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Chapter 3

The Fundamental Interactions


3.1 The fundamental interactions:
Strong (Nuclear) interactions: occur
between objects made of quarks
such as protons and neutrons, which
are hold in the nucleus of an atom
Electromagnetic interactions:
responsible for an attraction or
repulsion between objects that have
electric charge
Weak interactions: arise in certain
radioactive decay processes: act
over very short distances
Gravitational interactions:
responsible for an attraction between
objects that have mass
3.2 The gravitational force

Newtons Gravitational Force


1 2
grav on 2 by 1 = - G 2
||

-11 .2
G is a universal constant: G = 6.7 x 10 2

= 2 - 1 extends from
the center of object 1 to
the center of object 2
3.2 The gravitational force

The gravitational force on 2


by 1 is in the direction of -

The magnitude of the gravitational


force depends on the masses of
both interacting objects

The gravitational force is an


inverse square force
3.2 The gravitational force
Newtons Gravitational Force as a
vector: magnitude times a direction

grav = | grav | grav


1 2
Magnitude: | grav | = G
||2

Direction (unit vector): grav = -

3.X.5 A 3 kg ball and a 5 kg ball are 2 m apart, center to center.


What is the magnitude of the gravitational force that the 3 kg ball
exerts on the 5 kg ball? What is the magnitude of the gravitational
force that the 5 kg ball exerts on the 3 kg ball?
Example: The force on a planet by a star
A star of mass 4x1030 kg located at this moment at position
<2x1011, 1x1011, 1.5x1011> m and a planet of mass 3x1024 kg
located at position <3x1011, 3.5x1011,-0.5x1011> m.

Calculate the gravitational force exerted on the planet by the star.


Calculate the gravitational force exerted on the star by the planet.

Distances shown
should be multiplied
by 1 x 1011 m
Example: The force on a planet by a star
Solution:
(a) Calculate Fg exerted on the planet by the star.

The planet is object 2 and the star is object 1


= 2 - 1 = <1 x 1011, 2.5 x 1011, -2 x 1011> m

| | = 3.35 x 1011 m

Magnitude:
1 2
| | = G
||2
= (6.7x10-11N.m2/kg2) (3x1024 kg)(4x1030 kg)/(3.35x1011 m)2

| | = 7.15 x 1021 N
Example: The force on a planet by a star
Direction (unit vector): grav = -

on P by S = - = - ||

on P by S = - ( <1, 2.5, -2 >.1011 m)/3.35 x 1011 m

on P by S = <-0.298, -0.745, 0.596>


Force as a vector:
on P by S = | on P by S | on P by S

on P by S = (7.15 x 1021 N) <-0.298, -0.745, 0.596> m

on P by S = <-2.13 x 1021, -5.33 x 1021, 4.26 x 1021> N


Example: The force on a planet by a star

(b) Calculate Fg exerted on the star by the planet.

The magnitude of the force on the star by the


planet will be the same.

| | = | | = 7.15 x 1021 N

The only change is in the direction, because S-P = - P-S

on S by P = <2.13 x 1021, 5.33 x 1021 , -4.26 x 1021> N


Example: Two of Jupiters moons
3.X.7 At a particular instant Ganymede and Europe, two moons of
Jupiter, are aligned. Coordinate axes are shown in the diagram. In
calculating the gravitational force on Ganymede by Europe:
a) What is the direction of ?
b) What is the direction of - ?
c) What is the direction of the gravitational force?

Answer:
a) <-1, 0, 0> m
b) <1, 0, 0> m
c) <1, 0, 0> m
Example: Two of Jupiters moons
3.X.7 At a particular instant Ganymede and Europe, two moons of
Jupiter, are aligned. Coordinate axes are shown in the diagram. In
calculating the gravitational force on Ganymede by Europe:
a) What is the direction of ?
b) What is the direction of - ?
c) What is the direction of the gravitational force?

In calculating the gravitational force on Europa by Ganymede


a) What is the direction of ?
b) What is the direction of - ?
c) What is the direction of the gravitational force?

Study 3.X.8
3.3 Approximate gravitational force near the earths surface


g = G 2
+

An object of mass m experiences


a force m. The magnitude g of
the field decreases with distance
from the Earth
3.3 Approximate gravitational force near the earths surface

g (G ) m = mg
2


gG 2

g (6.7 x 10-11 N.m2/kg2)(6 x1034kg)/(6.4 x 106 m)2
g = 9.8 N/kg
Magnitude of gravitational field near Earths surface

g=G 2 g = +9.8 N/kg

Example: Drop a rock with mass m near the surface of the Earth.
What is its (vector) acceleration?

= = = <0, -g, 0> Units: N/kg = m/s2

3.4 Reciprocity or Newtons third law
on 1 by 2 = - on 2 by 1
(Gravitational force and electric force)
The direction of the forces are along the line
connecting the centers, and in opposite directions

The Sun and the Earth exert equal


and opposite forces on each other

1 = on 1 by 2 = - on 2 by 1= - 2
The velocity change of the Sun is extremely
smaller than that of the earth
= /m
3.4 Reciprocity or Newtons third law

There are six forces acting on


the 3 gram object and six forces
acting on the 2 gram object

3.X.11 A 60 kg person stands on the Earths surface.


a) What is the approximate magnitude of the gravitational force
on the person by the Earth?
b) What is the magnitude of the gravitational force on the Earth
by the person?
Earth and the Moon have a gravitational force between
them. The mass of the Moon is 1.2% of that of the Earth.
Which statement is incorrect?

A. The force on the Moon is much larger than that on Earth.


B. The forces are equal size, even though the masses are
different.
C. The Moon has a larger acceleration than Earth.
3.5 Predicting motion of gravitationally interacting objects

The gravitational force changes magnitude and


direction as the object moves so the beginning of
every time we need to recalculate the gravitational
force, both magnitude and direction.

Initial location and velocity


of the Earth. The origin of
the coordinate system is at
the center of the Earth
3.5 Predicting motion of gravitationally interacting objects
Question: Does the Momentum Principle predict the location of
the earth orbit 3 months later? How well does the prediction
match the actual orbit?

Is the path reasonable? Yes.


It does predict that the
Earth will orbit the Sun in a
roughly circular orbit
Example: If the step size is too big

Question: Taking a step size of 3 months instead of 1 month.


What will we predict the location of the Earth to be 3 months
later?

The displacement of Earth predicted


by a one-step calculation. The
dashed line shows the actual path of
the Earth around the Sun.

Conclusion: Even our 1-month calculation was


imprecise; in a computer calculation we would
choose a much shorter time step than 1 month.
Example: If the step size is too big

The Earths orbit around the Sun it is an ellipse that is


very nearly circular.

A comet approaches the Sun on


a long elliptical orbit
Example: Analyzing an elliptical orbit

Components of the force


parallel and perpendicular
to the momentum
Steps in graphical
updating of momentum
and position
Example: Analyzing an elliptical orbit
Question: A student said, The reason why the comet speeds up is
because the force gets bigger as the comet moves around the Sun.
Bigger force, bigger speed. Whats wrong with this analysis?

Force is related to the change in momentum, not directly


to the momentum itself: = net
It is momentum change that is related to force, or more
precisely, to impulse.

Example of the
spring acting on
the block
Example: Analyzing an elliptical orbit
3.X.12 Now consider the situation when the comet is at position
B, heading away from the Sun. Mentally take one step in the
interactive update of momentum and position. What happens to
the magnitude of the momentum, and the speed? What happens
to the direction of the momentum? Explain briefly in terms of
parallel and perpendicular components of the net force acting on
the comet.

Answer: Magnitude of momentum (and speed) decrease because


parallel component of net force is opposite to momentum;
perpendicular component of the net force changes the direction
toward +y direction.
Parallel and Perpendicular Components of the Net Force
The component of the net force that is perpendicular to
the momentum changes the direction of the momentum.

The parallel component of the force changes the magnitude of the


momentum (and the speed): If the parallel component of F is in the
direction of the momentum, the object will speed up; if the parallel
component of F is opposite to the direction of the momentum, the
object will slow down.
3.6 The electric force (optional)

1 1 2
elec on 2 by 1 =
40 | |2
1
= 9 x 109 N.m2/ C2 is a universal constant
40
= 2 - 1 is the position of 2 relative to 1
3.6 The electric force (optional)

Like the gravitational force, the magnitude of the electric force is


inversely proportional to the square of the distance between
charged objects, and its direction depends on the unit vector

Like the gravitational force, the magnitude of the electric force


involves the product of a property of each object (charge), and
1
a scalar constant 4
0
3.7 The strong interaction (optional)

The strong interaction which involves neutrons as well


as protons, holds the nucleus together despite this
electric repulsion
3.8 Newton and Einstein (optional)

Newton: Classical mechanics and modern physics

1. Quantify the interaction in terms of a concept called


force. Examples: Newtons gravitational force and
Coulombs electric force
2. Quantify the change of motion in terms of the change in a
quantity called momentum. The change in momentum
is equal to the force times t
3.8 Newton and Einstein (optional)
Einstein: Special relativity and general relativity.

1. General Relativity makes it possible to calculate the


curvature of space and time due to massive objects
2. General Relativity explains some bizarre large scale
phenomena such as black holes and the observed
expansion of the space between the galaxies
3.9 Predicting the future of complex systems
We can use the Newtonian method and numerical
integration to try to predict the future of a group of objects
that interact with each other mainly gravitationally
3.9 Predicting the future of complex systems
The three-body problem:
Fnet on 2
= -Gr2-1 [(m1m2)/|r2-1|2] -Gr2-3 [(m1m2)/|r2-3|2]

In the three-body problem each


of the three objects interact with
two other objects

An example of three bodies


interacting gravitationally

Imagine how complex the


motion of galaxy can be.
3.11 Conservation of momentum (Examples)
For all four kinds of interactions, gravitational, electromagnetic,
strong, and weak, the momentum gained by the system is lost by
the surroundings: we say the momentum is conserved

sys + surr = 0

where,

sys = 1 + 2 + 3 +

Similarly,

surr = 1 + 2 + 3 +
3.11 Conservation of momentum
Example: A binary star far from other objects: choose star
1 as the system, star 2 is the surroundings

The momentum change of


the system (star 1) is:
1 = on 1 by 2

The momentum change of the


surroundings (star 2) is:
2 = - on 1 by 2 = - 1
Conclusion: whatever momentum the system gains,
the surroundings loses

sys + surr = 0
3.11 Conservation of momentum
Example: A binary star far from other objects: choose both stars
as the system

The momentum change of


the system (star 1 + star 2) is:

sys = 1 + 2 =
= on 1 by 2 + on 2 by 1
= on 1 by 2 + (- on 1 by 2 )
=0
Conclusion: the momentum of an isolated
system (star 1 = star 2) does not change

sys = 1 + 2 = 0
3.11 Conservation of momentum

Example: A balloon Rocket

Study this example


3.11 Conservation of momentum
The weak interaction: Neutron decay
Example: A free neutron, one that is outside a nucleus, is unstable
and decays into a positively charged proton, a negatively charged
electron, and an uncharged antineutrino:
n p+ + e- +
Question: Which of these decays of a neutron at rest is
impossible? The arrows represent momentum

Answer: c) because the total momentum of the proton, electron,


and antineutrino has a positive x component, which is not
possible.
The center of mass
The position of the center of mass of a system of
particles is defined as:

CM = (m1 1 + m2 2 + m3 3 + )/ Mtotal
Mtotal = m1 + m2 + m3 +
is the total mass of the system,

3.X.18 A 10 kg ball is located at <3, 0, 0> m, and a 2 kg ball is


located at <8, 2, 0> m. Find the center of mass of the two-ball
system. You should find that the center of mass is close to the
heavier ball.
The center of mass

Since = d / dt,
CM = (m1 1 + m2 2 + m3 3 + )/ Mtotal
MCM CM = m1 1 + m2 2 + m3 3 +

Momentum and center of mass

sys = MCM CM
If the speeds are small compared to the speed of light
The center of mass
Example: A binary star far drifts through space

The center of mass moves with


constant velocity. A line
connecting the two stars passes
through the center of mass, which
is closer to the more massive star.

The total momentum of the two-


star system does not change.
3.X.19 A system consists of a 2 kg block moving with velocity <-3,
4, 0> m/s, and a 5 kg block moving with velocity <2, 6, 0> m/s.
Calculate the velocity of the center of mass of the two-block system,
given that the momentum of the system is MCM CM .

Example: What is not conserved?


Consider a collision between two blocks on ice, each with mass m.
One block is initially at rest and the other is moving with initial
velocity <vi, 0, 0>. In the collision they stick together and move with
final velocity <vf, 0, 0>. What is the final velocity? Is the velocity a
conserved quantity?
3.12 The multiparticle momentum principle
Dpsys = psys,f - psys,i= Fnet Dt. Example: Accelerating sports car
psys = pi. A sports car with a mass of 1500
Fsys = Fi. kg goes from 0 to 60 mph in 4.2
Mtotal aCM = Fnet. seconds. What is the average net
force on the car during this
acceleration? (9500 N)
3.13 Collisions: Negligible external forces

An event is called a collision if it involves an interaction


that takes place in a relatively short time

Example: Two lumps of clay collide:


m1 = 0.2 kg and v1 <6,0,0> m/s
m2 = 0.5 kg and v2 <-5,4,0> m/s.
They stick together after collision. What is the final velocity of
the center of mass of the stuck-together lumps?
<-1.86,2.86,0> m/s
3.14 Points and spheres

Objects are point-like.

A sphere whose density depends only on distance


from the center acts like a point particle with all the
mass at the center
3.15 Measuring the gravitational constant G (optional)
In 1797-1798 Henry Cavendish
performed the first experiment
to determine G value.
G = 6.7 x 10-11 [Nm2/kg2]
universal gravitation constant.