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Handbookfor

MechanicalSystems

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i i,' . - i . ! . , .

FUEr0rr
SYSTEM

Handboolr
lor
Mechanical
System

WARTSILA DrtrSEl
POWER PLANTS
Tobleof Contenls

FUEL SYSTEM

GENERAL
Typicalsystemlayouts. . ...0-1
O i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i .c.s... .... O-2
Specificheat and temperature. . . . . . . 0 - 4
V i s c o s i tcyo n v e r s i o. n. . . ...0-5

UNLOADING SYSTEM
General ......... I-7
U n l o a d i np gu r n u
p n i t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . I - 7
Pump
type .......1-7
P u n pc a p a c i t y . ...1-8
U n l o a d i ns g
t a t i o n. . . . ....1-8

STORAGE SYSTEM
General .........2-9
T a n ky a r d .......2-9
Sizingoftanks 2-L0
H F O a n dL F O t a n k s .... 2-70
Sludge
tank ... 2-10
Number of storagetanks 2 - I0
T y p eo f t a n k ... 2-IO
Heating ........2-10
R e q u i r etda n kh e a t i n g ....2-11
Sizingoftank heatercoil ..2-71
Diagram for estimating ofheat losses2 - 13
H e a t i n gc o i l s ... 2-14
TRANSFERSYSTEM
Ceneral. 3-15
l r a n s T e rp u m p u n l [ . a itr

I ype or pump. J - .TD

Drzrngor neaf,ersrn f,ne


HFO transferunit. . . .
Suctionstrainer 3-18

TREATMEIVT SYSTEM
Ceneral 4-19
Tanks. . 4-19
Numberoftanks. . . . . . 4-t9
b u f T e r I s e l l l r n g , f , a n K ,r l r u 4-19
D a yt a n k .H F O . . . 4-20
Heatingof HFOtank . . . 4-21
Day tank, LFO in HFO installation 4 -21
HeatingofLFO tank . . . 4 -21
Daytank,LFO installation. . .. ... 4-22
Heatingof LFO l,ank . . . 4-22
r a n K e q u l p m e n l s. . . . . . 4-22
Depararlon sysf,em. . A O e

Depara[orunrl..,
Drzrng or separaf,oruntr . 4-24
Drzlngolneaf,ers . . . . . . 4-24
D r u o g e q u a n T r f , r.e. .s. . . 4-25
Dluoge nanolrng
FI,IEL FEED SYSTEM
General .
l ne leeoer/ Doostersystem D - Zt

Suction strainer 5-28


r eeoerpump 5-29
Pressure control valve 5 -29
rnret pressure 5 -29
r uer consumptlonmeteT. 5-30
D e a e r a t i o nt a n k . . . 5-30
lJoosr,erpump 5-30
Heater . 5-30
Automatically cleaned filter. . . . . . . . 5 - 3 0
Viscosimeter or thermostat 5-30
Sizing ofheaters in the boosteruniL . 5 - 3 1
Steam and electricity consumption. . 5 - 3 2
D r u o g e q u a n l r [ r. e
. .s, . ,
rump ano nlter unrl . 5-33
rump capaclf,y. 5-33
r u e l o s a t e t y n l E e. r. . . tr D,l

FI,IEL COLLECTING SYSTEM


General 6-34
ulean leaK ruet sysLem. 6-34
LrlTTyleaK IUet system .
PIPING AND TRACE HEATING
General 7 -37
Piping.. 7 -37
Jlzlng or Tuelprpes . . .
Fuel oil velocities.. . . . . . 7-38
Trace heating 7 -39
General 7-39
Dystem layout 7 -39
Jrzrng oTsys[em . 7 -39
Heat losses. 7 -40
Insulatedpipes... 7 -40
WARTSILADItrStrL
POWER PLAIITS

O.GENERAL

Wartsilii VASA 20, 22, 32 and 46 diesel Filters and cleaningequipments(separators)


engines are designed for continuous opera- are thereforcvery important. Besidesthe
tion on Hear,y Fuel Oil (HFO) or Light Fuel harm that poorly separatedfuel will do to the
oil (LFo). engine,a high contentof watr may causeop-
erating problemsfor the fuel feedsystem.
TTredesign of the external fuel system vary
from one power plant to another, but every
system has to provide fuel with correct vis-
cosity and pressure to each engine. 0.l.Typicolsysfemloyouls
In a power plant with heaqr fuel as the
The fuel system can be divided into three
main source ofenergy an alternative light
different parts, (Figure 1):
fuel is installed for emergencyuse and
. unloading, storage and transfer system
maintenance situations.
. treatment system
It is most important that the fuel is properly . fuel feeding and collecting system.
cleaned from solid pa*icles and water.
Pledserefer to appetudLrA-C for flowcharts
descibing differcnt systems.

LNLOADN STOR'GE

LFODAYTA\K

UNLOADN IRE,IMEM

SEPA?PJOR
UN]T

BCC6IER
rr'{T

SLUD:,TPTIK

FUELFEED

Figub 1.Fuelsystemin pinciple

NELO|LSVSTEM-i.r,l Poge I
WARTSILADOtrStrL
POWER PIAI{TS

0.2.Oil chqrqcfeilslics

0.2.1. Viscosityond lemperoture

5000
2000
1000
600
400
300
200

t00

2 , ^
6 - "
# s25o
20
t6
t4
12
t0
9
I
7
6
5

t0 20 30 9 0 1 0 0 | 0 1 2 01 3 0 1 4 01 5 0
Temperaturel'Cl ----->

Figue 2. Fuel oil viscosily-lempe'olute diognm

"llole -1.'The storage tank temperatures To obtain temperature for known intermedi-
shall be at least 10" C higher than the pour ate viscosities,draw a line from the known
point for the stored hear.yfuel oil. viscosity/ temperature point in parallel to
nearest viscosity / temperature line in the
tVofe 2 Some fuels have totally different diagram.
characteristics so the viscosity diagram can-
oot always be applied.

Pdge 2 FIEL OIL S\lSlEM - lev, I


wiiBTslrA D[trstrL
POWER PLAIIT3

O.GENERAL

Wartsila VASA 20, 22, 32 and 46 diesel Filters and cleaningequipments(separators)


enginesare designedfor continuousopera- are therefore very important. Besides the
tion on Hea\T Fuel Oil (HFO)or Light Fuel harm that poorly separated fuel will do to the
oil (LFo). engine,a high content ofwater may causeop-
erating problems for the fuel feed system.
The designofthe externalfuel systemvary
fromonepowerplant to anolher.but every
systemhas to prcvidefuel with conectvis-
cosityand pressureto eachengine. 0.l.Iypicol syslemlqyouls
In a powerplant with heavyfuel as the The fuel system can be divided into three
main sourceof energy an alternative light different parts, (Figrrre 1):
fuel is installedfor emergencyuseand . unloading, storage and transfer system
maintenancesituations. . treatment system
. fuel feeding and collecting system.
It is most important that the fuel is properly
cleanedfrom solidparticlesand water
Pleaserefer to appendix A'C for flowcharts
describing different systems.

STOR'G
LI\LOIDNG

LNLOIDI|; TREATMEM

LI\IT
SEPAQAJOR

ECC6T!R

TAIIK
SLLJDG'E

FUEL
FEED

Figurc L Fuelsyslemin Pinciple

FUL OL SYS'EM- 2v. I Poge I


U'ARTSILADfltrStrL
POWEF PLATTS

0.2.2.Densiiyond temperofure
Example 1: A fuel oil with wiscosityof380
cSt (A) at 50' C (B) or 80 cSt at 80" C (C)
must be preheatedto 115- 140"C (D-E)be- Ttre density ofa fuel oil is in most cases
fore the fuel oil injectionpumps,to 98" C (F) specifiedas l,hedensity at 15 "C. However,
at the separatingand to minimum 40' C (G) the density value p depends on the tempera-
in the storagetanks. Fuel oil cannotbe ture so, that every degreeof temperature
pumpedbelow36' C (H). rise conespondstog decreasein density of
approx. 0.64 kg / mo. See the diagram below
to find density values for different fuel oils
Example 2: Knownviscosity60 cst at 50' C
(K). The followingcaobe red alongthe dot- and temperatures.
ted line: Viscosityat 80'C 20 cSt, tempera-
tr.rresat fuelpumps74 - 97"C. separating
temperatures80 - 98' C, minimum storage
tank temperature28" C.

Slondorddensituol l5 'C

950
.6-
E
o
t
c
c)
o

0 t5 50
Iemparolurs 'C]
[
Figurc 3. DeBity dnd lempe@tub didg@m

FIEL OIL SYSIEM - 2v. t Poge 3


wiRTsrlii DoEstrL
POWER PLAI'T3

0.2.3.Specificheot ond
lemperofure

Densltyal l5 'C
840
860
880
900
(t 920
a 2,2 940
960
980
1000

at

25 100 125 150 175

Tempcrature
["C]
Figurc4. Speclic heol and lempe@tuB didgrcm

The specificheat value cp ofthe fuel oil


depends on the temperature and can be
calculated accordingto formula:

cp= (53.4+ 0.0535


x t) / rfirs
cp = specificheat tkJ&g"Cl
t = actual fuel oil temperature["C]
p1s" = densityat 15'C fkg/m"l

Pdge 1 REL OIL SVSIEM - Ps. l


WARTSTLA
DotrstrL
POWEB PLAI'TS

0.2.4.Viscosityconversion
Sometimes other viscosity units ^than centi- The diagram shall be used only for conver-
stokes lcstl are used (cSt = mm'/ s). In the sion ofviscositv at the same temDerature.
table below conversionfrom various current
and obsoleteviscosity units to centistoke
can be made.

5000
2000
1000
600
400
300
200

r00
80
60
50
40
30
25
^20
4, tt
i
'6 it -;

> 8
7
6
5
4

00
sec.SayboltFurol
|--'-.--l--.Ti-l t ' l ' , j

'IE n g l e r 5 r0 20 50 r00 2AO 500 1000


t l t l I
i0 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 r 0000
Sec.Redwood
I
' t t l
r0 20 50 r00 200 500 1000 2000 5000 r 0000
Ulnl i v e r s-a- -l - - - - -
S e cS. a y b o
FIgurc 5. Viscosity conve6ion diogrcn

OlL SYS'EM- P.v. I


FUEL Poge 5
WARTSILAMEStrL
POWER Pl.AIITS

Pdge 5 nEL OLLSYSIEM- Rev. I


WARTSILADItrSEL
POWER PLAXTS

I. UNTOADING
SYSTEM

l.l.Generol To avoid intenuption of electricity produc-


tion causedby maiotenance, a solution with
The unloadingstationshall be dimensioned a standby pump is recommended.
to tulfill followingdemands:
. different system for HFO and LFO The unloading pump has the following
. unloadingin severalplacessimultaneously connections:
. locatednearcstpossibleto storagetanks
A = Fuel oil inlet
B = Fuel oil outlet
C = Drain
pump unil
I.2.Unlooding
The unloading pump unit basically consists l.3.Pump
type
of the followiog components:
. steel frame
. suction filter The pump shall be dimensioned for actual
. two electrically driven pumps fuel quality. To avoid emulsifications of
. valves water, the unloading pumps shall be ofa
. control panel t}?e that treats the fuel gently e.g. a screw-
pump. Attention has to be paid to the level
. drip pan
differencebetween unloading station and
storagetanks.

Figup 9. Unloqdingpump un

FUA OtL 'YSIEM- P.v. I Pdge 7


WARTSILAD[trStrL
POWEB PLAIITS

l.4.Pumpcopocity l.5.Unloodingsfqfion
Ttre following pump capacitiesare recom- The building must have proper ventilation
mended: and service areas.Attention has to be paid
to fire-extinguishing system and placement.
Storage Unloading The system must be designedwith drain
groves alld drain pit.
tankvolume capacity
s l ooom3 10 - 1oom3/h
> 1 0 0 0m 3 > 1oom3/h

Required power for the pump can be calcu-


lated according to the following formulal

p p g Q h
- ^--_ r''-k w l
1000 3600 n

= required el. motor power IkW


p = density-at actual temperature ;kg/m31
a =
=
flow [m"/hl
h delivery head lml .
c = force ofgravity [m/s"]
T1 = efficiency

Efficiencyof differenttypes of pumps

l=0 6
n=0.5-0.8
Gearpump

Viscosity for dimensioningof el. motor


1500csl HFO
100cst LFO

Pdge I FUELOILSYS'fM. P.V. I


WARTSILADfltrStrL
POUEN PL I'TS

2. STORAGE
SYSTEM

2.l.Generql The tanks shall not be placed in more than


two rows. The bigger tank's diameter shall
In a power plant, oil ofdifferent grades rs be used when calculating the minimum dis-
stored in taoks that differ in shape and size. tance between the tanks. Every tank has a
The slorage tanks are normally built in a danger zone aod a safety zone,these measu-
tank yard. The main function for the tanks rements are usually regulated by local
is to store and ensure fuel for the power authodties and have to be checked.In the
plant. The fuel oil is also stored at the right table below some measures that can be used
temperature to ensure pumpability. Ttre as suidelines are found.
heating coils must therefore be rated to
make this attainable.

In power plants with large storage tanks


'
the heat lossesare considerableand have to
be noticed.

The tanks must be designedto fulfrll the


standards or other requirements set by local
authorities.

2.2.Tonkyqrd
The location ofthe tank yard dependson the Figu@ 10.Tank ydtd
sire layout but the lollowingparametersin-
fluence the design.
When a storage tank volume exceeds15 mr,
a bank sunounding made of concreteor
. accessfrom road, tail, waterway
similar, is recommended.The banked vol-
. terrain ume must be at least as big as the volume of
. location of other buildings the biggest tank. The minimum distance
. explosion and fire fighting regulations from any tank to the bank wall is D/2 and is
. official regulations calculated from the nearest wall.

Waste oil tanks, lube oil tanks and water


Tank Danger Safety Distance
tanks can sometimesbe located in the tank
Volume Zone Zone (m)
yard. Thesetanks are discussedlater in re-
(-3) (m) (m)
spective systems but they have to be remem-
bered when planning the tank yard. < 3
Different gyadesofoils must always be Dt2 3 Dt2
3-15
storcd in separate tanks.
15-200 Dt2 5 Dt2
200-500 Dt2 10 Dt2
50G1500 Dt2 Dt2
1500-3000 Dt2 20 Dt2
3000,5000 D12 25 D12
> 5000 Dt2 30 Dt2

,uEL OILSy'laM - l.v. I Poge 9


WARTSILADOtrStrL
POWER PLAl'TS

2.2.1.Sizingof tonks 2.2.3.Typeof fonk


2.2.1.1 HFOond LFOlonks For storage systems two types of tanks are
used, vertical cylindrical and horizontal cy-
Ttre storage volume of a tank yard vanes d"- Iindriqa lJhe horizontal.tank is used up to
pending on the plant load (delivery quan- I00 m ' The vertical tank is recommended
iity) anl dehvery interwals. The volume fo, for volumes over 100 m"'
HFO- or LFO tanks canbe calculated
accordingto formula: Tank dimensions H (height) and D (diame-
ter) for a vertical tank be calculated
accordingto formula:
V = P d a

v = storagevolume[m3] H/D= 05 4
P = Plant load [MWl
d = Loadingintervals [days] Oneguidelineis that a big tank has a
a = factor,iependingon enginetype smallerratio than a small one.
seetable below
Tank dimensions L (length) and D ( diam.- -
ter) for a horizontal tank:
a Dieselengine
5.8 Vasa22 and32 LlD= 1...5
5.3

2.2.1.2 Sludgelonk 2.3.Heoting


Seethe treatment slstem under slud.gequan-
Heavy fuel oil is very viscous and at low tem-
aLrtes, peratures it doesn't flow at all, therelore
heary fuel oil has to be heated to 10" C
abovepour point to ensure pumpability. The
2.2.2.Numberof slorogeionks fuel oil in the storagetanks has to be stored
at this temperature. T}Ie heating devrces
A power plant can have one or several stor- have to be controlled by a thermostator to
age tanks depending on the available space, avoid the fuel ftom being heated aboveits
but two tanks are recommended.Then one flash-point. Becauseofheat lossesit is rec-
tank in tum can act as a settling tank allow- ommendedto insulate the storage tanks.
ing water and dirt to settle at the bottom be-
foreusing the fuel oil. The mainl,enance is Recommendedstoragetank temperatures:
also easier with two tanks since the plant (Seealso fuel oil viscosity-temperatured,id-
can use fuel oil from the standby tank dur- gram 0.2.1 Viscosit! and tenperature).
ing the other tank is to be checkedor
cleaned. Fuelviscosity Storagetank temp,
The tank from which fuel is taken has to be cst at 50 "C
heated while the other tank can be kept cold.
140 37" C
380 40"c
500 43' C
600 46" C
700 48' C

Notel The pour point ofthe actual fuel shall


always be checked for determining the cor-
rect storagetank temperature.
PdgE I0 ruELotL srst9M- Ft v.|
wiRTstLA
powEn pl.lxTs
DotrstrL

- 2.3.I. Requiledtonk heoling


2.3.1.1 Genrol
In addition, heat lossesfrom the surface of
Normally the dimensions ofthe heating ele- the tank must be taken into consideration.
ments are based on the heat transfer requi-
red for inoeasing the temperature within a The diagrams on page 13, figure ll, gives an
specifiedtime, e.g. 1'C/ 5 h, and on the heat estimatJd theoretical value ior the losses.
required to compensate for heat losses when
maintaining the tank at storage tempera- The total heat loss dependson factors as:
ture . tank volume
. tank tJDe
. tank form, horizontal or vertical

2.3.t.2 sizinsofronkheotelcoit : i:ilJ::fij11?J.:""ce


berween
storase
and ambienttemperature
Formula for required output from the heat- . averagewind velocity
ing elementsin orderto increasethe tem-
perature in the tank within specifiedtime:

^ V 0 cD t
*= " s66o
Pn= Powerrequired^[kW]
V = tank volumelm"l
p = density of tuel [kg/m3]
cp = specificheat value of fuel [kJ/kg'Cl
t = temperature["C]
y = hours hl

FUELOIL SYSIEM - P.Y. I Pdge I I


WARTSILADOtrStrL
POWER PLAXTS

Exqmple; Esiimoling
of hsol losses
. Storage tank: Seethe diagrams on next page, Figure 11:
- horizontal tr,'pe
'
- heieht 15 m
- diaineter 5 m ^ (A) Begin from part O:
- volume - 300 mr . horizontal tank type
- insulated 30 mm . r a t i oL / D = 1 5 / 5 = 3
- storage ternperature 40" C
. tank volume = 300 m3

(B) Find actual insulation thicl ess in pa.rt @


Heavy fuel oil: . go horizontally to the 30 mm line
- 380'cst at 50' C
- density p = 990kglmr at 15'C
(C) Find actual temperature diff. in part @:
. go vertically to temp. diff line 40' C
Ambient conditions:
- averaqewind velocity8 n/s (D) Read heat losses from part @:
- minirium ambienttimp. -- 0'C
. go horizontally
. = P6'p-2-s = 7.1 kW

Heoling ot fuel oil lo sloroge lemperolure


(E) Readheat lossesby the wind from the
Requiredpowerto heat the fuel oil actualdiagram:
1'C in flve hours: . tank volume300 m3
. averagewind velocity 8 ll/s
_ v p40 Cpao t . s Pwind= 1.2kW
3600 v
. the storage temperature for the fuel is 40" C

. the specificheal value ar 40" C according = ?.1kW + 1.2kW = 8.3kW


Totalheatlosses
rc lormula on page 4.

Cp = (53.4+0.0535.rrrffi
Cp = 7 77 kJtkg"C Requiredsizeof heofingcoil in lhe tonk
. the densityfor the fuel at 40'C . to heat the fuel oil 1"C / 5h requires 30 kW
. to compensatefor heat lossesrequires
p4o = p15 0.64. (t2-tt) 8.3 kw.
= 9 9 0_0 . 6 4 .( 4 0 _ 1 5 )
The dght sizefor the heatingcoil is:
P4o = 974kg/m3
. temperaturerise 1"C/5h 30 kW + 8.3 kW, or - 40 kW.

^ 300.974.t.77.I
JOUU ' O

P R= 2 8 . 7k W + = 3 0 k W

Pdge 12 FUELOILSasrEM- Pd. I


WARTSILAD{]trStrL
POUER PLAXT3

2.3.1. Requiredlonk hoofing


2.3.1.l Genrol
In addition, heat lossesfrom the surface of
Normally the dimensions ofthe heating ele- the tank must be taken into consideration.
ments are based on the heat transfer requi-
red for increasing the temperature within a The diagrams on page 18, frgure 11, gives an
specifiedtime, e.g. 1'Cl 5 h, and on the heat estimated theoretical value for the losses.
required to compensate for heat losses when
maintaining the tank at stoaagetempera- The total heat loss dependson factors as:
ture . tank volume
. tank tLpe
. tank form, horizontal or vertical

2.3.r.2sizinsoilonkheoter
coit : ililJ::'.T:ltH"frcebetween
storase
and_ambienL temperature
Formula for required output liom the heat- . average wind velocity
ing elements in order to increase the tem-
perature in the tank within specifiedtirne:

_ V.p cp t
v Jouu

Pn= Powerrequired"fkWl
V = tank volume [m"] ^
p = densityoftuel fkg/mol
cp = specificheat value offuel lkllkg'c]
r - r--^--.+,,-- Ioal
y = hours [h]

FUELOLLSYT'EM- ,.v. I Poge I I


wARTstLi DotrstrL
POWEN PLAIIT3

@ Insulalion
thickness
'*l t i l
-5t0000m3

I T

10@ t-j000
,*-

A -
1@

^ 1=80"

rof-l -'o ^ t=sar


10*-
' | 2 3 4 5 0 , 5t 2 3 4
Rollo !D Roiiorl/D

TemDerofuredifference I"Cl
TonLstoroge - omblent' ieinproture

Totol heol losses : Pt"nr,.z+*P*no

Tonkvolume [m3]

v igurc | l. Oidgrcms lot astimd ng ot heot losse$.

RIEL OIL SYSIEM- ,oe- | Pdge | 3


wARTsrLiiDltrstrL
POWEF PLAXTS

Figue 12.Heatingby worer,sleomot thermdl Figup | 3. Heoting by elechlcol heoling coils


oil

2.3.2.Heofingcoils
There are four different ways of heating a The viscosity ofthe fuel oil in the entire
storage tank. The tanks can be heated by tank must be at least 3000 - 4000 cst, ena-
mea[s of: bling the flow offuel oil to the suction area.

. steam The requiredmin. capacityof the sucLion


. electricity heater is calculated accordingto formula:
. thermal oil
D^- q P cP at -' l
When choosingheating method, the follow- 3600
ing rnust be considered:
. possiblesurplus steam capacity
Pn= heat required [kW]
. the evennessoflocal electdcity sirpply q = flow [m'/h]
. hot water from the cooling system p = density offuel at actual temp. [kg/m3]
. hot water or steam faom the exhaust gas cp = specificheat value at actual ternp. &
boilers
density [kJlkg"C]
A t= rising temperature ["C]
T\vo different methods are recommendedto
avoid that the storage tanks cool down: I = min. factorofsafety 1.10- 1.15 (10-157r)

To avoid carbon deposit on the heating coils


. Heating ofthe entire tank
and pipes the surface temperature must not
The coils must be placed so that the heat-
ing ofthe fuel oil liecomeseven and the be too high. The surface power of the heater
temperature reachesthe calculated value element shall not be higher than about
in the entire tank.

. Heatins ofthe entire tank and in addition All suction-, steam-, electric-, thermal oil
heatinFof the suction area
The suation heater has to rise the ternpera- heaters or combinations,must be sized to re-
ture ofthe fuel oil at least 10 "C abovethe flect the required power under the most un-
pour point only around the fuel oil trans- favorable conditions.
Ier pump suctlon area.

Poge 14 FWLOLS|SIEM.P.e. I
wAR"srLi DotrstrL
POTEi PLAIIT3

3. TRANSFER
SYSTEM

3.l.Generql pump unit


3.2.Irqnsfer
The main function ofthe transfer system is Ttre transfer system componentsare usually
to pump the fuel oil from the storage tanks built on a steelframe,which formsonecom-
to the treatment system. Separate transfer pact unit. This unit is easyto install and
pump units must be used for HFO and LFO operate.The standardtransfer pump unit
systems. consistsof the followingcomponeots:
. electrically driven pump
With the HFO transfer pump the fuel rs . suctionfilter
pumped to the HFO buffer tank. The LFO . heater (HFO only)
transfer pump takes the fuel to the LFO day . control cabinet with starters for pumps
tank, in some casesto the LFO buffer tank. . alarm panel
. drip pao
To ensure safe delivery ofHFO, the transfer
system can be set in circulating mode. To avoidinterruption of electricityproduc-
A level control in the HFO buffer tank con- tion causedby maintenance,a solutionwith
trols a tbree-way valve that alters between a standbypump is recommended.
either frlling [he buffer tank or returning
the fuel oil back to the storage tank. The LFO transferpump has the following
connectioDsl

A = Fuel oil inlet


B = Fuel oil outlet
C = Drain

Figwe I 6. LFOhdnslet pu/',p unil.


fhe exomple is lot o 0-m Mw sldtion

Ftt* otL svstEM- Per. I Pogo | 5


wiiRTsrt.iiDltrstrL
POWEi PLAXT3

Flgup 17,HFOhonsler pump uni, includlng heateL


fhe exomple ls tor o 0-m MW stdlion
. Pumpcopocity
3.3.1
HFO transfer pump has the following
connectlons: The pump shall be dimensioned for actual
fuel quality.
= Fuel oil inlet
Designdata
B = Fuel oil outlet
C = Drain 30%higherlhan luel
engine(s)
The transfer pump units shall be located NPSH
closeto the storage tanks to minimize the operalingpressufe 4 bal
pressure drop in the suction pipe. operalingtemperalure 100"c
viscosity
lor dimensioning
1500cst

3.3.Iypeof pump For LFO usethe requirementsfor the trans-


fer pumpsare reduceddue to the fuel qual-
A gentletreatrnentofthe fuel is important. itv.
To avoidemulsificationsofwater, the trans-
fer pumpsshall be ofa type that cantreat Designdata, LFO
the fuel gently,e.g.a screw-pump.
operating
lemperature 50'C
viscosily
tor dimensioning
ol eleclricmoror I 100cst
olheEarethesameas lor HFO

Page | 6 FUELOIL SYSIEM- P.Y. I


wiRTSrLi DltrStrL
POWER PLAXT3

3.4.Sizing
of heolersin the
HFOhonsferpumpunit
For the power consumption diagram below
A heater is only used in the HFO system. following values have been used:
The heater has to rise the temperature of
the HFO from the storage tank temperature P = 925 kelm3
to the required temperature in the buffer cp = 1.93 kJ&g"C
tank. n = 1.15
Buffer tank temp.:60"C
Ttre heater i6 therefore normally dimen-
sioned accordingto the pump capacity and
given storage and buffer tank temperatures. Storagetank temp.: 180cSt 37'C
380cst 40' C
The heater can be calculated accordinEto 500 cst 43' C
formula: 600cst 46' C
700cSt 48' C
- q 0 c D A t
3600 Note!Becauseofdifferencesin storagetem-
peratures,a fuel with lower viscosityhas to
be heatedmorethan a fuelwith highervis-
PR= heat required fkwl cosity.
q = flow [m",/h]
p = densityoffuel at actualtemp.fkg/mrl
cp =specificheat value at actualtemp.&
density fkJ,&g'Cl
At= rising temperature["C]
I = min. factorofsafety1.10- 1.15 (10-157o)

rZ'ew
-+
:.."

.O SLJtJ
i =
5
(!
i-
300
E,4nn

300
254
200
150
t00
50
0
5000 10000 20000 25000
PumpinletflowQ l/hl
Figurc | 8 Pequircdhedtingpower tor lhe HFOlmnslerunil
(whenstoragetemperaturc is 60 "C)
is narmalandbuffettanktemperature

FWL OIL SI.5IEM - P.v. I Poge | 7


WARTSILADitrStrL
POWER PLAI{TS

3.5.Suclionshoinel
The suction pipe shall be fitted with a
strainer to protect the transfer pump.
For HFO transfer units the strainer shall
be equipped with a heatingjacket or trace
heating.

The filter shall conform to the pump


rannirpmcnfe c c

. max. flow
. meshwidth 0.5-0.8mm
. allowedpressuredrop

Pdge 18 FUEIOILSVSIEM- ,ov. I


WARTSILADfltrStrL
POWEN PL TT'

4. TREATMENT
SYSTEM

4.I.Generol 4.3.Numberof lqnks


The fuel oil treatmentsystemcomprises The number oftanks vary from installation
tanks and separators.The main functionof Loinstallation.The sLandardinslallation is
theseunits is to supplysufficientlyclean one buffer- and one day-tank. In installa-
fuel-Whenoperatingon heavyfuel oil the tions with several engines.it is recom-
dimensioningofthe separatoris important. mended to have double tanks or more to
increase flexibility.
Ttretank locationand ventilationmust be
plannedaccuratelyto avoidany dangerof Another advantage with double tanks is the
fire or explosion.Venting pipesliom tanks possibility ofkeeping different fuel deliver-
placedinsidebuilding have to be extended ies separated from each other. Blending
to the outsideand to a placewhereit 1srlo problems are in that way eliminated.
dangerof explosion.
Ifproblems with a bad fuel occurs,the other
Avoid placiogtanks closeto: tanks immediately can take over and the
. openfire problem fuel can be pumped back.
. exhaustgaspipes
. exhaustgassilencers Double tanks enables maintenance on one
tank system meanwhile using the other.
or similar hot objects.
Several tanks are the only solution ifdiffer-
ent grades of fuel are used.

4.2.Tonks Notel Requirements by local authorities can


sometimesbe solved by using several tanks.
In a standard IIF0 system three difrerent
tanks are used:
. HFO buffer tank (seflling)tonk,HFO
.A.Buttet
. IIFO day tank
. LFO day tank.
The conventional settling tank was always
an importaot item since excesswater with
The alternative HFO system has two differ-
sludge and abrasivescould be removed in
ent tanks:
the tank by g"avitational effects.
. HFO day tank
. LFO day tank. To give the sel-llingprocesssufficient time,
these tanks normally have a capacity equiva-
Tn the standard LFO systemone tank is lent to 24 hours fuel consumption.
used:
. LFO day tank. Ihe amount of sludge and abrasives re-
moved by settlement is considerably less
Seediagram in general section than the amount removed by the separator.
Therefore smaller thanks, having only a
buffering function, can be used in combina-
tion with a separator. The purpose ofthe
tank is to provide fuel with constaot tem-
perature and static pressure to the separa-
tor,

FUL O11t\,t7aM - E.v, I Pdge l9


WARTSILADfltrStrL
POWER PLAII'3

Figu@ 19.HFObutler ldnk

4.5.Doytonk
Ttre buffer tank has the following
connectlona:
4.5.1
. Doytonk,HFO
A = HFO fiUinc
B = Suctionto separatorunit The healT fuel oil day tank is normally di-
C = Drei n/emnfvinc mensionedto ensure fuel supply for about 8-
D = Venting 12 operating hours when filled to rnaxrmum.
E = Return from separator unit
F = Manhole The tank shall be designed to keep water
G = Overflow and dirt particles out ofthe suction pipe.
H = Fuel from retum fuel unit
I = Overllow from day tank The day tank has to be placed at about
0.5 m abovethe buffer tank and has to be
The buffer tank is dimensioned to ensure connectedwith an overflow line with con-
constant temperature and suction head in stant slopeback to the buffer tank.
the separator. The temperature in the buffer
tank shall be kept as constantas possible, The tank and pumps shall be placed where
min. 60" C or at least 10" C abovethe pour a positive static pressure of0.3-0.5 bar is ob-
point of the actual fuel. tained on the suction side ofthe pumps.

The minimum level offuel in the buffer tank


shall be kept as high as possible.ln this way
the static pressure will not vary too much.

The buffer tank shall ensure fuel supply for


3-8 hours when filled to maximum. The tank
shall be designed to provide sludge and
water rejecting effect.

Pogem 41ELOILSTSIEM- P.v. I


wiBTsrl-i DltrstrL
POgEi PLlL?3

Figup 20. HFOdoy ,onk

4.5.2.Doyfonk,LFOin
The HFO day tank has the followiog
HFOinslollolion
connecDons:
The day tank is normally dimensionedto en-
A = Suction to booster unit surefuel supplyfor 4-5 operatinghours
B = HFO filling when filled to maximum.
C = Rturn fuel from pipes
D = Venting 4.5.2.1 Heofing
E = Drain/emptying
F = Manhole Usually there is no needofheating for the
G = Overflow LFO day tank. In installationswith arctic
H = Overllow to buffer tank conditions,attentionis to be paid to the
pour point and the wax formationsfor the
4.5.1.l Heoling fuel.

The buffer and HFO day tank heaters shall For the LFO day tank the samefotmulas
only be dimensioned for the heat losses.The and diagiamscanbe usedas for the storage
same formulas and diagrams can be used as tanks.
for the storage tanks.
Seestoragetanks chapter 2.3 Heating
Seestorage tanks chctpter2.3 Heating.

FUELOILSYSIEM- l.v. t Page 2l


wARTsrLiD[trstrL
POWEF PLAIITS

Figurc2l. LFOddy dnk

The LFO day tank has the following For sizing of the heater in LFO day tanks
connections: the same formulas and diagrams can be
used as for the storage tanks.
A = Suctionto boosterunit
B = LFO filling Seeformula and diagrans on page 12 - 13
C = Overflow
D = Venting
E = Drain/emptying
F = Manhole 4.6.Tonkequipmenfs
Buffer and HFO day tanks are to be pro-
4.5.3.Doy tonk, IFO inslollotion vided with heating coils and good insulation.
Level switches and gaugesfor filling control
The day tank is normally dimensionedto en- alarrn and supewision shall be mounted on
sure fuel supply for 8-12 operating hours the tanks.
when filled to maximum.

4.5.3.1 Heoling

Usually there is no need ofheating for the


LFO day tank. In installations with arctic
conditions, attention is to be paid to the
pour point aod the wax formations for the
fuel.

Pdge 22 FIIELOIL SYSIEM- P.v. t


WARTSILADOtrStrL
powEn PLlraT3

4.T.Seporolion
system
T'he new generation ofseparators, without
4.7.1. Seporotorunit gravity discs, are designed for single or par-
allel operation. These tJrpesofseparators
Centrifugal separators have proved to be are working both as purifiers and clarifierg.
the most effective means ofremoving fuel The max. density foithe fuel is 1015 kg/rn3
contaminations that are harmful to the die- at 15" C. An additional separator shall be in-
sel engine. Both water and solids can be ef- stalled for LFO ifneeded.
fectively removed.
In order to achieve optimal result, the fuel
Before entering the day tank the heavy fuel shall be treated in accordance with the rec-
must be cleaned in an efficient centrifugal ommendations given by the separator manu-
separator. ltre capacity ofthe separator facturer. Max. temperature for HFO:s are
units shall be 12-15 7, higher than the total generally 98" C, however, the temperature
fuel consumption. The conventional sepala- dependson the viscosity ofthe actual HFO.
tors, with gravity disc, are ananged for op- Separating temperatures for various HFO:s
eration in series, the first as a purifier and are shown in chapter 02, Oil characteristics.
the secondas a clarifier. This arrangement
gives the most disturbance-freeresults. The The IIFO separator has the following
max. denqity for the fuel for this solutron ls connections:
991 ke/m' at 15 "C.
A = HFO inlet
B = HFO outlet
C = HFO recirculation
D = Sludge outlet
E = Ventilation
F = Operating water inlet
G = Operating air inlet

Figurc 22. HFOsopdrdlot unil (2 sepd/qlots)

FUELOIL SI6TEM - Pov. I Pdge 23


WARTSILA
DltrstrL
POUER PLAIITS

4.7.2.Sizingof seporolor 4.7.3.Sizingof heolers


The fuel oil separator shall be dimeosio{ed It's very important to keep the fuel tempera-
accordingto the recommendationsofthe ture constant and that the separator is work-
sepatator manufacturer. ing at the right temperature.The heaterhas
to rise the temperatureffom the buffer tank
The following formula cao be used for fuel levelto the recommended separatingtem-
oils: perature.
This formula can be used for IIFO:
Based on separation tirne 24 h,/day.
o 'O c _n A t . n
Pp=
P . b . 2 4 . 1 0 0.0n 3600
p T
Pn= heat required {kWl
Q = quantity [VhJ q = flow [mJAr]
P = engine output at p = density oftuel at actual temp. [kglm3l
fll'wheel(s) [kW] at site conditions cp = specificheat value at actualtemp-&
b = fuel oil consurnption [kg/kwl] at slte density [kJ/tg'C]
conditions (57otolerance to be included) A t= rising temperature["C]
p = ruel orl den-sltylkg;/m"l {normally: I = min. factorofsafety 1.10- 1.15 (10-157o)
- 960 kg/m: for HFO
- 870 kc/m" for LFO) ?he followiogvalueshavebeenusedfor the
T = continuous operating time requiredheatingpowerdiagram:
(24 can be used for partial discharge
separator, 23 for total discharge p = 930 ke;/mS
separator) cp = 1.93kJ/kg"C
I = safety factor 1.12 - l.l5 (12-l5Co) n = 1.15
Buffer tank temp. 60"C
Separation temp. 98"C

500
450
400
350
E
300
(t)
250
200
150
100
50
0
5000 t0000 15000
Separator
inletflow Q [/h]
Figu@23. Requhed hedling powet lot lhe sepo/'c,lotunil

Pago 24
WARTSILA
D[trstrL
POWER PLAIfT3

4.7.4.Sludgequontilies
Ttre sludge tank shall be placed below the
separators and as closeto the separators as VOLUMEOF SLUDGEANDWASTE
possible.Ttre tank shall be designedwith WATERFORALFA-LAVALSEPARATORS
smooth inside walls. A heating coil is only re-
quired with low ambient temperatures and Totaldischaroe
seDaralorsP arlialdischaroe
seDaralors
when using fuel oil with higher viscosity FlowQ Discharge Flow O Discharge
than 380 cst at 50" C, or ifthe sludge tank vh vh
is bigger than 250 I per separator. Sludge in 1500 7 450 6
the sludge tank mustn't be recirculated into 2200 750 6
the system. 5000 21 1200 4
5600 46 2700 6
The sludge tank must be well vented to
s000 10
avoid too high pressurein rhe tank during
back flushing. 7000 22

Notel A too high pressure in the tank during Bqsisof colculolions for Alfq lqvql
back flushing rnay force the sludge back to sepolqlor:
the separator. . total dischargeseparator:
onedischargeper hour
. partial dischargeseparator:
VOLUMEOF SLUDGEANDWASTE two dischargesper hour
WATERFORWESTFALIASEPARATORS . viscosity380cst.
Tolaldischarqe
seDarators
Flow Q Discharge Generql commenl

890 1,5 In additionfor both manufacturers,the


water contentin the oil is separatedand
4400 9 addedto the sludgeamount.
8400 18

4'7'5' sludge hondling


Bqsisor cqrcurofions
forwesrfqrio
seoqrqlors:
. viscosity 3g0 cst It is recommendedto have a stotage tank at
. discharge of separator every two hours tle talt ror oil and sludge ftom
seDarato$.1a1f
From $1rty
the Dowerstation the
sl;dge is sent to an iniinerator for burning,
or the sludge is sent away for further treat-
menl,

The sludgemainly consistsofwater, which


canbe separatedout in specialsludgetreat-
meot systems.T'heamountofsludgethat
must be burned is thereby considerablyre-
duced.Water from sucha treatment system
canbe drainedinto the sewagesystem.

||ELOLSfSEM - P.v. I Pdge 25


wARTsrLiiDltrstrL
POWER PLAI'T3

Pdge 26 FUELOIL SYSIEM . REV. I


wiiRTsrLADltrstrL
POWET PIAI'TS

5. FUEIFEED
SYSTEM

5.l.Generql feeder/ boosler


5.2.The
syslem
Ttre function of the fuel feed system is to
supplythe engine(s)with cleanedfuel ofthe The main componentsin a pressurized
requiredflow, pressureand viscosity.The booster system are
fuel feedsystemscomponentsare usually
. the feeder pumps
built in a commonfeeder/ boosterunit.
. the boosterpumps
Units are rccommended to usebecausethe . the heater
installationtime canbe reducedand the . and the viscosity control.
quality ofthe systemfunctionis higher.
The feeder purnp supplies the fuel and the
In caseswherethe HFO day tank is located booster pump rises the pressure and flow to
far from, or below the booster,the feeder the requiredlevel.The heater maintainsa
pumpsare placednext to the tank and form temperature correspondingto an injection
a feederunit. viscosity of 16. .. 24 cst.

The fuel feedsystemsare differentfor HFO Furl,hermore there are different auxiliary -
and LFO fuel- The LFO fuel systemdoesnot and control componentsneededin the sys-
needa pressurizedboostersystem. tems.

Seefigure in chapter0.2.

High viscositytuels (IIFO) requirehigh oper-


ating temperatureto obtain the requiredflu-
idity. In orderto preventformationofgas
alrd vapour in the fuel system it must be
pressurized.

- 2.v. I
FU{ oIL SVSTEM Poge 27
WART$L,ID[EstrL
POUEB PLAIITS

Figurc . Feeder/ Boasrerunit (bu l on the sameskid)


TheexdmDleis lor o 0-l0 MW itolion

5.2.1. Suclionslloinet
The feeder / booster unit has the following
connections:
The suctionstrainerwith a fioe 0-5mm
Heavy fuel oil inlet
mesh shall be installed to protect the feeder
pumpsand the boosterpumps.The stramer
B Fuel oil outlet (to engine)
c Fuel oil return (from engioe) may be either of duplex type with change
D Air pipe to overllow tank over valves or two simplex strainers in paral-
lel,
Steam inlet
F Condensateoutlet
Deaeration outlet
H Drain from module
I Back flushing oil from autom. filter
L Instrument ait inlet
M Light tuel oil inlet

Pdge 2E
WARTSILADltrStrL
POSER PLAXTS

5. FUELFEED
SYSTEM

5.l.Generol feeder/ boosler


5.2.The
sysfem
The functionofthe fuel feedsystemis to
supplythe engine(s)with cleanedtuel ofthe
The main componentsin a pressurized
requiredflow, pressureand viscosity.The
booster system are
fuel feedsysternscomponents are usually
. the feeder pumps
built in a commonfeeder/ boosterunit.
. the boosterpumps
Llnits are recommended to usebecausethe . the heater
installation time canbe reducedand the . and the viscosity control.
quality ofthe systemfunctionis higher.
The feeder pump supplies the fuel and the
In caseswhere the HFO day tank is located booster pump rises the pressure and flow to
far from, or belowthe booster,the feeder the required level. The heater maintains a
pumpsare placednext to the tank and form temperaturc correspondingto an injection
a feederunit. viscosityof 16... 24 cst.

The fuel feed systemsare different for HFO Furtlermore there are different auxiJiary -
and LFO fuel. The LFO fuel systemdoesnot and control componentsnepdedin lhe sys-
needa pressurizedboostersystem. tems.

Seefi4ure in chapter0.2.

High viscositytuels (HFO)requirehigh oper-


ating temperatureto obtain the requiled flu-
idity. In order to preventformationofgas
and vapourin the fuel systemit must be
pressurized.

nEL OILSVSIEM- Pov. t Poge 27


WARTSILADIEStrL
powEF pr-axrs

Figurc . Feeder/ Boostetunll (bullt on lhe sameskid)


fhe exdmple b lor o 0-10MWstolion

5.2.1. Sucfionstroiner
The feeder / booster unit has the following
connections:
The suction strainer with a fine 0.5 mm
Heavyfuel oil inlet mesh shall be installed to protect the feeder
pumpsand the boosterpumps.The strainer
B Fuel oil outlet (to engine)
c Fuel oil return (frorn engine) may be either of duplex t5pe with change
D Air pipe to overflow tank ovetvalvesor two sirnplexstrainersin paral-
lel.
E Steaminlet
F Condensateoutlet
G Deaerationoutlet
H Drain from module
I Backflushing oil from autom.filter
L Instrument air inlet
M Light fuel oil inlet

Page 28 FIIELOILSl.slEM- P.v. I


WARTSILADltrStrL
POWEB PLAXTS

5.2.2.Feederpump control(ovedlow)
5.2.3.Pressure
volve
The feederpump maintainsthe pressurein
the fuel feedsystem.It is recommended
to The pressure control valve maintains the
usea high temperatureresistantscrew pressurein the deaerationtank directing
pump as a feederpump. the surplus flow to the suction side of the
feeder pump.

set point = 3...5 bar.


Designdata
capacilyto handlelhe totalconsumplion I
ol lhe engine(s)andthe llushquanlityof 5.2.4.lnletpressure
a possibleautomalicliller
operalingpressure 3-5 bar Since it is possiblethat the fuel might con-
operarrng lemperature 100c tain water, the inlet pressure to the pump
viscosity(lordimensioning
the electic must be highet than the evaporating pres-
motor) 1000csl sure ofthe water at conesponding tempera-
ture and ambient air pressure to avoid
cavitation. The figure below shows the rec-
ommendedinlet pressure for various tem-
peratures at normal air pressure.

tr'/
o| ..r
''./"
6 e
o t--
a)

70 80 90 100 1 1 0 120 130 140 150 160


- recommended lnletpressure ('C)
Temperature
+ Vapourpressurewaler

Figurc 25. Minimum inlel pre$ue on pump suclion slde

OtL Sy'aM - R.v. I


FUEL Pdge 29
WARTSILADfltrStrL
POWER PLAlITS

5.2.5.Fuelconsumplionmelel 5.2.9.Aufomoticollycleonedtine
filler
When a fuel consumption meter is required
it shall be fitted between the feeder pumps It is recommendedto use automatically back
and the deaeration tank. The meter shall flushing filters that consist of a duplex filter
have a by-pass line. with a by-passfrlter as stand-by. The feed
pump capacity shall be sulflcient to prevent
pressure drop during the flushing operation.
5.2.6.Deoerotionfonk
Designdata:
The deaeration tank has a volume of about
60 L It must be equipped 1aith a vent valve, lueloil accordinglo specificalion
controlled by a level switch. It shall also be opetingtemp. 0-r50'c
insulated and equipped with a heating coil. lraceheatrng from180csl/ 50' C
Ttre vent pipe shall, ifpossible, be led down-
wards, e.g. to the return fuel tank.
10bar
luelside20 bat
healingjacket1Obar
pump
5.2.7.Boosler
-back'{lushingfiller: 90 % sepaalionabove20Im
(meshsizemax.35 pm)
The task ofthe boosterpump is to provide - stand-by
Jilterl above15 pm
60 % separalion
the engine(s)with an adequateamountof wilhonethroughllow
fuel at a certainpressure.The capacityof
the pump shall be min. 2.5times higher maximumrecommen-cleanliiter 0.2 bar
than the enginefuel oil consumption.In dedpressuredropfor dirtylilter 0.8 bar
nomallalte|s al 16 alam 1.5bar
caseof severalenginesusingthe same
boosterpurnp,the capacityof the pump
must be 10 7. higher than the sum ofthe
enginerelatedfeed-booster pumpsand the
0ushingcapacrty ofautomaticfilter using
fuel oil as back-flushing rnedia. 5.2.1oviscosimefer
or lhermoslol
Designdata For controlofthe viscosity,a viscosimeteris
used.A manualihermostaticcontrolis frt-
desgnpressure 110bar ted to be usedas a safetydevicein caseof
des,gnlemperature 1150'C viscosimetermalfunction.
viscosity I
(lordimensioninq
ol lhe eleclricmotor) l50o csl
Designdata
vrscos
y range
(atIn;ecnonlr.p.tl ,o-to.st
designlempelaturc 150'C max.
aqnpressure 140bar
5.2.8.Heoter
The heater is describedin section 5.3.

Poge30 nm O1LSYSIEM- lev, I


WARTSILADOtrSEL
POWEN PLAIITS

of heqfersin fhe
S.3.Sizing
boosferunil
The boosterheatersizecanbe calculated
Heatersare normallydimensionedto main- accordingto formula:
lain a temperaturecorresponding to an in-
jectionviscosityof 16.-.24cst at maximum o-- I P cP At -
fuel consumption and at given day tank tem- 3600
perature.
Pp= heat required [kWl
To avoid fuel cracking, the heater surface q = flow lmo/h]
temperaturemust not be too high. The sur- p = densityoffuel at actual temp. [kglm3]
face power of electric heaterp shall not be cp = specificheat value at actual temp. &
higher than about 1 W/ cm". Ttreheater density fkJlkg 'C]
must be controlledby a thermostatot a vrs- A t= dsing temperature['C]
cosimete!- I = mio. factorof safety1.10- 1.15(10-157o)
The set point ofthe corresponding thermo- Note!The temperaturein the day dank is de-
stat is somewhat higher than the tempera- pendingon the type ofHFO. For fuel oil
ture set point for requiredviscosityat the with a viscosityof 180cst / 50" C, the sepa-
injectionpumps,to compensate heat losses rating temperatureis 98" C, thus can be esti-
in the pipes. matedthat the temperaturein the day dank
will be at least 90'C.

NELOILSYSIEM. Pd, I PdgE 3l


WARTSILAD[trStrL
POWER PLAIITS

5.4.Sfeomqnd elechicity quontifies


5.5.Sludge
consumplion
Sludge arises in this system from back-flush-
ing in the automatic filter. A collecting tank
The required heating power in the booster
shall be arranged underneath the filter. The
system dependson the fuel viscosity and the
flushine data for standard unit:
fuel oil flow. Ttre required heating power
can be read from the diagram below.
Engine Flushing Flushing Ouantity
Following values have been used for the output llow time per
diagram below: tMWI lm3ihl lsl flushinglll
0-6 0.4
P = 960 kglm3 6-13 2.2 0_s
cp = 1.99 kJ&g"C
13-18 3.2 2.3 2
n = 1.15
Daytank temperature 90'C
Boosteroutlettemperature 135'C Normally the flushing frequency is 3...4
times per hour.

Afi 300

_ 400
250
:35u
6
F 300 200
F.
; 250
;

100
100
50
50
0
0 5000 10000
Booster
/ feederunitinletflowQl/hl

Figurc . pequhed healiDg powet in lhe boostet systefi

Page32 ntELOIL SYSIEM. R.v. I


WARTSILAD!trStrL
POWER PLA]IT3

5.6.Pumpqnd filterunif 5.6.I.Pumpcopocity

The pump and filter unit is located between Designdata


the booster unit and the engine. The unit Capacrty lMrn 2.5limeslhe
protects the engine by a last filtration. The enginsconsumplion
pump providesthe cnginewith the right Designpressure 18bar
fuel quantity and pressure in installations
Viscosity (lordrmensioning ls00 csl
where the booster unit is serving more than
one engine. (Figure 27)

In installations v/ith one booster unit for


each eng]ne it is not necessaryto have the
pump in the unit.

For engines with built on purnp and filter it


is not necessaryto use an external unit.

Design dala tor filter (32-engines)


Fuelviscosfy acc. lo specilcalion
operaringlemperarure 15ooc
Flow se Tech Dala
Opeatingpressure 10 bar
Fineness 60"; sepatalionabove
15pm wilhonelhrough

MaximumDermitted cleantiller O.2bal


pessuredropsat l,kst ldidyliller 0.qp"t
alam 1.5bar

Figurc27. Pumpdnd fillet unir.

The exampleis tor 16V32and 18V32engines

ThepumpandIilter unit havethe following


connections:

A = Fuel oil inlet


B = Fuel oil to engine
C = Fuel oil outlet
D = Fuel oil from engine
E = Drain

PU4 otL SvStEM. P.r, I Page 33


WARTSILADOtrStrL
POWEB PIAI'TS

5.7.Fueloil sqfetyfilter
The fuel oil safety filter is a full flow duplex
type filter vr'ith steelnet. This lilter must be
installed as near the engine as possible.The
frlter to be equipped with heatingjacket.

Designdata (46-engines)
Fuelvrscosrty lacc.lo specilication
Operatngtempeture "C
1150
Flow lsee lechnicaldata
Operahg pressure lt0 bar
Fineness 190%seDaralion above
20 irm (meshsize
max.35 im)
[,laximumpermitled
pressure lCleanfiller0.2bar,
droDal 14csl lalarm0.Sbar

Poge U FUELOILSYSIEM- Ree- |


WARTSILA
DltrstrL
POWER PLA}ITS

6. FUELCOTLECTING
SYSTEM

6.l.Generol 6.2.Cleqnleqk fuel syslem


There are two tlTes ofleak fuels, the clean The clean leak fuel is drained from the injec-
leak fuel and the dirty leak tuel. tion pumps and can be re-used. The fuel
shall be drained to a separate leak fuel
The collecting system consistsof a tank, tank, and further pumped to the buffer tank
a pump and a suction strainer and can be or the storagetank. The pipes from the en-
built in on a common unit - the return fuel gine(s) to the tank shall be inclined and pro-
unit (figure 28). vided with heating and insulation. The tank
also has to collect the sludge from the
The return fuel unit has the following boosterunit.
connecllons:
The tank is automatically emptied by a
= Fuel oil outlet pump controlled by level switches. A tank
B = Drain volume of250 I is recommendedfor all en-
c = Ventilation gille t]ryes.
D = Fuel oil inlet
The pump is normally of type screw pump
and the following design data is used:

Designdatator returnfuel unit pump


pressufe
Operating 2.Obal
OpeEtinglemPeralure 100'c
Oilviscosity 20csl
lor sizingoJthe
Viscocity
400csl
= 2.4m3lh

The amount of clean leak fuel for different


engine t]?es are shown in the table below.

Enginetype Leak tuel quantity


kgy'Wcylindel
Vasa22 0.15
Vasa32 0.33
Figup 28. Petumtuel unil 0.75

AEL OIL SISIEM- ,q. I Pdge 35


wARTsrLiiDotrstrL
POWER PLAI'T3

6.3.Dirtyleqk fuel syslem


It is not recommended to re-usedirty leak
fuel oil. The dirty leak fuel oil shall be col-
lectedin a separatetank, or as an alterna-
tive, be collectedinto the LO separator
sludge tank. This can be doneif the pour
point of the fuel oil is not too high.

The pipes from the engine to the collecting


tank shall, ifpossible,be installedcloseto
the clean fuel pipes for combinedtrace heat-
ing and insulation. Alternatively dirty fuel
canbe led directly to a sludgetank. A funnel
shall be installedcloseto the enginecolrnec-
tion for easyinspectionofthe dirty leakage.

Pdge FUELOIL SYSIEM. PEV, I


WARTSILADItrStrL
POWEF PLAXTS

7. PIPINGANDTRACEHEATING

T.l.Generol of fuel pipes


7.3.Sizing
When planning a pipe system all parame- The volume flow through a pipe can be calcu-
ters that can influence on the running condi- lated if the crosssectlonarea ofthe pipe
tions and maintenance conditions have to be and the velocity of the flowing liquid are
considered. known.

These parameters are for example llee same expressedby a formula:


. inclination
. draining and supporting ofpipes Q=A v [m"/sj
. air pockets
^ . 3 ,
. flow resistance tol= volume rlow [m- / s
. velocityin the pipesetc. A = cross section area of the pipe [m2J
v = liquid velocity [m / s]
Each pipe line or group ofpipes must be in-
dividually exarninedto make sure that they Example of calculatingpipe dimension:
fulfill the criteria.
^ - 3^
The fuel oil flow is 5 m"/h and the velocityis
rated to 2.5 m,/s.W-lichpipe dimensionshall
be used?
7.2.Piping
Formula:
Ttre suction pipe to a pump shall be as short
as possibleto avoid risk of cavitation. The
discharge pipe shall be routed to minimize A=! s
flow resistance.

Eachpipeline musthaveenoughpipesup- q
- . t_41 =
;1
ports!o allowa steadypiping.A flerible 4 v
pipe connectionmust be usedbetweenpipes
and units in placeswhere d1'namicor ther-
modJmamicforces occur. d =
Q.4
v.E
Design data

ffi = 0.0266m
isnpressure 110bar

Pipe size + DN 25

The theoretical dimension is DN 25, but in a


pipe system you also have to minimize the
flow resistancein pipes, bends, valves and
the other components.Therefore DN 32 is,
io most cases,the dght choice.

F|JU OtLSy''aM - lev. , Poge 37


WARTSILADltrStrL
POWER PLAIITS

3.0

tnr/sl
1.0

0.5

0.1 0.5 a Im3/hl s

Figure 29. Didgnm lor detetmining lhe pipe dimensions

7.4.Fueloil velocities System Fuel

prpes LFO HFO


The fuel oil velocity is one factor that has in- (mm) Suction Suction
fluence on the pressure drop in a pipe. The DN Delivery Delivery
higher velocity the higher pressure drop. m/s ]Iy's
To keep the flow resistance in the piping 25 0.6,0.4 0.3-0.5
within acceptable linits, the flow velocities 0.8-1.0 0.4-0.6
(m/s) must be within certain limits. See the 32 0.7-0.9 0.3-0.5
table closeby here to find out recommended 0.9-1.1 0.4-0.6
velocity for actual fuel and pipe . 40 0.8-1.0
'|.o-1.2 0.3-0.5
0.5-0.7
50 0.9-1.1 0.3-0.5
1.1-1.3 0.6-0.8
65 1.O-1.2
'|.2-1.4 0.4-0.6
0.7-0.9
80 0.4-o_6
1.3-1.5 0.8-1.0
100 1.2-1.4 0.5-0.7
1.4-1.6 0.9-1.1
'125 1.3-1.5 0.6-0.8
1.5-1.1 1.O-1.2
150 1.3-1.5 0.6-0.8
1.5-1.7 1.0-1.2
175 0.7-o_9
1.6-1.1 1.O-1.2
200 1.5-t.6 0.7,0.9
1.6-1.7 1 . 01" . 2

Recommendedpipe dimen$ionand luel oil ve-


locitiesin suctionand deliverypipes

Poge 38 FUELOIL 'Y'IEM . PEL ]


wARTsILii DIEStrL
POWEB PLAIITS

7.5.Trqceheofing

7.5.I. Generol
When steam or hot water is used, the trace
Tlace heatingis usedin HFO systemswith heating pipe mustn't be winded around the
viscositiesof 180cst at 50' C and higher,or main pipe to obtain more heating surface
in caseswhere ambienttemperatureis be- per length. Ttris can cause de-aeration and
neath the pour point ofthe fuel. This, to water hammer problerns.
keepthe temperatureofthe fuel within pre-
scribedlimits. Componentsin the HFO sys- It is important to provide both sludge and
tem shall be providedwith heatingjackets drain pipes wiLh trace heating. although
to preventfuel oil solidificationin the compo- they are only used intermittently. Pipes be-
nents.Ttaceheatingcanbe doneelectri- tween unloading station and storage tanks
cally,by steamor by hot water. must also be trace heated regardless of
length. Trace heated pipes must be insu-
lated to minimize heat losses.
7.5.2.Systemloy-out
Ifelectrical trace heating cables are used,
they can be of self-regulating t1ae. If there
is only one cable per pipe the cable shall be
mounted to the underside ofthe pipe. If
there is more than one cable, they shall be
mounted at an angle of90 degreesto each
other.

F-\\-r-\--\\ r-\\
- N;D
ONE CABLEINSTATLATION HEATING
PIPE
ATTHEUNDERSIDE
/
r

TwO CABI.EINSTATIATION
K
Figwa 30. f@ce hegrlng by eleclticdrl coblas FiWp hedting by hedtlng pipes
3l. f@roooooce

RELOTLSy'EM - P.v, , Poge 39


wiiRTsrLADfltrstrL
POWEB PLAl{IS

7.5.3.Sizingof system 7.5.4.Heol losses


When sizing the trace heating system, the 7.5.4.1 Insuloledpipes
heat lossesin main pipes must be known.
Dimensioningof insulationthicknessfor
The heat lossesare calculated for each pipe, safetypipe surfaces:
which is to be heated. From tables beiow can DN15_DN40 =20mm
be obtained heat loss values per meter pipe DN50-DN250=30mm
at different cbnditions. The heat loss must
be compensatedby means of external energy Dimensiooing of insulation thickness with
e.g. hot water, steam or electricity. regard to thermal losses
DN15_25 =40mrn
Example DN 65 pipe, insulated with re- DN32-65 =50mm
gard to safety, fuel oil temperature 80" C, DN80-200 =60mm
ambient temperature 40" C, length 50 m. DN 250- =80lnm
From the table below can be seenthat heat
lossesfor such a pipe is 14 W / m. Thus, the
total heat loss is 50 m " 14 W / m = 700 W.

Heat lossesol salety insulatedpipes in M/ml Heatlos'esof pipesinsulatedwithrcgardto


and [gram steam/m]at 20" C and 40" C ambi- thermallosses,in M/ml and[gramsteam/m]
ent air temperaturc. at 20" C and40"C ambientair temperaturc.

Temperature
of medium Temperature
of medium
80' c 130'C 80"c 130'C
Nominal gram glam Nominal granl sranl
DN DN
7 bar 7 bal 7 bal 7 bal
20140"c 20t40"c 20140"
c 20/40"c 20t40'c 20/40"c 20140"c 20/40' c
11/8 15/10 21111 21t/22 15 at5 11n 15t12 19/16
20 1?9 17/11 24t20 31126 20 9/6 1ZA 17t14 22114
25 15/10 201t3 24t23 36/30 25 10n 14t9 19/16 25t20
32 1212 23t16 33127 43n5 32 11n 14t9 19/16 25nO
40 20113 261t7 36/30 47nA 40 11/8 15t10 21t17 27t22
50 1Ut2 23115 33127 43/35 50 13/9 171t1 24/16 31t21
65 2v14 27118 39t32 50/41 65 15/10 20fi3 24t17 36122
80 24t16 31/21 44136 57t46 80 15/10 20/13 27t22 36/29
100 29t19 38/25 53/43 69/56 lo0 14t12 23t15 33t27 42J35
125 34133 44/30 63/51 41rc7 '125 2 1 /t 4 27118 38/31 49140
150 40/27 5235 73/60 95'78 150 24t16 31nO 4335 56t46
200 50/33 92n5 120rc8 200 29119 3U25 53144 69/57
250 61141 79l53 112/92 145 19 250 24t19 36t25 51t42 66/54

Pdge 4) tua. otL svstEM- P.t, I


=
u
F
c
t
?

c
a
F
I
c
g
g

TUBRICATII{G
OIt
SYSTEM

Handboolr
lor
Systems
Mechanical

WARTSILA
POWER PLAilTS
Tqbleof Conlenls

LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM

GENERAL
T y p i c asl y s t e m
layout.. ....0- 1
T e m p - v i sdci a g r a m. . . . ....0-2

UNLOADING,
STORAGE AND TRANSFER SYSTEM
General. .........1-3
U n l o a d i nsgy s t e r q. . . . . ....1-3
Unloadingpumpunit ... .. 1-3
P u m pt y p e ...... I-4
Working principle for a screw pump . 1 - 4
P u m pc a p a c i t y ... l-4
S u c t i osnt r a i n e r ......... l-4
S t o r a gsey s t e m . ...1-5
F r e s oh i lt a n k . . . ........ 1-5
Dimensioningof ffesh oil tank . . . . . . 1- 5
H e a t i n og f f r e s h
o i lt a n k . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
T a n k f our s e do i l . . . . . .... 1-6
Dimensioningof tank for usedoil . . . 1 - 6
H e a t i n go f t a n kf o ru s e do i l . . . . . . . . 1-6
T r a n s f esr y s t e m ...1-8
T l a n s f enr r r m n ......... l-8
P u m pt y p e ...... 1-8
Suctionfilter/ strainer. ... 1-8

CLEANINGSYSTEM
General. .........2-9
Separatorsystem .......... 2-9
Separator unit ... 2-9
Sizingof separators... .. 2-10
Sludgequantity 2-I7
F i l t e r s. ....... 2-12
Changingoffiltercartridges...... 2-12
Automatic fiiter 2-73
S a f e t yf r l t e r .... 2-74
LI,]BRICATING OIL COOLING SYSTEM
General .........3-15
Thermostatic
valve.. . . . ...3- 15
Dimensionand operation 3 - 16
Pressuredropdiagrams .. 3-17
Lubeoilcooler.. .........3-19
Dimensioningof lube oii cooler . . . . 3 - 19
Radiatorcooling ..3 -20

PRESSIjRE CONTROL SYSTEM


General .........4-21
Prelubricating pump . . . ...4-21
M a i nl u b eo i lp u m p .......4-22
G r a v i t tya n k . ....4-22
Systemoil tank ..4-23
D e s i g ro f t h es y s t e m
o i lt a n k . . . . . . 4 - 2 4

PIPING
P i p i n.g. ........5-25
L u b eo i lp i p e s. . .........5-25
Lubeoil velocities. ..... ...5 -26
WARTSILA
D|trstrL
POUER PLAXT3

O. GENERAT

Each engine shall have a separate external The lubricating oil system consists of the
lubricating oil system. Depending on the following:
t)?e ofengine, the external lubricating oil . unloading, storage and transfer system
system vary in design. At, e.g, VASA 46, . cleaning systern
some components are external while on . cooling system
other engines they are built on the engine. . pressure control system
In-line and V-engines also have some differ- . pipiog systm
ences.
Please refer to append.ix D-F for flowcharts
desc binq d.ifferent systems.

0.l.Typicolsyslemlqyout

UNLOADING PUMP
UNLOADING
STATION

FRESHOILTANK

TANKFOR
USEDOIL
BAVIry TANK

THERMOSTATIC
VALVE

TRANSFER
PUMP
PLATEHEAT
EXCHANGER

MAINLUBEOIL PUMP

SEPAMTOB
UNIT

PRELUBEOIL PUMP

Figu@ l. Lubeo syslem h pdnciple

lhis exomple k lor o VASA16 enghe

LUAPICAIIe OI S\6IEM - Pq. I Pdge I


wART$Lii DfitrstrL
POWEB PLAl{TS

- visc. diqgrom
0.2.Temp.

i) 15 90 96 tm r5 l]0 15120 r25 r30 135

Figu@2. fefip.-visc. diogrcn lot SAE30 dnd SAE10.

The diagran above shows how the viscosity varies at different temperatures for the two
tJryesof lub cating oil recommendedby Wartsila Diesel .

Poge 2 IUAPICAINC O S\'SIEM - P.v. I


wilRTsrLADltrstrL
POWER PLA,.T3

STORAGE
I. UNTOADING, SYSTEM
ANDTRANSFER

l.l.Generol L2.Unloodingsyslem
The unloading, storage and transfer system
vary depending oo the size ofthe power I .2.| . Unloodingpump unil
plant. A small power plant doesn't need
more than a few oil barrels and a hand- or The unloading pump unit has to be placed
an electrically-drivenpump, while a bigger at the unloading station closeto the HFO
power plant, with many eng:nes,needs and LFO unloading pump units. A single
pumps and tanks for handlingthe lubrica- version can be used. Ifboth LFO and LO sys-
ting oil. tems have a single version ofthe unloading
pump unit, the pumps can be built on the
Ttre unloading, storage and transfer system same skid, still with separate inlet and out-
includes: let connections-
. unloading pump unit
. fresh oil tank (storage tank) The unloading pump unit consistsofthe
. transfer pump unit following components:
. tank for used oil . steel frame
. suction filtr
The unloadrng pump unit has Lhe following . electrically driven pump
connections: . valves
. control panel
A = LO inlet
B = LO outlet
C = Drain

Figup 3. Lube oil unlodding pump unll

. P". I
LUANCAiNE OL SYS''EM Pqgp 3
WARTSILADfltrStrL
POWER PLAi'T3

1.2.2.Pumptype 1.2.3.Pumpcopocity
The pump shall be dimensioned for actual Designdata
lubricating oil quality (viscosity).To avoid
emulsifuing ofwater, the unloading pumps capacv, ran\volume I00om: llo-loqm1h
1 0 0 0m ' 1 1 0m
0 A
shall be of screw-pump type.
pessure
operaling 14bar
The pump should be equipped with a built viscosity ISAE40
on overflow valve to protect the pump from viscosity(lordimensioning
ol the IrUOO"",
over ptessute,

1.2.2.1 Working pfinciple tor o screw Required power for the purnp can be calcu-
pump lated accordingto the following formula:

The working parts ofthe screw-pumpare n o . O . h


-P . "-'" 44IkWt
the three screws,which rotate in the sur- = '
1000 3600 n
rouodingcasing.The liquid, which is en-
closedbet\rreeothe seals,movesaxially
when the screwsrotate and is forcedthereby Preq
creatinga pumpingaction. p = density^at actual temperature [kg/m3]
a = flow fm'/hl
h = delivery head [m] -
g = force ofgravity [m/s"]
rl = efficiency

1.2.3.I Sucfionshoiner

A suction strainer shall be mounted to pro-


tect the unloading pump. The strainer can
either be ofduplex or single type.
Figurc 4. fhe woking pd''s in o scQw pump.

Poge 4 LIJBPICAIING OIL SYS/fM - P.v. l


WARTSILADltrStrL
POWEB PL XTS

l.3.Sforogesyslem

I .3.1. Flesh oil fonk ofthe fieshoil tank ac-


Fordimensionins
cording to the toLl output of the power
The fresh oil tank has to store lube oil for plant the table below can be used. ltre table
the oil changesand for compensatingoil con- is based on normal lube oil consumption and
sumption. a delivery interval of 14 days and on that 50
7oofthe oil sump volume can be changed at
1.3.l.l Dimensioning a trme.

The deliveryinteival for the lube oil is an Ratedpower (MW) m3


important factorwhen dimensioningthe
fresh oil tank, becauseshor:tdelivery inter- 0 4 3
vals means smaller tanks and longer inter- 4-6 5
vals meansbiggertanks. The lube oil tank 6 8 7
must storea sumcientquantity lube oil for 8-12 10
an oil changein lubricatingproblems.In in-
12 20 16
stallationswith maoy engioesit is better to
divide the enginesio groupsor sections.In 20-25 20
that casethe lube oil tank is servinga group 25 30 25
ofensines. 30-35 30
3 5- 6 0 50
60-85 70
85 - 120 100

- P.v. I
LUaNCAnNCOtLSVSTEM Pdge 5
WARTSILA
DOtrStrL
POWER PLAIITS

FigaQ 5. fonk modek lot ftesh qnd used o

The fresh oil tank has the following


coonections:
1.3.1.2Heoting
A = Outlet (to engine)
B = Inlet (filling) Usually there is no need ofheating for the
C = Overflow fresh oil tank- In installations with arctic
D = Venting condition's, attention has to be paid to the
E = Drain/emptying pumpability of the oil.
F = Manhole
For the fresh oil tarrk the same formuras
W:trtsila Dieselstandardtanks: and diagrams can be used as for the storage
tanks.
Horizontaltank Verticaltank
"Heating" in
Volume D L D H Seestorage tank chapter 2.3.
the fuel systemguide.
3 1250 2740
5 1600 2420
'7 1600 3740
t0 1600 5350 2500 2800
16 1600 4570 2500 3800
20 2000 6960 3000 3400
25 2000 8450 3000 4200
30 2000 10120 3000 4900
50 2500 10800 3800 5400

Pdge 6 IUBPICAI//]IGOILSYSIEM- P.v. I


WARTSILADItrStrL
POWER PLAXT3

L3.2.1 Dimensioning
The used oil tank has the following The size ofthe tank depends on the quantity
connections (see/ie,zre 5): ofused oil from the engine. The tank must
be able to store used oil from the lube oil sys-
Outlet tem ofone engine added with 15 7o.
B Inlet (from engine)
C Overflow
D Venting
V = Ve 1.15
E Drain/emptying
F Manhole V = used oil tank volume [m3]
Ve = used oil quantity from one engine [m3]

Ttre closeststandard tank is then to be cho-


I.3.2.Tonkfor usedoil sen.

Instead ofpumping used oil into oil barrels, L3.2.2 Heoling


a storage tank with enough volurne can be
installed. In this tank, used oil is temporar- , Usually there is no need of heating for the
ily stored before final disposal. used oil tank. In installations with arctic
conditions, attention has to be paid to the
The tank for used oil is a storage tank (see pumpability of the oil.
/1g&re5). It has to store changed lube oil
(used).The used oil is either manually
For the used oil tank the same formulas and
pumped at smaller installations and more diagrams can be used as for the storage
automatically at installations with many en- tanks.
gines.
"Heating" in
Seestora.getank chapter 2.2.
the fuel system gui.dz.

LUANCA'NG OILSI.5rFM- Pev. I Pdge 7


WARTSILADitrStrL
POWER P1AIIIS

I.4.Tronsfer
syslem

pump
L4.1.Tronsfer The transfer pump system, built as a unit
consistsof following components:
The LO transfer pump shall be situated . steel frame
nearbythe LO storagerank. If the pump is . suctioDfilter
placed at another place the suction head . electrically driven pump
rnust be checked.
. control panel
The transfer pump can be built with one or
two pumps (stand-by). If the LFO and LO The LO transfer pump has the following
storage tanks are situated closeto each connections:
other, the transfer pumps for respectivesys-
tems can be built on the sarneskid. A = Lube oil inlet
B = Lube oil outlet
Sometimesthe LO separator pump can be C = Drain
used as a transfer pump and as an empting
pump. The filling can be connectedto suc-
tion side and the empting connectedto the
pressure side ofthe separatot pump. In such 1.4.2.Pumptype
a casethe suction head and the flow are to
be checked. A gentle treat ofthe oil is important. To
avoid emulsification ofwater the transfer
pump shall be ofscrew-pump tl4e.
i-..
The pump shall be equipped with a built on
overflow valve to protect the pump from
over pressure.

Designdata
capacityemptyingfilling
ol the oilsump lwilhin1-3h
pressure
operaling max.4 bar
viscosjty SAE 40
(lordimensioning
vrscos,ty ot lhe 1s00cst

1.4.3.
Suction
filter^troiner
A suction filter or strainer shall be fitted to
protect the transfer pump.
Figwe 6. Lube oil honslet pump unit

Poge I LWPICA Ne OIL SYSIEM - Pq. I


WART$LAD[trstrL
POWEi PLAXT3

2. CTEANING
SYSTEM

2.l.Generol 2.2.Seporolor
syslem
During normal operation, the lubricating oil
getscontaminatedby wear and combustion 2.2.I.Seporolor
unif
residues.Even after a few operatinghours,
there can be somecombustionresidues, The separator shall be dirnensioned for con-
especiallyif the engineis inadequately tinuous separation. Each lubricating oil sys-
preheatedand./orquickly accelerated and tem shall have a separator ofits owo, r.e.
loaded. one separator for each engine.

The cleaning system consistsof the The separator unit has the following
connections:
. separatorunit
. automatic filter (VASA 46) A = Dirty LO ialet
. safety filter (VASA 46) B = Cleao LO outlet
. fine filter Or'ASA32) C = Displacement water inlet
D = Drain
E = Sludge outlet

Figve 7. Lubeoil sepo'olor unit.


fhe exqmpleb lot a 2-7 MW Insra atton.

Luretca'l}lcotLsvnt|, . P4. I Pdge 9


WARTSILAD[trStrL
POWEB PLAIIT3

2.2.2.Sizingof seporotors 2.2.3.Sizingof sepo.otorheoters


Ttre lube oil separators shall be dimensioned A constant temperature is very important
accordingto the recomnendations ofthe for reaching a good separating aesult. The
separator manufacturer. heater has to rise the temperature from the
level it has in the oil sump or system tank to
Designdata iLsseparatingtemperature.when Lheengine
is loaded.
Sepatrontemperature 185..95. C
The heater has to be designedfor a tempera-
For optimal separationresult the separation ture rise of40 "C. When start-up the heater
temperatureshouldbe as high as possible. sometimesis used for warming up the en-
gme.
Max. allowedtemperatureis to be checked
with the lube oil supplier.
The separation temperature is between
85...95'C.
The following formulas can be used to esti-
mate the capacityofthe lube oil separator:
The lube oil can be heaied by means of:
. steam
Q=P z nlt . electricity
q = quantity [Vhl
= This formula can be used to estimate the re-
P output ofthe diesel[kW'] quired size ofheater:
z = conversionfactor 0/kWl = 1.36
n = fuel oil dependingfactor
n=5forHFO - q 0 c D A t
'r
n=4forLFO 3600
n=SforDistillate
t = operatingtime [h]: PR = heat required [kW]
= 24 for partial discharget]?e separators q = flow [m".4r]
= 23 for total dischargetJryeseparators p = density oflube oil at actual temp.
lke/m"l
cp = specificheat value at actual temp. &
density [kJ/kg"C]
At = rising temperature ['C]
n = min. factor of safety (10-15%)

For the consumptiondiagramon next page,


the followingvalueshavebeenused:

P = 880kg/ m3
cp = 1.97kJ/kg'C
n = 1.15
Oil temperaturein sump = 50oC
Separatingtemperature = 90" C

Pdge | 0 - P4. t
LllBPlCAlNe OtLSVSTEM
WART$LAD[trstrL
POWEN PLAIITS

45o 300
5 400 9
_E35o ;

: 3oo 200

E 250 150
Ezcn
150 100
tm
50
50
0 0
0 5000 Separator10000
inletflowQ !/hl
Figwe E. Pequtuedheatingpower lor lhe LO$ep.unit

2.2.4.Sludgequonlily
The sludgetank shall be placedbelowthe
separatorand as closeto the separatoras VOLUMEOF SLUDGEAND WASTE
possible. WATERFORALFA-LAVALSEPARATORS
Total discharge Partial diecharge

Flow Q DischareE Flow Q Discharge


VOLUMEOF SLUDGEAND vh l,1l

WASTEWATERFOR 1500 7 450 6


WESTFALIALO SEPAFATORS 2200 l3 750 6
5000 21 1200 4
Sludse omduceddurins t tal dischare
5600 46 2700 6
FlowQ 0/h) Discharge
volune (t / h) 5000 10
770 (osc 4/ 5) 7000 22
1450 (osa7/ 8) 4
4000 (os 20l 25) 9
Bqsisot colculolions (Altq Lovol):
4600 (osB30/ 30) 9 . total.dischargeseparator:
7600 (osB35/40) 18 onectschargeper hour
. partial dischargeselaratorl
two cl$cAarges per nour
Bosisot colculolions(Weslfolio):
. total discharge
ofseparatoreverytwo
nours

2.3.Filfers
A filter has to be installedon the incoming
,,r,8 w LrrE cxtsrrr5,

Oll S\6EM - lov. I


LUBP,CAIINO Pogo | |
WARTSILADOtrStrL
POWEF PLAl'TS

2.3.1. Finefilfer
The fine filter is ofbuilt-on tlTe at VASA 22
The fine frlter has the following connections:
engines and inJine engines ofVASA 32,
while the fine filter is built as an extelnal =
A Lube oil outlet
unit for the V32-engines. B = Lube oil inlet
C = Drain from filters
The lilter unit consists ofthree fllters for D = Drain from drip pan
12V32 and offour fllters for 16V32 and
18V32. The filters are fullflow type, i.e.
the whole flow passesthrough the fllter.
Normally all filters are in use. When chang-
ing cartridge duling operation one filter rn
turn can be closedby a valve on top ofthe
unit.

Each filter consists oftwo cadridges. The


first is ofa paper with a nominal finenessof
15 !rm. The other (safety filter) consistsof
plated wire with a mesh of 65 pm.

Designdata
Capacity ISee technicaldala
Oilviscosity ISAE30-40
pressure
Operating lmax.I bar
Operaling
lemperalure "C
lma-x100
Fi6tlillermesh
widlh 115Fm
Saletyfrftermeshwrdlh 165Fm
Pressuredrop lcleanfilter. 0.3ba"
Alarmal 1.5bar Figu@9. Finefinq lot I 6V32 dnd 18V32 engines

2.3.2.Chongingof filler corkidges


As the useful life ofthe cartridges is, to a
great extent, dependent on the fuel quality,
load, lubricating oil quality, separation and
care ofcentrifugal frlter, experiencefiom the
installation concernedwill give the most
suitable intervals between changesof car-
tridses.

Pdge l2 LUAPTAr/,r'GOIL SYSIEM- P.v. l


WABTSILADltrStrL
POSEN PLATTS

2.3.3.Aulomolicfiller
Automatic selfcleaned filters are used for
The automatic filter has the following
the Vasa 46 enginestogether with a safety
contections:
filter. The cleaning princi!1e fo! this type of
filter is, that the direction offlow through =
A Dirty oil outlet
the filter elementsis reversedso particles B = Oil inlet
collectedon the surface ofthe filters are re- =
C Oil outlet
leased.For this backflushing cyclethe fil- = air iolet
D Compressed
ters either use compressedair or system oil.
The back flushed oil is passing through an
additional filter before the oil is enterine the
lube oil sumD.

Designdata
Lubricating oil viscosity SAE40
Operalingpressure max,8bar
min.12bar
Operatingtemperature max.100'C
90 7" separalionabove
20 jrm at onethroughllow
(meshwidlhmax.35 Jrm)
Cleanlitler< 0-3bar
Alarmal 0.8 bar

Flgwe 10.Aulomoticli er

- eev.I
LuratcatwaotLsr'srEM Pdge | 3
WARTSILADltrStrL
POWEB PLAl'T3

2.3.4.Sofetyfilter
The lubricating oil safety frlter is a duplex
The safety filter has the following
filter with wire netting cartridges. It is used
connections:
together with an automatic selfcleaning fil-
ter on the VASA 46 engines.
A = Oil inlet
B = Oil outlet
The lubricating oil goesthrough one ofthe
filter chambers,while the other is stand by
with clean cartridge.

When the filter has to be cleaned,the clean


side is taken into use and the dirty is closed
by a change over valve on top ofthe filter.
After this the filter chamber can be opeoed
and the dirty cartridge cleaned.

Designdaia
Lubricaling
oil viscosity SAE40
Operatingpressule rnax.8 bar
min.12bar
Operating
tmperaturc max.100'C
90 o/oseparationabove
50 pm al onlhroughtlow
(meshwidthmax.60 Im)
Cleantiher< 0.3bar
Alarm0.8 bar

FiguQ I l. Solety liltel

Pog 14 LWPICAIIIG OIL SVSIEM- P6v. I


WARTSILADOtrStrL
POWER PLAX13

3. LUBRICATING
OIt COOTING

3.l.Generol
The lubricating oil temperature increases The thermostaticvalvehas the following
during operation and must therefore be connections:
cooled.At full load the temperature rises to
75-80 'C depending on engine tJDe. Nominal A = Controlledtemp.outlet (to engine)
oil inlet temperature to the engine is 63 'C B = Hot inlet (from engine)
and maximum ?0-72 "C depending on the en- C = Coldinlet (fromheat erchanger)
gine type. In the lubricating oil circuit a
thermostatic valve is placed after the cooler
to regulate the temperature of the oil to the
engine.

The oii can be cooledby means of:


. water cooledheat exchanger
. air cooledradiator

/ /o /'I\
volve
3.2.Thermostotic / / l)0,
"'u//"y'
The thermostatic valve has to mix warm
and cold lubricating oil to obtain the right
temperaturc before entering the engine
(63 "C).

The thermostatic valve is built-on at Vasa


22 and on in-line 32-engines.For the Vasa
46-engines,the thermostatic valves are ex- Figu@ 12. fhetmosduic volve
ternal, located in the pipe system outside
the engine.

Designdata:
Sel poinl 'C
163
Pressurs
drop bar
10.15...0.5
pressure
Operating 18bar

U/,HCA'|,IG OIL tyyaM - P.v. l Pdge | 5


WARTSILADOtrStrL
powEi PLlllts

3.2.1.Dimension
ondoperolion
During start-up, when the oil is still cold,
the thermostatic three way valve directs the Size Wmm ZJmm Y/mm
oil back to the engine. When the oil gradu'
ally gets warmer, the thermostatic valve ad- DN 80 267 l'11 200
mits cooledoil from the lube oil coolerto rnix DN 1OO 403 217 224
with the warmer oil coming directly from DN 125 489 241 254
the engine in order to achieve a temperature DN 150 489 254 285
of63 "C on the oil returning to the engine. DN 2OO 640 420 340

Dimensions ofthermostatic valves is as fol-


lows:

Figub I 3. fhetmosrolUlicvdlve

Poge | 6 LI,BFICAI'IIJG OIL SVSIEM- P.v. I


WART$LADltrstrL
POUEN PLAXTS

3.2.2.Pressure
drop
1lle pressure drop over a valve is always in
relation to the flow for SAE 30 and SAE 40
proportion to the flow through it. The dia-
lubricatine oil at 60'C and 82"C.
grams below shows the preesuredrop in

DN 80
0.9
0.8
- v,,
6
.o ^^

i 0.5
o
a 0.4
IL u.,

0.2
0.1
0
20 40 100 Flow 'F/h 120
Ppt9urc drcp didgrcm lot DN80 volve

DN 1OO
0.9
0.8
c o.7

I
o
o.4
E 0.3
0.

o.2
0.1
0
30 60 120 150 FlowiPlh 180
PrcsElJ,e
drcp didgrdm tor DN lq) volYe

LUB4CAmtG OtLSt SIEM- P.v, I Page | 7


wARTsrrADotrstrL
POWEF PLAXTS

DN 125
0.9

0.7
0.6
I

0.2
o.1
0 'l
60 90 120 r50 80 Frw hlh 21 0
Prcssurc dbp diogrdm lot DN 125 volve

DN 150
0.9
0.8
o.7
0.6

0.5

0.3
o.2
0.1
0
90 135
Prcssurc .hop dldgrom lot DN 150 vdlve

DN 2OO

0 9 0
P@ssu@'e
dtop diogrcm lot DN 200 volve

Pdge I I LUBPICAIINCOILSYSIEM- Pev. I


wAnr$Lii D[trstrL
POUEN PL XT3

3.3.Lubeoil coolel
The lube oil cooler is built-on at Vasa 22 and The lube oil plate heat exchanger has the
at Vasa 32 inline engines.For Vasa V32 following connections:
and Vasa V46 engines, the lube oil cooleris
an external unit located outside the engine. Oil inlet
LT water outlet
Ttre lube oil is cooledby means ofwater Oil outlet
from the low temperature (LT) water circuit LT water inlet
on the diesel engioe.

3.3.1. Dimensioning
The external lube oil cooleris of plate tlrpe
and is working at the counterflow principle.

Designdata
Seetechnicaldata
Seelechnicaldata
Heal dissipalion 1,2x nominalheat
Pressuredrop, lube oilside max,0,8bar
Pressurcdrop, on waler side max.0.6bar
iOperating
pressure I bar

(Arsr304)

Figurc 14.Lubeoil plote heal exchonger

LllancAtulc OILSy'EM - P.v. l Pdge 19


wARTsrLiiDotrstrL
POWEI PLAIITS

3.4.Rqdiotor
cooling
The lubricating oil is usually cooledby The lubricating oil system has in this solu-
LT-water through a plate heat exchanger. tion a separate cooling element in the radia_
However, at high ambient temperatures tor. This system is called 3-circuit system,
(about 47 "C for engines with 1-stagecharge seeschemebelow.
air cooling and about 52 "C for engineswith
2-stagechargeair coolingi.ihis rs not possr-
ble since the LT water temperature becomes
too high to be able to cool the lube oil.

In such a case,the lube oil is to be cooleddi-


rectly in a radiator as shown in figure 16.

In installations with direct radiator cooling


ofLT-, HT- and lube oil circuits, the radiator
has the following connections:

HT water in
B HT water out
c LT water in
D LT water out
E LO in
F LO out

Figu@ | 5. 3-citcuit syslem

Figwe 16. Podidlot coolel

Page 20 LUAflCA',Ne OILSYSEM- P.v. I


WARTSILAutrstrL
POYER PLAX?3

4. PRESSURE
CONTROT
SYSTEM

4.1.Generql Designdata
Capacry Seelechnicatdata
Ttre pressure control system has to provide Viscosity ISAE30, SAE40
the lubricating oil system with a sufficient Designpressur lmax.a bar
qua4tity oflubricatiog oil at right pressure.
Designtemperature max.100.C
This includesprelubricationand main lubri-
cation. Viscosity (fordimensronrng
1500cst
ol lhe eledncmotor) |
The pressurecontrolsystemconsistsofthe
following components: The suction head is norrnally 4.0 m.
. prelubricatingoil pump
. main lube oil pump In installations with arctic cooditions the
. grawity tank (for VASA 46 engines) design data have to be checked.

The pfelube oil pump has the following


connections;
pump
4.2.Prelubricoting
A = LO inlet
Before the engine is started, the lubricating B = LO outlet
oil system must be filled and the engine ade-
quately primed by the prelubricating pump.
The prelubricating pump is an electrically
driven screw pump equipped with a built-on
overllow.

The pump is built-on at VASA 22 and inJine


VASA 32 ergines. For other engines the
prelubricating pump is located separately
outside the engine. The electrically mam
pump at VASA 46 can be used as a prelubri-
cating oil pump operatiog at a reduced
speed.

Ihe pr-lube oil pump is used ,or:


. filling of th.ediesel.enginelubricaring oil
systrn and ac[tevrng aomepressure be-
fore starting, in insttllations with an en- Figwe 18. Pte-luba oil pump
gine driven oain lubrication oil pump.

. providias additional caoacitv to the en-


hne rlrivin lubricatins oil D;mD in instal-
lations where the diesil enhne'speed
drops below a certain value. In t6ese
casas,the pump shall star'! and stoD auto-
matically dn signals from the speedmeas-
unng system.

LUaNCAnNeOL S\6|EM . P.v. I Poge2I


WARTSILADltrStrL
POWER PLAI'TS

4.3.Mqinlube oil pump tonk


4.4.Groviiy
The pump is engine driven built-on for The gravity tank is used in installations
VASA 22 and VASA 32 engines.For VASA with VASA 46-enginesand has to ensure
46 the main lube oil pump is electrically sufiic;ent lube oil pressure unlil the engine
driven and located separately outside the has stoppedin a black out situation.
engine.
The tank has to be placed so that a mea-
The pumps are equipped with built-on over- sured prcssure of minimum 0.5 bar is obtain-
flow valves to protect the pump from over able on the instrument panel at the engine.
pressute.
The gravity tank is always connectedto the
main pipejust beforetbe pipe is entering
Designdata the engine.
Capacity Seetechnicaldala
A constant flow through the gravity tank
sAE 30,SAE40
ensures that the tank alv,/ays is filled.
Designpressure
Designtemperatu16 ma(. 100"C
Enginetype Tankvolumem3
viscosity(lordimensioning
500csl
ol rheelecldcmolo4 4, 6R46 1.0
8, 9R46,12V46 2.O
In caseofinstallations with arctic condi- 16,18v46 3.0
tions the design data have to be checked.
The gravity tank has the following
connections:

LO outlet
LO overflow
filling
Venting
Drain/emptying

Figute 19.Moln lubicoting oil pump

Figup 20, Govity l(,nk 3 m"

Poge 22 . ROY,'
LUANCAIINGOIL SYs7EM
WABTSILADfltrstrL
POYER PLAIIT3

4.5.Syslemoil lqnk
The system oil tank is only used for Vasa 46 The suction and return pipes for the separa-
engines with dry engine sump. tor shall not be located near to each other.

The system oil tark has to be placed in the To avoid heat radiation from the tank it is
free end ofthe engine as closeas possibleto recommendedthat the tank is insulated
the engine, beneath the eogioe sump level. with mineral wool or similar.

The engine dry sump has two drain outlets. Designdata


The pipe connectionsbetween the sump and
the sysrcm oil tank shall be arranged flex- Oilvolume 112-151/kW
"6
ible enough to prevent damages due to ther- Tankrillrng 175- 80
mal expansion and vibration. Oillevslalam 1 6 0%

The drai[ pipe from the oil sump to the sys- The system tank has the following
tem oil tank shall end below the minimurrr connections:
oil level and shall not be led to the sarre
place as the suction pipe. To separatorunit
From separatorunit
The end of the suction pipe shall be trumpet c Air vent
shaped or conical to reduce the pressure D To main lube oil pump
loss. For the same reason the suction pipe E From engine
shall be as short and straight as possible.A F Prelube oil pump
pressure gauge shall be installed closeto the G tr'iUing
inlet ofthe pump to make it possibleto H Emptying
check the suction head. I Oveillow fiom gravity tank
J Level switch indicator
K Samplevalve
L Return from automatic filte!
M Manhole

Flgu@21. Sysremlonk 12m3

LwNcAnNe OL 5l6'EM - F.v. I Pago 23


WARTSILAD[trStrL
POWEI PLAXTS

Designof the systemoil fonk


To ensure trouble-free operation, it is impor-
tant that the entire contents ofthe tank is
circulated and that the flow over the tank
cross-sectionis uniform. Therefore great
care has been taken in the selectionofthe
tank geometry. Deflectors are fitted accord-
ing to tank configuration and the inlet and
outlet connectionsare coFectly dimensioned
and positioned.

The system oil tank is furnished with a set


ofdeflectors directing the lube oil flow thus
improving the settling process.Dirty oil
from the engine and from the automatic fil- Figurc 22. lhe oil flow in lhe syslem oil lank
ter back flush outlet i6lead to the inlet sec-
tion ofthe system tank.

From the inlet section the lube oil is partly


flowed through the system tank and cleaned
by the settling process,and partly pumped
to the lube oil separator unit. The cleaned
oil from the separator is returned to the sys-
tem oil tank outlet section, from where the
lube oil to the main pump is sucked.

The system tank has the following


connections:

A To separator unit
B From separator unit
c Air vent
D To main lube oil pump
E From engine
L Back flush oil from automatic filter

Pdge LUBPICAIING OlL SI.STEM. Pv. ]


WABTSILADltrstrL
POWEN PLAXT3

5. PIPING

5.1.Piping 5.2.Lubeoil pipes


When planningthe piping system,consider The dimension ofa pipe is determined by
parametersas: the arnount ofliquid flo\ping through the
. inclination, crosssection area ofthe pipe during a spe-
. draining cific time.
. supporting
. air pockets Formula;
. velocity
. material = A1-21 ,r1-'"1
Qlms/s1
. insulatio[ etc.
Example of calculating pipe dimension:
Each pipelinemust have pipe supportsto
allow a steadypiping-A weaksuppoit can A known flow of 39 m3/h and desirable veloc-
causeoperationproblemsor can damagethe ity of 1,7 m/s. Which pipe dimension shall be
pipesystm. used?

The pipesfor the lube oil systemhas to be Formula;


well cleanedbefore starting up to avoid
sand.rust. slack.elc. in the lubricatingoil.
A_Q
Whenplanningthe lube oil systemthe
followingdesigndata has to be used:
n . d 2 _q
Designdata 4 v
PGssure 110bar(NP10)
Tempealure max.120'C d=

The followine standards have to be used:


f-59-B 'a *
Designdala d = =oogom=gomm
\sooo". lJ-. o
Standard Material
+DN80
DIN 2448 RSt 35
DIN 2458 RSt 35 The theoreticaldimensionis DN 80, but in a
Elbow DIN 2605 RSt 35 pipe system you also have to minimize the
DIN 2616 FSI35
pressurelossesfrom pipes,bends,valves
and other components. Iherefore, onesize
Flange DIN 2576 RSr37-2,C72.4
larger than the calculatedsizeis in most
DTN2532 RSr37-2,C22.8 casesthe right choice,in this caseDN 100.
Blindllange DIN 2527 RSl37-2,C22.8
Gasket DIN 2690 Oil resistanl
Caps DIN 2617 RSr35

LUAP'CAzNGOtL SfSt.M - F.v, I Poge 25


WARTSIL,A
D[trStrL
POWER PLAXTS

5.3.[ube oil velocilies


The lube oil velocity has great influence on
pressure lossesin lube oil pipes. The higher
velocity, the higher pressure drop.

To keep the pressure drop in the piping


within acceptablelimits, the following flow
velocities (m/s) are recommended:

Pipe Suction Delivery


dimension []n/sl lm/sl
DN
25 0.3-0.5 0.7-0.9
32 0.4-0.6 0_8"1.0
40 0.5-0.7 1.0-1.2
50 0.6-0.8 r.2-r.4
65 0.6-0.8 1.3-1.5
80 0.7-0.9 1.4-1.6
100 0.8-1.0 1.5-1.?
125 0.8,1.0 1.5-1.'7
150 0.8-1.0 1.5-1.7
200 0.8,1.0 1.5-1.7
250 0.9-1.0 1.5-1.7
300 1.0-1.1 1.51.7

3.0

Irrvsl
t.0

0.5

0.t
0.5 LO 10.0 o lm3,hl
Fig. 9. Diogrcm tot deletmlnhg pipe dimensions

Pdge 26 ruSzraalllc otL sfstE', . ,e. l


AIR
GOMPRESSED
SYSTEM

Handboolt
for
Systems
Mechanical

WARTSITAD[LEStrL
POWER PLAI{TS
Tqbleof Confenfs

COMPRESSu)AIR SYSIIEIVI

General o-1

STARTING AIR SYSTEM

General 1- 3
\picalsystemlayout... ... 1-3
Installationprinciples ..... 1-3

Starting air unit 1-4


Compressors .....1-5
Dimensioningof starting air unit . . . . 1 - 5
Numberofstartingairunits.. . .. . .. 1 - 5
O i 1a n dw a t e rs e p a r a t o r s ...1-5
Watercontentin compressed air ....1-6

Starting air bottle | -7


General .........7-7
Dimensioningofthe starting air bottle 1 - 8

Piping I -I
D e s i g no f p i p i n gs y s t e m.
...1-9
Recommended pipesizes..1-10
Betweencompressorand air bottle . . 1 - 10
Betweenairbottle andengine.. .. . . 1 - 10
COI{TROLAND
INSTRT]MENTATION AIR SYSTEM

General 2-lt
Typicalsystemlayout. . 2-LI
Installationprinciples. 2-II

Control & Instrunentation air unit 2-t2


Compressors 2-L3
Dimensioning 2-13
Numberof units
Air receiver 2-t3

Air dryer unit 2-14


Refoigeration
dryer... 2-t4
Absorptiondryer... 2-14

Piping 2-15
pipe size
Recommended 2-t5
WABTSILADOtEstrL
POgER PL IIT3

O. GENERAT

Compressed air is neededin the powerplant The main differencesbetween the units are
for starting ofthe engines,as control & in- the nominal pressure and the delivered air
strumentationair and alsoas working air quality.
for toole, blow guns etc.
The starting air unit produces compressed
The requiredamountofcompressed air is air at a nominal pressure of30 bar cleaned
producedin the starting air unit and in the by means ofan oil & water separator.
control& instrumentationair unit.
'Ihe nominal pressure ofthe control & rn-
The two units can be interconnectedallow- strumentation arr umt is 7 bar. Ttre air is
ing the starting air unit, in caseoffailure in dried to a dew point of+ 3"C... +4"C and
the control & instrumentation air unit, to particles down to 0.1 micron are removed
deliver air to control and instrumentation uJ, urcarr. ur a ruKr.
equipmentas well.

STARTING
AIR
BOTTLE
STARTING
AIRUNIT
HFO
SEPAMTORUNIT
LUBEOIL
SEPARATORUNIT
BOOSTERUNIT

CONTROL&
INSTRUMENTATION
AIR UNIT

Figu@ l. Comp,9ssed oh system.

AIRSY9IEM. P.e. I
COMPP.SSED Pdge I
wART$Lii D[trstrL
POWER PLAl'T3

Poge 2 AIRSYSIEM- Pv. I


COMPPESSED
WARTSILADfltrStrL
POWEi PLAIITS

I. STARTING
AIR SYSTEM

l.l.Generol principles
I .l .2.Inslollofion

All engines, independent of cylinder num- The starting air compressorunit is only ope-
bers, are started by compressedair. The rated intermittently. Although the compres-
normal maximum pressure is 30 bar, while sor unit is not in use continuously, it is not
minimum pressure for a start is 18 bar. The recommendedto use this unit to produce
start is performed by direct injection of com- control-,instrumentaLion- and worlong air.
pressedair into the cylinder. For that purpose a separate compressorunit
is used. The starting air compressorand the
However, four cylinder engines intended for working air compressorcan be connectedto-
gether enabling the starting air unit to act
automatic start and the VASA 20 aod
VASA 34 SG engines are provided with a as back-up for the working air unit in case
pneumatic starting motor that operatesthe offailure or ifworking air consumption mo-
diesel engine by means of a gear ring on the' mentarily is high. For this purpose a pres-
flr'wheel. Also this system for starting re- sure reducing valve and a safety valve are
quires an air pressure of30 bar. installed in the interconnection pipe.

The starting air is producedby air compres- To get more flexibility in installations with
more than one starting air bottle, the bottles
sor(s) on the starting air unit. The starting
aii is stored in starting air bottle(s) until it shall be connectedby a pipeline, but still
is used for starting the engine(s). separatedby a shut offvalve.
Ifan engue doesnot start after some start
attempts more starting air can be borrowed
from other bottles.

At installations with rnany engines the en-


I .l . I . Typicolsysfemloyoul gines are to be divided in sections.The start-
ing air bottles within a section are then
The starting air system consistsof connectedto each other.
. one or two electrically driven and / or
diesel driven comprelsors built as a unit The starting air unit has to be located at a
. starting air bottle(s) well ventilated place to be able to work prop-
. pipeline system erly, becauseofthe heat from the compres-
sor air coolers.
Pledse refer ta append.i-t G for flowchart de-
scribing the slstem. Ttre required air flow for ventilation can be
calculated accordingto formula:

P/{7,25 Lt)

required ventilation air flow [m3/s]


compressormotor effect
differencebetween air temperature
before and a{ter the cooler,
normally 7 "C, max. 10 "C.

COMPIFSSED AIP SlGlEM - P.v. l Pdge 3


WARTSILADItrSEL
POWEN PLA'{TS

qir unit
l.2.Storfing
The stating ail unit consistsofone or two The starting air unit consistsofthe
air cooledcompressors,one working and one following components:
stand-by. Both are electrically driven. . electrically dnven compressors
However, one compressorcan sometimes . control panel
be diesel driven and is then used as an erner- . oil and water separator
gency unit. The electrically driven cornpres- . air cooler"fbuilt on the compressorsl
sor is used in all other cases. . pressure reducer for working air
. steel frame
Both compressoNarc ofsame size and built
on the same skid as a unit. The air outlet
from the compressorsare always connected
in parallel. Vibration-dampers are mounted
The starting air unit has the following
between the compressorunit and the floor.
connections:
The starting air unit is also equipped with
A = Serviceair outlet 7 bar
connectionsfor working and service air at =
B Drain ouUet
7 bar. The pressure is controlled by a pres- =
C Air outlet 30 bar
sure reducer. =
D Controlair outlet 7 bar

Eqnlplponel

'|
460
I 000

Figurc 2. Srading dit unil.


Theexdmple is lot a 2-20 MW srdrion.

Pdge 4 COI,PPFSSED A1PSI'SIEM . P.v. l


WARTSILADOtrStrL
POWER PLA TS

L2.1. Compressors I .2.3.Numberof sforlingoir unifs


The starting air compressorsare normally Recommendednumber of starting air units:
two-rylinder,two-stage,air-cooled,single- ( 2 compressors/ unit )
actingpistoncompressors built for 30 bar
effectiveworking pressure.
Numberot engines Numberot units
The compressed air is cooleddownin two 1 . . .1 0
steps.First by an intermediatecoolerbe- 10 ..20
tvreenthe compressingstepsand then by an
after-coolerbeforeleavrngthe compressor
unit.
1.2.4.Otlond woterseporolors
The compressorstarts automatically when
the pressuredropst o abott 22.. .24bar and, Normal air contains always \ /ater vapour.
stopsat 30 bar. A low pressurealarm signal The specificwater vapour conLentIn the air
is activatedat 18 bar. dependson the air temperature and the rela-
tive air humidity [7.].

The water moisture precipitates when the


air is being compressed.Therefore com-
L2.2.Dimensioning pressedair contains drops ofsaturated
of storlingoir unil sleam and water. The quantily ofwater is
dependenton the relativeair humidity in
the ambient air as can be seen from the ta-
Ttre compressorsare dimensioned to supply ble on next page.
compressedair at 30 bar and must be able
to fill the staning air bottlerslfor one engrne From the inside ofcompressor cylinder a
\ /ithin 45...60minutes. small amount ofoil always contaminate
the compressedair.
Ttle capacity for the compressorscan be cal-
culated according to the formula: M o s to f t h e w a t e ra n d o i l , a b o u t7 5 q , r s
taken away by water separators built on
Q = V.30.a the compresso$ before the compressedair
leaves the compressorunit
Q = compressorair c4pacity{m3,trl
V = bottle volume lmrl Water and oil precipitates also when the
a = factor accordingto the filling time compressed air coolsdo$n in the pipelines
and starting air bottles.
Fillingtime Factora
This condensatehas to be separated from
45 min the air beforeit rs injectedinto the cylin-
50 min 1.2 ders. Therefore a draining valve is to be
installed in the pipeline between the com-
55 min 1.1
pressor and the starting air bottle. The
60 min 1 starting air bottle is equipped with a drain-
ing valve as well.
Installations with a starting air unit com-
pdsing two compressorscan use both com- The starting air bottle and the pipeline
pressorsfor fast filling. Normally one must be drained at regular intervals.
compressorat a time is used.

An SySlrM - 44, t
CoMPPESSED Pdge 5
WARTSILADOtrStrL
POWEN PLAI{T3

The quantity ofwater precipitated ftom the


Wolerconfenlin compressedoir compressedair per hour can thus be calcu-
lated:
Exomple:
40 "C
. air temperature 0.038 kg water/kg air . 30 Nm3/h 1.2 kg air
. air humidity 80 7o A.Im" = 1.37 kg water,A.
. density of air 1.2 kg/N m3 (Nm:t = m3 at
normal amb ient conditio ns) A stading ai system for a V32-engine con-
. compressor:30 Nm3/h, 30 bu. sists ofabout 500 liter air compressedat 30
bar. To flll this system takes about half an
The specificwater content in the ambient hour. Sioce the system precipitates 1.33 kg
air is 0.038 kg wate/kg air (seediagram). water / h, in half an hour comesfrom the
system about 0.? liter water, provided condi-
At a pressure of30 bar, the air is practically tions are as in this example.
dry, i.e. water content in the air is about
0 kg water / kg air.

o,12
0 . 1I
0 ,t 0
c
c) 0,09
C
ba
O;. 0.08
fi
Q o 0.07 -E
rt :\
>c) J
c.
0.06
f: o; ) 0.05 d)
ov
E 0.04
o
o o
e.
o
u) 0,03
o,o2
0.01
0,00
40 50 60
Airtemperoture("C)
Figu@3. Diog@m fot detemlning lhe specific watet vopou conlenl.

Pdge 6 COMPP$SED AIP SYSIEM- P.v. l


WARTSILADItrStrL
POUEB PIAXTS

l.3.Storlingqir bottle
The standardstarting air bottleshave the
1.3.1
. Generol followingdata:

The staiting air bottle has to store sulficient Volume l D [mm] L [mm] Weight [kg]
amount ofcompressed air at 30 bar to en- -)
sure at leastthree start altempts.The size
ofthe starting air bottle must be sufficient 250 480 2010 150
to enable the start. 500 480 3450 480
1000 800 2704 630
The starting air bottle has the following 1500 800 3700 850
connectionsand components:
2000 1200 2500 11 5 0

Inlet 3000 1200 3400 1560


B Outlet
C Pressurc gauge *) Iocluding valve head
Drain
E Venting
F Safetyvalve
G Valvehead

Figwe 4. Staidtngdit bolrle ond valve heod.

AN 5]6lEM . Rev. '


COMPPESSED Pdge 7
wiiBTsr|-iiDfltrstrL
POWER PLAIITS

I .3.2.Dimensioning of
lhe slortingoir bottle
One starting air bottle must be able to The volume of the bottle shall be dimen-
provide starting air for at least three start sioned accordingto the nominal starting
altemp[s. air consumption of the engrnes.

The table below shows the air consumption


when the engine stats up automatically.

For the Vasa 46 engines the slow turning is


noticed.

Air Air Air consump. Air consump.al


Engine consump. Engine )onsump. Engine whenstartup startupwithin30
when when 1:st start min-lrom 1:st start
startup stadup attempt attempi
4R22 1.23Nm3 4R32 3.6 Nm3 4846 6.0Nm3 3.6 Nm3
6R22 0.42Nm3 6R32 1.8Nm3 6R46 6.9Nm3 3.6Nm3
aR22 0.48Nm3 8R32 2.4 Nm3 8846 9.0Nm3 4.a Nm3
12V22 0.54Nm3 9R32 2.4Nm3 9R46 10.5Nm3 5.4Nm3
16V22 0.60Nm3 12V32 1.8Nm3 12V46 9.9Nm3 6.0Nm3
120 0.soNm3 16V32 2.4 Nm3 16V46 17.0Nm3 Lo Nm3
15V32 3.0 Nm3 18V46 20.0Nm3 1 0 . 0N m 3

Standard bottle sizes/ engine tJ@e:

Engine Bottle Volume[dm3]

vAsA20/22 250
VASA32 500

4R and6R 1500
8R,9Rand12V 2000
16Vand18V 2 x 2OOO

These bottle sizes are calculated for onc ex-


gine.Powerplants with lwo or moreengines
can use a larger common bottle.

Page I COMPPESSEDNF 'I'SIEM - P.v. I


WARTSILADfltrStrL
POWER PLAIITS

1.4.Piping

1.4.1.Designof pipingsystem
lhe inclinationsand supportingsare the The following standards have to be usedr
most importa[t factors in the pipi[g system.
Eachpipelinemust have sufficientpipe sup- Designdata
ports to allow a steadypiping.A weaksup-
Standafd
port can causeoperationproblemsor can
damagethe pipe system. DIN2391 RSI35GBK
DtN2444 RSI35
To avoid that condeosateis injected into the DIN24s8 RSI35
engine,drain pointsmust be installedin the Elbow DtN2605 RSr35
pipeline.
DtN2616 RSl35
The velocityin the pipesis very high during Flange DtN2635 c22
enginestart up. To avoidto high pressure Blindllange DrN2690 c22
losses,the pipe shall be ofadequatesize. Gasket DtN2690 Oilresistanl
Caps DtN2617 RS!35
For diesel driven compressorsthe exhaust
gaspipemust be drawa to outsideofthe Smalllittinos DtN2353 SeriesL {light)
building.The pipe must be insulatedinside
the buildiog.
The recommendedseries for the small fit-
tings is L (light). The small fittings are used
Usefollowingdesigndata when planning
for pipe diameters 6...28 mm. With larger
the starting air systm:
pipes it is recommendedto use flangejoints.

Designdata
Designpfessure 40 bar
Designtemp.ature max.100'C
Operaijngpressure 130bar

CoMPR!5SED
A'P$.Sr!M. rr.v r Pdge 9
WARTSITA
MtrStrL
POWEF PLAI'TS

I.4.2.Recommendedpipe sizes
1.4.2.1 Btweencompressorond oir 1.4.2.2Betweenoir botlleond engine
botlle
Provided that the starting air bottle is m-
The piping between the compressorand air sl,alledcloseto the engine. the following pipe
bottle should be as follows: sizes are used between the air bottle and en-
gine:
Diameter Unil size
q22 < 74 Nm3/h
Enginetype Diametel
35 > 74 Nm3/h vasa20 O2a
Vasa22 DN 32
Vasa32 DN 32
Vasa46 DN 50

If the at bottle is located far away from the


engine, pipe size DN 65 should be used.

Poge 10 NP SYSIEM- Pv. l


COIT,PPESSED
wARTsrLiiDltrstrL
POWEi PLA]'TS

AIR SYSTEM
2. CONTROTAND INSTRUMENTATION

2.l.Generql principles
2.1.2.lnstollolion
The control- and insttumentation air com-
Compressedair neededfor control-, instru-
pressorunit is desiga to be operated continu-
mentation devicesand as working air for
ously producing dry compressedair of high
tools and blov/ guns is producedby a com-
quality. This air is neededfor control and
pressor on the control & instrumentatron arl
instrumentation equipment in the power
unit. The compressedair coming from the
plant and as working air for diaphragm
unit is stored in a built-on air receiver until
pumps, blow glns and other tools using
it is distributedto differenlconsumersvia
compressedair.
a dryer and a filter.
To get more flexibility in installations, the
starling air compressorand the worl<rngair
2.I.l . Typicolsyslemloyoul compressorcan be connectedtogether. This
enablesthe starting air unit to act as a back-
Ttre power plant control & instrumentation up unit for the working air unit in caseof
air system consistsofthe following: failure or ifworking ai consumption mo-
mentarily is high. For this purpose a pres-
1. Built as a unit on a common base ftame: sure reducing valve and a safet5rvalve are
. one electrically driven air compressor installed i|I the interconnection pipe.
. compressedair receiver
. refrigeration dryer with control panel
. one set ofinterconnection pipes, flanges,
seals and valves

2. Piping, valves and necessaryflanges.

AtPS\tgLM - ,q.
COMPPESSED l Pago I I
WARTSILADIEStrL
POWEI PLAI'T3

2.2.Conlrol&
lnslrumentotion
oir unif
The control & instrumentation air unit com- Main componentson the control &
prisesone air cooled.two-cyhnder."in91e- instrumentation airunit:
stage piston compressorbuilt on an air . electrically driven air compressor
receiver and an air cooledrefrigeration . compressedair receiver
dryer. Both the compressor-receiverunit . refrigeration dryer
and the refi:igeration dryer unit is built on . filter for removal ofoil, water and
a common steel frame, particles
. control panels
As an alternatiue confrguration can, in stead . common steel frame
ofpiston compressor,a screutcompressorbe
used.If the required air quality is erception-
ctlly high, an absorption dryer can be used in
stead of the relrigeration dryer.

Maximum working pressure for the unit is


10 bar and normal effectiveworking pres-
sure 7 bar. Ttre unit is equipped with control
panels and necessaryaccessoriessuch as
starters, suction- and outlet filters, pressure
switches, pressure gaugesand safety valves.

Figub 5. Conlrol & lnsttumenlolion oL unn.

Poge | 2 Alk TVSrFM- Pv. I


COMPPESSED
WARTSILADfltrStrL
POWER PLA 'S

2.2.1. Complessors 2.2.3.Numberof units


The control-and instrumentationair com- Only one control- and instrumentation air
pressoris a single-stageair cooledpiston compressorunit is used. A unit with su{fi-
compressor built for a maximumpressure cient air delivery capacity for the actual
of 10 bar and effective working pressureof power plant is chosen.
7 bar.

The compressorunit comprises: 2.2.4.Atu'eceivel


. air compressor (piston-or screw-)
. electricmotor
In installationswith up to three enginesan
. starter air receiverof200 litres and desigr pressure
. suction filter I0 bar is used.This sizeis suitableowing
. suctionsilencer amongother things to pressurevesselregu-
. pressureswitch lations.Many countriesallowslong periods
. compressed air receiver
equipoed with betweeninspectionsfor vesselsup to this
presiuregauge,safelyvalve,drain cock size.In larger installationsor in installa-
ancl outlet valve.
tions with irregular air consumptiona big-
ger receivercanbe used.

2.2.2.Dimensioning
The control- aDd instrumentation air com-
pressorunit are dimensiooedto supply com-
pressedair at 7 bar. The required qua[tity
cao vary witbin large limiLs dependiogon
lhe sizeofthe powerplant and tlTe ofin-
stalled equipment.

As a guideline for planning carrfollowing de-


sign data be used:

Designdata

Designprcssure '10bar

Opralingprcs$rs 7 bar

Airsupplylor phntswilh 600 Ymin


upto lhreeengines
An supplylor planFwnh I Chsckdemandol an
nrorethan lhree engins

COMPPEiSED AIP ST.5,EM- 2q, I Pqgo 13


WARTSILADfltrStrL
POWEF PLAIITS

2.3.Airdryerunit The air dryer unit consists of:


. air drvine unit of tube lo tube tvpe Insu-
An air dryer unit is installed on the same latedby; blockofpolyurethaneloam
skid as lhe control-& instrumentationair compnslng
- air-to-aiitvoe heat exchangerrprecooler)
compressorunit. The dryer unit takes care - arr-to-refrilbrant type heaiexchanger
ofthe dr),nessof the compressed air leaving (evaporalorl
the unit. The dew point ofthe dried com- . cyclonetype water separator with auto-
pressedair is about +3 "C thus preventing matic drain trap
lhe water under normal conditionsto pre- . refligeration compressorof the hermeti-
cipitate in pipelines and receivers after the cally sealedtype
unit. Using dried compressedair prevents . air-cooledcondenserunit equipped with a
many troubles with pneumatic control- and cooling fan and a condenserpressure regu-
instrumentation devices and air-driven lator
tools. . refiieeration circuil, incorporatinq the re-
fi-igeiant liqu.id receiver ahd an a-utomatic
expanslonvalve.
. dryer instrumentation
2.3.1. Refrigerotion
dryer . control panel
. compressedair filter for removal ofparti-
A refrigeration dryer gives in most cases clesdown to 0.I micronqnd maximum
sufficientlyhigh air quality and is the the oil carry over 0.1 mg / m".
preferred tyae of dryer. Ttris t5pe of dryer . piping, flanges, seals and valves
doesn'tconsumecompressed air during the . steel base frame
drying process. . sheet metal cabinet

Designdata for the refrigerationdryer :

Designdata

Designpressure 10bar

Ellecliveworkingpressure 7 bal

Freeaircapacilylor power
planlswithup lothreeengines 30 l/s

Frceaircapacityfor power Rehige@lion d dryar unlr.


plantswithmorelhanthree
engrnes air
+3"C

Padicleremovaldownlo 0.1micron

[,4aximum
oilcarryover 0.1mgr'm3

2.3.2.Absorptiondryel
In caseswhere the required quality ofthe
compressedair is extremely high a dryer of
absorption type can be used. Disadvantages
with this type of dryer is that it uses com-
piessed air in the drying process.This mat-
ter must be taken in consideration when the
air compressorsize is determined.

Pdge | 1 Alz Si6lEM - P.v. I


COMPPESSED
wiRTsrLADfltrstrL
POUEB PLAXT3

2.4.Piping pipesize
2.4.1.Recommended

The most impoitant factorsin selectinga Usefollowingdesigyrdata when planning


compressed air pipelineare the flow rate the control& instrumentationair system
thlough the line and the inclinationofthe piping:
pipe.Eachpipelinemust alsohave sufficient
pipe supportsto allow a steadypiping.A Designdata
weak supportcan causeoperationproblems
Diameter Airflow
or candamagethe pipe system.
010 < 20 Nms/h
In order to avoidtoo high pressuredrop,the q12 <4oNm3/h
pipelineshall be ofadequatesize. 022 < 74 Nm3/h
o 35 > 74 Nm3/h
Usefollowingdesigndata when planning
the control& instrumentationair system:

Designdata
D""tS^pr."""- 10 b*

The followins standards have to be used:

Designdata
Slandard
Pipe DIN2391 RSt35GBK
DtN2448 RSt35
Elbow DIN2605 RSt35
Flange DIN2635 c22
Blindllange DIN2690 C22
Gasket DIN2690 Oil resislanl
Caps DiN2617 RSt35
Tubelitlings DIN2353 SeriesL (light)

lhe recomrnendedseries for the small tube


fittings is L (light). The small tube fittings
are used for pipe diameters 6...28 mm. With
larger pipes it is recommendedto use flange
joints.

A'P SYsIIM , P.'


COMPPESSED ' Pdge l5
wARTsrLiiDitrstrL
POWER PLA1lTS

Pdge I6 AIPSYSIEM- Fev. I


COMPPfSSED
c00rr]{G
SYSTEM

Handboolr
for
Mechanical
Systems

WARTSILA ::;F':"-._
POWER PLANTS
Iqble of Conlenls

COOLING SYSTEM

GENERAL
Operationprinciples ....... 0-1

RADIATORCOOLING I-5
General. .........1-5
O n ec i r c u i st y s t e m ..... ....1-6
\- T W oc i r c u i st y s t e m... . . ....1-6
T h r e ec i r c u i st y s t e m. ......1-6
Sizingofradiatorcoolers. ... 7 -7
Installation of rpdiator coolerp--. . . . . . 7 - 7
t \'2 \\-\.\ o ! l-\i Q' q<: U
'
COOLINGTOWERSYSTEM 2.9
General ."......2-9
Wet bulbtemperature .. ...2-10
W a t e rc o n s u m p t i o. .n. . ...2-L7
Coolingtowerpump.. . . . ..2-12
S i z i n go f c o o l i ntgo w e rp u m p . . . . . . . 2 - 1 2
Installation of coolingtower . . . . . . . . 2 - 13
--y21-rc^ - -1 . - << , ' p t \ /
c\ <
. . - 3-T5
R.A,WWATERCOdLING
General. ........3-15
Strainer ........3-15
Automaticfilter ..3-15
T h er a ww a t e rp u m p. . . ...3- 16
rl!.aterquality. ..,.....: .. 3- 17
!,i z i-',.^ c,\, \\^f F'Se\, r
CEI{TR.&L COOLER SYSTEM 4 - I9
General. ........ 4-19
Sizingofa centralcooler ...4-20
Installation of acentral cooler .. . . . . 4 - 20
COMMON COMPONENTS 5 -21
General 5-2L
Maintenancewater tank 5 -21
Sizing of maintenancewater tank . . .
Maintenancewaterpump 5-22
Preheatingunit 5-23
rleatlng colls. 5 -23
rreneaung pump . . 5 -23
Thermostatic valve, LT and HT . . . . . 5 - 2 4
LT-circuit 5-24
HT-circuit 5-24
Function and dimensions 5-25
rressureorop.... 5-26
r:rxpanston[anK... 5-27
Design and sizing of expansion tank . 5 -28
Deaerationtank... 5-28
DeaeraLionLank L)?es 5 -28
Circulating pump LT, HT 5 -29

PIPING 6-31
ueneral 6-31
uoorrngwaIr velocrtles.. 6 -32
wiiRTsrl.iiDotrstrL
POWET PL XT3

O.GENERAT

The heat transferred to the cooling water in The coolingwater can be cooledby three
the enginemust be cooledby coolers.The methods:
systemsexplainedbeloware standardfor
powerplants. . radiators
. coolingtowe$
The coolingwater systemis dividedinto a . raw water cooling
primary circuit and a secondarycircuit. The
water in the primary circuit coolsthe en- Local circumstancesmust be considered
gine.The primary circuit is dividedinto a when choosingthe cooling system. For exam-
low temperature circuit (LT) and a high tern- ple can lack ofsuitable water make raw
--."|-.- ^i.^-i+ tr{T\
water coolingimpossible in some casesand
another system must be chosen-The total in-
In the LT-circuit excessheat from both lubd- vestment and operation cost must be mrm-
cating oil and charge-air is transfered to mized in all projects.
the LT-circuit coolingwater.
The water quality must ful6ll somerequire-
In the HT-circuit heat from the engine ments, see chapter 3-5, to prevent damages
jacket water and the turbo-charger is trans- on the cooling system. Arother important re-
ferred to the HT-circurlcoolingwater. quirement is a reliable supply ofwater. The
ambient temperature must also be considet-
The HT-wate! also coolsthe charge-arrrn ed.
enginesequippedwith two-stagecharge-air
cooling.

Fudher utilizatioo ofthe heat in HT-water


can be carried out by producing hot water in
a plate heat-exchanger.

The heat exchanging between primary- and


secondarycircuit takes place in the central
cooler.

I'l-re central cooler can also be a radiator, in


which casethere is no secondarycircuit in
the cooling 6ystem-

cooLINe wal.l S\6/lM - Pav. I Pdge I


WARTSILADilEStrL
POWEF PLAI{T3

principles
0.l.Operofion
Please, rcfer to appendix H - J for flowchafis
de scribing d.ifferent systems.

CENIFAL COOLER

FIgu@ L Cooling system wilh cooling lower

Pago 2 COOUIIC WAIEP SYSIEM- Pav. I


WARTSILADltrStrL
POWER PLAl'TS

Figu@2. Cooling system with row wolel

COOU e walE?SvfiEtl .l.t. I Paga 3


WARTSILADltrStrL
POYEN PLAI{?S

EXPANSION
TANK

LIJB-OIL
COOLEB

HT INLEI

HT OUTTET
, _, -5 CM

PREHEATING

MAINTENANCE

Figwe 3, Cooling sydem wilh tddidlol

Pdge 4 COOUNA WAEP SYSIEM- Pov. I


ITARTSILADfltrStrL
POWEF PLA}ITS

I. RADIATOR
COOTING

Ll.Generol
In radiators the cooling water is cooledin a
closedcircuit. The coolantllows through a
frnned tube coil cooledby an forced air flow.

Radiator coolersare used when no watel is


available for cooling purposesor when raw-
water coollngis excludedfor economic.envi-
ronmental, safety or legal reasons.Radiator
coolersare also chosenwhen it is important
that the plant is operational at all times.

The radiator cooling system can be built as;


. one-circuit system
. two-circuit system
. three-circuit system Figwe 1. Aitf,ow lhtough tddiotol

Radiator coolersare available in many dif-


ferent shapes and sizes.The radiator can
e.g. be arranged vertically, horizontally or
as a roof. The fans can be ofsuction or pres- A radiator has the followingconnections;
sure tjDes, directly or belt-driven etc.
A = HT-inlet
Flexible and safety operation is obtained if B = HT-outlet
the radiator is equipped with several small C = LT-inlet
fans instead of fewer but larger fans. When D = LT-outlet
operation ofthe fans is controlled by thermo-
stats a conciderablereduce ofboth noise
level and power consumtion is obtained.

A free air inlet and outlet must be guaran-


teed to get efrcient cooling effect. The radia-
tors must be placed to enable fresh air to
flow from all sides into the air intake. They
must not be placed closeto a wall.

When choosinga radiator, following factors


have to be considered:
. ambient temperature and conditions
. height above sea level
. allowable pressure drop
. required heat transfer
r fin pitch
Figue 5. Hoizontdl rodiotor coolet wilh sucfion
. power consumedby the fans ldns.
. noise level

COOIING WAm SlslEM - R.v, l Page 5


WABTSILADOtrStrL
POWER PLAITS

l.2.Onecircuilsyslem
In a one circuit system the outlets from the
LT- and HT-circuits are inter-connectedand
the mixed water is cooledin a common radia-
tor cooler. Ifthere is a long distance to the
radiators, the one circuit system is prefer-
able, becauseofless pipiog. Wlen draining
the systems,both HT and LT circuits are Figub 6. One-citcull syslern
drained.

I.3.Twocilcuif syslem
In the two-circuit system the LT-circuit and
HT-circuit are separated from each other in
the radiator cooler.The circuitscan b
drained separately.

Figurc7. fwo-chcuil syslem


l.4.Threecircuifsyslem
In the three-circuit system there are three
separate circuits integ:ratedin one radiator
package;
. HT-circuit
. LT circuit
. lubricating oil-circuit

With this system the lub. oil is directly


cooledby air. and nor by the LT-wateras in
other systems-This system is used at high
ambient temperature.
Figu@6. Thrce-chcuil syslem: sepd,.ole circuil
lot LO.

Poge 6 COOUNe WAEP SVSIEM- Pev. I


wARTsrriiDttrstrL
POWER PLAXTS

l.5.Sizingof lqdiqforcoolers 1.6.Inslollqtionot rodiolol


coolels
When dimensioning the radiator coolersthe
required heat transfer from the engine has
Radiator coolersare mostly situated in the
to be known. The calculated temperature dif-
openair nexl,to the powerplant building or
ferencebetweeo coolant inlet and outlet has
on the roof of the building. In order to get an
a great i[fluence on the physical size ofthe
excellent cooling effect from the radiators
radiator and consequentlythe cost.
they must be placed in such a r /ay that
fresh air flows from all sides into the arr rn-
The fin pitch is another decisivefactor when
take side and air flow on the outlet side is
choosingdesign data for a radiator cooler.In
free from obstructions.
casesofdirty ambient conditions a radiator
with fin pitch up to 4.0 mm can be chosen.
With larger fin pitch the element is not so
easily cloggedup by impurities. Installationdata

In caseswhere a lower noise level is de- [,lin.distancebetweencoolers 1800mm


manded, a lower fan motor speedthan
Min,distancebetweencoolers
standard is chosen.The lower air velocity anda wallorsimilar 1200mm
through the radiator in turn causesa choice
ofa radiator with larger heat transfer sur- Min.dislancebelweencoolers
andlhe ground 2000mm
faces.This is more expensivesoJution,but
the power consumption ofthe fans are lower.

Flexible and safety operation is obtained if


the radiator is equipped with several small
fans instead offewer but larger fans.

Designdala for radiatorcoolers

Coolingcapacity 20 % higherthanspecilied
heatloadol lhe engine,
seelechnicaldata
Commondesign Separalecoolingcoilslof
HT-andLT-circuil
Temperalure
dilJerence d t = 8 ' c
- casingol hol galvanized

painted
ruslinhibiling
- aluminum
/ glassliberian

Fin pitch 2.5 mm,up lo 4.0 mm if


dirlyambienlconditions
Eleclriclan motor speed 1000mm.750rpmil low
noiselevelis required

coouNe wAt+ stsGM- 24. I Page 7


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POWEB PLAI{T3

Pdge I cooLtNG tlrta'EPsvslEM . Rev. I


wiiRTsrLjiD[trstrL
POWER PLAI'T3

2. COOTINGTOWER
SYSTEM

2.l.Generol
The function ofthe cooling tower is basedon The content ofimpurities in the water must
the evaporation of water principle. not exccedamounts.which have negarive
effectson piping, nozzles,pumps etc. There-
The heated water ofthe secondarycircuit fore the water must be treated by filters de-
fiom the central cooleris led to the upper signedto meet requrrementsfor waler
end ofthe cooling tower, from where it is in- quality, seechapter 3.5.
jected via nozzles.The water is cooledby the
upward airflow and pumped back to the cen-
tral cooler from the cooling tower basin.
Most ofthe heat is transferred through
evaporation of the water.

A cooling tower system is chosenifsuffrcient


amount of suitable water is not available, or
when it is not permissible to take water for
cooling purposes and then dischargeit in
heated condition. Use ofcooling tower de- Figue I 2. Cooling lowet, single ldn
creasesthe consumption ofcooling v/ater
compared to raw water coolingwith single
flow-through.

Figu@9. Single bosin cooling lowet syslem Flgub | |. Cooling lowat, hiple lon

--J T1,
Y

Figurc 10. Double bdsinswith indivldualchcuils


COOIJNG SVSIEM - P.v. I Page 9
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POWER PLAIITS

2.2.W
et bulblemperoture 2.3.Sizing
of coolingfowel
The wet bulb temperature is used in calcula- The following design data can be used when
tion ofcooling tower sizes.The ambient tem- dimensioning a cooling tower:
perature, read from a normal therrnometer,
is relatedro humidny In the air Seefig l4 Designdata
Example: Ambient conditions at site: Heal dissipationcapacity 10 % higherthanspecified
healloadof enqine(s)
- relative humidity 80 "/..
Towefoutlettemperatu
re Mar. allowedwetbulb
lemperature+ 3... 4'C
Seefig. 14. Draw a ho zontal line from 35
'C on y-axis to line for = 80 7o.Obtain the Temperalure ditference
I belweencoolinglower
wet bulb temperature 32 'C from the x.axis. inlel andoutletwater d t = 1 5 . . .1 6" c
pressure
Operaling Max.0.8bar
The LemperalureofLT- and HT-water in
the primary circuit can now be calculated. Electricfan molor Modiliedlor coolingtower

If for example At ofthe central cooleris 6 "C Male al: Casingpanels:glassfiber


Framework: Hoi galv.or
and At between the wet bulb and the tower siainless steel
outlet temperaturers 4'C. the primary cir- Nozzles:ABS
cuit water temperature alier the central aasin:glassliberor
cooleris 32 "C + 6 'C + 4 "C = 42 "C. This is concrele,mouidal site
the value used for determining LT- and HT-
water temperatures to the engine.

9-
o

E
o
E

15 20
Wet bulbtemp.['C]
Figurc l3.Diqgem showing lhe wel bulb lempe'otule ot vaious c,mbienl lompetaturcs ond rctdfive
humidities

Poge l0 COOLINo SYSIEM- P.v. I


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2.4.Wofer
consumpfion The total make-up water consumption WTc
is the sum ofevaporated water We.lossand
The water lossesare causedby evaporation, bleed offwater Wbleea-on:
bleed offand splashes.The loss ofwater
causedby evaporation is related to the cool- Wrc = We.toss+ wb:eed-otr [m3/h]
ing tower effect.
Tlpical limits ofwater consumption for
Formula for water lossesby evaporation: VASA engines:(when using cooling tower)

__. P VASA22 0.20...0.32m3,trx cyl.


we loss= LmJ/ hl VASA 32 0.43...0.70 ml.4r x cyl.
r.i30
VASA 46 0.67...1.25mr,4rx cyl.
We.toss= Evaporation loss [m3,4r]
P = Cooling efrect of the tower fkwl Example: A power plan! with one engine.
tlpe VASA 16V32,has a cooling tower, with
Due to the evaporationand pollutionfrom a cooling effect of3150 kW. The available
the alr, the mineral contenl,in the walei in- make-up water has a hardness of 12 "dH.
creasesrapidly. Ifthis mineral content is What is the total water consumption?
not controlled it will cause scaleformation,
growth of algae slime and corrosioo, which Evaporated water:
will causedecreasedcooling effect and short-
p
ening of the working lifetime of the device. !{r".7o"" = ;]; m3 / h
To prevent building up ofimpurities and too
high salt concentration in the cooling tower 3150 =
water, an amount ofwater must continu- 5.0 m3,4r
630
ously be bled off. The values below are in-
tandad qa q dridA
Bleed offwater amount can then be calcu-
lated. From the table on preceding page can
be seenthat when using a make-up water of
Minimumbleed-otfwater values actual hardness, a bleed off water quantity
of60 o/aof Etossis required.
Bleed-oflin % ol Hardness ol make-up
evaporaled waleramounl waler[' dH] Wtr".a-or = 0.6 . 5.0 = 3.0 m3 / h
33 8
The calculated total make-up water con-
60 sumption Wtc is then:
100
Wrc = W" ro""+ %r".a on
167 20
300 24 wrc= 5.0+ 3.0= 8.0m3/h
This value is within the typical limits for
lhe recommendedpH value in the cooling the water consumption for a VASA 32
tower water is pH 6.8...8.5, and maximum engrne:
allowed chloride concentration 80 mgl l.
0 3 / c y l . . 1 6 c y l = 6 . 8 8 . . . 1 1 .m
0 . 4 3 . . . 0 . 7m 23
Splash lossesare, compared with other
water losses,so small that they can be ne-
glected in calculations.

- Rov,r
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POWER PLAIITS

fowerpump
2.5.Cooling of coolinglowel
2.6.Sizing
pump
The cooling tower pump is ofcentdfugal
type. The pump has to be placed near by the When dimensioning ofthe cooling tower
cooling tower ifthe tower is on ground level. pump, use the following desig! data:
Ifthe cooling tower is placed on the roof, the
pump is placed inside the building closeto
the central cooler.However, calculate the ac- Designdata
tual NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head), and
compare it with required NPSH at actual waterflow 1.2 . the primarysidellow
flow. The NPSIITq is found from the temperature
Operatrnq I 60"C
datasheet for the actual pump. To avoid
pressure
Operating 12.5bar
cavitation in the pump at actual conditions
must NPSH be > NPSH."..
Requiredpowerfor the pump canbe calcu-
lated accordingto the following formula:

The cooling tower pump has the following n o (].h


connectlons: -p.o^- = -----E-----Li1 ]1
'lkw']
1 0 0 03 6 0 0 . n
A = Inlet
required el. motor power [kW]
B = Outlet
density-at actual temperature [kg/m'J
flow [m"/h]
A _ ,t-1i,,--, t -.,t t-t

U
force ofgrafity [m/s"]
elliciency

Example: Calculate the required power for


a centrifugal pump to a cooling tower with a
flow of 1?5 mr / h, inlet pressure 0.8 bar and
inlet temperature 47'C. The water density
at actual temperature is - 989 kg/ m" and
efficieocyI = 0.5 (t]?ical values for centrifu-
gal pumpsare 0.3...0.7).

989 9.82 175 8


Figu@ 14.Cooling lower pump
1000.3600.0.5

Pdge 12 COOLING SYSTEM. PY, I


WARTSILAD[trStrL
POWEi PLAIITS

2.7.Insfollqtion
of cooling
lower
Cooling towers must be installed on a plane
concretesurface or on a plane steel ftame-
work.

Cooling towers are always situated in the


open air and preferable not so closeto the
power plant building becauseof the fog com-
ing from them. Minimum recommendeddis-
tance between a wall and a cooling tower is
about 1.5 m.

Cooling tower solution is not recommended


in areas where ambient temperatures falls
under 5 "C, due to the risk offreezing. Ifa
cooling tower neverthelessis chosen,special
arrangements must be made. Such arrange-
ments are heating ofthe basin, trace heat-
ing of pipes, etc.

It is under no circumstancesrecommended
to allow the temperature ofthe cold water
'C.
coming from the tower to fall below 5

COOLING SYSIEM - P.v. I Page | 3


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POWER PLAXTS

Pdge | 4 COOUIVOSYSIEM. Pov. ,


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3. RAWWATER
COOTING

3.l.Generol 3.3.Automoficfilter
Coolingsystemwith raw water can be used The automatic filter removesdebris from
when a raw waler sourceis closeenough. water comingfrom natural water soutces
raw water is of right quality and capital such as seawater or river water. The filter
costsfor a cooling system with raw water must be designedto keep the flow through
are lower than for other coolingsystems. the secondarycircuit constant.

Figure 15 showsthe basicprinciplesofa This t}?e of filter is usedin orderto protect


raw water coolingsystem. the plate heat exchangerfrom impurities. It
is mountedbeforethe heat exchanger

The automatic filter has the following


connectlons:

Raq' watr inlet


Filteredwater outlet
tr'lushingwatr outlet

Figuro | 5, Pdw wolet coo ng syslem

3.2.StroineI
A strainer is mountedin the suctionpipe be-
fore the pump, in order to removethe larg- I -700
est particles. -
Figurc 116,
,/.rtomalic frllel

Designdata
Designdala
Matenal I AlSl 315L or
2343
pressure
Operating l6 bar
M e s hs i z e
lsrs
llmm
Operatingtemperature lAlSl316
Prcssuredropm6x. I O.2bal Material i60'c
llesh size 1.2mm
Pressur
dropmax. 0.7 bar

coollNc svstEM- Pev,I Pdge | 5


wARTsrLiiDfltrstrL
POWER PLAl'TS

rowwqterpump
3.4.The
The raw water pump is to be placed as near
105-48.102
as possible to the water sourcein order to Hs< 2.5- 2.0
get the best possibleNPSH. 1000. 9.81

The term NPSH is a simple one, but denotes Hs < 5.25 mWc
a complex value which is important in the
successfuloperation ofa ceotrifugal pump. In this casethe pump can be placed rnaxi-
By definition, NPSH means: "Net Positive rnum 5 meter above the water level.
Suction Head" above the vapour pressure of
the pumped liquid, available at the pump
suction flange, and refened to the center
line ofthe impeller. The NPSH value is a
size ofthe excessofpressure abovethe va- Designdala
pour pressure of the liquid, neededon the
suction side ofthe pump to avoid cavitation. pressure
Operatrng I 2.s bar
temperatureI 60'C
Operatrng
Example: Pumping water at 30 'C from an
Malerial:
open basin. The atmosphedc pressure is 750 - oumocasino. ,reshw. lorvcastion: DIN1691GG25
mm Hg (1 bar), calculatedFictronlossin . bumbcasin6.seaw. I casibronze:DIN 1705RGs
suction pipe 2.5 mWc and required NPSH - impelletftshwaler i castbronze;DIN 1705RG10
for the pump 2 mWc. How to locate the - impeller,
seawater I NiAl-bronzei DIN 1714
pump to avoid cavitation ? I G-NiAlBzF60
I
- snafi | slainlesssleeliAlSl 3?9
Following formula gives the maximum al- Capacity; - 20 % grealerthan lh
lowed location abovethe water level:
- checklhe flow if maximum
allowedrelum lemp. delined
H' < '" '" - Hr- NPSH,""
p c
The raw water pump has the following
Hs = suction head ImWcl connections:
ps = atmospheric pressure [Pa]
pv = vapour pressure ofpumped liquid at A = Inlet
the pumping temperature 4300 [Pa] B = Outlet
p = density ofthe liquid [kglm"]
g = gravity [m/s"]
Ht= friction loss in the suction pipe lmWcl
NPSHreq= required net positive suction
head at the pump suction flange [mwc]

Figurc17.Rowwaletpump,ve icol We

Pdgo 16 cooLtNG sYsEM . Pov. I


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POWER PLAXT3

Pdw wdlet pump, hoizonlol lype

3.5.Wolerquqlity
The ideal raw water does not corrodethe
cooling surfaces or pipes and doesnot leave
any depositswhich would impair the per-
formance ofthe heat exchangers.

Therefore the following demands must be


fulfilled for the raw water:
. hardness< 9...10'dH
. chlorides < 300 m94
. ifchlorides > 300 ms/I. Dlatesoftitan
is required in the ce-ntralcooler
. pH >7

COOLINo SYSTEMP.v. I Page | 7


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POWER PLAl'TS

Pdge | 6 COOUNG SVSIEM- P.v. I


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POWER PLAXTS

4. CENTRAI.
COOTER
SYSTEM

4.l.Generql
Ttre central cooler is of plate heat exchanger
t]?e. A central cooleris usedmainly in cool-
ing tower and raw water systems.

The cooler servesboth LT- and llT-circuits.


To make this possible,LT- and HT-circuits
are connectedtogether before the cooler.
AIter the central cooler,watr is divided
backinto LT- and HT-circuits.

Someinstallationsrequiresa splitted sys-


tem. In a splitted systemLT- and HT-water
have theia own centralcooler. Figurc l9,Cenhol cooler system wfih two cenhol
coole'5
The coolingv/ater circuit betweenengine
and cooleris called primary circuit and the lhe central coolerhas the following
otber circuit betweencoolerand sourceis connectloltsl
calledsecondarycircuit.
A = Primary circuit inlet
Figure 18 showsthe basicprinciplesofa B = Secondarycircuit outlet
celtral coolersystem. C = kimary circuit outlet
D = Secondarycircuit inlet

Flgup I E, Centrcl cooler system

FiguQ 20, Pldle heat axchdnger

COOIJNo SVSIEM- P.v. I Page 19


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IOWER PLAIITS

4.2.Sizing
of o cenflol coolel
When dimensioning a central cooler,use the
folllowing design data:

Designdata

Seetechnicaldala
Flow,secondary
side Seetechnicaldala
Healdissipation 1.2x nominalheal
Temperalufe dalference A t = 6 ' C
Pressuredrop, Max.0.6bar

0.6-1.4
bar

Operalingpressure Seelechnicaldata
- Acid-proo{slainlesssieel
(Arsr316)
- Tilan
Maleialof gaskel - Nitdle

4.3.lnstollotion
of o cenhql
coolel
Ttre central cooler can be placed inside the
power plant or outdoor. When locating the
cooleroutdoor, the coolerand pipes must be
insulated and trace heated ifthe ambient
temperature may fall below 0 'C.

Pagp 20 COOU|IG SVSIEM- Pev. I


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POWER PLAXTS

5. COMMONCOMPONENTS

5.1.Generol
The cooling water system consistsofseveral
common componenls as:

maintenancewater tank
preheatingunit
pumps
valves
pipes

5.2.Moinlenqncewqler lonk
TtIe coolingwater systemis providedwith
a maintenancewater tank, into which the
enginecoolingwater can be quickly drained
for the time ofmaintenance.Thus,treated Figu@2l . Maintenonce wolet tdnk
coolingwater canbe recycledand pumped
backinto the engineafter a maintenance.
The maintenancewater tank with a pump
is commonfor severalengines.In largein- 5.2.I. Sizingof moinlenonce
stallationsseveralmaintenancetanks are woler lonk
used,seedesigndata table.

To get a short pumpingdistance,the mainte- The sizing of the maintenance water tank is
nancewatertank is placedas neara" possi- based on the water system circuit's volume.
ble to the engine(s).It is placedas low as The tank volume can be calculated by the
possibleallowiogall water io the pipe sys- following formula:
tem to be drainedto the tank. Attention
must alsobe paid to facilitatemaintenance V= e,N+kt.n)+c +0.2 m3
job on the tank.
V = maintenance water tank volume [m3]
The maintenancewater tank has the ew = wajer volume for actual engine type
followilg connections: lmol, Seetable 1.
a = crosssection area ofpipe in the cooliog
= Freshwater inlet system [m"]. See table 2.
B = Water to/from engine 1 = pipe length in meter [m]
C = Drain c = .'ojo-e 6f cooling equipment [m3J
D = Ventilation 0.2 m"= restvolume in maintenance
wate! tank

COOLINGS}lsIEM- P.v. I Pqgo 2l


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Enginewater volume [mr]


Example: A multi-engine power plant with
Engine VASA 22 VASA 32 VASA45 three VASA 12V32 engines-
model/
Enginetype V= ewv + @ . n) + c + 0 .2 m3
0.09 0.305 0.75
ewv = 0.74 m3 (from table)
6B o.t2 0.41 0.95 (a n) = for DN 150 pipe and approx. 100 m
AR 0.16 0.51 1.35 length (0,0199^m? 100 m) = 1.99 m3
c = approx. 0.3 mr in cooling equipment
9R 0.56 1.5
12V 0.24 o.74 1.7 V = 0.?4m3 + 1.99m3 + 0.3 rn3 + 0.2 m3
16V o.32 0.84 2.1 V = 3.23m3
18V 0.84 2.6
In this casethe nearest maintenance water
tank standard sizes 4.0 m3 is chosen.
Table 1.

5.2.2.Moinlenoncewoler pump '*


Cross seclion area ol pipes The pump is ofcentrifugallJ4reand it
pumps the cooling water to and from en-
Pipe Arealm2l gines.
DN 40 0.00145
DN50 0.00233 Designdata
DN65 0.00535
DN80 0.00388 Operatingpressure l2bal
DN lOO 0.00901 Operating
temperature Max.110'C
DN 125 0.0136 Capac'ty 190 - 180Umin
DN 150 0.0199
DN 2OO 0.0335
DN250 0.0533
DN 3OO 0.0753

Table2.

Numberof tanks

1.3engines lltank
4 . 10engrnes 2 tanks

Available standard tank sizes:


. 2.5 m3
. 4.0 m3
. 6.0 m3
. 10.0m3

Poge 22 COOLING SYSIEM - P.v. l


wiiRTsrl.iiDltrstrL
POUER PLAXT3

5.3.Preheoling
unit
The purposeofthe preheatingunit is to pre- The preheating unit has the following
heat the water in the HT-circuit before start conncetions:
ofthe engine.Main components in the pre-
heater circuit are an electiically driven A = Water inlet
pump and aII electric heater. The circuit is B = Water outlet
connectedto the HT-circuit, in parallel with
the engine driven llT-circuit pump. The pre-
heatingcicuit is providedwith a oon retutn
valve to prevent the water to flow in the
wrong direction.

The HT-circuit is heatedto about70'C be-


fore stait. A safetyvalve,with a setpointof
3 bar, protectsthe circuit againsta too high
pressure,

The preheattrgunit comprises:


. pump
. heatrs
. shut-offvalves
. oon leturn- and safetyvalve
. liame Figut 22. P@healing unit

5.3.1. Heotingcoils
5.3.2.Preheolingpump
llee values for required heating power, men-
tioned in the table below, are for base load The preheatingpurnpis of centrifugalt1pe.
power plants. For ol,her t54es ofpower
plants, heating power must be calculated.
Designdala
Designdata ffi
Requnedhealingpower VASA22 temperalure VASA22
Operaling 70"C
| 1.5kW/cyl. vAsA32 170'C
VASA32 | 2.0 kW/ cyl.
VASA46 16.0kW/ cyl. VASA46 60"C
VASA22 0.3m:/rrx cvl.
VASA32 o.am:4'x ctl.
VASA a6
VASA 46 0.8 m'/lt
I 0.8 m'/h xx cyl.
cvl.

COOUNo 'yyEM - Eq. I Poge 23


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POWER PLAII'S

5.4.Thermostqlic
volve, 5.4.2.HT-circuit
LTqnd HT The thermostatic valve for HT-circuit con-
trols the outlet temperature ofthe HT-water
A thermostatic valve controls the tempera- and is ofdirect acting, 1-stagetype.
ture in both LT- and HT-circuits. In situ-
ations when the operating temperature of The HT-circuit is fitted with a thermostatic
the engine is too low, a part or all ofthe cool- valve placed before the coolerinlet and in-
ing water is by-passedback to the engine by side the building. Attention must be paid to
the thermostatic valve. required servicespace.

The thermostatic valve, both for LT- and HT-


circuits,has the followingconnections Designdata

A = lnlet (from engine) Tempeaturc 1120'C


B = By pass (to engine) Pressure 10baf (NP 10)
C = To cooling unit
Setpoint 91"c li
86"44
Matenal Casliron

For installations with heat recovery, and


always for engines wiLh 2-stagecbarge air
cooling.
2\
For installations without heat recovery.

Figu@23. fhem,'''ostaficvdlve Lf- dn.t Hf-chcuit

5.4.| . [T-circuif
The thermostatic valve for LT-circuit con-
trols the outlet temperature ofthe LT-water
and is of direct acting type. The tempera-
ture control is either 1-stageor 2-stage.

The LT-circuit is fitted with a thermostatic


valve placed before the coolerinlet and in-
side the building. Attention must be paid to
required service space.

Designdata

Tempeature 100"C
Pressure l l o b a r ( N Pt 0 )
Sel poinl,1-slage 'C
I 32
Sel poinls, 2-stage 35"C/65"C

Pdgo 2 - 2.v. t
COOLIIIO SVSrEM
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POWER PLATTS

5.4.3.Funclionond dimensions
Figure 24.

The water, in bolh LT- and HT circuit, is


still cold when starting up the engine. The
water enters the valve at connectionA and
due to a low temperature, the thermostatic
valve by-passesthe water back !o engine
from connectionB. As the temperaturein
the cooling water rises, the elements in the
thermostatic valve start to operate. When
cooling water reachesoperating tempera-
ture, one part ofthe water is by-passed,and
the othe! part goesto the cooling unit from
connectionC.
Figurc 24. Dimensionsol lh'moslolic volve
In a multi-engine installation, the cooling
water must not be mixed fTom one engine to
anotber.Tn suchinstallatlons,eachengine Size Wmm ZJmm Y/mm
has a thermostatic valve installed in the HT-
crrcurt. DN80 267 171 200
DN 1OO 403 217 224
The thermostatic valve in the LT-circuit is D NI 2 5 449 241 254
dependentof ambient conditions,loading DN 150 449 254 245
pattern and ofused type fuel oil. DN 2OO 640 420 340

cOOll,VC SYs'!M - Pav. , Page25


wiiRTsrLADotrstrL
POWER PIAI{TS

5.4.4.Pressuledlop
The pressure drop over a valve is always in
proportion to the flow through it. The dia-
grams below shows the pressure drop for dif-
ferent thermostatic valve sizes.

DNSO DNlOO

r

: 01
I

DN125 DN15O

: 0.s
: - . : 0 .
:
; ".

DN 2OO

P
E

Figure 25. Prcsswe drop ovet lhefinoslalic valves, dccotcllng lo volve sizednc! wolet flow

Pdge 26 COOUNe SyS'EM- Pev, I


WARTSILAD[trStrL
POWEN PLAIIT3

5.5.Exponsion
lonk
The purpose ofthe expansion tank is to en- The expansionvessel ofclosed tJryehas the
sure a constant positive suction head at the following connections:
circulation pump and to compensatevolume
changesin cooling water system simultane- HT expansion pipe
ously acting as a de-aerating tank. An sepa- HT deaeration pipe
rate expansion tank is required for each of c LT expansion pipe
the LT-circuit, the HT-circuit and the heat D LT deaeration pipe
recovery system. To provide a sufficient pres- E Overflow
sure ofthe water at the suction side ofthe F Inspection opening
pump, the expansion tank is placed at such H Drain
a height that a static pressure of0.7-1.5 bar
is achieved at the pump. The tank can be
placed outside under the roof ofthe build-
ing, or inside closeto the roofstructurals or,
as an alternative, on the exhaust gas steel
structure nearby the engrne.

The flow through rhe expansion [ank is regu-


lated by choosingproper dimensions oftank
inlet and outlet pipes.

The expansion pipe is connectedto the inlet


pipe ofthe circulation pump and it shall be
drawn, continuously rising, to the bottom of
the expansion tank, to avoid air pockets in
the pipe. The expansion tank is provided
with a low level alarm switch.

The open tJapeexpansion tank has the


following connections:
A = Overflow pipe Figuo 27. Exponslonvesselot cloied We
B = Make up pipe
Q = Venting pipe
D = FillinC
E = Ilrain

Flgurc26. Exponsionrank ol open We

COOUIIG SYSIEM- 2w. I Pdge 27


WART$LAD[trStrL
POWER PLAl'TS

The connectionpoints for an expansion tank


5.5.Deoelofion
fonk
ofmembrane t54e are:
When an expansion tank system of mem-
= Water inlevoutlet brane t,?e is used, a separate deaeratlon
B = Air filling tank is needed.The main purpose is to let
out air from the cooling water system. The
pipes must be drawn with continuous slope
to the deaeration tank placed closeto the ex-
paosion tank.

The connection points for a deaeration tank


are:

Air outlet
Water inlet
Water outlet

Figub 28. Expdnsion rdnk ol membone lype

5.5.1. Designond sizingol


exponsiontonk
Designdata
Min.10 % ol thesystemwaler
volume,howevermin.
100lilres.
Enginewalervolume Seelechnicaldata Figurc 29. Deaerclion ldnk
Max.120"C

Ttre following formula gives the approxima-


tive volume ofaD expansiontank:
5.6.I. Deoerotiontonktypes
V= 0.10 . [c + (a n) + e*] [m3l
The expansiontank ofopen t ?e is used
V= Volume ofexpansion tank [mr] when the static pressure is achieved due to
c= Volume ofcooliog equiBment [m3] its location. Ifthe tank cannot be located
a= Area ofcooling pipe [m"]. high enough to provide this pressure, an ex-
Seechapter5.2.1., Table2. pansion tank ofclosed tj|pe is used.
n = Pipe length Iml ^
ewv= engrnewater volume [rn']. The expansiontank ofmembrane type can
Seechapter5.2.1., Table 1. also be used in a closedexpansion system-
In this casea deaeration tank is connected
to the system.

Pdge 28 COOL|NGSYSIEM- Fov. I


wiiRTsrLADfltrstrL
POWER PLAIITE

pump;LT-,HT-
5.T.Circulofion
The purpose of the circulation pump is to T]]e main cdteria when sizing the cooling
maintain a constant flow of cooling\ /ater in water system is, that the water flow must be
the cooling water circuits. ablecoolthe heat producedby the engine.
Seetechnical data for the engine.
The circulatron pumps are ofbuilt-on type
and direct diiven by the engine for VASA
Designdata
20, VASA 22 and VASA 32 engines.
VASA 46
For engine type VASA 46. the circulation
pumps are electric motor driven and placed Capacity Seetechnicaldalaol
on the floor level next to the engine. the engine
Consider the required spacefor mainte- pressure[bar]
Operating Seelechnicaldataol
me engne
nancejobs when locating the pump.
opelatingtempelalure
['cl max.120'C
There is a separate pump for the LT-circuit
and the HT-circuit. - imPeller Caslbrcnze
- cagng Castgrcynon

The circulation pumps has the following


connections:

Cooling water inlet


Cooling water outlet

Figuts 30.Ctculotion PumP

COOLINGSl4'lEM- Pv. l Poge 29


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POY'EN PLA]'TS

Poge 30 COOLNG SYSIEM- Pav. I


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POWEB PLAX?3

6. PIPING

5.1.Generql
The water flow in the LT- and HT-circuits To ensure stable operating conditions in the
are considerableand subsequentlythe di- coolingwater circuit and to keep prcssure
mensionsofpipes in thesecircuitsare fairly drop in pipe lines within acceptablelimits,
large.Whereasthe flow to the expansion check that the recommendedvelocity in the
and deaerationsystemsare smaller,it is different circuits and pipe dimensions are
alsoreflectedto the dimensionsofthese used:
pipes.Regardlessofdimensions.eachpipe.
line must be rigidly supported to prevent
damages. Recommendedvelocities in cooling water
prpes
In someinstallationsthe pipesmust be rnsu-
lated due to safetylegislation.Drain points Pipe HT-CircuitLT-Circuit Raw
are placedat the lowestpoint ofthe cooling dimension [ds] lm/sl water
water system and attached to the underside ln/sl
ofthe pipe.Deaerationpoints are placed
near to pumps and coolersand at highest 25 1.5-1.7 1.5-1.7
levelpossible. 32 1.7-1.9 1.7-1.9
40 1.92.1 1.9-2.1
When sizing the coolingwater system, use
the following design data: 50 2.1-2.3 2. t-2.3
65 2.3-2.5 2.3-2.5
Designdata 80 2.5-2.7 2.r2.7
1(JO 2.7-2.9 2.7-2.9 2.2-2.4
Pressure 110bar (NP10)
lemperalure lMax.120'C 125 2.9-3.1 2.9-3.1 2.3-2.5
150 3.G3.2 3.G3.2 2.5-2.7
2W 3.O-3.2 3.O-3.2 2.7-2.9
The followins standards are used:
250 3.1.3.3 3.1-3.3 2.9-3.0
300 3.2-3.4 3.2-3.4 3.0-3.1
Designdata
Standard Material Table3. Recommended
velocitiesin cooling
water pipes
Pipe DIN24,$ RSt35
DtN2458 RSt35
Elbow DIN2605 RSt35
DIN2616 RSt35
Flang DtN2576 RSt37-2
DtN2532 RSt37-2
Blindflang DtN2s27 RSr37-2
Gaskel 0lN 2650
Mateialin cas6ot ssa watr HDPEor glasslibre

COOUJA S}5rE, - Pd. I PdgE 3l


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DfltrstrL
POYER PIAI'TS

6.2.Coolingwqfervelocifies The formula Q=A u gives:

The recommendedvelocities meotioned in


n-d2
table 3 are used when calculating the suit- A=Q ) = 9
able pipe dimension. The relationship be- v
tween the flow, the cross-sectionarea ofthe
pipe and the velocity is:
) -

Q =A.o [m'/s]

a == flow [m3/s] .
o =
^ f-2rfi3 4" = u^^^^
'uo'.
cross-sectionarea ofpipe [m"] \ 3600* 1.8--
t) = velocity [m/s]

Exsmple of calculating pipe dimension: = 206mm = DN200


The flow is 216 m",& and the desirable veloc-
ity 1,8 m,/s.Which pipe dimension shall be
used ?

i ? 9

el;

Figue 32. Wdrerllow - wolet velocily diognm

- l \
l 9
: - 6 2000 E
!- z
- 9 ' E
go 1000
E 800
20 600 -9
: '6-
30 400
40 10 E
50
60 200
80
100
l= _20 I
E
100
40
80 E
200 60
60
300 30
100
Figurc 3l. Prcsswedrcp didgrcfi lot o sttoighl pipe

Pdge 32 COOLING SYSIEM. P.'. I


AIR
GHARGE
SYSTEM

Handboolr
for
Mechanical
Systems

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POWER PLANTS
Tobleof Conlenls

CHARGE AIR SYSTEM

GENERAL O- 1
T y p i c asiy s t e m
layout.. ....0-1

CIIARGE AIR FILTER 1- 3


General. .........1-3
Weatherprotectionlouwes and hoods. 1 - 4
Antiicing ........1-5
Prefilterandfrnefrlter .. ....1-5
Sand and heary dust
frlters... .........1-5
F i l t e rs t a n d a r d s ...1-7
Table for determiningthe
r i g h tf i l t e rp a c k a g e
.. .. ....1-8

CIIARGE AIR SILENCER 2.9


General. .........2-g

DESIGNOFCHARGEAIRSYSTEM 3 - II
Piping.. ........3-11
Bellows. ........3-13
Materialsandstandards. ..3-13
The specificweightofair. ..3 -14
Examole ........3-14
wiiRTsrLADotrstrL
POWEi PLAXT3

O. GENERAT

The main function ofthe external charge air Turbocharged enginesare working with a
system is to provide the engine with an ade- great quantity of air and the quality of the
quate supply ofclean and dry air. air variesat differentsites.Due to differ-
ences,equipmentrequiled in differentin-
The combustion air (charge air) to the en- stallationsmay vary a lot.
gine is drawn from outside the building,
topen airr. The air is drawn through an air The main components
ofthe systemare:
filter via a pipe system, in some casespro- . .h,rop ,ir filtcr
vided with a charge air silencer, into the . charge air silencer
turbo charger, which forcesthe air into the . pipe system with supports
engine.

The undamped charge air noise noise is a


relatively high fiequency noise and there-
fore quite disturbing. Consequently a charge
air silencer is recornmended.

0.l.Iypicol syslemlqyoul
Pleose, refer to .tppend.it K for flowcharts
descib ing differeht systems.

Air intakesilencer

Air intakefilter

Flgve |. Chorye ot ln Ntnclple

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POYER PLAI{T3

Pdge 2 cHAFeE NP STSIEM- e.Y, t


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POWEF PLA"TS

I. CHARGEAIRFILTER

l.l.Generql I.1.2.Oilwetfedfiller

The geographical position, weather condi- The oilwetted filter consists offrlter panels
tions, seasonal conditions, neighbourhood and or elements formed to a continuos sealedcur-
maintenance has influence on the design of tain. The filter panels move vertically up-
the filter system. The charge air filter shall be ward acrossthe front face ofthe housing
chosen a]Id sized according to the most ex- and downward acrossthe front face on the
treme situations erqstingat the site. other side (clean side), down to the oil bath.

The highest permitted dust concentratronn A prefrlter with vertical weather louvre, can
the charge air is 3 mg/mr and largest parti- be used as a first stage filter.
cle size 5 ptm.The dust concentration and
the particle size must always be below these
limits at turbo charger iolet. The total pres-
sure loss for the charge air system (frlter,
silencer and piping) shall not exceed
2000 Pa. T\Tical pressure loss is about 1000-
1500Pa.

The most common fllter types are:


. dry filter
ttr
. oilv/etted filter
. jet pulse lilter
a
A filter system can also be built as a combi-
nation ofthe abovementioned filters-

| .l .l . Drychorgeoirfiller OIL BAIH

The dry filter consists ofa l-stage or 2-stage


filter with a vertical weather louvre. The Figup 4. Culowdy ol dn oilwelled lilrer
first stage is working as a prefilter and sec-
ond stage as a fine filter.

FILTEFHOUSE
WITHOIL BATH

Figurc2, Dry chqrye dtulillel Figu@3. Fivethousinglot oilwetled frlrer

CHAQGEAlz SYSIEM- P.v. I Poge 3


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POWEB PLATITS

l.2.Weotherprotectionlou- The two most common types are:


vles ond hoods . stationary hood t}?e
. hinged louvre type
The inlet ofthe openings ofthe air system
must be protected against heavy rain, snow
etc. by weather protection louvres.

The weather louvres have vertical shaped


vanes which force the air to change direction
a number of times as it passesthrough the
louvre. At the same time heavier particles
run into the vanes, loosetheir speedand
droD to the bottom ofthe filter house.

Figub 6. sbnondrywedrhot hood lot dry dnd oil


bdth liltets

Flgu@5. Weathet louwe lor dry ond oil wolled


frlte6

A weather hood is another way to protect Figwe 7. Hinged louwe lype lor dry dnd oil wel-
the engine from wet air or I be filters from bdne6
being clogged.The hood opening has to be
sized so the airllow speeddoesnot exceed
1 n/s and the airflow enters the hood verr,r-
cally upwards.

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POWEI PLAIITS

l.3.Anti-icing l.5.Sqndqnd heovy dusl


filfers
Glaciation ofthe intake can occur ifthe tem-
perature ofthe inlet air drops below the dew
point and free moisture strikes surfacesthat 1.5.I.Inerliolduslseporotol
are at or below the freezing point. Con-
densedwater o! precipitate moisture in the
In areas with heala sand or dust storms, a
form ofrain droplets, snow or ice can fteeze
traditional lilter system isn't enough. The
and build up on the inlet filter. The critical
dust concentration in these areas sometimes
temperature range is between +3' C and
-5' C. reachessuch values that a more efflcient fil-
ter system has to be used.
Inlet air heating can be arranged by direct
For example:
heating ofthe air. This can be doneby using
. inertial dust separator with diit collector
steam-, hot \ /ater- or by electric air heaters
usrng pnmary ano seconoaryalr
at the inlet ofthe filter package.
. jet pulsefilter with a reversingair stream
IOrrecleanlng,

Both filters are working with the sameprin-


L4. Prefilferond finefiltel ciple.l0@ooftbe incomingprimary air is
used for scavengingsecondaryair. A ciust
When a finefill,er is used, a coarsefilter is collectoris collecting sand and dust and an
placed as a prefilter in the first stage for pro- air fan exhausts it to the atmosphere.
tection. A coarsefilter prolongs the lifetime
ofthe finefilter. The coarsefilter has to be
changed 3-4 times as oiten as the fine filter
in order to allow the finefrlter to work prop- aJR
ourlEr
erlv.

Figub 6. lnedidl du6l seporclol

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I .5.2.Jet pulsefilter
Thejet pulsefrlter has an air blowingsys- BLOWPIPES
tern,using compressed air of 6..8bar, for
cleanrngofthe filter panels.The blow pipes
are locatedin the cleanair areablowingan
air cleaningstreamin the oppositedirection
to the cleanair. The dislodgeddust is
suckedinto the dust collectorand blowoout
with the secondaryair.

A sensorobservesthe pressuredrop overthe


filter panels.Wtrenthe pressuredrop has
reacheda fixed value,thejet pulsesystem
starts.About 100I cornpressedair (at l.lTP)
is usedfor onerecleaningpulse.
BLOWPIPES
The inertial dust separatorneedsa fine fil-
ter as a secondstageto reachthe limit set
for the combustionar (seefigure 8).

Thejet filter has a higherfiltering efficiency


and thereforeit doesnot needa fine filter as
a secondstage.

PBIMARY
AIRINLET

Figurc9. Jel pulsalilrerplnciple

Poge 6 CHARGENe SYSIEM- Pov,'


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POWER PLAl{TS

1.6.Filferslqndords I .6.| . Dustholdingcopocity

To be able to compare fllters q/ith each other The dust holding capacity (accordingto
and to determinethe efficiencyof the air Ashrao{Eurovent)is measured as follows:
cleaning, parameters as dust holding capac- In a test rig a measured amount oftest dust
ity (7.) and dust spot effrciency(7o)are used. ls fed into an air slream lhat is passec
Prefilters are classified from EU1 - EU4 and through the filter. The test dust consistsof
fine filters from EUs - EUg. 727, standard fine dust,23Ea sooLard, 5E
cotton fibre. The dust concenttation in the
Seepage 8 for a table descrtbing hou to d.e- air stream is 70 mg/mr. The amount ofdust
termine what kind. of filter to use under d.if- collectedin the filter gives the dust holding
capacrty.
ferent site cond.itions.
Coarsefilters
Dustspol
EU Dusl holding Etfeclin praclice
capacity(%)
\%)
1.6.2.Dustspotefficiency
EU1 on smoke,settling
30..50 NoelJecl
duslor pollen
Separales textiletibersand The atmosphedc dust spot elfrciencyis
EUz
large pollen.Littleor no
50..70 etlecton smoke,sootor oil 20 measured by lunning outdoor air thlough
misl.
the fllter. Samples are continously taken
frorn the air before and after the frlter and
Separaleslargepollen
EU3 70..85 (over85%).Someellecton 20..30 filtrated throughfil!er paper.A comparison
smokeandblackening dusl. ofthe opacity of the filter papers in an opac-
Separates pollenandrine ity meter determines the atmospheric dust
dust-Separates moslol the spot efficiency.
EU4 45._90 parlicleslhatcauses 40 70
blackening, No elleclon
iobaccosmoke

Finefilters
Dusispot
EU Dustholding Effect in practice efficiency
capacity(%)
Separates pollenandJine
dust.Separates moslol the
EU5 Ca.100 parlicleslhalcauses 40..70
blachening. No etleclon
iobaccosmoke
Sepatalespollen
complelely. Separalesmosl
ol lhe particles
EU6 Ca.100 blackening.
thatcauses 70..90
Separales coal
andoil smokeand
blackening dusl
EU7 C a . 1 0 0 As lor EU6 70._90
Goodseparation ol mosl
EU8 Ca- 100 panicbslargerlhan0.18m. 90..98
Specialtilterslor lotal
EU9 Ca.100 separation of bacteriaand >98
radioacliv dusl.

CHAPAE AIP S\I'IEM . F.v. ' Pdge 7


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POWER PLAI{T3

l.7.Toblefor deferminingfhe
righffilferpockoge
Use the table below when determining the
right filter package.

Site lnletdust Pariicle Filter Outletdust Weather EU


condition concentr, slze system concemr. protection class
lmglm3l tpml lm9/m3l

lightindusrrial 0,01-0,1 0,01,5 r -slagedryliller EU3


<0,05
icingil rcquired

Coastaland
0,01-0,1 0,01-3 2-stagedrylilter \0,05 EU3

1-stageoil
0,1-10 0,01-50 <3 Anti-icing EU3
liller il requircd

Dese(with 2'stage,inenial
0,1.200 1,500 <3 Hinged EU3
liller
Desertor
installations
2'stageselt
dust 0,1-700 1,500 cleaningjel EU7
pulselilter

Poge I CHAPGE AIP SI67EM - P.v.l


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POWEi PLAIITS

2. CHARGEAIRSILENCER

2.l.Generql
Ttre undamped charge air noise is relatively Charge air can be damped with a cylinder si-
high frequency noise and therefore quite dis- lencer or a laminated silencer. With cylinder
turbing. The charge air noise is between 2 to silencer maximum attenuation is 40 dB(A).
4 kHz depending on the engine and the rota- Ifthere is need for better attenuation, lami-
tion speedofthe turbocharger. The noise nated silencer shall be used.
level is about 130 dB(A) when measurement
is taken inside the duct. The noise level 1 m The choiceofsilencer tlTe depends on:
from the external charge air frlter is about . required noise level
120 dB(A) without the silencer. . permitted pressure drop for the system

1he silencer is normally mounted in the


pipeline between the air filter and the turbo-
charger.

45

40

^ 3 0
o

" 5

31,5 63 125 250 500 1K


frequencies(Hz)

Figup | o,Twical dltenuallon curve lot chotgo olr silencet

- P.v. t
CUAPGEAIP SYS7EM Pdge 9
WARTSILADltrStrL
POWEN PLAI{T3

The charge air noise is not only transmitted A charge air silencer with central pod split-
from the charge air openingsbut also ter are used when there is requirements for
lhrough the chargcair pipe" beforethp "i- high efficiency attenuation. These silencers
lencer. should only be used where the intake arr rs
relativelv moisture free.
To prevent this transmission, the pipes shall
be placed inside the power plant building. If
this is not possible,charge air pipes outside
the building shall be sound-insulated.

Figwe l2,Chatge o silencet wirhout o conlrcl


Pod EPIifiel

Figu@ | |.Chorge oi silencet wilh d cenhdl pod


solifiet

Poge I0 CHAPGE A]P SYSIEM. E.U 1


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POWER PLAIITS

3. DESIGNOFCHARGEAIRSYSTEM

3.1. Piping Each engine shall have an own charge arr


pipe. V-engines must have separate pipes
The piping from the filter to the turbo for each turbo.
charger has to be as short and straight as
possible to minimize the pressure drop. The The bends shall be made with a bending ra-
limit for the pressure drop for both charge tio R/D rradi uvdiameter ) as large as possi-
air system and exhaust gas system together ble but at least 1.5 (seefig 13).
is 5000 Pa. The upper limit for the charge
air system is 2000 Pa and for the exhaust A flexible bellow has to be mounted due to
gas system 3000 Pa. vibrations. The pipes must be properly fixed
to prcvent damage to the turbocharger. Ttre
The value includes the pressure drop from connectionpieceto the turbo charget has to
the filter system, piping and the silencer. be designedaccordingto recommendations
from turbocharger manufacturers. Fixed
The pipes and bends shall be designedto points for the pipe support are to be deter-
give a pressure drop smaller than 500 Pa. mined individually.

The system is calculated using an air velo- The steel support for the charge air pipes is
city of 20 lr/s. usually the sane as for the exhaust gas sys_
tem.

100

50
40
30
20

10

* 4
5 g
E
A 2

0,5
0.4
0,3

o,2

0,1
o,2 0,5 1 2 345 10. 30
volumellowqv lrd/sl
Figue | 3.Flow Esislance-volumeflow-pipe0-veloclty-<liaqom

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POWER PLAI{T3

,/

Figurc 14.Bend 0- 90' t80'

Figup ls.k-toclot lot vdrtous pipe bend dngles

A bendof90" and with a R/D ratio 1.5has a


singleresistancecoefficientof0.28.Single where:
resistancecoefficientsfor other anglesare
calculatedfrom the formula: (a = single resistancecoefficient for a bend
& = factor accordingto the specified angle
(a=k.(so" (90' = single resistancecoelficient for a bend
of90"

500

300
200

100

50

E.o
Pzo
E 10
g
.E

3
2

0,020,03 0,05 0,2 0,3 0,5 3 4 5


Sinsledstan@c@mcienl(
Figurc IS.Diag@m lot deletmining single rcsisrdnce when single rcsislc,ncecoellicient \ dnd medio
velocilv is known

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POWEi PLAIITS

3.2.Bellows qnd slqndords


3.3.Moleriols
The charge air pipe must have a flexible bel- Whendesigningthe chargeair system,the
low mounted before the turbocharger. The followingdesigndata has to be used:
installation length for the bellow is 200 mm.
Designdata

Pressure I
-llanse,
saskel 12.5bar(NP2.5)
bellow l-0.03 bar
Temperaturs I
-allequipmenls lma(.100'C

The followine standards have to be used:

Designdata

Standard Material

Pipe RSl37-2
designaccording
10
DtN2458
Bend RSt37-2
design accordingto
Flgurc I 7. Flexible oir inldke bellow DIN 22158
Flange 0rN2501 si 378
WD drawing
no.4V6040486
Gaskel VicnobsslU10Ogor
no. 4V6040447

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POWER PLAIIIS

3.4.Thespecificweightot siI 3.5.Exomple


Since the specifrcweight ofair differs with The pressuredrop in the chargeair pipesys-
the ambient temperature and the altitude tem ofa 18V32enginehas to be checked.
abovethe sea level, the actual value must be Seefi.gure18.
calculated- Ambientair temperature= 20' C, altitude
abovesealevel = 0m.
The specificweight ofair can be calculated
accordingto the formula: (Seetableson this page)

P=So k1 [he/m3] p = 1.20 1.00

The specifrcweight at different altitudes, So, p = l.2ke/ms


is given in the following table:
gm= 12.5kg/s(seetechnicaldata)
p = 1.2kdm"
d = DN 600
Altitude above sea so [kg/m3] dz = DN 400 (inlet to turbo charger)
level [m] u < 20 m./s
0 1.20
Air volume flow
150 1.18
300 1.16 The v-enginehas two intake pipes.For each
pipe the air massflow is 6.25kgls.
500 1.12
750 1.lo an
' p
1000 1.05
1500 0.99
A'1
2000 0.94 Arr volume llow Ov = - ^ =C,Zm IS
L.z
3000 0.83
4000 0.73

The factor kl is dependent ofthe air tem-


perature as shown in the table below:

Air temperature
lecl
0 1.O77
10 1.038
20 1.000
25 0.981
30 0.963
40 4.924
50 0.887
60 0.850

Pdge I4 CHAPGE AIP SYSIEM- Pev. t


wARTsrLiiDotrstrL
POWER PLAX?3

Ap for slroightpipes Summory


U6ing 5.2 m3/sin the diagramfrg. 13 grves: The total pressure drop in the charge air sys-
4p = 4.6 Palm pipewhen u = 17 m,/s. tem:

AP [Pa]
Ap tor bends
Conneclionpiece1 25
The singleresistancecoefficient( for a 90' Bellow 1 210
ber,dis 0.28(seefigure l5). Figure 16 gives: Pipe 14mx 4.6 u.4
4p = 40 Pa,/beodwhen u = 17 nl/s.
Bend 3x40 120
Silencer 1x200 200
Air velocily otler fhe connecfion piece
(DN 600 to DN 400) Plilter 1x250 250{rccommended
linallecislance)

n-.4
Finelilter 1 x 500 soo (Gcommended
Air uelocity u=\
p.E.d- t^p [Pa] 1369.4

The total pressure drop of this charge air


system is about 1370 Pa, which is below
ap for lhe connection piece highest recommended(2000 Pa).

The single resistance coefficient ( for a con- To get a more accurdte cdlculation, reler to
nection piece is between 0.020 and 0.025 de- formulas used when calculating the pressure
pending on the ratio d1/ d2. Figure 16 gives: drop for the erhaust Eas slstem, design
guid.efor exhaustgas slstem, chapter 3.
4p = 25 Pa for ( =0.025 when u = 41 m,/s.

Ap tor oir inloke bellow:

The singleresistancecoefficjenr( for an air


intake bellow is 0.2. Figure 16 gives: 4p =
2I0 Pa for the bellow when L' . 4l rr/s

2-Stoge
chorgeoirfilter

EngineI 8V32

Figwe I E,Choge dtusy'rem

CHAPGE AIz SYSIEM . ?EI. I Pdge | 5


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Pdgo I6 CHARoEAIRSWIEM- P.v. I


EXHAUST
GAS
SYSTEM

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lor
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Systems

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Tobleof Confenfs

EXIIAUST GAS SYSTEM

GENERAL O- 1
T l p i c a ls y s t e m
layout.. .... 0- 1

E)ffIAUST GAS STT.NNCER I -3


Installation. ......1-3

E)GIAUST GAS BOILER 2-7


General. .........2-7

SIZING OF PIPING SYSTEM 3-9


Piping.. .........3-9
S u p p o r tasn db e l l o w s . ......3-9
Materialandstandards. ...3-10
Flow resistance,
calculations .....3-11
Example ........3-I2

CHIMNEY (stack) 4-15


General. ........4-I5
Chirnney height ..4-16
Exhaustgasvelocity. . . ...4-16
Draft calculationfor
e x h a u sgta sc h i m n e y ......4-16
WARTSILADltrStrL
POWEN PT.AXTS

O. GENERAT

When designingan exhaustgassystemthe The main function ofthe external exhaust


geographicalposition,sizeofthe plant, gas system is to lead exhaust gasesout from
neighbourhood, exhaustgasquantitiesand the power plant. The emissions and the
emissionregulationsby the localauthorities noise level in the neighbourhoodmust be
are the most important parameters. below the specifiedvalues that are set by lo-
cal authorities.
Ttrecomponentsofthe exhaustgassystem
are very voluminousand must thereforebe Sometimesit is enough with a chimney after
consideredfrom an aestheticalpoint ofview the silencerto obtain l,heemissionrequire-
when making up the civil drawings and the ments.
site layouts.

0.l.Typicolsyslemlqyoul
Please, refer to .tppendb K for flowcharts
describing dffi rent qrstems.

Figu@ l. Exhduslgas syslem in pinciple

Exlaun CASSYSI.M- l.v. I Poge I


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POWER PLAIITS

0.1.1.Systemwithexhousigos
The main componentsfor such a system are:
boiler . pipe system with suppofis
. exhaust gas boiler and heat recovery
The thermal energy in the exhaust gases equipments
can be utilized by applying an exhaust gas . exhaust gas silencer
boiler for producing hot water or steam. . exhaust gas chimney

Figurc 2. Exhousl gas syslem wilh an exhopustgds boitet tn pinciple

Poge 2 EXHAIEIGASSYSIEM- Pav.t


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POWER PI.ATTS

I. EXHAUST
GASSILENCER

t]1e exhaustgasnoisepressurelevelwith- l .l . lnslqllotion


out a damperis about 120 ... 130dB(A).
This meansthat the noisehas to be damped An exhaust gas silencer with bottom
before leaving the exhaust gas system.A mounted flange can either be horisontally or
standardexhaustgassilenceris ofabsorp- vertically mounted.
tion t5pe,equippedwith a spark anestor.
The silencers are built to be mounted hori-
zontallyo! vertically.

For more information regarding noiselevels


and danping, seethe noiseguid.e.

Ttre operation principle for the spark ar-


restoris basedon steelplatesthat forcesthe
exhaust gasesto whirl. Sparks and sootpar-
ticles hurls by centrifugal forcesinto a re-
ceiwingbox. the receiving box is placedon
onesideofthe sparkarrestor.The absorp-
tion matrial in the silenceris ofhigh qual-
ity rockwool.

Figwe 3. Exhous, gds silencr wilh boilom


moun a<tianga

Figurc4. Exhousl gds sllencat wilh siclo


mounle<t f,onge

EXHAUSICAS SI6IEM- P.v. I Pdge 3


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POWER PLA'ITS

The main dimeqsions ofthe silencer are as


follows:

Engine Diam.ot Dia- Height Height Height Height


VASA connec- meler Hlmml Hlmml Hlmml Hlmml
DNlmml Dlmml 2s db(A) 3s db(A) 2s db(A) 35 db(A)
puntedflange unledflange
6&8R22 400 800 3400 4400 3100 4100
12V22 500 950 3640 4930 3650 4900
16V22 600 1100 4010 5260 4250 5260
6R32 600 1100 4010 5260 4250 5260
8-9R32 700 1340 4550 6050 4360 5860
12V32 800 1500 4UO 6340 4650 6t50
16V32 900 1600 5360 6870 5250 6750
1av32 1000 1700 5840 7620 5770 7770
6R46 900 1600 4440 6340 4650 6150
8R46 1000 1700 5360 6870 5250 6750
9R46 1100 1915 5840 7620 5770 7770
12V46 1200 2100 6200 8200 5320 8320
16&18V46 1400 2400 8000 9640 7440 9180

Table 1: Main dimensions of silencers

Pdge 4 EXHA$I oAS SYSIEM' POV.I


WARTSILADltrStrL
POUEN PLAX'S

l.l.l. Pressuredropfordifferenl
typesof silencers
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000

1000
d 800
o 600
< 500
400
300
2@

I 30
v [rn/s]

Figurc 5. Adgromdescddngheprcsslnedbplotdsilencotwilhs@tkonegotdn tg<tdtounbdnange

"{:
r$r-
[c}J

1000
a 800
o ooo
< 500
400
300
200

Figu@6. Didqdmd*ibinglhepesswedbplotosibncetwtlhqo*dfieslordndboltor'.nrpl//lledttange

EXHAU GASSYSIFM - P*. I Pdge 5


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POWER PLAI'TS

Examplel
pe = -*--
Pressure drop for a silencer:
. Engine 18V32 -
273
. Exhauslgas amounL13.5kg/s rseetechni-
cal daca)
. Exhausttemperature190"C 1.3 =
0.767kg/m3
. ConnectionDN 1000= 1008mm 190
-
273'
fn
13.5. 4
-Pi -"= m 4
u= .ImtsJ 0.76?.r 1.0082
^
P"n 4-
v = 22 lrr/s
m = exhaust gas massflow lkgls]
fD = exhaultt gas density at temperaturc From the diagram in figure 5 we get 800 Pa,
tkdrnl and 500Pa in figure 6.
d = diameterofinner pipe [m]
A = cross-sectional dirnensions

Poge 6 Ext/^ttsf GAssYsEM- Pd, l


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2. EXHAUST
GASBOITER

2.1.Generol The exhaust gas has to be by-passedifthe


flow through the boiler is to be regulated or
About 30 7aofthe fuel energy is transferred during boiler maintenance when the whole
to the exhaust gases. To recover this enetgy flow is by-passed.The regulating limit is 50-
an exhaust gas boiler can be used. 100 70ofthe total exhaust gas flow. The
boiler is by-passedby an external by-pass
The maximum pressure drop allowed for the valve or with an internal flap systern inside
boiler is 1200 Pa. The boiler also has a the boiler.
sound damping effect.
TTreby-passvalve has the following connec-
The exhaust gas boiler has the following tlons:
connectlons:
A = Exhaust gas inlet
A = Exhaust gas inlet B = By-pass
B = Exhaust gas outlet C = To boiler
C = Water outlet
D = Water inlet

Figu@8. Exhdusl gos by-pdst vqlve

Figu@7. Exhdusl gos bo et

FXHAUfi AAS SYSIEM. PO. I Page 7


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POWER PLAXTS

3. SIZING
OFPIPING
SYSTEM

3 . 1P
. iping
The piping from the engine to open air has V-engioes with two turbochargers have a
to be as shod and straight as possibleto branch pipe that connectsthe exhaust gas
avoid a high pressure drop. The limit ofthe pipes from each turbocharger to a common
total pressure drop for both charge air sys- exhaust gas pipe.
tem and exhaust gas system is 5000 Pa. The
upper limit for the px}taustgas sysl,emis
3000 Pa and the rest (2000 Pa) is for the
charge air system. Ifthe limit on the ex-
haust side is exceeded,the engine output
must be derated.

The value includes the pressure drop llom


the piping, boiler, silencer stack and other
equipment ofthe exhaust gas system. The
pipe system is sized for an exhaust gas velo-
city of 20 ... 35 m/s.

Each engine rnust have its own exhaust gas


pipe through the chimney to prevent the ex-
haust gasesfrom entering an engine not in
operation. The bends are made with a bend- Figne 10. Exhouslgos b@nch pipe
ing ratio R/D (radius/diameter) as large as
possiblebut at least 1.5 (seefrgure 9).

3.2.Supporlsond bellows
The pipe system has to be connectedto the
engine by means ofbellows. Ttre purpose of
the bellows is to compensatefor movement
due to thermal expansion and to prevent
that vibrations from the engine are trans-
ferred to the pipe system. The bellows are
placed alter the turbo charger and deter-
mined individually liom caseto case.

Ttre pipes have to be properly frxed and com-


pletely insulated inside the building. Fixed
Figub 9. R/D tdlio and sliding points for the pipe support are to
be determined individually.

The exhaust gas pipes shall be provided


with water separating pockets and draining.

EXIAIEI GAS S\EIEM - Pev. I Poge 9


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POWER PLAII?S

The forces acting on exhaust gas pipes are:


3.3.Mqteilqlqnd slqndqrds
. therrnal forcesfrom the hot exhaust gas
. pulsate forcesfrom the exhaust gas flow Whensizingthe exhaustgassystemthe
. vibrations from engine followingdesigndata haveto be usedl
. static forcesfrom the wFighl ofthe pipes
Designdata
These forceshave to be consideredu hen siz-
ing the steel construction. The forcesare - llange,gaskei 2.5 bar (NP 2.5)
transmitted through the supporting steel bellow 1 . 5b a r
construction to the building. Temperature
- all equipment max.450'C

The followine standards have to be used:

Design data

Standard Material

DIN2448 RSt35
DtN2458 RSt35
Elbow DIN2605 RSI35
Flange DtN2576 RSr37-2,C22.8
Blindllange DtN 2527 RSt37,2,C22.a
Figurc | l. Exhaustgds bellow Gasket DtN26S0 Oil resistanl

Standard bellows are found in three differ-


ent lengths, 280 mm, 560 mm and 700 mm.
Depending on the axial and lateral move-
ments one ofthese has to be chosen.

Poge l0 EXl//ltSl GAS SVSiEM - P.v. l


TVARTSILA
DfltrStrL
POUER PLAl{'S

3.4.Flow
resislonce,
cqlculolions
The single resista[ce coefficient ( is a factor
The flow resistance for exhaust gas pipes derived frorn the flow resistance turbulence
can be calculated accordinEto formula: causedwhen area and flow direction
changes.
. for a straight pipe to air: q = I
o,= i * ,' 16!*\t . for a 90" bend with a ratio radius/diame-
ter 1.5 and shared in 4 sections:( = 0.28
. for the union in a branch pipe ( = 0.2
dp = flow resistaoce [Pa]
& = e>rhaustgas density [kglm"]
u = exhaust gas speed [m,/s] Singleres. coefl. E for tee qonneclion 1:
4 = friction coefficient for the pipe material
I = pipe length [mJ ma 0 o.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
d = chimney inner diameter [m] m
( = single resistance coemcient
0.9 0.78 0.74 0.86 1.0 1.19
For a straight pipe the flow resistancecan qd 0.06 - 0 . 0 9 -0.o7 o.04 0 . 1 6 0.23
be calculated by formula:

1 Singleres. coeff. ( lortee connection2:


,pe
u'GhPot
ma 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 I
Flow resistance for a bend: n
,1.0 -0.4 0.08 0.45 o.72 0.90
1 !a
u2 I tPol qd 0.05 0.20 0.30 0_40 0_50 0.60
tpe

90'bend
Straightpipeto air
( =028

Teeconnection
1 Teeconnection
2

Figup | 2.fhe single |esk once coetficienl lot dillepnt pipes


EXHAUSI GAS SYSIEM- P.Y. t Poge | |
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POWER PLAl{TS

The exhaustgas densitypecan be approxi-


3.5.Exomple
mated with the following formula:
The pressuredrop ofthe er.haustgassystem
1.3 ofa 18V32enginehas to be calculated.The
systemincludesa boiler,a silencerand a
1+(*) chimney.

Q = 13.5kg/s at full load (seetechnicaldata).


exhaust gas density [kg/m3] tl = 325"C temperatureafter turbo
exhaust gas temperature ["C] (seetechnicaldata).
=
,2 190"Ctemperatureafter boiler
The friction coefficient ( is a function of the d = 1.008[m] (DN 1000)
material, the dimension and the surface of u = exhaust gas speed,m/s
the inner pipe and is approximated accord- A = cross-sectional dimensions
ing to following formula: Ambienttemp 20' C.
Chimneymaterial:stainlesssteel.
Chimneyheight 40 m.
Pinp nqtFrial St 37
m(f) +t.tz1'
ro.sas
fiiction coefficient for the pipe material
pipe inner diameter for the pipe [mmJ
a factor for the surface and the material
ofthe pipe. Seetable 2, page 17.

Flgu,e I 3. Exhdustgos syslem

Page | 2 EXHAUSIGASSY9EM- P.v. I


WARTSILADOtrStrL
POWEN PIAXTS

Pressure drop of the pipe system:

Beforeboilefi . Ap fQr1 pcs90" bendsDN 600 (branch


plpe)
. Ap for a 6 m straight pipe DN 1000
Ttresingleresistancecoefficientis 0.28for a
1.3 90'bend with a R/D ratio 1.5,seefig 12.
'-
273' The singleresistancecoemcientfor the un-
ion in the branchpipe is 0.2.
. exhaustgastemp 325"C
m
Pe = --t;c =0593kglm" ^ - m A

tL+ A a - . t . ) '
27Bl

Evaluatethe velocityofthe gas: 1a<

2 - =4Omls
m
0 . 5 9 3r . 0 . 6 0 f
; n.4
n o"n6'
13_5. 4 . 1.*
-'"'
= u2.\(
28.5m/s
0,593 r ' 7.oo82
1.
Calculate the friction coefficient: 0.593. 40.02. (0.28+ 0.2)= 227.7Pa
2
. k-factor= 0.05

= 0.0105
(o.86eln(#) + 1.14)2

Now the pressuredrop can be frguredout:

I
A- p = 1* v ' t 1- a t
z

-: ^ <or ,-L -- -, "q 1 . 1P a


1.008

Pressuredrop in the shaight pipe=15.1Pa

D(MI'ST 6A5 SY9IEM. P.U ' PdgE 13


WARTSILADIEStrL
POWEF PLAXTS

Atlertho boiler:
. Ap for 7m straight pipe, DN 1000,
eihaust,gasle'ipeiat"iJ igo; c ap for one 90" bend DN 1000

The single resistancecoeffrcientis 0.28 for a


First the exhaust gas density is calculated: 90'bend with a WD ratio 1.5, see frg 12.

p,= -+n = 0.?67s/m3 oo=I " u'.N tPal


\l+;;l
The exhaust gas velocity is then calculated: All other factors are known and can be put
into the formula:
13.5.4
0.767. n . 1.008" =|. o.tet . 222.0.28= s2 Pa

The friction coefficientis figuredout:


. k-factor= 0.05 Summory

" I The total pressuredrop in the exhaustgas


E= lnnA -
= U.Ulub system:
( 0 . 8 6 9l n l f f i r + 1 . 1 4 ) '
Pipesystem: 1|'.j +227.7+j3.5+52= 308 Pa
Now the pressure drop for the straight pipe Boiter: max. allowed j2OO pa
can be calculated:
Silencer: from page 4 500 Pa
slack from page }{ 62 Pa
to=i * ,t t * !1 zozoPu

=|. o.tat . zz' .0.0105. = rJ.5 pa


1j'--L

Thepressure
dropfor thestraightpipealter
the boiler = 13,5 Pa.

Poge | 4 EXHAUSI GAS S\6|EM - Pev. I


WABTSILADltrStrL
pLlXTS
POWEn

(stock)
4. CHIMNEY

4.l.Generol
The main functionofthe chimneyis to lead
the exhaustgasesto sucha height that the
emissionsmeasured for a specificarea are
accordingto the localregulations.

In installations with two or more engines


the exhaustgaspipesare led to a common
multi-pass chimney. Each engine rnust still
have an own exhaust gas pipe through the
chimney to prevent the exhaust gasesfrom
entering an engine not in operation.

Steel chimneys are to be lagged to avoid


that the temperature drops belov/ the dew
point ofSO2.The followingvaluescanbe
used when checking the tenperature drop

metal chimney0.3- 0.8" C/m without las-


g:ng (the higher value for lower velocitieE)
metal chimAey0.15"C/rnlagged(100mm).

The chimneys shall be provided with suit-


able protection against lightning and ob-
struction lights for aircraft accordiogto
regulationsset by localauthorities.Mainte-
nanceand inspectionofthe chimneysre-
l i
q0p
quire ladders and platforms with handrails.
Every level with obstruction lights shall be
provided \rith a maintenance platform ; i
aroundthe chimney.Ifthere are no lights a
restingplatform for every 10 ... 20 m is rec-
@
ommended. Figup 11.Exdmple ol chimnoy design

The ladderscanbe mountedinsideor out-


side the chimney.

oAS SW'EM . P.v. I


EXHAITSI Poge I5
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4.2.Chimney
height 4.4.Dtollcolculolionfol
exhqustgos chimney
Calculation ofthe chimney height is quite
complex.The parameters are many and
The formula for the drafl is made up of two
sometimes difhcult to get. The height ofthe
different parts. The frrst part considersthe
chimney has influence on spreading ofthe
difference between the arnbient air and ex-
emissions.The samequantity ofemissions
haust gas densitiesthat givesthe liRing ef-
from a powel plant can give different chim-
fect. The secondpart considersthe flow
ney heights dependent on where the plant is
resistance in the chimney. The difference
situated. E.g. a power plant nearby a tramc
between the two parts gives the draft. A
route or an industrial area requires a higher positive value shows that the lifting effect
chimney than a power plant far away from
is stronger than the flow resistance.
citiesand industries.The permittedemis-
sion values vary from country to country.
The draft is calculated according to formula:

1 . . 2 t, .Shd" +, Ly) n
^p=tpa ppv ns pc u ,
4.3.Exhquslgqs velocity t

The exhaust gas velocity in the chimney 4p = draft [Pa]


po = air density lkglmr] at actual temp.
shall be about 20 m/s. The inner diameter
ofthe the chimney influences the velocity on top ofthe chimney
= exhaust qas density [kg;/mo]
and the dralt. A higher velocity gives a bet-
= 9.81 [Ir/s1
ter self-cleaningofthe chimney but a poorer
draft due to a higher flow resistance. Ttre = chinney height [ml
= exhaust gas speed [m/s]
chimney is self-cleaningifthe exhaust gas
velocity exceedsI r/s. e = fiiction coefficient for the stack
d = stack inner diameter [m]
A higher exhaust gas velocity gives a more ( = sirgle resistance coefrcient
elEcient mixing ofthe exhaust gaseswith (straight pipe to air = 1)
the ambient air, thus reducing the fallout in
the environs ofthe power plant. The air density pa varies depending on the
ambient air conditions at site.
A normal value is 1.2 kg/m8 (20'C and
760 mmHg). Sepiandbooh for chargc air sys-
tem, chdpter 3 for more dctails.

The exhaust gas density pe can approxr-


malely be calculated with the following for-
mula:

'1 - ' t
2zJ'
exhaust gas density [kglrn3]
exhaust gas temperature ["C]

Poge 16 Exllausfaas sYsEM- Pov,I


WARTSILA
D|trstrL
FOWEi PLAT'S

Ttre friction coefficient ( is a function ofthe Dralt / pressuredrop in the chimney:


material, the dimension and the surface of
the inner pipe and is approximated accord-
ing to following formula: & = t p a - p et .t n " - i t u ; c'j+lel

------------
Pe=
(0.86s.h(1)+
1.142 -I + t 3 r
273'

{ = f iction coefficiem for the pipe material I ,l


of = pipeinnerdiameterfor th; ;him;eti-*l * = --L+n = 0.?67c / mB
* = a facrorfor the surlaceandthe material | + lffi)
of the oioe
m
tu m4
Material Factor k
A ^-.n..1'

Slainlesssteel 0.001,0.002
sl37 0.15- 0.4 13.5.4
0.?6? n 1.0082
Table 2. k-factor for different rnaterials
=22mls

(0.86e. ln (*) + 1.14)2


Exa.mple: 1
The draft of a chirnney to a 18V32engine = 0.0063
has to be checked. t0.869Inrffir + 1.1412
Q = 13.5k8/s at full load (seetechnicaldata).
lr = 350"Ctemperature afterturbo Ap= \12-07671 981 40-
(seetechnicaldata). O.E.0.767.222(0.0O6S;*l + rt
t2 = 190"Ctemperalureafter boiler I lrlrr{
d = 1008 mm (DN 1000 pipe)
u = exhaust gas speed,m/s Ap = 169.9-232 = -62.1 Pa
Chimney material: stainless steel
Chimney height: h" = 40 m Then the drafi is negative which means that
the flow resistance is higher than the lifiing
effect. Ifthe diameter for the chimney is
changedto DN 1100 the draft is positive
12.5 Pa and the velocity ofthe exhaust gas
will drop to 18.1 m/s.

A positive dlaft reduces the total pressure


drop in the exhaust gas systm. It must be
weighted against the lower exhaust gas ve-
locity and what that iovolves.

Seepage 16 Erhaust gas uelocity.

EXHAI,S| - P*. I
G.ASsvsIEM Poge | 7
APPEl{DIX

Handboolr
lor
Mechanical
Systems

WARTSILAtD[trSEL
POII'ER PLAI{TS
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