Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

CONJUNCTIVE WORDS & EXPRESSIONS

http://abacus.bates.edu/~kofuji/StudyResources/EnglishConjunctions.html

note 1: A conjunction in Japanese language is a word (=conjunction) or a relational


expression to connect two sentences, phrases, or words.

note 2: When you are not able to read a Kanji, please use the dictionaries on the
internet.

note 3 A particle (or particles) might be used after an adverb or a conjunction.

note 4: The usage is not necessarily same in English and in Japanese sentences.
PLEASE LOOK at conjunctions based on JPN which has a different categorization and
more explanation for their usage.

note 5: Please let me (Ofuji) know a correct expression and its usage in English.

There are some "chips" for the commonly used conjunctions at the end of this page.

1. SERIES

at first
first
second; then
third
next
after that
again
last
primarily
secondarily
in the first place
in the second place
finally
at last, after all
additionally
first and foremost
the former
the latter
before ~
after ~

2. CHRONOLOGICAL transitions to signal relationship IN TIME

presently
nowadays; today
before
long time ago
immediately
soon
shortly
following this/that
there upon
thereafter
soon afterward
afterward; later
from then on
since then; from that time; ever since
the next day; following day
meanwhile
at length
beforehand
at that moment
before; earlier than; ahead; beyond; away; previously; recently
at this time
till/ until (clause) ; as far as "a plac"
by that time

3. SPECIAL transitions to signal relationship IN SPACE

between those ~
among these ~
beyond this point
within ~
from one place to another
about a foot to the left
just to the right
step by step
through ~
via ~
this side + the other side

4. 1) ADDITION / SUPPLEMENTARY

and [vs. as "or"]


and yet
too
also
again
and then
moreover
further
furthermore
besides
in addition (to)
plus
and yet
nevertheless
not only X but also Y or

together
jointly

2) an EXPANSION to what precedes

and then/ immediately after


and then
and then
and then
then/ and so

. COMPARISON transitions to signal what follows is SIMILAR TO what precedes

also ...
like...; likewise
similar to ...
in the same way; at the same time :
same
both and or
either X or Y or
neither X nor Y or

. CONTRAST transitions to signal A CONTRADICTION OR CONTRAST

1) S1 and S2 are opposite.

but; yet; however


although; though; but; however
but; however ( used in a written form)
but; however ( "intention" never be used in the Clause after this
word.)
unlike ...
different / another
2) S2 is NOT an expected or predicted result of S1.

however; unlike my expectation


to the contrary; by contraries
but; however
in spite of the fact that

3) S2 is an opinion or judgment against S1.

but; however, hence


but and yet; still; nevertheless
but then but still; though or

7.

1) CAUSE-EFFECT transitions to signal what follows is A RESULT of what precedes

note: Emotive expressions --desire (), will (volutional forms), request /


command (), suggestion / advice (
), intention , supposition), invitation (
), etc.

so (,Not used with the emotive expressions)


therefore (written form; stress on the effect)
(written form)
consequently
as a result; as a consequence; consequently
for this / that reason (stress on the reason) hence
(stress on the reason) wherefore because of ~

due to ~

2) To signal that what follows is a REASON of what precedes, use EFFECT CAUSE
transition

for
the reason why ~ is that
8. EMPHASIS

obviously
certainly
perhaps
surely
naturally
very likely
really
to be sure
in truth; in fact
indeed
undoubtedly
assuredly
without fail
surprisingly

9. AN EXAMPLE, AN ILLUSTRATION, A QUALIFICATION

"a general name / category" called "a specific name" such


as X, Y, Z
for example / for instance
to illustrate
generally / in general
usually
especially
specifically
particularly/ in particular
occasionally
; that is,

10. EXPECTED, NATURAL, OR OBVIOUSLY TRUE

to be sure
of course
naturally
surely
for that matter
as a matter of fact

11. COUNTER ARGUMENT transitions for CONCESSION

of course
doubtless
to doubt that
certainly
to be sure
granted that

12. SUMMARY OR CONCLUSION transitions to illustrate that what follows is a


REPETITION OR INTENSIFICATION of that which precedes *note: Read the section,
"cause-effect" also.

in other words; in short ; in brief


to repeat
as we have seen
as noted earlier
to put it another way
indeed
in any case
in fact
besides
thus
for this reason
on the whole
in a word
to summarize
in summary
in sum
in conclusion
to conclude
finally
all in all

"chips" to avoid confusion


"The main sentence" means the sentence after the conjunction.
"Emotive expressions" means "will" "desire" "command" and so on.

(1) connect a word, phrase, sentence and another word, phrase,


sentence. (2) The main sentence should be a consequential matter. (3) used for
"one topic" (person, place, matter) (4) can be used for the relation to express a
reason or a result.
(1) connect a word, phrase, sentence and another word, phrase,
sentence. (2) chronological matter (3) means "other than that, the next ....." (4)
used to change a topic (5) can NOT use for a reason or a result
(1) connect a word, phrase, sentence and another word, phrase,
sentence. (2) addition (3) objective opinions (4) can NOT use for subjective opinions
and commands
(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) the main sentence is a
reasonable effect or a strong reason of the previous sentence--a cause. (3) The main
sentence can be "emotive expressions."
(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) the main sentence is an
effect, result (3) the previous sentence should be a cause or reason. (4)The main
sentence can NOT be "emotive expressions." (5) in a dialog, it is used to urge,
facilitate the speaker
(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) as a result
(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) for
extraordinary goal with often the present tense (3) reason ~ with often the "past sense"
(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or sentence. (2)
the previous sentence is (often unexpected) situational next action or natural result
occurs.(3) The main sentence should be a verbal sentence, but not an adjectival
sentence.
(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) the 2nd
incident/matter [main sentence] follows to the 1st one. (3) often both sentences are
"past tense." (4) The main sentence is a natural consequence of the previous sentence.
(1) connect a sentence and another
sentence. (2) The main sentence is the speaker's/writer's suggestion, intention,
judgement.
(1) connect a sentence and another sentence; used when the
subbodinate clause is a verbal sentence. (2) unexpected situation (3) The main
sentence should be a fact, but not an "emotive" expression.
(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or sentence.
(2) The content of the main sentence is diffrent from the previous sentence. (3)
contrast two opposite things. (4) The main sentence is the speaker's opinion and
reaction to the previous sentence. (5) in dialog, to suggest a topic used by men ( by
women)
//(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or
sentence. (2) The content of the main sentence is diffrent from the previous sentence.
(3) support the previous sentence more than (4) The main sentence can be the
speker's opinion, question, emotion, unexpected thought, doubt, suspition, etc. (5)
used just to connect two senences to get attention or soften the speaker's talk.
(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) The main
sentence is diffrent from the previous sentence. (3) contrast two opposite things. (4)

(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or sentence. (2) The
main sentence can be the speaker's surprise, unexpected matter OR the
speaker's judgement, opinion, reaction. (3) used just to connect two senences
to get attention or soften the speaker's talk.
(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) to change a topic
(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or sentence. (2)
also/besides
(1) connect a phrase or sentence and another phrase or sentence. (2)
to bring up an example
(1) connect a sentence and another sentence. (2) The content of the
main sentence is unexpectedly opposite of the expected result of the previous sentence.
(3) The main sentence shows blaming, suprise, unsatisfaction -- negative connotation.