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1.a.

The aim of the course

The aim of the course is to reach the level of proficiency necessary for the pilot to
obtain, renew or revalidate a SEP(L) rating and/or operate a specific variant of
airplane safely and efficiently according to the EASA Part-ORA and Part-FCL
regulations. According to GM1 to FCL.700, the SEP(L) rating will entitle the pilot to
operate as PIC of any of the following airplanes:

SEP (land)
SEP (land) with variable pitch propellers (VP)
SEP (land) with retractable undercarriage (RU)
SEP (land) with turbo or super charged engines (T)
SEP (land) with cabin pressurisation (P)
SEP (land) with tail wheels (TW)
SEP (land) with electronic flight instruments system (EFIS)
SEP (land) with single lever power control (SLPC)

In order to achieve this goal, the ATO will either recommend a pilot for a proficiency
check without any specific training in the case of a revalidation or provide a specific
training (familiarisation, difference, refresher or full course) in accordance with
FCL.740 and its associated AMC.

The details of the practical flight training (briefing and air exercises) have been
documented in chapter 2 of this TM. The details of the theoretical knowledge
instruction have been documented in chapter 4 of this TM.

According to FLC.725, in the case of the issue of a SEP(L) rating, the pilot shall pass
the skill test within a period of 6 months after commencement of the SEP(L) rating
training course at the ATO and within a period of 6 months preceding the application
for the issue of the SEP(L) rating. The ATO applies the same rule for the renewal of a
SEP(L) rating and for any familiarisation or difference course.

The theoretical knowledge instruction and practical training will be given by qualified
FIs under the supervision of the HT.

1.b. Pre-entry requirements

Applicants for the issue, renewal or revalidation of a SEP(L) class rating shall:

be at least 17 years old;

hold at least a PPL(A);

hold a valid class 1 or class 2 medical certificate;

hold a valid ELP certificate according to FCL.055.

Applicants for a familiarisation or difference course shall fulfil the above mentioned
requirements as well as hold a valid or expired SEP(L) class rating. Renewal,
revalidation and refresher training programmes can be combined with difference or
familiarisation courses and vice-versa.

The applicant for a SEP(L) rating is allowed to perform training flights in national,
European and international airspace under dual control with a FI.
The registration procedure of the applicant in the ATO has been detailed in this TM,
chapter 1, paragraph 1.g.

1.c. Credits for previous experience

The ATO will give no credits to pilots who have started a training course for the issue
or renewal of a SEP(L) rating in another ATO.

Issue of a SEP(L) rating

FCL.725 specifies that an applicant for a class or type rating shall complete a training
course at an ATO and pass a theoretical knowledge examination.

The practical training course will include all flight briefings and exercises described in
Part 2 of this TM and the full theoretical knowledge programme described in Part 4 of
this TM. After successful completion of the training, the HT will sign the pilot off for
the skill test and issue a certificate, or other documental evidence that the training
has been successfully achieved by the applicant, to be submitted to the competent
authority when applying for the issue of the rating. The certificate or documental
evidence will contain a description of the training programme covered.

Renewal of a SEP(L) rating

Paragraph (b)(1) of FCL.740 determines that if a class or type rating has lapsed, the
applicant shall take refresher training at an ATO. The objective of the training is to
reach the level of proficiency necessary to safely operate the relevant type or class of
aircraft. The amount of refresher training needed will be determined on a case-by-
case basis by the ATO, taking into account the following factors:

(1) the experience of the applicant. To determine this, the ATO should
evaluate the pilots log book, and, if necessary, conduct a test in an FSTD;

(2) the complexity of the aircraft;

(3) the amount of time lapsed since the expiry of the validity period of the
rating. The amount of training needed to reach the desired level of proficiency
should increase with the time lapsed. In some cases, after evaluating the pilot,
and when the time lapsed is very limited (less than 3 months), the ATO may
even determine that no further refresher training is necessary. When
determining the needs of the pilot, the following items can be taken into
consideration:

(i) expiry shorter than 3 months: no supplementary requirements;

(ii) expiry longer than 3 months but shorter than 1 year: a minimum of
two training sessions;

(iii) expiry longer than 1 year but shorter than 3 years: a minimum of
three training sessions in which the most important malfunctions in the
available systems are covered;

(iv) expiry longer than 3 years: the applicant should again undergo the
training required for the initial issue of the rating.
Once the needs of the applicant have been determined, the ATO will establish an
individual training programme that should be based on the initial training programme
for the issue of the rating and focus on the aspects where the applicant has shown
the greatest needs.

After successful completion of the training, the ATO should give a certificate, or other
documental evidence that the training has been successfully achieved to the
applicant, to be submitted to the competent authority when applying for the renewal.
The certificate or documental evidence needs to contain a description of the training
programme. The ATO will then recommend the applicant for the proficiency check.
Further training may be required following a failed proficiency check, based on the
feedback from the FE.

Revalidation of a SEP(L) rating

The validity of the SEP(Land) class rating is 2 years (FCL.740).

According to FCL.740.A:

(1) For revalidation of single-pilot single-engine piston aeroplane class ratings or


TMG class ratings the applicant shall:

(i) within the 3 months preceding the expiry date of the rating, pass a
proficiency check in the relevant class in accordance with Appendix 9 to this
Part with an examiner; or

(ii) within the 12 months preceding the expiry date of the rating, complete 12
hours of flight time in the relevant class, including:

- 6 hours as PIC,

- 12 take-offs and 12 landings, and

- a training flight of at least 1 hour with a flight instructor (FI) or a class


rating instructor (CRI). Applicants shall be exempted from this flight if
they have passed a class or type rating proficiency check or skill test in
any other class or type of aeroplane.

(2) When applicants hold both a single-engine piston aeroplane-land class rating and
a TMG rating, they may complete the requirements of (1) in either class or a
combination thereof, and achieve revalidation of both ratings.

(3) Single-pilot single-engine turbo-prop aeroplanes. For revalidation of single-engine


turbo-prop class ratings applicants shall pass a proficiency check on the relevant
class in accordance with Appendix 9 to Part FCL with an examiner, within the 3
months preceding the expiry date of the rating.

(4) When applicants hold both a single-engine piston aeroplane-land class rating and
a single-engine piston aeroplane-sea class rating, they may complete the
requirements of (1)(ii) in either class or a combination thereof, and achieve the
fulfilment of these requirements for both ratings. At least 1 hour of required PIC time
and 6 of the required 12 take-offs and landings shall be completed in each class.
Applicants who fail to achieve a pass in all sections of a proficiency check before the
expiry date of a class or type rating shall not exercise the privileges of that rating until
a pass in the proficiency check has been achieved.

A pilot who does not satisfy to the conditions detailed in point (1) here above will
necessarily have to take a proficiency check with a FE. The pilot may want to perform
a refresher training with a FI before the proficiency check although the regulation
does not impose it. Upon request of the pilot, the ATO can set up a tailor-made
refresher programme. The content of the programme can be determined after an
assessment flight with any FI registered in the ATO and will consist of parts of the
initial training programme for the issue of the rating, focusing on the aspects where
the applicant has shown the greatest needs.

Familiarisation and difference courses

According to FCL.710 class and type ratings variants,

(a) In order to extend his/her privileges to another variant of aircraft within one
class or type rating, the pilot shall undertake differences or familiarisation
training. In the case of variants within a type rating, the differences or
familiarisation training shall include the relevant elements defined in the
operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21.

(b) If the variant has not been flown within a period of 2 years following the
differences training, further differences training or a proficiency check in
that variant shall be required to maintain the privileges, except for types or
variants within the single-engine piston and TMG class ratings.

(c) The differences training shall be entered in the pilots logbook or equivalent
record and signed by the instructor as appropriate.

An applicant desiring to extend his/her privileges to another variant of aircraft within


the SEP(L) class rating must undergo:

A familiarisation training requiring the acquisition of additional


knowledge about the specific aircraft model when remaining inside one
of the following 8 categories of aircraft:

1. SEP (land)
2. SEP (land) with variable pitch propellers (VP)
3. SEP (land) with retractable undercarriage (RU)
4. SEP (land) with turbo or super charged engines (T)
5. SEP (land) with cabin pressurisation (P)
6. SEP (land) with tail wheels (TW)
7. SEP (land) with electronic flight instruments system (EFIS)
8. SEP (land) with single lever power control (SLPC)
A difference training requiring the acquisition of additional knowledge
and training on an appropriate training device or on the aircraft when
stepping from one of the 8 above listed categories to another.

Familiarisation training will consist of the study of the relevant sections of the aircraft
POH as well as any applicable SOP in force in the ATO. The amount of training on
the aircraft or appropriate training device contained in a difference course will depend
on the aircraft complexity, previous experience and proficiency of the applicant in the
operation of the particular aircraft systems.

Difference and familiarisation courses can be combined with any of the training
programmes established by the ATO to revalidate, renew or issue a SEP(L) class
rating.

1.d. Training syllabi

Both a flight training syllabus and a theoretical knowledge training syllabus can be
part of the course.

The integration of these syllabi into the theoretical and practical training is described
in detail in chapters 2 and 4.

1/ Flight training syllabus:

- The Air Pilot's Manual, volume 1 Flying Training. Author: Trevor Thom.
Editor: Air Pilot Publishing)

- SOPs in force in the ATO

- POH of the relevant aircraft

2/ Theoretical knowledge training syllabus:

- POH of the relevant aircraft

- The Air Pilot's Manual, volume 4 The Aeroplane Technical. Author: Trevor
Thom. Editor: Air Pilot Publishing.

1.e. Time scale and scale in weeks, for each syllabus

Not applicable

1.f. Training programme

Not applicable

1.g. Training records

Brussels Aviation School will make sure it keeps track of the applicant records (i.e.,
mandatory documents such as ID, medical certificate, ELP certificate, pilot license,
BCAA forms and flight debriefing sheets).

Brussels Aviation School uses an online e-Learning Platform which allows it to store
all the applicant records in an electronic version and keep a precise track of the
applicant progress. Thanks to this e-Learning Platform, the applicant can access
his/her training file through the pilot profile page at any time and follow his/her
personal progression closely. Also, FIs can access any applicant profile on the
platform and know precisely what has been done and what remains to do for each
applicant.
The HT will ensure all the flight debriefing sheets have been completed by the FIs on
the pilot profile. These sheets should reflect the progress the applicant has made
during his/her flight training. The HT will also ensure that any entry in the logbook of
the pilot has been signed by the FIs.

Registration of an applicant in the ATO

When a new applicant enters the ATO, a new account will be created on the ATO e-
Learning Platform (see appendix 1 to this chapter) as well as on the ATO Pilot e-
Lounge. Once created, the student will receive a briefing on the content and purpose
of the ATO e-Learning Platform. The applicant shall further complete his/her profile
him/herself and upload any mandatory documents such as the medical certificate
under the Documents tab of his online profile (see appendix 2 to this chapter). The
applicant will be informed that he/she shall keep his/her online profile up-to-date.

The paragraph standardisation of entries in training records below lists the


documents which should as a minimum be inserted into the applicants online
records.

Standardization of entries in training records

All FIs and the HT will use the same standard documents, added in appendix to
chapters 2 and 4, for:

Debriefing a pilot (Chapter 2, Appendix 3 Standard debriefing sheet)


Documenting the progress of a pilot: which flight training exercises have
been started or completed (Chapter 2, Appendix 2 - Pilot progress page).

Signing off a student for the proficiency check or skill test (Chapter 2,
Appendix 1 BCAA forms)

Rules concerning logbook entries

Please refer to OM, Part A, paragraph A.18.

Rules for security of records and documents

Please refer to OM, Part A, paragraph A.11

1.h. Safety training

One of the main aims of the ATO is to ensure the safety of aviation activities as far as
possible. This goal includes the introduction and the correct application of a SMS.

Safety training is described in the OMM, Part 2, paragraph 2.14.

Emergency drills

Emergency drills are integrated in the flight training in the form of exercises 1b, 5b,
and 12/13e. Please refer to chapter 2, paragraph 2.a. of this manual for further
details.

Essential exercises
The essential skills a pilot must develop before completing the training are described
in chapter 2, paragraph 2.a.

Assessment of student proficiency

Pilot proficiency is regularly assessed during the flight training. The content of this
continuous assessment process is described in chapter 2, paragraph 2.g.

1.i. Tests and examinations

1.i.1 Theoretical knowledge

According to FCL.725 describing the requirements for the issue of class and type
ratings, for single-engine aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be
conducted verbally by the examiner during the skill test or proficiency check to
determine whether or not a satisfactory level of knowledge has been achieved.

1.i.2. Practical examination (proficiency check or skill test)

Only the HT has the authority to sign a pilot off for the proficiency check or skill test.

The conditions for being signed off are:

The applicant has completed the training for the renewal or issue of the
class rating.

The applicant holds at least a PPL(A).

The applicant holds a valid ELP certificate.

The applicant holds a valid medical certificate.

The skill test or proficiency check will be performed by a BCAA approved FE, using
the standard BCAA form Skill test and proficiency check report form also mentioned
in appendix 1 to chapter 2.

1.j. Training effectiveness

Since achieving training effectiveness is essential to any flight school, the HT


encourages an open debate between all ATO FIs, TKIs and pilots.

This should involve other users of the airfield, the ATO Board of Directors, the airfield
director, the Air Traffic Controllers or other stakeholders.

The purpose is to identify any deficiencies in the training effectiveness.

These deficiencies will then be discussed by the HT with all FIs and TKIs and will be
remedied as much as possible.

Individual responsibilities with regard to applicant progress

It is essential to successful completion of SEP(L) class rating training that all staff
involved in training are vigilant to the lack of progress of any applicants. The
responsibilities have been defined as follows:
The general attitude by all staff will be: slow progress is acceptable for
PPL(A) holder as long as the required standards for a proficient pilot are
eventually met.

When a TKI detects slow progress, his/her responsibility is to take the


steps described in paragraph 4.d. If the lack of progress cannot be
remedied by the steps specified in this paragraph, he/she will discuss
further initiatives with the HT.

When a FI detects slow progress, he/she will allow extra training flights for
the air exercises concerned. Only when this does not provide a solution,
intervention by the HT will be requested.

The HT will, if he/she needs to intervene, make an appointment with the


applicant and discuss the issues in detail. He/she will write a memo
clarifying to the applicant the standards that should eventually be met to
successfully complete the training. It will state that the applicant will not be
signed off for the proficiency check or skill test before he/she meets those
standards. However, given the recreational character of flying for leisure, a
constructive proposal will be included on how the HT would like the
applicant to proceed. Both parties will sign the document which will be
placed in the applicants records.

Procedure in the case of a change of instructor

A change of instructor is not critical during the SEP(L) class rating flight training
since:

each flight exercise to be covered is clearly detailed in the training


programme;

each training session covered will be reported in the ATOs e-Learning


Platform;

on the e-Learning Platform, the FI will evaluate the level of completion of each
specific air exercise and add any consistent remarks;

every FI has access to the applicants training file and can hence monitor any
applicants progress.

Nonetheless, the HT will always assess the opportunity to assign a new FI to an


applicant, based on the reasons for the change and the feedback from both the FI
and the applicant himself. In order to guarantee the highest level of training efficiency,
the HT will make sure that a change of FI remains exceptional. The

maximum number of FIs per applicant is limited to 4 during the flight training phase of
SEP(L) class rating and difference course.

1.k. Standards and Level of performances at various

stages

Not applicable
1.l. Appendices

Please find in appendix to this chapter:

Appendix 1 Pilot online profile page

Appendix 2 Pilot online documents page

Training Manual SEP (land)


Chapter 2
BRIEFINGS AND AIR EXERCISES
ORA.ATO.125 & FCL210.A
2.a. Air exercises

The details regarding the training sessions of the SEP(L) class rating or difference
course flight training can be found in paragraph 2.c. of this chapter.

For each exercise, the following information is given:


Reference is made to the relevant chapter in the syllabus. The suggested pre-
flight briefing for each exercise can be found in the related chapter.
The list of topics to be included in each exercise has been extracted from the
AMC1 FCL.210.A PPL(A).
If the exercise includes a long briefing, the details of this briefing have been
mentioned.

Exercise 1a: Familiarisation with the aeroplane

See chapter 1 of the syllabus Aircraft Familiarisation.

This exercise will be preceded by a long briefing to make the applicant aware of:

(1) introduction to the aeroplane;


(2) explanation of the cockpit layout;
(3) aeroplane and engine systems;
(4) checklists, drills and controls;
(5) propeller safety;
(i) precautions general;
(ii) precautions before and during hand turning;
(iii) hand swinging technique for starting (if applicable to type).
(6) differences when occupying the instructors seat;
(7) emergency drills:
(i) action if fire in the air and on the ground: engine, cock
or cabin and electrical fire;
(ii) system failure as applicable to type;
(iii) escape drills: location and use of emergency equipment
and exits.
Exercise 1b: Emergency drills

See chapter 1 paragraph 1e of the syllabus: Emergency drills.

This exercise includes:

(1) action if fire on the ground and in the air;


(2) engine cabin and electrical system fire;
(3) systems failure;
(4) escape drills, location and use of emergency equipment and
exits.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 2: Preparation for and action after flight

See chapter 2, paragraphs 2a to 2c of the syllabus, Preparation for flight, Starting


and stopping the engine and Post-flight actions.

This exercise includes:

(1) flight authorisation and aeroplane acceptance, including technical


log (if applicable) and certificate of maintenance;
(2) equipment required for flight (maps, etc.);
(3) external checks;
(4) internal checks;
(5) student comfort, harness, seat or rudder pedal adjustment;
(6) starting and warming up checks;
(7) power checks;
(8) running down, system checks and switching off the engine;
(9) leaving the aeroplane, parking, security and picketing;
(10) completion of authorisation sheet and aeroplane serviceability
documents.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 4: Effects of controls


See chapter 4 paragraphs 4a to 4j of the syllabus The primary effect of each main
flight control, The further effect of each main flight control, The art of trimming,
The effect of airspeed and slipstream, The effects of power changes, The effect
of using flaps, Carburettor Heat, The Mixture control, Using the radio and Cabin
heating and ventilation.

This exercise includes:

(1) primary effects when laterally level and when banked;


(2) further effects of aileron and rudder;
(3) effects of:
(a) air speed;
(b) slipstream;
(c) power;
(d) trimming controls;
(e) flaps;
(f) other controls, as applicable.
(4) operation of:
(a) mixture control;
(b) carburettor heat;
(c) cabin heating or ventilation.
(d) other controls, as applicable

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 5a: Taxiing

See chapter 5 of the syllabus Taxiing an Aeroplane.

This exercise includes:

(1) pre-taxiing checks;


(2) starting, control of speed and stopping;
(3) engine handling;
(4) control of direction and turning (including manoeuvring in
confined spaces);
(5) parking area procedures and precautions;
(6) effect of wind and use of flying controls;
(7) effect of ground surface;
(8) freedom of Rudder movement;
(10) instrument check.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 5b: Emergencies: brake and steering failure

See chapter 5 paragraph 5e of the syllabus Taxiing Emergencies.

This exercise includes:

(1) emergencies: steering failure and brake failure.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 6: Straight and level

See chapter 6 paragraph 6a to 6c of the syllabus Flying straight and level in balance
at constant power, Flying straight and level in balance at a selected airspeed,
Cruising with flap extended.

This exercise includes:

(1) at normal cruising power, attaining and maintaining straight


and level flight;
(2) flight at critically high air speeds;
(3) demonstration of inherent stability;
(4) control in pitch, including use of trim;
(5) lateral level, direction and balance and trim;
(6) at selected air speeds (use of power);
(7) during speed and configuration changes;
(8) use of instruments for precision.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 7: Climbing
See chapter 7 of the syllabus Climbing.

This exercise includes:

(1) entry, maintaining the normal and max rate climb and
levelling off;
(2) levelling off at selected altitudes;
(3) en-route climb (cruise climb);
(4) climbing with flap down;
(5) recovery to normal climb;
(6) maximum angle of climb;
(7) engine considerations

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 8: Descending

See chapter 8 paragraphs 8a to 8d of the syllabus "The Glide", The powered


descent, Use of flap in the descent, The sideslip.

This exercise includes:

(1) entry, maintaining and levelling off;


(2) effect of flaps and landing gear, as applicable;
(3) glide, powered and cruise descent (including effect of power
and air speed);
(4) side slipping (on suitable types);
(5) engine considerations.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 9: Turning

See chapter 9 paragraphs 9a to 9d of the syllabus "The medium level turn", The
climbing turn, Descending turns, Turning onto selected headings.

This exercise includes:

(1) entry and maintaining medium level turns;


(2) resuming straight flight;
(3) faults in the turn (for example in correct pitch, bank and
balance);
(4)
(5) climbing turns;
(6) descending turns;
(7) faults in the turns (slipping and skidding on suitable types);

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 10a: Slow flight

See chapter 10 paragraph 10a of the syllabus "Slow Flying".

Note: the objective is to improve the applicants ability to recognise


inadvertent flight at critically low speeds and provide practice in
maintaining the aeroplane in balance while returning to normal air
speed.

This exercise includes:

(1) safety checks;


(2) introduction to slow flight;
(3) controlled flight down to critically slow air speed;
(4) application of full power with correct attitude and balance to
achieve normal climb speed.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 10b: Stalling

See chapter 10 paragraph 10b of the syllabus "Stalling".

This exercise includes:

(1) safety checks;


(2) symptoms;
(3) recognition;
(4) clean stall and recovery without power and with power;
(5) recovery when a wing drops;
(6) approach to stall in the approach and in the landing
configurations, with and without power and recovery at the
incipient stage.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Note: consideration is to be given to manoeuvre limitations and references


to the flight manual or equivalent document (for example owners manual
or pilots operating handbook) in relation to mass and balance limitations.
The safety checks should take into account the minimum safe altitude for
initiating such exercises in order to ensure an adequate margin of safety
for the recovery. If specific procedures for

stalling or spinning exercises and for the recovery techniques are


provided by the flight manual or equivalent document (for example
owners manual or pilots operating handbook), they have to be taken
into consideration. These factors are also covered in the next
exercise spinning.

Exercise 11: Spin avoidance

See chapter 11 paragraphs 11a to 11b of the syllabus "Incipient Spins" and "Full
Spins".

This exercise includes:

(1) safety checks;


(2) stalling and recovery at the incipient spin stage (stall
with excessive wing drop, about 45 );
(3) instructor induced distractions during the stall.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.


Note: consideration is to be given to manoeuvre limitations and references to
the flight manual or equivalent document (for example owners manual or
pilots operating handbook) in relation to mass and balance limitations. The
safety checks should take into account the minimum safe altitude for initiating
such exercises in order to ensure an adequate margin of safety for the
recovery. If specific procedures for stalling or spinning exercises and for the
recovery techniques are provided by the flight manual or equivalent document
(for example owners manual or pilots operating handbook), they have to be
taken into consideration. These factors are also covered in the next exercise
spinning.

Exercise 12: Take-off and climb to downwind position

See chapter 12 of the syllabus "Standard take-off and climb to downwind leg".

This exercise includes:

(1) pre-take-off checks;


(2) into wind take-off;
(3) safeguarding the nose wheel;
(4) crosswind take-off;
(5) drills during and after take-off;
(6) short take-off and soft field procedure/techniques including
performance calculations;
(7) noise abatement procedures.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.


Exercise 13: Circuit, approach and landing

See chapter 13 paragraphs 13a to 13h of the syllabus "The circuit, powered
approach and normal landing", "The go-around", "Departing and joining the circuit",
"The flapless approach and landing", "The glide approach and landing", "Crosswind
operations", "Short-field operations", "Soft-field operations".

This exercise includes:

(1) circuit procedures, downwind and base leg;


(2) powered approach and landing;
(3) safeguarding the nose wheel;
(4) effect of wind on approach and touchdown speeds and use
of flaps;
(5) crosswind approach and landing;
(6) glide approach and landing;
(7) short landing and soft field procedures or techniques;
(8) flapless approach and landing;
(9) wheel landing (tail wheel aeroplanes);
(10) missed approach and go-around;
(11) noise abatement procedures.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 12/13: Emergencies

See chapter 12 paragraph 12e of the syllabus "Emergencies during the take-off".

This exercise includes:


(1) abandoned take-off;
(2) engine failure after take-off;
(3) mislanding and go-around;
(4) missed approach.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 15: Advanced turning

See chapter 15 paragraphs 15a to 15c of the syllabus "The steep level turn",
"Recovery from unusual attitudes", "The steep descending turn".

This exercise includes:

(1) steep turns (45 ), level and descending;


(2) stalling in the turn and recovery;
(3) recoveries from unusual attitudes, including spiral dives.
This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Note: considerations are to be given to manoeuvre limitations and reference to


the flight manual or equivalent document (for example owners manual or
pilots operating handbook) in relation to mass and balance, and any other
restrictions for practice entries to the spin.

Exercise 16: Forced landing without power

See chapter 16 of the syllabus "The forced landing without power".

This exercise includes:

(1) forced landing procedure;


(2) choice of landing area, provision for change of plan;
(3) gliding distance;
(4) descent plan;
(5) key positions;
(6) engine cooling;
(7) engine failure checks;
(8) use of radio;
(9) base leg;
(10) final approach;
(11) landing;
(12) actions after landing

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.

Exercise 17: Precautionary landing

See chapter 17 paragraphs 17a to 17b of the syllabus "The precautionary search and
landing" and "Ditching in water".

This exercise includes:

(1) full procedure away from aerodrome to break-off height;


(2) occasions necessitating;
(3) in-flight conditions;
(4) landing area selection:
(a) normal aerodrome;
(b) disused aerodrome;
(c) ordinary field.
(5) circuit and approach;
(6) actions after landing.

This exercise can be preceded or followed by a briefing if the FI deems it necessary.


2.b. Air exercise reference list

For quick reference by FI, the following air exercise reference list can be consulted.
Further details with regard to each exercise are available in paragraph 2.a.

Exercise 1a: Familiarisation with the aeroplane


Exercise 1b: Emergency drills
Exercise 2: Preparation for and action after flight
Exercise 4: Effects of controls
Exercise 5a: Taxiing
Exercise 5b: Emergencies: brake and steering failure
Exercise 6: Straight and level
Exercise 7: Climbing
Exercise 8: Descending
Exercise 9: Turning
Exercise 10a: Slow flight
Exercise 10b: Stalling
Exercise 11: Spin avoidance
Exercise 12: Take-off and climb to downwind position
Exercise 13: Circuit, approach and landing
Exercise 12/13: Emergencies
Exercise 15: Advanced turning
Exercise 16: Forced landing without power
Exercise 17: Precautionary landing
2.c. Course structure - Phases of training

The content of the training programme depends on the aim of the applicant (i.e. issue
or renewal of a SEP(L) rating, refresher training for the revalidation of a SEP(L)
rating, familiarisation or difference training to extend his/her privileges to another type
of aircraft) but also on the applicants previous experience as a pilot, the time since
the expiry of the rating in the case of a renewal training, and on the complexity of the
aircraft used for the training.

In this respect, the following guidelines can be used by the FI as a reference to adapt
the training programme to the applicants profile.
For the issue of a SEP(L) rating

Before commencing the flight training, a theoretical knowledge instruction must be


provided by a FI in order to make sure the applicant is aware of the specifications of
the aircraft that will be used for the practical training, namely:

General information
Limitations
Emergency procedures
Normal procedures
Performance
Weight and balance
Description and operation of the airplane and its systems
Supplements
Safety tips

All the air exercises described in Chapter 2.a of this part of the TM must be covered
and practiced until the applicant has reached the level of proficiency necessary to
safely operate the relevant type or class of aircraft.

A minimum of 1 theoretical knowledge training session and 3 practical training


sessions is required to complete the training.

After successful completion of the training, the HT will sign the pilot off for the skill
test and issue a certificate, or other documental evidence that the training has been
successfully achieved by the applicant, to be submitted to the competent authority
when applying for the issue of the rating. The certificate or documental evidence will
contain a description of the training programme covered.

The theoretical knowledge examination shall be conducted verbally by the examiner


during the skill test to determine whether or not a satisfactory level of knowledge has
been achieved.

For the renewal of a SEP(L) rating

The amount of refresher training needed will be determined on a case-by-case basis


by the ATO, taking into account the following factors:

(1) the experience of the applicant;

(2) the complexity of the aircraft;

(3) the amount of time lapsed since the expiry of the validity period of the
rating.

To this extent, the following programmes will apply:

I. Expiry shorter than 3 months

No supplementary requirements

II. Expiry longer than 3 months but shorter than 1 year


A minimum of two training sessions are required including at least one
flight training session with a FI. During this flight training session, and at
the discretion of the FI, some or all of the air exercises described in
paragraph 2a of this part of the TM can be covered and reviewed until
the applicant has reached the level of proficiency to safely operate the
airplane. The FI will also assess the level of theoretical knowledge
about the specific airplane through oral questioning. If deemed
necessary by the FI, the second training session can be either a
theoretical training session or a combination of theoretical knowledge
instruction and flight training.

III. Expiry longer than 1 year but shorter than 3 years

A minimum of three training sessions are required including at least two


flight training sessions with a FI. During these flight training sessions,
and at the discretion of the FI, some or all of the air exercises described
in paragraph 2a of this part of the TM can be covered and reviewed until
the applicant has reached the level of proficiency to safely operate the
airplane. The FI will also assess the level of theoretical knowledge
about the specific airplane through oral questioning. If deemed
necessary by the FI, the third training session can be either a theoretical
training session or a combination of theoretical knowledge instruction
and flight training.

IV. Expiry longer than 3 years

The applicant should undergo the training required for the initial issue of
the rating.

In any case, if the applicant has never flown with the aircraft that will be used for the
practical training, then before commencing the flight training, a theoretical knowledge
instruction must be provided by a FI in order to make sure the applicant is aware of
the specifications of the aircraft that will be used for the practical training, namely:

General information
Limitations
Emergency procedures
Normal procedures
Performance
Weight and balance
Description and operation of the airplane and its systems
Supplements
Safety tips

If the applicant has already been familiarised with the aircraft in the past, the FI will
assess the level of knowledge about the aircraft through oral questioning and decide
to review some or all of the items listed here above if deemed necessary.

After successful completion of the training, the HT will sign the pilot off for the
proficiency check and issue a certificate, or other documental evidence that the
training has been successfully achieved by the applicant, to be submitted to the
competent authority when applying for the issue of the rating. The certificate or
documental evidence will contain a description of the training programme covered.

The theoretical knowledge examination shall be conducted verbally by the FE during


the proficiency check to determine whether or not a satisfactory level of knowledge
has been achieved.

For the revalidation of a SEP(L) rating

Although the regulations do not impose any specific refresher training to revalidate a
SEP(L) class rating by a proficiency check with a FE, a pilot may want to perform
some refresher training with a FI before the proficiency check. Upon request of the
pilot, the ATO can set up a tailor-made refresher programme. The content of the
programme can be determined after an assessment flight with any FI registered in
the ATO and will consist of parts of the initial training programme for the issue of the
rating, focusing on the aspects where the applicant has shown the greatest needs.
The amount of training sessions will be left at the FI discretion, and these can consist
of either theoretical training sessions, flight training sessions, or a combination of
theoretical knowledge instruction and flight training

For a familiarisation course

Familiarisation training will consist of the study of the relevant sections of the aircraft
POH as well as any applicable SOP in force in the ATO. A minimum of one theoretical
knowledge session is required to make sure the applicant is aware of the aircraft
particularities, namely:

General information
Limitations
Emergency procedures
Normal procedures
Performance
Weight and balance
Description and operation of the airplane and its systems
Supplements
Safety tips

The FI can also recommend to perform at least one practical flight training session
with the applicant, taking into consideration the applicants previous experience and
complexity of the aircraft.

After successful completion of this course, the FI will write an entry into the
applicants logbook clearly specifying that a familiarisation course has been
performed.

Familiarisation courses can be combined with any of the training programmes


established by the ATO to revalidate, renew or issue a SEP(L) class rating.

For a difference course


A difference training requires the acquisition of additional knowledge and training on
an appropriate training device or on the aircraft. Therefore, a difference course will
consist of:

1) at least one theoretical knowledge session including the study of the aircraft POH
as well as any applicable SOP in force in the ATO to make sure the applicant is
aware of the aircraft particularities, namely:

General information
Limitations
Emergency procedures
Normal procedures
Performance
Weight and balance
Description and operation of the airplane and its systems
Supplements
Safety tips

2) at least one practical flight training session.

The amount of practical training on the aircraft or appropriate training device will
depend on the aircraft complexity, previous experience and proficiency of the
applicant in the operation of the particular aircraft systems.

Difference courses can be combined with any of the training programmes established
by the ATO to revalidate, renew or issue a SEP(L) class rating.

2.d. Course structure - Integration of syllabi

As a guide to the exact content of the flight training exercises, the ATO uses the
following (series of) syllabi:

The Air Pilots Manual part 1 Flying Training. Reference to the applicable
chapters and paragraphs in the syllabus per air exercise is made in paragraph
2.a.

A cross reference list between the air exercises and the syllabus can be found in
appendix 5.

The contents of the air exercises described in paragraph 2.a are based on AMC1
FCL.210.A.

2.e. Student progress

Not applicable

2.f. Instructional methods

Not applicable

2.g. Student Continuous Progress Monitoring

FIs can easily track applicants progress and assess their proficiency at different
stages of the training by analysing the applicants online records. Brussels Aviation
School has developed an e-Learning Platform that includes a very elaborate
monitoring system detailing the pilot progress throughout the training. Thanks to this
online platform, FIs have access to any applicants training file at any moment. Each
and every exercise that the applicant has covered is precisely indicated on the
applicants flight practice page. Exercises and related topics are marked by the FIs
according to the applicants level of proficiency. After each flight, the FI grades the
performance of the applicant with different colours (grey = not covered; orange =
started; light green = in progress; dark green = completed). The FI can also
downgrade the performance of the applicant, if necessary.

It is the responsibility of the FI to make sure that the relevant exercises included in
the training have been covered and up to a satisfactory level of proficiency.

2.h. Glossary of terms

Not applicable
2.i. Appendices

The standard ATO forms have been included here for reference purposes only.

Where a standard BCAA form is provided, the ATO shall use the original document
from the BCAA website www.mobilit.belgium.be. This will ensure use of the latest
available version.

Please find in appendix to this chapter the following documents:

Appendix 1 BCAA forms

Reference to the BCAA forms to be used during and upon completion of


the flight training.

Appendix 2 Applicants progress page. This page is automatically


updated when a new debriefing sheet is filled by the FI at the end of a
training flight. This applicants progress page gives a complete overview of
the state of advancement of the applicant training. Exercises and detailed
items appear in different colours according to their status. Colours are
derived from the last mark given for each particular item by the FI during
the post-flight briefing.

Appendix 3 Standard debriefing sheet. Point 1 shows general information


about the flight and the FI remarks. Point 2 shows the detailed list of items
included in the exercises that have been practiced during the flight session.
The FI can grade the performance of the pilot with different colours (grey =
not covered; orange = started; light green = in progress; dark green =
completed). The FI can also downgrade the performance of the pilot, if
necessary.

Appendix 4 Training Certificate. This form is filled by the HT when the


applicant has successfully completed the training.

Appendix 5 Cross reference list: Air Exercises with Syllabus.


Appendix 1 BCAA forms
Use of the following BCAA standard ATO forms is mandatory during and/or upon
completion of the flight training. Please always download the latest version of the
documents from the website:

hhttp://mobilit.belgium.be/fr/transport_aerien/formulaires/immatriculation

1) Skill test and proficiency check report form (LA/L-PEL/0102D62E FCL.


Appendix 9).

2) Application for the issue/revalidation/renewal for a class rating (LA/L-


PEL/0104D51E FCL.Subpart H)

The ATO shall make use of all relevant forms published by the BCAA, not only those
directly related to flight training.

Appendix 2 Applicants progress page

Appendix 3 Standard debriefing sheet

1. General applicant flight report

2. Detail of items covered during training flight

Appendix 4 Training Certificate

ATO Training Certificate


Paste your logo here as a
Training provided for license or rating
SEP(L)
Other (specify Part-FCL code):
PPL(A) PPL(H) LAPL(A)

ATO details
ATO name ATO certificate number

Pilot or student pilot details


Name First name

Street Nr Mailbox nr

Postal code City/community Country

E-mail Phone nr Mobile

Is a Pilot Student pilot Medical certificate Class 1 Class 2 LAPL

License number (N/A for students) Expiry date medical certificate (dd/mm/yyyy)

Theoretical training progress


Theoretical exam passed successfully*

Courses followed, and student progress, per subject Course Trial exam Theoretical Comments on student progress
completed >75% exam passed
Air law and ATC procedures
Human performance
Meteorology
Communications - VFR communications
Principles of flight - Aeroplane
Operational procedures
Flight performance and planning
Aircraft general knowledge
Navigation

*Please enclose a copy of the examination result. The remaining info on theoretical training can be left blank.
Flight training progress
Skill test passed successfully*

Not Demonstrated Completed


Flight training exercises started or completed started or started to standard
1a. Familiarisation with the aeroplane
1b: Emergency drills
2: Preparation for and action after flight
3: Air experience: flight exercise
4: Effects of controls
5a: Taxiing
5b: Emergencies: brake and steering failure
6: Straight and level
7: Climbing
8: Descending
9: Turning
10a: Slow flight
10b: Stalling
11: Spin avoidance
12: Take-off and climb to downwind position
13: Circuit, approach and landing
12/13: Emergencies
14: First solo
15: Advanced turning
16: Forced landing without power
17: Precautionary landing
18a: Navigation
18b: Navigation problems at lower levels and in reduced visibility
18c: Radio navigation
19: Basic instrument flight

General comments on student progress

*Please enclose a copy of the skill test result. The remaining info on flight training can be left blank.

Name Head of Training Date of issue(dd/mm/yyyy)


Flight time accumulated

Dual training hours

Solo under supervision

Total flying time

Flight time includes

Solo navigation time

150 NM navigation completed Y/N

Sim. instrument time

Aircraft types
Please state type and registration

English language proficiency

Passed successfully*
Failed or no test taken

*Please enclose a copy of the ELP test result.

Signature Head of Training


Appendix 5 Cross reference list: Air Exercises with Syllabus

Training Manual SEP (land)


Chapter 4
THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE
INSTRUCTION

ORA.ATO.125
FCL725.A
4.a. Structure of the theoretical knowledge course

The theoretical knowledge instruction is based on the study of the POH of the
particular aircraft that will be used for the flight training session(s). All relevant
parts of the POH will be reviewed in the form of a briefing given by a FI in a
classroom. A standard aircraft familiarisation briefing can be performed in a
one-hour training session, but depending on the complexity of the aircraft, the
theoretical knowledge training can take longer and may be split into several
theoretical training sessions.

In any case, the chapters that will be reviewed are at least the following:

General information

Limitations

Emergency procedures

Normal procedures
Performance

Weight and balance

Description and operation of the airplane and its systems

Supplements

Safety tips

Any applicant must be in possession of a copy of the original POH and any
applicable supplement before commencing the training session. The ATO
provides paper copies of these flight manuals.

Furthermore, any SOPs in force in the ATO will be discussed with the
applicant. These SOPs can be found in the form of PDF files on the ATOs
website. The applicant is requested to hold a paper copy of any of these
SOPs.

4.b. Content of the theoretical knowledge course

AMC1 FCL.725(a) defines the requirements for the issue of class and type
ratings. The syllabus of theoretical knowledge for class ratings on single
engine aircraft will consist of relevant items taken from the following list, as
applicable to the type of aircraft used:

(a) Detailed listing for aeroplane structure and equipment, normal


operation of systems and malfunctions:

(1) dimensions: minimum required runway width for 180 turn.


(2) engine including auxiliary power unit:
(i) type of engine or engines;
(ii) in general, function of the following systems or components:
(A) engine;
(B) auxiliary power unit;
(C) oil system;
(D) fuel system;
(E) ignition system;
(F) starting system;
(G) fire warning and extinguishing system;
(H) generators and generator drives;
(I) power indication;
(J) reverse thrust;
(K) water injection.
(iii) on piston or turbine-propeller engines additionally:
(A) propeller system;
(B) feathering system.
(iv) engine controls (including starter), engine instruments and
indications in the cockpit, their function, interrelation and
interpretation;
(v) engine operation, including APU, during engine start,
start and engine malfunctions, procedures for normal
operation in the correct sequence.
(3) fuel system:
(i) location of the fuel tanks, fuel pumps, fuel lines to the
engines, tank capacities, valves and measuring;
(ii) location of the following systems:
(A) filtering;
(B) heating;
(C) fueling and defueling;
(D) dumping;
(E) venting.
(iii) in the cockpit:
(A) the monitors and indicators of the fuel system;
(B) quantity and flow indication, interpretation.
(iv) procedures:
(A) fuel procedures distribution into the various tanks;
(B) fuel supply, temperature control and fuel dumping.

(4) pressurization and air conditioning:


(i) components of the system and protection devices;
(ii) cockpit monitors and indicators;
(iii) interpretation about the operational condition;
(iv) normal operation of the system during start, cruise,
approach and landing, air conditioning airflow and
temperature control.
(5) ice and rain protection, windshield wipers and rain repellent:
(i) ice protected components of the aeroplane including
engines, heat sources, controls and indications;
(ii) operation of the anti-icing or de-icing system during take-
off, climb, cruise and descent, conditions requiring the use of
the protection systems;
(iii) controls and indications of the windshield wipers and rain
repellent systems operation.
(6) hydraulic system:
(i) components of the hydraulic system(s), quantities
and system pressure, hydraulically actuated
components associated to the respective hydraulic
system;
(ii) controls, monitors and indicators in the cockpit,
function and interrelation and interpretation of
indications.
(7) landing gear:
(i) main components of the:
(A) main landing gear;
(B) nose gear;
(C) gear steering;
(D) wheel brake system, including anti-skid.
(ii) gear retraction and extension (including changes in trim
and drag caused by gear operation);
(iii) required tyre pressure, or location of the relevant placard;
(iv) controls and indicators including warning indicators in the
cockpit in relation to the retraction or extension condition of the
landing gear and brakes;
(v) components of the emergency extension system.
(8) flight controls and high lift devices:
(i)
(A) aileron system;
(B) elevator system;
(C) rudder system;
(D) trim system;
(E) spoiler system;
(F) lift devices;
(G) stall warning system;
(H) take-off configuration warning system.
(ii) flight control system from the cockpit controls to the flight
control or surfaces;
(iii) controls, monitors and indicators including warning
indicators of the systems mentioned under (8) (i), interrelation
and dependencies.
(9) electrical power supply:
(i) number, power, voltage, frequency and location of the main
power
system (AC or DC), auxiliary power system location and
external power system;
(ii) location of the controls, monitors and indicators in the cockpit;
(iii) flight instruments, communication and navigation systems,
main and back-up power sources;
(iv) location of vital circuit breakers;
(v) generator operation and monitoring procedures of the
electrical power supply.
(10) flight instruments, communication, radar and navigation
equipment, autoflight and flight data recorders:
(i) visible antennae;
(ii) controls and instruments of the following equipment in
the cockpit during normal operation:
(A) flight instruments;
(B) flight management systems;
(C) radar equipment, including radio altimeter;
(D) communication and navigation systems;
(E) autopilot;
(F) flight data recorder, cockpit voice recorder and
data-link communication recording function;
(G) TAWS;
(H) collision avoidance system;
(I) warning systems.
(11) cockpit, cabin and cargo compartment:
(i) operation of the exterior, cockpit, cabin and cargo
compartment lighting and the emergency lighting;
(ii) operation of the cabin and cargo doors, stairs,
windows and emergency exits;
(iii) main components of the oxygen system and their
location, oxygen masks and operation of the oxygen systems
for the crew and passengers, required amount of oxygen by
means of a table or diagram.
(12) emergency equipment operation and correct application of the
following emergency equipment in the aeroplane:
(i) portable fire extinguisher;
(ii) first-aid kits;
(iii) portable oxygen equipment;
(iv) emergency ropes;
(v) life-jacket;
(vi) life rafts;
(vii) emergency transmitters;
(viii) crash axes;
(ix) megaphones;
(x) emergency signals.
(13) pneumatic system:
(i) components of the pneumatic system, pressure source and
actuated components;
(ii) controls, monitors and indicators in the cockpit and
function of the system;
(iii) vacuum system.

(b) Limitations:

(1) general limitations:


(i) certification of the aeroplane, category of operation, noise
certification and maximum and minimum performance data for
all flight profiles, conditions and aircraft systems:
(A) maximum tail and crosswind-components at
take-off and landing;
(B) maximum speeds for flap extension vfo;
(C) at various flap settings vfe;
(D) for landing gear operation vlo, Mlo;
(E) for extended landing gear vle, Mle;
(F) for maximum rudder deflection va, Ma;
(G) for tyres;
(H) one propeller feathered.
(ii) (A) minimum control speed air vmca;
(B) minimum control speed ground vmcg;
(C) stall speed under various conditions vso, vs1;
(D) maximum speed vne, Mne;
(E) maximum speed for normal operation vmo, Mmo;
(F) altitude and temperature limitations;
(G) stick shaker activation.
(iii) (A) maximum airport pressure altitude, runway slope;
(B) maximum taxi mass;
(C) maximum take-off mass;
(D) maximum lift off mass;
(E) maximum landing mass;
(F) zero fuel mass;
(G) maximum dumping speed vdco, Mdco, vdce, Mdce;
(H) maximum load factor during operation;
(I) certificated range of centre of gravity.
(2) engine limitations:
(i) operating data of the engines:
(A) time limits and maximum temperatures;
(B) minimum RPMs and temperatures;
(C) torque;
(D) maximum power for take-off and go-around on
pressure altitude or flight altitude and temperature;
(E) piston engines: certified range of mixture;
(F) minimum and maximum oil temperature and pressure;
(G) maximum starter time and required cooling;
(H) time between two start attempts for engines and
auxiliary power unit;
(I) for propeller: maximum RPM of propeller
triggering of automatic feathering device.
(ii) certified oil grades.
(3) systems limitations:
(i) operating data of the following systems:
(A) pressurisation, air conditioning maximum pressures;
(B) electrical power supply, maximum load of main
power system (AC or DC);
(C) maximum time of power supply by battery
in case of emergency;
(D) mach trim system and yaw damper speed limits;
(E) autopilot limitations of various modes;
(F) ice protection;
(G) speed and temperature limits of window heat;
(H) temperature limits of engine and wing anti-ice.
(ii) fuel system: certified fuel specifications, minimum and
maximum pressures and temperature of the fuel.
(4) minimum equipment list.

(c) Performance, flight planning and monitoring:

(1) performance calculation about speeds, gradients, masses in all


conditions for take-off, en-route, approach and landing according to
the documentation available (for example for take-off v1, vmbe, vr,
vlof, v2, take-off distance, maximum take-off mass and the required
stop distance) on the following factors:
(i) accelerate or stop distance;
(ii) take-off run and distance available (TORA, TODA);
(iii) ground temperature, pressure altitude, slope, wind;
(iv) maximum load and maximum mass (for example ZFM);
(v) minimum climb gradient after engine failure;
(vi) influence of snow, slush, moisture and standing
water on the runway;
(vii) possible single or dual engine failure during cruise flight;
(viii) use of anti-icing systems;
(ix) failure of water injection system or antiskid system;
(x) speeds at reduced thrust, v1, v1red, vmbe, vmu, vr, vlof, v2;
(xi) safe approach speed vref, on vmca and turbulent conditions;
(xii) effects of excessive approach speed and abnormal
glideslope on the landing distance;
(xiii) minimum climb gradient during approach and landing;
(xiv) limiting values for a go-around with minimum fuel;
(xv) maximum allowable landing mass and the landing
distance for the destination and alternate aerodrome on the
following factors:
(A) available landing distance;
(B) ground temperature, pressure altitude, runway
slope and wind;
(C) fuel consumption to destination or alternate aerodrome;
(D) influence of moisture on the runway, snow,
slush and standing water;
(E) failure of the water injection system or the anti skid
system;
(F) influence of thrust reverser and spoilers.
(2) flight planning for normal and abnormal conditions:
(i) optimum or maximum flight level;
(ii) minimum required flight altitude;
(iii) drift down procedure after an engine failure during cruise
flight;
(iv) power setting of the engines during climb, cruise and
holding under various circumstances, as well as the most
economic cruising flight level;
(v) calculation of a short range or long range flight plan;
(vi) optimum and maximum flight level and power setting of the
engines after engine failure.
(3) flight monitoring.

(d) Load and balance and servicing:

(1) load and balance:


(i) load and trim sheet on the maximum masses for take-off and
landing;
(ii) centre of gravity limits;
(iii) influence of fuel consumption on the centre of gravity;
(iv) lashing points, load clamping, maximum ground load.
(2) servicing on ground, servicing connections for:
(i) fuel;
(ii) oil;
(iii) water;
(iv) hydraulic;
(v) oxygen;
(vi) nitrogen;
(vii) conditioned air;
(viii) electric power;
(ix) start air;
(x) toilet and safety regulations.

(e) Emergency procedures:

(1) recognition of the situation as well as immediate memory actions


in correct sequence and for those conditions recognised as
emergencies by the manufacturer and competent authority for
certification:
(i) engine failure during take-off before and after v1, as well as in-
flight;
(ii) malfunctions of the propeller system;
(iii) engine overheat, engine fire on ground and in-flight;
(iv) wheel well fire;
(v) electrical smoke or fire;
(vi) rapid decompression and emergency descent;
(vii) air-conditioning overheat, anti-ice system overheat;
(viii) fuel pump failure;
(ix) fuel freezing overheat;
(x) electric power failure;
(xi) equipment cooling failure;
(xii) flight instrument failure;
(xiii) partial or total hydraulic failure;
(xiv) failures at the lift devices and flight controls including
boosters;
(xv) cargo compartment smoke or fire.
(2) actions according to the approved abnormal and emergency
checklist:
(i) engine restart in-flight;
(ii) landing gear emergency extension;
(iii) application of the emergency brake system;
(iv) emergency extension of lift devices;
(v) fuel dumping;
(vi) emergency descent.

(f) Special requirements for extension of a type rating for


instrument approaches down to decision heights of less than
200 ft (60 m):

(1) airborne and ground equipment:


(i) technical requirements;
(ii) operational requirements;
(iii) operational reliability;
(iv) fail operational;
(v) fail passive;
(vi) equipment reliability;
(vii) operating procedures;
(viii) preparatory measures;
(ix) operational downgrading;
(x) communications.
(2) procedures and limitations:
(i) operational procedures;
(ii) crew coordination.

(g) Special requirements for glass cockpit aeroplanes with EFIS


Additional learning objectives:

(1) general rules of aeroplanes computer hardware and software design;


(2) logic of all crew information and alerting systems and their
limitations;
(3) interaction of the different aeroplane computer systems, their
limitations, the possibilities of computer fault recognition and the
actions to be performed on computer failures;
(4) normal procedures including all crew coordination duties;
(5) aeroplane operation with different computer degradations (basic
flying).

(h) Flight management systems

4.c. Teaching materials


It is the responsibility of the HT to keep the list of teaching materials up-to-date.

The POH of the particular airplane and some slide presentations can be used
during the theoretical knowledge training.

The HT will make sure the teaching material is available for use at the ATO
training base. This will ensure either the ATO staff, auditors or the BCAA can
access all teaching materials when required.

4.d. Pilot progress

Following up applicants progress is the responsibility of the HT. He/she will


remain vigilant to identify an applicant lagging behind as early as possible. All
TKIs or FIs will discuss an applicants progress with the HT if they have
indications he/she is not consecutively gaining theoretical knowledge.

Given the recreational character of most flying on SEP(L) aircraft, the


approach towards applicants progress is to:

Motivate applicants to invest sufficient time in studying.


Allow for different rhythms of progress depending on the background of
each applicant.
Under no condition recommend an applicant for a skill test or proficiency
check if he/she has not completed the appropriate training to the TKI, FI,
and HT satisfaction.

How will slow progress of an applicant be detected?

An applicant is having difficulty, during the theoretical training session(s),


to understand the content of the courses.
The applicant is not capable of answering simple knowledge questions.
The applicant cannot meet the completion standards for the flight training
due to lack of theoretical knowledge.

What initiative shall be taken towards an applicant lagging behind?

Building up a solid knowledge and a feel for good airmanship is essential to


flying. On the other hand, expelling a person from a SEP(L) course due to
lack of knowledge must be avoided except if even with the help from FIs no
progress at all is made.
Accepting slow progress and slowing down flying training accordingly is the
preferred solution.

When an applicant is experiencing difficulty to keep up with the pace of the


courses, the general attitude of the HT and the FIs will be to:

Allow for extra time and provide guidance to the applicant regarding the
part of the theoretical items they should give extra focus to.
Organise additional theoretical training sessions in an attempt to improve
the applicants level of knowledge.
What will the ATO do if an applicant needs to interrupt his/her training?

The training courses described in this TM have to be completed in a period of


maximum six months. If an applicant has to interrupt the training for
professional or private reasons, the HT will make sure the whole programme
can be covered in this time lapse. If such is not the case, the applicant will
have to start the whole programme again.

If an applicant needs to interrupt training, he/she should discuss this with the
HT.

How does the ATO check that applicants have received the necessary
theoretical knowledge instruction?

Each theoretical knowledge training session will be recorded as Ground


Briefing time in the ATO e-Learning Platform. The FI will make sure all the
relevant items of the POH of the aircraft are covered during the theoretical
training session(s) as well as any SOPs in force in the ATO, according to
paragraph a and b of this chapter. Verbal interrogation can be used by the FI
during the subsequent flight training session(s) to assess the level of
theoretical knowledge of the applicant.

4.e. Progress testing

Not applicable

4.f. Review procedure

Not applicable
4.g. Appendices

Please find in appendix to this chapter the following documents:

Appendix 1 BCAA training certificate

Appendix 2 Theoretical knowledge training report (on e-Learning


Platform)

Appendix 1 - BCAA training certificate

Use of the following BCAA standard ATO forms is mandatory upon


completion of the training. The ATO shall always download the latest version
of the documents from the website:

http://mobilit.belgium.be/fr/transport_aerien/formulaires/immatriculation

1) Application for the issue/revalidation/renewal for a class rating (LA/L-


PEL/0104D51E FCL.Subpart H)

The ATO shall make use of all relevant forms published by the BCAA, not
only those directly related to flight training.

Appendix 2 Theoretical knowledge training report