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Professor Stewart Williams + WAAMMat team

Welding Engineering and Laser Processing Centre


s.williams@cranfield.ac.uk
uuuuuu.cranfield.ac.uk
Brief summary of Wire + Arc Additive Manufacture process in relation
to other AM processes
WAAM Materials
WAAM Systems
Future plans
This has been around awhile!

1926 Baker - patented The use of an electric arc as a heat source to


generate 3D objects depositing molten metal in superimposed layers
This has been around awhile!

1947 Carpenter - weld based cladding using SAW


1964 White - Roller coating using SAW
1971Ujiie (Mitsubish) = Pressure vessel fabrication using SAW, electroslag and TIG,
also multiwire with different wires to give functionally graded walls
1974 Thyssen produced components of any dimension and shape made only of
weld metal instead casting, forging or rolling using SAW
1983 Kussmaul used Shape Welding to manufacture high quality large
nuclear structural steel (20MnMoNi5 5) parts - deposition rate 80kg/hr - total
weight 79 tonnes

welding-wire

f1ux-absorbe
r

:oolmg-
syfem

heate
r
Wire + Are Additive Ma
(WAAM) Process
k Cranfield
^ / UNIVERS1TY
Additive manufacturing
UN1VERS1TY

waammat.com

landscape

Beam
Feedstock Heat sources

Electron TIG. MIG


Laser beam Plasma

Wire Powder Powder Wire Wire

Blown
Powder bed powder Powder bed

Wire+Arc AM
Where we are aiming - HELP!
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Aluminium:
UGHTNING II
14 months for
forging
4 months for
machining
90% waste
Titanium:
10 times worse
problems

STOVL 7085 Aluminum FS 496


Bulkhead Forging and Finished Part

http://www.ndU-org/Drvi*ions/
Divisions/Manufacturing/
DoeumetVDon%20Klnard.pdf
Basics of metal AM systems - What
process or hardware should you use?

0.1 0.5 1 2
layer height (mm)
E High deposition rate wire
For a single axisymmetric E
40
energy source build rate MI WAAM > 'l
1
depends on the square of _o 0.2 Surface fnish
the layer height O
a. Blown powder
1
also depends
o 1
0.1 7T 1 1 linearly on the
0) 1
u 11 1 layer height
3 0.02
ro --
Powdor 1
to ________ 1________ 1 __ 1
0.1 0.5 1 2
layer height (mm)
Basics of metal AM systems
depositing material
Specific cost approaches the
material cost for high build rates
Optimum cost saving based on
build rate

10
o
U Example for 1-3 m
part with BTF of 10 for
ru Machining Cost
o. 1 machining and weight
(U (BTF 10)
> of 30 kg and minimum
p feature sie of 2 mm
_ro
(U
0.1
Benefits and limitations
- our assessment

Powder-bed

Blown-powder

WAAM

Hi. Dep. Wire-fed

Post-processing requirement

Note
Fully dense materials with excellent mechanical properties
Minimum feature size 2 mm
No_commercial_systems_available_-_yet
WAAM - Business Drivers

WAAM business drivers are


" Cost and material saving compared to current manufacturing methods "
Greatly reduced lead times " Application to large engineering structures " In
field applications
GKN Ti demonstrator part - typical features
WAAM business driver -Mass
Design option cost saving
BTF Cost Cost
(kg) (k) red.
case studies
Original machined - Bombardier20rib 12 16.2 -

WAAM + machining 20 2.3 5 69%


Design option Mass (kg) BTF Cost (k) Cost red.
Original, machined 36 12 1.6 -
WAAM + machining 36 2.3 0.7 55%
What weve deposited so far

Ti-6Al-4V Steels
- Grade 5 - ER60
- Grade 23 - ER80
Aluminium - ER90
- ER120
- 2024
- Maraging grade 250
- 2319
- Maraging grade 350
- 4043 - Stainless (17-4 PH, 316L)
- 5087 Inconel
Refractories - 625
- Tungsten - 718
- Molybdenum Bronze
- Tantalum Copper
Unique features // High pressure
rolling
Ti64// Microstructure
Ti64 // Stale properties (average)

1100 22
----- -------- 1

1
20
1050 |
1
1
L
Ultimate tensile strength (MPa)

1
-i-
18 e-
1000 1 i-
16
1
i
o
05

c 14
950
!!
o
LU
-E
iLL O Single 12 J
i A K/IQ /ino Q
900 50 kN _
i " 75 kN A Plate 4928
| Wrought AMS_4
10
1 Cast ASTM F1108

850 ________ 1 _______ 1 ________ _ I _ i _ _ _ _ 8


Cast ASTM F1108
1050
Reduction in prior ! grain size
750 800 850 900
750
Proof strength (MPa)
950
800
1000
850 900 950 1000 1050
Proof strength (MPa)
Reduction in a lamellae thickness
Possibly some work-hardening effects still left in the structure
Ti64 // Stale properties (isotropy)
2319 // Effect of rolling + HT on
porosity

There is no
porosity in
the rolled +
heat treated
sample.
Rolled +
ST + AA
Aluminium properles (2024 - 2319 -
5087 (average))

Proof strength (MPa) Proof strength (MPa)

O 2024 Single o 0 2024 Single T6 % 0 2024 15 kN A 2024 30 kN $ 2024 45 kN $ 2024 45 kN T6 ^ 2024 Wrought T6

2319 Single o 2319 Single T6 0 5087 2319 15 kN A 2319 30 kN $ 2319 45 kN 2319 45 kN T6 2319 Wrought T6

5087 Single Rolled


Steel (average)
Direction-specific results of tensile test. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals
1000.0

950.0

900.0

850.0 -

800.0 -
ER80S-Nil Vertical ER80S-Nil Vertical
750.0
A ER80S-NH Horizontal A ER80S-Nil Horizontal
700.0 -
O ER90S-B3 Vertical OER90S-B3 Vertica
650.0 - AWS A5.28 (ER90SB3)
O ER90S-B3 Horizontal 0 ER90S-B3 Horizontal
600.0 -
AWS A5.28 (ER80SNil)
550.0

500.0 -
Stainless Steel 17-4 PH -Tensile test results

Direction-specific results of tensile test. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals

Proof Strength (MPa)

AD V OAD H AD+STV OAD+STH AD V OADH BAD+STV OAD+STH

AD+H900 V t AD+H900 H AD+ST+H900 V 0 AD+ST+H900 AD+H900V OAD+H900H DAD+ST+H900V


OAD+ST+H900H
h
WAAM Process features (4) - deposit
composition control using multiple feeds
Multi wire approach Wire + Powder

-i
Graded Structure Ta/Mo/W
(Chemical Analysis and Hardness)
Mo

Ta
1
KA ii *3 W
i# Mo 8250
r <if'
i Ta
lift'
W
Distance
from
5750
Distance Substrate
from [Vm]
Substrate
[Vm]

3250

0 300 600

-1750
Topological Optimisation for WAAM
Weight saving
7.5 kg - 3.9 KG - 33%
Also much to make than the
original
WAAM Optimisation oiuuuj-cranfield-OG.uk
The systems

Open_architecture_systems
Rolling Assisted WAAM
Wire Feeder and Spool

T
(
lo

Rolle
r
Torch
Research results - Local shielding
Uniquefeatures -localshielding
solulon
Research results - Local shielding
1
2
Thin wall revolving
structures: ARA beanie
Building time: 2.5 hours
Coordinate motion deposition Wall thickness: around
5mm
Material: Al5087
WAAM WAAM
design process
softwar monitoring
e
and control
software
Two major challenges: Four main functions of the automatic WAAM path
planning software
Avoiding defects,
especially lack of
fusion defects
Achieving and
maintaining the
specified layer height

Reverse machining
strategies or powder bed
addilve path planning are not
Cranfield WAAMSoft
Internal process development mainly
Development of a feature based WAAM software
Development of automatic path planning method
Can be customised and supplied to WAAMMat partners if requested
Development of process data base

Rhinoceros cad plaborm + Grasshopper development + Robot simulation environment


Delcam Commercial
Si~Q Active B"S
Machine Tools
f IRB6640 + Positioner HRD -
Software
4- . S,
Commercial software
Pattern
HRD-Toolpa
th

>ABBIRB jnCjj Simulation


Analysis

2400-10i provider
jP NC Programs

CAD + CAM +CAR


. ^ Toolpaths
$ Tools -i ABB
i - td. 1 * .4 COMAU
B A2 i
A3
>4 DELCAM <
tA<
Software maintenance
EPSON

4
* A FANUC
i - <3 A > 5
4
ti HYUNDAI '
(P Boundaries KAWASAKI i
Patterns KUKA
4
and training
* MOTOMAN ti
; NACHI
ii \ STAUBLI ti
UNIVERSAL
:k
Models
Groups
-9
Macros

Cranfield will support the


software development
Will provide updated
Robot Control
Robot Progr

process data base


mz [s- k nn n _____________
M lili i 7 uu y
Loop 0
Will provide developed
Save ali the files and data associated with this PovverMILL project
IH# path planning methods
and algorithms
PowerShape + PowerMill + Robot Plugin + 'Build style' development
environment
Cranneld
I UNI VERS1TY
Software Tool path
Control automation
High-strength aluminium > 500 MPa
Mixed materials, graded structures (f.i. aluminium MMCs)
Next 5 years

Commercialisation:

- Robotic manipulation
Medium size ~ 1m3 # 100k
Large size ~ 6-10m # 200k up to 700k depending on
accuracy requirements

- CNC manipulation
Low cost ~ 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.5m # 30k
Medium size ~ 2m x 1m x 1m # 300k
Extended capability including cold-work ~ 6m x 3m x 1m #
2M

- + whatever: the software being developed should be able to


drive any manipulation system - great for retrofitting
Very large parts - Ti (local shielding), Al, Steel
LASIMM operator

Full industrial implementation as No. 1 process

Trained and
supported by AM/
ran Deposition
process
Loo
dn
machinmg
SM Standards
nc
LASIMM
Central control
6M EU project
unit
3 years
Starts this October
Pa
ri
positioner

CAx toolboxes
BAE Systems / F+P / Vostas Foster + Partners
demonstrator piece

TECN
Global Robots
System ICO
Htlmhol
Capability LISBOA
WAAM robots lz-Ztntr
urrd
Ge*ithh
t
New website - launched April 1st.
waammat.com
CONTACT: Prof Stewart Williams s.williams@cranfield.ac.uk

THANK YOU FOR YOUR


ATTENTION