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Index

A splitting, 3335
stiffness, 27
AAG, 18 thermal conductivity, 218
AAK, 18 WMA, 206
AAM, 18 Asphalt cement (AC) system, 60
AASHTO T 313 BBR, precision Asphalt cements, 3, 37
statement, 187 historical tests, 3758
Absolute viscosity bath with tubes, 40 penetration tests, 45
Absolute viscosity tests, 3941 penetration-graded specification,
Accuracy, asphalt testing variability, 5960
185186 PG asphalt binder specification,
Aged residue (AR) system, 61 95118
Aging effect, 19 PG asphalt binder tests, 6494
Aging test, asphalt cements, 4950 phase angle, 68
RTFOT, 50`53 solubility test, 5658
TFOT, 50 specific gravity test, 58
Air-blown asphalt specification specifications, 5963
tests, 159 viscosity-graded specification, 6063
Air-blown asphalts, 7 Asphalt emulsions
overview, 151 breaking, 128129
properties, 154 classifications, 122124
roofing, 153 components, 124128
specifications, 158159 composition, 122
tests, 154158 curing, 128129
AIVV tube, 40 overview, 121122
American Society for Testing and production, 126128
Materials (ASTM), 3 types, 122124
Anionic asphalts, 122 uses, 121
Anti-stripping additives, 169 variables affecting quality, 129130
Antioxidants, as asphalt modifiers, 168 Asphalt fume, 182
Apparent viscosity graph, 44 Asphalt modification
Apparent viscosity tests, 4345 additives, 169
Asphalt binder grade selection, modifiers, 163169
109114 overview, 161
Asphalt binder tests Asphalt particles, in emulsion, 128
variability, 187191 Asphalt sample configuration, 73
Asphalt binders, 3 Asphaltic bitumen, 3
compaction temperatures, 207213 Asphalts
heating, 3335 air-blown, 151159
HMA, 206 behavior, 2530
laboratory mixing, 207213 definition, 3
mixing temperatures, 205206 emulsions, 121129
sampling, 3133 modification, 161177
shear rate changes, 26 natural, 45

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petroleum, 69 DSR calculations, 76
physical properties, 2324 DSR creep-recovery test, 176177
production/processing methods, 7 DSR operation, 69
rheology, 201204 DSR phase angle test, 174176
safety, 179182 DTT. See direct tension tester
testing variability, 183195 Ductility test, asphalt cements, 5356
usage, 1011 Dynamic shear rheometer, 6777
ASTM. See air-blown asphalt
specification tests
Atmospheric distillation, 6
E
Elastic modification, 164166
B Elastic recovery test, 171
Elastomers, 164166
BBR. See bending beam rheometer Emulsifications, 122
BBR mold, 79 Emulsifying agents, 125126
Bending beam rheometer, 7783 Emulsifying plant, schematic, 127
Bias, asphalt testing variability, Emulsion components
185186 asphalt, 124125
Bitumen, 3 emulsifying agents, 125126
BTU value, 218 water, 125
Bulb, 39 ER specimens cut, 173
ER specimens recover, 173
C ER test operation, 172
ER test specimen, 172
Cationic asphalts, 122 Excessive aging, PG specification, 101
Chemical modification, 167168 Extenders, 168
Cleveland Open Cup (COC), flash
point test, 4749
COC flash, 49
F
COC manual operation, 48 Fatigue cracking, PG specification, 102
COC test. See Cleveland Open Cup FD output, 175
(COC), flash point test FD test operation, 174
Continuous grade, 108 Force ductility test, 171174
Creep-recovery response, 116 Functional groups
Critical temperature, 107, 108 oxidation, 1718
CRM. See crumb rubber modification polarity, 17
Cross-arm viscosity tube, 41 Fundamental vs. empirical
Crude selection, 89 properties, 30
Crumb rubber modification, 166167
G
D Grade bumping, 114115
Dampproofing, 154 Grade classification, 106, 107
Deformation, PG specification, 100 Grade verification, 105, 106
Density, 214
Direct tension tester, 8491
Dispute resolution flow chart, 195
H
Dispute resolution, testing variability, Handling, PG specification, 99
187195 Historical tests, asphalt cements, 3758
Distillation products, 9 HMA. See hot-mix asphalt
DSR. See dynamic shear rheometer Hot plate heating, 34

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Hot-mix asphalt, 206 Mopping asphalts, 154
Hydrocarbons, 168169 MSCR elastic behavior, 177
MSCR recovery calculation, 176
K MSCR test. See multiple stress creep
recovery test
Kinematic viscosity bath with tubes, 42 Multiple stress creep recovery
Kinematic viscosity tests, 4143 test, 115118

L N
Lake asphalts, 4 Natural asphalt, 45
Long-term stiffness, PG Non-recoverable strain, 117
specification, 101 Nonionic asphalts, 122
Loss on heating test, 157158
O
M Ointment tubes, 169170
Mastercurve, 201203. See also Oxidants, as asphalt modifiers, 168
rheology, asphalt Oxidation, 1718
Mastercurve G*, and phase angle, 203
Mastercurve isotherms, 203
Mastercurve parameters, 204
P
Mixed modification, 167 PAHs. See polynuclear aromatic
Mixing and compaction temperature hydrocarbons
determination, phase angle Particle size distribution, TLA
procedure, 212 composition, 5
Modified asphalt binders, tests for PAV pans, 93
centrifuge, 170 Pen-Vis correlation for MRL asphalt
DSR creep-recovery, 176177 binders, 63
DSR phase angle, 174176 Penetration grading, 60
elastic recovery, 171 Penetration test, 157
force ductility, 171174 asphalt cements, 45
ointment tubes, 169170 Penetration-graded specification,
recovery and stress-strain tests, asphalt cements, 5960
170171 Penetrometer, 46
separation tests, 169170 Performance graded asphalt
solubility, 170 binder tests
toughness and tenacity, 174 aging procedure, 9194
Modifiers, asphalts bending beam rheometer, 7783
antioxidants, 168 direct tension tester, 8491
chemical modification, 167168 dynamic shear rheometer, 6777
crumb rubber modification, 166167 rotational viscometer, 6467
elastic modification, 164166 Petroleum asphalt, 69
elastomers, 164166 crude selection, 89
extenders, 168 petroleum refining, 68
hydrocarbons, 168169 production, 8
mixed modification, 167 Petroleum refining, 6
oxidants, 168 PG asphalt binder specification, 95118
plastic modification, 166 PG binder tests
plastomers, 166 with aging, 95
Mold preparation and pouring, 55 with temperature, 98

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PG specifications table, 96 SBS blending system, for asphalt
Phase angle procedure, 211 terminals, 165
Phase angle, asphalt cements, 68 SBS pellets, 165
Physical hardening effect, 30 Scraping, 93
Physical properties Scraping RTFO residue, into
consistency, 23 container, 54
handling, 35 Scraping tool, 54
purity, 23 Separation tests, 169170
safety, 24 Shear modulus, asphalt cements, 68
storage, 35 SHRP. See Strategic Highway Research
Plastic modification, 166 Program
Plastomers, 166 Silicone mold, 71
Polarity, 17 Size exclusion chromatogram, 18
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 19 Solubility crucibles, 58
Pouring absolute viscosity tubes, 40 Solubility test, 170
Precision statement, for AASHTO T asphalt cements, 5658
313 BBR, 187 Solubility use, in asphalt specifications,
Precision, asphalt testing variability, 199200
185186 SP apparatus, 156
Pumping, PG specification, 99 Specific gravity, 214
Specific gravity calculations, 215216
R Specific gravity pycnometers, 58
Specific gravity test, asphalt
Rancho LaBrea, 5 cements, 58
Recovery and stress-strain tests, Specific heat, 218
170171 SSF. See steady shear flow procedure
Residuum content, of crude oils, 9 Standard emulsified asphalt grades, 124
Rheological properties, of angles, 204 Steady shear flow procedure, 211213
Rheology, asphalt, 201204 Storage temperatures, 181182
Ring and ball softening point, 157 Strategic Highway Research Program, 17
Ring-and-ball softening point test,
154157
Rolling Thin-Film Oven Test, 5053
T
Roofing, air-blown asphalts, 153 T&T equipment and operation, 175
Rotational viscometer, 6467 T&T output, 176
Rotational viscosity test, 158 Tank measurements, 216217
RTFOT. See Rolling Thin-Film Oven Test Temperature-viscosity example,
Rutting, 100 for mixing and compaction
RV. See rotational viscometer temperatures, 208
Temperature-viscosity graph, 210
S Temperature-volume relationships
calculations, 214215
Safe handling, asphalts density, 214
asphalt fume, 182 specific gravity, 214
storage temperatures, 181182 tank measurements, 216217
Safety Testing variability
overview, 179 asphalt binder tests, 187191
PG specification, 99 dispute resolution, 187195
safe handling, 181182 overview, 183
SBR latex modification, of hot asphalt repeatability, 185186
cement, 164 reproducibility, 185186

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TFOT. See Thin-Film Oven Test Viscosity grading, 62
Thermal conductivity, of asphalt Viscosity procedure, 207210
binders, 218 Viscosity tests, asphalt cements
Thermal cracking, PG absolute viscosity tests, 3941
specification, 101104 apparent viscosity tests, 4345
Thermal effects, 28 kinematic viscosity tests, 4143
Thin-Film Oven Test, 50 Viscosity vs. SSF procedure, 213
Time-temperature superposition, 25 Viscosity-graded specification, asphalt
TLA. See Trinidad Lake asphalts cements, 6063
TLA composition, and particle size
distribution, 5
Toughness and tenacity test, 174
W
Trimming ductility specimen, 55 Warm-mix asphalt, 206
Trinidad Lake asphalts, 45 Water, 125
Waterproofing, 154
U WMA. See warm-mix asphalt

Undersealing, 154

V
Vapor pressure, storage
temperatures, 218
Variability, in asphalt binder tests,
187191
Viscosity comparison, phase angle
procedure, 213

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