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D.7 Oil Compressibility Oil compressibility is required to predict oil formation volume factors of undersaturated
D.7
Oil Compressibility
Oil compressibility is required to predict oil formation volume factors of
undersaturated crude oils. Additionally, it is also needed to calculate oil
density at different pressures and temperatures.
Vasquez and Beggs' correlation 3
(D-21)
where T is in 0 F, p is in psi, and R SD is the solution gas-oil ratio at bubble-
point pressure in scf/stb.
Example D-4
Calculating Oil Compressibility
For the oil described in Example D-I , calculate the oil compressibility
and hence the oil formation volume factor
at 3000 psia. The following data
are given: p b = 2700 psia, R sb = 600 scf/stb, j g = 0.75, 7^ 7 = BO 0 API,
T = 250 0 F, B 0 = 1.331rb/stb.
Solution The oil compressibility and formation volume factor are calcu-
lated using Eqs. D-21 and D-12, respectively.
oil formation volume factor at p D , rb/stb
Example D-5 Determining Oil Formation Volume Factor
Determine the oil formation volume factor, FVF, of oil with the following
properties using Standing's, and Vasquez and Beggs' correlations:
p b = 2100 psia,
R sb = 600 scf/stb,
= 0.75,
*f API = 30 0 API,
T = 250 0 F,
7 g
Ps= 14.7 psia, r , = 70 0 F.
Solution
1. Standing's Correlation: 1 From Figure D-4, B 0 = 1.380 bbl/stb
2. Vasquez and Beggs' Correlation: 3 ^ gc = j g = 0.75
D.8 Reservoir Rock Properties Naturally occurring reservoir rocks contain fluid, water, gas, or a combination
D.8
Reservoir Rock Properties
Naturally occurring reservoir rocks contain fluid, water, gas, or a
combination of these fluids. The petroleum engineer is obviously con-
cerned with the properties of reservoir rocks. These properties constitute
a set of fundamental parameters by which the rock can be quantitatively
described.
Formation Compressibility
Formation compressibility c/ in most cases is estimated from the correla-
tion developed by Hall presented as Eq. D-22 and Table D-3 below: 7
(D-22)
where cj) is the formation porosity in fraction
and c/ the formation
1
isothermal compressibility in psi"
.
Total isothermal compressibility above dew point pressure:
(D-23)
Table D-3
Formation Compressibility as
Function of Formation Porosity
Porosity (%)
c f x lO^psi 1 )
2
9.48
4
7.11
6
6.01
8
5.33
10
4.86
12
4.51
14
4.23
16
4.00
18
3.81
20
3.65
22
3.51
24
3.38
Total isothermal compressibility below dew point pressure: (D-24) Effective compressibility above dew point pressure:
Total isothermal compressibility below dew point pressure:
(D-24)
Effective compressibility above dew point pressure:
(D-25)
D.9
Reservoir PVT Water Properties
This section presents Tables D-4 through D-IO for computing reser-
voir formation PVT properties such as gas solubility and then compres-
sibility, formation volume factor, density, and density gradient both for
gas-free and gas-saturated conditions. Viscosity is calculated, which is
gas-free. The author of this book using the data supplied by previous
14
authors 8 " 13 developed the graphical and empirical correlations.
New
tables showing water PVT properties as functions of pressure, tempera-
ture, and total dissolved solids are presented, which improve accuracy of
prediction and save time.
Tables D ^
properties:
through D-IO show the following formation water PVT
1. [Cw] Formation water compressibility - gas-free
2. Formation water compressibility - gas-saturated
3. [RS W] Gas solubility in brine
4. [FVF] Water formation volume factor - gas-free
5. Water formation volume factor - gas-saturated
6. Formation water density - gas-free
7. Formation water density - gas-saturated
8. Density gradient - gas-free
9. Density gradient - gas-saturated
10. Water viscosity - gas-free
Table D-4 Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties 14 (reservoir temperature, T = 100 0 F
Table
D-4
Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties 14 (reservoir temperature, T = 100 0 F and total dissolved solids, TDS = 0.10; base
pressure, p sc = 14.70 psia; base temperature, T sc = 60 0 F; specific gravity, Sp. Gr. = 1.721; density of pure water at standard
conditions = 62.42 lb/ft 3 ; density of brine water at standard conditions = 66.92 lb/ft 3 )
Gas-free conditions
Pressure
Compressibility
RSW
(ft 3 /bbl)
Density
(lb/ft 3 )
Sp. Gr.
(air = 1.000)
Gradient
Viscosity
(psia)
FVF (bbl/bbl)
(psi/ft)
(cP)
8000
0.210535E-05
0.9814
20.11
68.1923
1.0924
0.4736
0.9218
7000
0.220900E-05
0.9843
17.96
67.9884
1.0892
0.4722
0.9231
6000
0.227536E-05
0.9876
15.94
67.7648
1.0856
0.4706
0.9235
5500
0.230103E-05
0.9892
14.97
67.6495
1.0837
0.4698
0.9234
5000
0.232466E-O5
0.9909
14.03
67.5334
1.0819
0.4690
0.9233
4500
0.234816E-05
0.9926
13.10
67.4177
1.0800
0.4682
0.9231
4000
0.237318E-05
0.9943
12.15
67.3030
1.0782
0.4674
0.9230
3500
0.240115E-05
0.9960
11.18
67.1900
1.0764
0.4666
0.9228
3000
0.243322E-05
0.9977
10.14
67.0792
1.0746
0.4658
0.9226
2500
0.247034E-05
0.9993
9.02
66.9708
1.0729
0.4651
0.9225
2000
0.251315E-O5
1.0009
7.77
66.8648
1.0712
0.4644
0.9225
1500
0.256211E-05
1.0024
6.35
66.7612
1.0695
0.4636
0.9224
1000
0.261738E-O5
1.0039
4.74
66.6597
1.0679
0.4629
0.9224
750
0.264737E-05
1.0047
3.84
66.6096
1.0671
0.4626
0.9224
500
0.267889E-O5
1.0054
2.87
66.5599
1.0663
0.4622
0.9223
250
0.271191E-05
1.0062
1.82
66.5104
1.0655
0.4619
0.9223
15
0.274424E-05
1.0069
0.76
66.4641
1.0648
0.4616
0.9223
Table D-4 (continued) Gas-saturated conditions Pressure Compressibility RSW FVF (bbl/bbl) Density (lb/ft 3 ) Sp.
Table D-4
(continued)
Gas-saturated conditions
Pressure
Compressibility
RSW
FVF (bbl/bbl)
Density
(lb/ft 3 )
Sp. Gr.
Gradient
Viscosity
(psia)
(psi-
1 )
(ft 3 /bbl)
(air =1.000)
(psi/ft)
(cP)
8000
0.253267E-05
0.9921
35.35
67.4558 1.0806
0.4685
7000
0.255487E-05
0.9941
31.56
67.3182 1.0784
0.4675
6000
0.257268E-O5
0.9959
28.01
67.1968 1.0765
0.4667
5500
0.258336E-O5
0.9968
26.32
67.1383 1.0756
0.4663
5000
0.259601E-O5
0.9976
24.66
67.0800 1.0746
0.4658
4500
0.21080E-05
0.9985
23.02
67.0209 1.0737
0.4654
4000
0.262766E-05
0.9994
21.36
66.9606 1.0727
0.4650
3500
0.264828E-05
1.0003
19.64
66.8989 1.0717
0.4646
3000
0.266612E-05
1.0013
17.82
66.8358 1.0707
0.4642
2500
0.268637E-05
1.0023
15.84
66.7714 1.0680
0.4637
2000
0.270598E-05
1.0032
13.65
66.7064 1.0686
0.4633
1500
0.272354E-05
1.0042
11.17
66.6415 1.0676
0.4628
1000
0.273737E-O5
1.0052
8.33
66.5777 1.0666
0.4624
750
0.274227E-05
1.0056
6.74
66.5467 1.0661
0.4621
500
0.274545E-05
1.0061
5.04
66.5163 1.0656
0.4619
250
0.274562E-05
1.0065
3.20
66.4870 1.0651
0.4617
15
0.274561E-05
1.0069
1.34
66.4605 1.0647
0.4615
Table D-5 Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties 14 (reservoir temperature, T = 100 0 F
Table
D-5
Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties 14 (reservoir temperature, T = 100 0 F and total dissolved solids, TDS = 0.20; base
pressure, p sc = 14.70 psia; base temperature, T sc = 60 0 F; specific gravity, Sp. Gr. = 1.1311; density of pure water at standard
conditions = 62.42 lb/ft 3 ; density of brine water at standard conditions = 70.61 lb/ft 3 )
Gas-free conditions
Pressure
Compressibility
(psi 1 )
RSW
Density
Sp. Gr.
Gradient
Viscosity
(psia)
FVF (bbl/bbl)
(ft
3 /bbl)
(lb/ft 3 )
(air =1.000)
(psi/ft)
(cP)
8000
0.194705E-05
0.9886
12.43
71.4250
1.1442
0.4960
1.0574
7000
0.201171E-05
0.9912
11.09
71.2309
1.1411
0.4947
1.0600
6000
0.204519E-O5
0.9940
9.85
71.0330
1.1379
0.4933
1.0607
5500
0.205627E-05
0.9954
9.25
70.9333
1.1363
0.4926
1.0606
5000
0.206628E-05
0.9968
8.67
70.8336
1.1348
0.4919
1.0604
4500
0.207698E-05
0.9982
8.09
70.7342
1.1332
0.4912
1.0601
4000
0.208983E-05
0.9996
7.51
70.6352
1.1316
0.4905 1.0597
3500
0.210608E-05
1.0010
6.90
70.5369
1.1300
0.4909 1.0594
3000
0.212672E-05
1.0024
6.26
70.4397
1.1284
0.4892 1.0591
2500
0.215249E-05
1.0038
5.57
70.3436
1.1269
0.4885 1.0589
2000
0.218389E-05
1.0051
4.80
70.2489
1.1254
0.4879
1.0587
1500
0.222116E-05
1.0064
3.93
70.1558
1.1239
0.4872 1.0586
1000
0.226432E-05
1.0071
2.93
70.0646
1.1224
0.4866 1.0585
750
0.228803E-05
1.0084
2.37
70.0197
1.1217
0.4863 1.0585
500
O.23131OE-O5
1.0090
1.77
69.9753
1.1210
0.4860 1.0585
250
0.233946E-05
0.4856
1.0097
1.12
69.9315
1.1203
1.0584
15
0.236534E-05
0.4854
1.0130
0.47
69.8907
1.1196
1.0583
Table D-5 (continued) Gas-saturated conditions Pressure Compressibility (psi 1 ) RSW Density Sp. Gr. Gradient
Table D-5
(continued)
Gas-saturated conditions
Pressure
Compressibility
(psi 1 )
RSW
Density
Sp. Gr.
Gradient
Viscosity
(psia)
FVF (bbl/bbl)
(ft
3 /bbl)
(lb/ft 3 )
(air =1.000)
(psi/ft)
(cP)
8000
0.219652E-05
0.9952
35.35
70.9499
1.1366
0.4927
7000
0.219763E-05
0.9973
31.56
70.7986
1.1342
0.4917
6000
0.219689E-05
0.9992
28.01
70.6663
1.1321
0.4908
5500
0.219866E-05
1.0001
26.32
70.6033
1.1311
0.4903
5000
0.220264E-05
1.0009
24.66
70.5408
1.1301
0.4899
4500
0.220914E-05
1.0018
23.02
70.4778
1.1291
0.4894
4000
0.221830E-05
1.0027
21.36
70.4140
1.1280
0.4890
3500
0.223008E-05
1.0037
19.64
70.3488
1.1270
0.4885
3000
0.224427E-05
1.0046
17.82
70.2823
1.1259
0.4881
2500
0.226042E-05
1.0056
15.84
70.2147
1.1248
0.4876
2000
0.227790E-05
1.0066
13.65
70.1465
1.1237
0.4871
1500
0.229580E-05
1.0076
11.17
70.0784
1.1227
0.4867
1000
0.231300E-05
1.0085
8.33
70.0115
1.1216
0.4862
750
0.232091E-O5
1.0090
6.74
69.9789
1.1211
0.4860
500
0.232810E-05
1.0094
5.04
69.9471
1.1206
0.4858
250
0.233436E-05
1.0099
3.20
69.9163
1.1201
0.4855
15
0.233920E-05
1.0103
1.34
69.8884
1.1196
0.4854
Table D-6 Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties 14 (reservoir temperature, T — 100 0 F
Table
D-6
Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties 14 (reservoir temperature, T — 100 0 F and total dissolved solids, TDS = 0.30; base
pressure, p sc = 14.70 psia; base temperature, T sc = 60 0 F; specific gravity, Sp. Gr. = 1.1690; density of pure water at standard
conditions = 62.42 lb/ft 3 ; density of brine water at standard conditions = 72.97 lb/ft 3 )
Gas-free conditions
Pressure
Compressibility
(psi 1 )
RSW
Density
(ft 3 /bbl)
Sp. Gr.
Gradient
Viscosity
(psia)
FVF(bbl/bbl)
(lb/ft 3 )(air-1.000)
(psi/ft)
(cP)
8000
0.161694 0.9902
7.06
73.6941
1.1806
0.5118
1.2172
7000
0.169788 0.9927
6.30
73.5047
1.1775
0.5105
1.2213
6000
0.174782 0.9952
5.59
73.3239
1.1746
0.5092
1.2224
5500
0.176674 0.9964
5.25
73.2351
1.1732
0.5086
1.2222
5000
0.178413 0.9976
4.92
73.1470
1.1718
0.5080
1.2219
4500
0.180151 0.9988
4.60
73.0592
1.1704
0.5074
1.2213
4000
0.182022 1.0000
4.26
72.9714
1.1690
0.5068
1.2208
3500
0.184130 1.0012
3.92
72.8838
1.1676
0.5062
1.2202
3000
0.186556 1.0024
3.56
72.7963
1.1662
0.5055
1.2198
2500
0.189357 1.0036
3.16
72.7092
1.1648
0.5049
1.2194
2000
0.192565 1.0048
2.72
72.6227
1.1634
0.5043
1.2192
1500
0.196187 1.0060
2.23
72.5372
1.1620
0.5037
1.2190
1000
0.200205 1.0071
1.66
72.4533
1.1607
0.5032
1.2189
750
0.202350 1.0077
1.35
72.4122
1.1600
0.5029
1.2189
500
0.204577 1.0083
1.01
72.3716
1.1594
0.5026
1.2188
250
0.206875 1.0088
0.64
72.3318
1.1588
0.5023
1.2187
15
0.209092 1.0093
0.27
72.2951
1.1582
0.5021
1.2186
Table D-6 (continued) Gas-saturated conditions Pressure RSW (psia) Compressibility (psi 1 ) Density Sp. Gr.
Table D-6
(continued)
Gas-saturated conditions
Pressure
RSW
(psia)
Compressibility
(psi 1 )
Density
Sp. Gr.
Gradient
Viscosity
FVF (bbl/bbl)
(ft
3 /bbl)
(lb/ft 3 )
(air = 1.000)
(psi/ft)
(cP)
8000
0.174606E-05
0.9939
35.35
73.4153
1.1761
0.5098
7000
0.178667E-05
0.9961
31.56
73.2510
1.1735
0.5087
6000
0.181628E-O5
0.9981
28.01
73.1087
1.1712
0.5077
5500
0.183038E-05
0.9990
26.32
73.0414
1.1701
0.5072
5000
0.184514E-05
0.9999
24.66
72.9751
1.1691
0.5068
4500
0.186110E-05
1.0008
23.02
72.9096
1.1680
0.5063
4000
0.187865E-05
1.0017
21.36
72.8415
1.1669
0.5059
3500
0.189794E-O5
1.0027
19.64
72.7732
1.1658
0.5054
3000
0.191899E-05
1.0036
17.82
72.7038
1.1647
0.5049
2500
0.194158E-05
1.0046
15.84
72.6334
1.1636
0.5044
2000
0.196533E-05
1.0056
13.65
72.5625
1.1624
0.5039
1500
0.198963E-05
1.0066
11.17
72.4917
1.1613
0.5034
1000
0.201368E-05
1.0076
8.33
72.4221
1.1602
0.5029
750
0.202532E-05
1.0080
6.74
72.3882
1.1597
0.5027
500
0.203651E-05
1.0086
5.04
72.3550
1.1591
0.5025
250
0.204712E-05
1.0089
3.20
72.3229
1.1586
0.5023
15
0.205642E-O5
1.0093
1.34
0.5021
72.2938
1.1581
Table D-7 Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties 14 (reservoir temperature, T = 200 0 F
Table D-7
Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties 14 (reservoir temperature, T = 200 0 F and total dissolved solids, TDS = 0.10; base
pressure,/^ = 14.70 psia; base temperature, T sc — 60 0 F; specific gravity, Sp. Gr. = 1.0721; density of pure water at standard
conditions = 62.42 lb/ft 3 ; density of brine water at standard conditions = 66.92 lb/ft 3 )
Gas-free conditions
Pressure
(psia)
Compressibility
(psi 1 )
RSW
Gradient
Viscosity
FVF (bbl/bbl)
(ftVbbl)
Density
(lb/ft 3 )
Sp. Gr.
(air = 1.000)
(psi/ft)
(cP)
8000
9.230275E-05
1.0099
40.59
66.2674 1.0616
0.4602 0.3695
7000
0.240640E-05
1.0133
33.47
66.0404 1.0580
0.4586 0.3599
6000
0.247276E-O5
1.0168
27.13
65.8152 1.0544
0.4571 0.3699
5500
0.249844E-05
1.0186
24.27
65.7054 1.0526
0.4563 0.3698
5000
0.252207E-05
1.0202
21.59
65.5980 1.0509
0.4556 0.3697
4500
0.254556E-05
1.0218
19.10
65.4932 1.0492
0.4548 0.3695
4000
0.257058E-05
1.0234
16.77
65.3908 1.0476
0.4541 0.3694
3500
0.259855E-05
1.0250
14.59
65.2906 1.0460
0.4534 0.3693
3000
0.263063E-05
1.0286
12.52
65.1920 1.0444
0.4527 0.3692
2500
0.266774E-05
1.0281
10.54
66.0941 1.0428
0.4521 0.3691
2000
0.271056E-05
1.0296
8.61
64.9952 1.0412
0.4514 0.3690
1500
0.275951E-05
1.0312
6.69
64.8958 1.0396
0.4507 0.3690
1000
0.281478E-05
1.0328
4.73
64.7945 1.0380
0.4500 0.3690
750
0.284477E-05
1.0337
3.73
64.7418 1.0372
0.4496 0.3689
500
0.287629E-O5
1.0346
2.69
64.6877 1.0363
0.5592 0.3689
250
0.290931E-05
1.0354
1.61
64.6321 1.0354
0.4488 0.3689
15
0.294164E-05
1.0363
0.57
64.5781 1.0345
0.4485 0.3689