%, 8%, and
vex block the capillary. The water saturation of treated soil is no longer possible or 10%. Chemical and physical characteristics of lime used are shown in Table 2.
is drastically reduced. In addition to Consolid444, Conservex protects the top layers The added amount of lime was determined by xing its percentage according to
of the treated soil exposed to surface water and from abrasion. It further reduces the dry weight of soil, and then mixed with it. The prepared mixtures were kept
the capillary rise of water [14]. covered with a wet cloth for half an hour to fully absorb the moist before compac-
Consolid444 and Conservex are liquid soil stabilisation products, which have to tion. The optimum moisture content and dry unit volume weight of the soil mixed
be diluted with water to obtain the working solutions. This is done on the construc- with consolid444 was xed through proctor test. After the soil sample mixed with
tion site, taking into account the actual moisture content of the soil [14]. lime was compacted at the values xed through standard proctor test it was sub-
jected to curing in the moist room for seven days and three days under room con-
ditions, and after being left inside water for four days it was taken out and its
3.2. Testing methods and testing program
swelling rate was xed before applying wet CBR test. Then sample from the soil
mixed with lime inside the CBR mould was subjected to atterberg limits and pic-
The natural soil material supplied from Isparta Dardere clay mine was rst sub-
nometer tests.
jected to sieve analysis and hydrometer tests in order to determine its grain distri-
Within this study, in order to improve the bearing capacity of the material from
bution. Then a test for consistency limits was performed on the natural soil sample,
Isparta Dardere, cement of CEM I 42.5 R type was added into the same material at
and soil classication (in accordance with USCS) was made according to the resul-
the rates of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%. The added amount of cement was determined by
tant values. It was decided as the method used in the standard proctor test (method
xing its percentage according to the dry weight of soil, and then mixed with it.
B) because after the sieve analysis the material left on the sieve of 4.75 mm was 6%
The optimum moisture content and dry unit volume weight of the soil mixed with
and the mould used in proctor test was with diameter of 15.24 cm (6 in.). The nat-
consolid444 was xed through proctor test. After the soil was mixed, it was kept at
ural soil was mixed with water in a container before it was compacted according to
rest for half an hour in order the moist to be fully absorbed for wet CBR test. After
this method. The water was added slowly to the soil in order to prevent agglomer-
the soil mixed with cement was compacted into the CBR mould with the values
ation, and then the mixing container was covered with wet cloth and it was waited
xed through the standard proctor test, and it was kept in the moist room for
for one hour to achieve uniform humid distribution. The soil was compacted
one day and four days inside water, and when its swelling rate was xed it was ta-
through standard proctor method and after the resultant sample was kept in water
ken out of water and applied wet CBR test. Then sample from the soil mixed with
for four days then wet CBR experiment was applied. After that the specic weight of
cement taken out of the CBR. Mould was subjected to consistency limits and pic-
the soil was xed through picnometer test. As nal step decreasing level permeabil-
nometer tests. The mixed oxide components of the cement are shown in Table 3.
ity test was made on the natural soil sample from Isparta Dardere, and after the
sample was compacted into the mould, the mould was covered and the test was
started. The soil sample was kept for four days and after this period the decreasing 4. Results and discussion
amount in the water level was measured and permeability coefcient was xed.
The material from Isparta Dardere was mixed with lime at the rates of 4%, 6%,
4.1. Determination of the engineering properties of the natural soil
8%, and 10%, and cement at the rates of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%, consolid444 (0.8 l/
3
m ) + solidry additives at the rate of 1% and 2%, and all of the mixed samples that material from Isparta Dardere
were used were subjected to consistency limits (through cassagrande method),
standard proctor, wet CBR and picnometer tests and the results were compared. As a result of the sieve analysis and hydrometer tests on the
All the tests carried out within the scope of this study were performed in accor- natural soil material from the clay mine in Isparta Dardere it
dance with TS 1900 [17]. All the test were carried out in Geological Engineering
practical soil laboratories within the scope of Sleyman Demirel University project
was determined that the grains of the soil were distributed as 6%
support and Isparta Public Waterworks Administration. gravel, 50% sand and 44% silt and clay. Then the consistency limits
At rst, powder component, solidry was added to the natural soil sample from test on the natural soil sample showed that the liquid limit was
Isparta Dardere by taking the percentage according to the dry weight of the soil, 32%, the plastic limit was 17% and the plasticity index was 15%.
and after that the additive consolid444 was added to this mixture. Consolid444
According to these results the soil sample was classied in accor-
was added to the soil by agitating after being added into water as 0.8 l/m3. First
of all, the optimum water content of the soil without additives (15%) and the max- dance with USCS, and the soil class was determined as SC. The sam-
imum dry unit volume weight (1.85 t/m3) was determined. Then the added consol- ple compacted through standard proctor method was found to
id444 additive amount was calculated in proportion to the dry weight of the soil have an optimum moisture content of 15%, maximum unit volume
used in the test which was 6000 g weight of 1.85 t/m3, swelling rate of 0.07%, wet CBR rate of 3.7%

Table 2
Chemical and physical characteristics of lime used.

Materials Oxides (%)


SiO2 Fe2O3 Al2O3 Ca(OH)2 CaO MgO CO2 H2O CaCO3 MgCO3 S
Lime 0.60 0.30 0.20 87.00 0.60 0.80 10.20 0.20
S. Eren, M. Filiz / Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 24732480 2477

Table 3
Chemical and physical characteristics of cement used.

Materials SO3 (%) Specic gravity (kg/m3) Specic surface (cm2/g) Time of setting (min) Expansion (mm) Compressive strength (MPa)
2 day 7 day
Cement (CEM I 42.5 R) 2.67 3090 2910 164 1 25.6 38.3

and the soil description was determined to be very bad [12]. The 4.2.4. Effect of consolid system in natural soil on consistency limit
permeability coefcient was calculated as 6.54196  109 during The additive rates that were used increased the liquid limit and
the decreasing level permeability test on the natural soil sample plastic limit values while decreasing the plasticity index values.
from Isparta Dardere. The specic gravity of the soil was deter- The liquid limit of the soil mixed with consolid444 + 1% solidry
mined as 2.70 with the picnometer test. The engineering properties was found to be as 34%, plastic limit as 24% and plasticity index
of the natural sample from Isparta Dardere are shown in Table 4. as 10%. The liquid limit of the soil mixed with consolid444 + 2% sol-
idry was found to be as 34, plastic limit as 31 and plasticity index
4.2. Chemical stabilisation of natural soil by consolid addition as 3.

4.2.1. Effect of consolid system in natural soil on OMC and maximum 4.2.5. Effect of consolid system in natural soil on specic gravity
dry density The additive rates that were used caused the specic gravity of
The Consolid444 + Solidry additives that were used caused the the natural soil sample to decrease, and this value was found to be
maximum dry unit volume weights of the natural soil sample to as 2.6 for all of the samples mixed with consolid. The engineering
decrease. The maximum dry unit weight of the soil mixed with properties of the samples mixed with consolid444 + solidry were
consolid444 + 1% solidry was found to be as 1.81 t/m3 and the shown in Table 5.
maximum dry unit weight of the soil mixed with Consolid444 + 2%
solidry as 1.79 t/m3. The Consolid444 + solidry additives that were 4.3. Chemical stabilisation of natural soil by lime addition
used did not caused any change regarding the optimum moisture
content of the natural soil sample from Isparta Dardere. The max- 4.3.1. Effect of lime in natural soil on OMC and maximum dry density
imum dry density and optimum moisture content of soil mixed As the lime amount mixed with the natural soil increased,
with Consolid444 + solidry are shown in Fig. 1. expectedly [2] the optimum moisture content also increased. The
optimum moisture content of the soil mixed with 4% lime was
4.2.2. Effect of consolid system in natural soil on wet CBR found to be as 18%, the soil mixed with 6% lime as 18%, the soil
As the amount of the consolid additives mixed with the natural mixed with 8% lime as 19.2%, and the soil mixed with 10% lime
soil increased, the wet CBR percentages increased accordingly. As a as 19.5%.
result of the wet CBR test, the wet CBR percentage of the soil mixed As the amount of the lime increased, expectedly [2] the maxi-
with Consolid444 + 1% solidry was found to be as 33.3% and the mum dry unit volume weight of the natural soil sample was de-
soil description was determined to be good. The wet CBR percent- creased. The maximum dry unit volume weight of the sample
age of the soil mixed with consolid444 + 2% solidry was found to be mixed with 4% lime was found to be as 1.69 t/m3, as 1.67 t/m3
as 51.4% and the soil description was determined to be very good for the sample mixed with 6% of lime, 1.65 t/m3 for the sample
[12]. mixed with 8% of lime and 1.65 t/m3 for the sample mixed with
10% of lime. The maximum dry density and optimum moisture
4.2.3. Effect of consolid system in natural soil on swelling content of soil mixed with lime are shown in Fig. 2.
The consolid444 + solidry additives caused the swelling per-
centage of the natural soil sample to decrease. The swelling per-
centage of the soil mixed with consolid444 + 1% solidry was
found to be as 0.05% and as 0.02% for the soil mixed with Consol- 1.85
id444 + 2% solidry.
1.82

1.79
Table 4
Engineering properties of soil used in the study.
1.76
dry unit weight (t/m3 )

Soil properties Values


1.73
Specic gravity 2.7
Grain size analysis (%) 1.7
Gravel 6
Sand 50 1.67
Silt and clay 44
Consistency limit (%) 1.64
soil
Liquid limit 32
Plastic limit 17 1.61
1% solidry+consolid444
Plasticity index 15 2%solidry+consolid444
Texture of classication based on plasticity chart SC 1.58

Compaction study
Optimum moisture content (OMC) (%) 15 1.55

Maximum dry density (t/m3) 1.85 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25


California bearing ratio (CBR) (%) 3.7 water content (%)
Percentage of swelling (%) 0.07
Permeability coefcient (cm/s) 6.54196  109 Fig. 1. Changes in water content and maximum dry unit volume weights of natural
soilconsolid additives.
2478 S. Eren, M. Filiz / Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 24732480

Table 5
The overall view of the changes on the engineering properties of the natural soil caused by all of the additives.

Admixtures (%) Gs OMC (%) cd (t/m3) CBR (%) LL PL PI Swelling (%)


Soil 2.7 15 1.85 3.7 32 17 15 0.07
Soil + 4C 2.7 16 1.81 28.6 37 24 13 0.01
Soil + 6C 2.7 15.5 1.79 64.8 37 27 10 0.01
Soil + 8C 2.7 16 1.75 141.0 36 33 3 0.01
Soil + 10C 2.7 15 1.76 Could not read 36 35 1 0.01
Soil + 4L 2.7 18 1.69 16.2 31 23 8 0.00
Soil + 6L 2.7 18 1.67 85.7 33 29 4 0.00
Soil + 8L 2.7 19.2 1.65 121.4 33 31 2 0.00
Soil + 10L 2.7 19.5 1.65 112.4 33 32 1 0.00
C444 + 1S 2.6 15 1.81 33.3 34 24 10 0.05
C444 + 2S 2.6 15 1.79 51.4 34 31 3 0.02

Gs: specic gravity, CBR: California bearing ratio, 4C: 4% cement, C444: consolid444, 1S: 1% solidry, 4L: 4% lime, OMC: optimum moisture content, LL: liquid limit, PL: plastic
limit, PI: plasticity index.

4.3.2. Effect of lime in natural soil on wet CBR was found to be as 33%, the plastic limit as 31% and the plasticity
As the lime rate mixed with the natural soil was increased, ini- index as 2%. The liquid limit of the soil mixed with 10% of lime
tially substantial increases were observed in the wet CBR percent- was found to be as 33%, the plastic limit as 32% and the plasticity
ages, and this increase reached the maximum with the addition of index as 1%.
8% of lime, whereas the CBR percentage decreased, as expected,
when the lime amount was continued to be increased [4]. The 4.3.5. Effect of lime in natural soil on specic gravity
wet CBR percentage of the soil mixed with 4% of lime was found The lime additives that were used did not cause any change
to be as 16.2%, as 87.7% for the soil mixed with 6%, 121.4% for regarding the specic gravity of the natural soil sample. The results
the soil mixed with 8% of lime, and 112.4% for the soil mixed with from the tests on the lime-added samples are shown in Table 5.
10% of lime. As seen, after the addition of 8% of lime, the CBR value
did not increase on the contrary it began to decrease. 4.4. Chemical stabilisation of natural soil by cement addition

4.3.3. Effect of lime in natural soil on swelling 4.4.1. Effect of cement in natural soil on OMC and maximum dry
According to the test results no swelling was seen in the soil density
samples mixed with lime. As the amount of cement added to the natural soil increased
maximum dry unit volume weights were observed to decrease.
4.3.4. Effect of lime in natural soil on consistency limit The maximum dry unit volume weight of the sample mixed with
During the consistency tests it was seen that as the amount of 4% of cement was found to be as 1.81 t/m3, as 1.79 t/m3 for the
mixed lime increased, expectedly [2] the plastic limit values of sample mixed with 6% of cement, 1.75 t/m3 for the sample mixed
the soil also increased whereas the plasticity index values demon- with 8% of cement and 1.76 t/m3 for the sample mixed with 10%
strated decrease. The liquid limit of the soil mixed with 4% of lime of cement. The optimum moisture content of the soil mixed with
was found to be as 31%, the plastic limit as 23% and the plasticity 4% cement was found to be as 16%, the soil mixed with 6% cement
index as 8%. The liquid limit of the soil mixed with 6% of lime as 15.5%, the soil mixed with 8% cement as 16%, and the soil mixed
was found to be as 33%, the plastic limit as 29% and the plasticity with 10% cement as 15%. The maximum dry density and optimum
index as 4%. The liquid limit of the soil mixed with 8% of lime moisture content of soils mixed with cement are shown in Fig. 3.

1.85 1.85

1.82 1.82

1.79 1.79

1.76 1.76
dry unit weight (t/m3)
dry unit weight (t/m3)

1.73 1.73

1.7 1.7
soil
4% lime
1.67 6% lime 1.67
8% lime
soil
1.64 10% lime 1.64
4%cement
6%cement
1.61 1.61
8%cement
10%cement
1.58 1.58

1.55 1.55

5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25
water content (%) water content (%)

Fig. 2. Changes in water content and maximum dry unit volume weights of natural Fig. 3. Changes in water content and maximum dry unit volume weights of natural
soillime additives. soilcement additives.
S. Eren, M. Filiz / Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 24732480 2479

20 160 154.3
lime 19.5
lime
cement 19.2 141
cement
solidry+consolid444 solidry+consolid444
optimum moisture content(%)

121.4
120
112.4
18 18
18

wet C.B.R (%)


85.7

80

64.8
16 16
16
51.4
15.5

40
15 15 15 15 33.3
28.6

16.2

14 3.7
1 3 5 7 9 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
1 3 5 7 9
admixture content (%) 0 2 4 6 8 10
admixture content (%)
Fig. 4. The changes in optimum moisture contents caused by the additive types
added to natural soil. Fig. 6. The changes in wet CBR caused by the additive types added to natural soil.

4.4.2. Effect of cement in natural soil on wet CBR


As the amount of the cement added to the natural soil in- ment was found to be as 37%, the plastic limit as 24% and the
creased, the wet CBR percentages also increased. The wet CBR per- plasticity index as 13%. The liquid limit of the soil mixed with 6%
centage of the soil mixed with 4% of cement was found to be as of cement was found to be as 37%, the plastic limit as 27% and
28.6%, as 64.8% for the soil mixed with 6% of cement, 141.0% for the plasticity index as 10%. The liquid limit of the soil mixed with
the soil mixed with 8%. The wet CBR percentage of the soil mixed 8% of cement was found to be as 36%, the plastic limit as 33% and
with 10% of cement could not be read as it was too solid. the plasticity index as 3%. The liquid limit of the soil mixed with
10% of cement was found to be as 36%, the plastic limit as 35%
4.4.3. Effect of cement in natural soil on swelling and the plasticity index as 1%.
As the cement amount added to the natural soil increased,
swelling percentages decreased and the swelling rates for all of 4.4.5. Effect of cement in natural soil on specic gravity
the soil samples mixed with cement was found to be as 0.01%. The cement additives that were used did not cause any change
regarding the specic gravity of the natural soil sample. The re-
4.4.4. Effect of cement in natural soil on consistency limit sults from the tests on the Cement-added samples are shown in
During the consistency tests it was seen that as the amount of Table 5, and the changes in optimum moisture content, maximum
mixed cement increased, expectedly [2] the plastic limit values dry unit volume weight, wet CBR and consistency limits caused by
of the soil also increased whereas the plasticity index values dem- the additives mixed with the natural soil sample are shown in
onstrated decrease. The liquid limit of the soil mixed with 4% of ce- Figs. 49.

37 37
1.88

lime
1.85 36 36
1.85 cement 36
1.84 solidry+consolid444

1.81 1.81
lime
dry unit weight (t/m3)

1.8
1.79 1.79 cement
34 34
solidry+consolid444
Liquid Limit

34

1.76
1.76 1.75
1.75 33 33 33

1.72
32
32
1.7
1.69

1.68 1.67 31

1.65 1.65
1.65
1.64 30
1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
admixture content (%) admixture content (%)

Fig. 5. The changes in maximum dry unit volume weights caused by the additive Fig. 7. The changes in liquid limit values caused by the additive types added to
types added to natural soil. natural soil.
2480 S. Eren, M. Filiz / Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 24732480

foundation material in a road construction. However, after the


36 lime evaluation of the entire results, the sample mixed with 6% lime
35
cement proved to demonstrate a higher bearing capacity when compared
solidry+consolid444 33 to sample mixed with 6% cement and the sample mixed with Con-
32
solid444 + 2%. Additionally, the most appropriate additive to be
31 31
31 used for this soil sample is considered to be 6% of lime as it is
29 cheaper than cement and consolid444 + solidry additives. How-
Plastic Limit

ever, as the bearing capacity values of the additives that were used
27
are to increase when their curing periods are extended, this crite-
26
rion should also be taken into consideration while evaluating.
24 24
The thickness of a clayey soil can be changed in a great variety
23
from a very thick structure to a viscous liquid by just increasing the
amount of water inside. Accordingly, important differences may
21
occur in engineering properties such as endurance, load deforma-
tion, and compression. Generally, as the plasticity of the soil in-
17 creases, compression and swelling potential also increases and
16
water permeability decreases [18].
While the plasticity value of the natural soil is 15% in this study,
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 used additives caused signicant decreases in plasticity values and
admixture content (%) as a result resistances increased but swelling values decreased. As
Fig. 8. The changes in plastic limit values caused by the additive types added to the lime and silt ratio of the soil is high and 50% of the remaining
natural soil. material is sand, the permeability of the soil is low. As this soil is a
material with low permeability and swelling value, it can be used
as a lling material in the construction of garbage storing areas,
16 dams, roads, etc. where materials with low permeability is
15 lime preferred.
cement
solidry+consolid444
13

References
12

[1] Bowles JE. Physical and geotechnical properties of soils. McGraw-Hill Book
10 10
Company; 1984.
Plasticity index

[2] Guney Y, Sari D, Cetin M, Tuncan M. Impact of cyclic wettingdrying on


swelling behavior of lime-stabilized soil. Build Environ 2007;42:6818.
8
8 [3] Bell FG. Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils. Eng Geol
1996;42:22337.
[4] Bell FG. Department of Geology and Applied Geology, University of Natal,
Durban; 1993.
[5] Atanur A. Lime stabilization and its application in road construction. Ege
4
University Library of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ankara; 1973.
4 [6] Dunn IS, Anderson LR, Kiefer FW. Geotechnical analysis. Utah State University,
3 3 3 Canada; 1980.
2 [7] Lee KI, White W, Ingles, OG. Geotechnical engineering. The University of New
South Woles, Australia; 1983.
1
[8] Coduto DP. Geotechnical engineering, principles and practices. California State
Polytechnic University, Pomona; 1999.
0
[9] Karol RH. Soils and soil engineering. New Jersey; 1960.
1 3 5 7 9
0 2 4 6 8 10 [10] Bahar R, Benazzoug M, Kenai S. Performance of compacted cement-stabilised
admixture content (%) soil. Cem Concr Compos 2004;26:81120.
[11] Raj PP. Geotechnical engineering. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing
Fig. 9. The changes in plasticity index values caused by the additive types added to Company Limited; 1995.
[12] Aytekin M. Experimental soil mechanics. Ankara; 2004.
natural soil.
[13] Mokhtar S. Waste management a future challenge for the protection of
mineral sources. Cairo University, Egypt; 2000. p. 11823.
5. Conclusions [14] Publications of consolid AG. Switzerland, 2006, <www.consolid.co.uk/
introduction.asp>, <www.consolid.co.uk/faq.asp>.
[15] Giurgea, VI. Hydrogeological and geotechnical requirements for the
When the results that were found for the sample from Isparta construction of radioactive waste disposal sites with respect to the consolid
Dardere are evaluated in terms of bearing capacity, the following system. Thesis submitted to the University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe; 1999.
conclusions are reached. All additives added to Isparta Dardere [16] Erylmaz C. Consolid insaat yatirim danismanlik dis ticaret A.S
. Isparta; 2006.
<www.consolid.com.tr>.
natural soil material which is inappropriate to be used as a bearing [17] Turkish Standards Institution, TS 1900/April 1975. Soil tests in civil
in any road construction signicantly increased the bearing capac- engineering, Ankara.
ity of this material and enabled it to be used as sub-foundation and [18] zaydn K. Soil mechanics. Yldz niversity, Turkey; 1989.