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A trade sale is the sale of a business, or part of the business, to another business.

Trade sales are a

common form of exit for a companys management and investors. The acquiring company often makes a
strategic decision to purchase the company to acquire the underlying intellectual property owned by, or
the market share captured by, the company it is purchasing.

Industrial selling is a mystery to many executives. A tremendous amount of effort, thought, and
interpersonal strength goes into a successful sales campaign, which begins with an approach to one
purchasing agent and ends with a whole companys commitment to buy.

Service selling enables targeted, service and customer oriented development of the customer potential
(pre-existent in the market). It is important to understand the customer needs and find an optimal way
to match their needs to offers, ideally consisting of standardized service modules. Providing the right
market performance is the foundation, but by no means a guarantee for success. Service selling requires
a powerful organization to establish a successful market output with the customers.

Employee Selection is the process of putting right men on right job. It is a procedure of matching
organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people. Effective selection can be done
only when there is effective matching. By selecting best candidate for the required job, the organization
will get quality performance of employees. Moreover, organization will face less of absenteeism and
employee turnover problems. By selecting right candidate for the required job, organization will also save
time and money. Proper screening of candidates takes place during selection procedure. All the potential
candidates who apply for the given job are tested.

The Employee selection Process takes place in following order-

1. Preliminary Interviews- It is used to eliminate those candidates who do not meet the minimum
eligiblity criteria laid down by the organization. The skills, academic and family background,
competencies and interests of the candidate are examined during preliminary interview.
Preliminary interviews are less formalized and planned than the final interviews. The candidates
are given a brief up about the company and the job profile; and it is also examined how much the
candidate knows about the company. Preliminary interviews are also called screening interviews.
2. Application blanks- The candidates who clear the preliminary interview are required to fill
application blank. It contains data record of the candidates such as details about age,
qualifications, reason for leaving previous job, experience, etc.
3. Written Tests- Various written tests conducted during selection procedure are aptitude test,
intelligence test, reasoning test, personality test, etc. These tests are used to objectively assess
the potential candidate. They should not be biased.
4. Employment Interviews- It is a one to one interaction between the interviewer and the potential
candidate. It is used to find whether the candidate is best suited for the required job or not. But
such interviews consume time and money both. Moreover the competencies of the candidate
cannot be judged. Such interviews may be biased at times. Such interviews should be conducted
properly. No distractions should be there in room. There should be an honest communication
between candidate and interviewer.
5. Medical examination- Medical tests are conducted to ensure physical fitness of the potential
employee. It will decrease chances of employee absenteeism.
6. Appointment Letter- A reference check is made about the candidate selected and then finally he
is appointed by giving a formal appointment letter.

Performance Appraisal is the systematic evaluation of the performance of employees and to understand
the abilities of a person for further growth and development. Performance appraisal is generally done in
systematic ways which are as follows:

1. The supervisors measure the pay of employees and compare it with targets and plans.
2. The supervisor analyses the factors behind work performances of employees.
3. The employers are in position to guide the employees for a better performance.


An organizational structure that facilitates the horizontal flow of skills and information. It is used
mainly in the management of large projects or product development processes, drawing employees
from different functional disciplines for assignment to a team without removing them from their
respective positions.
Employees in a matrix organization report on day-to-day performance to the project or product
manager whose authority flows sideways (horizontally) across departmental boundaries. They also
continue to report on their overall performance to the head of their department whose authority flows
downwards (vertically) within his or her department.

We all know, that sugary snacks and drinks are bad for health, but ads for Pepsi and
Coca-Cola dont talk about fat, calories, and diabetes. Rather they focus is on youth,
vitality, and good times. Chocolate is associated with luxury, indulgence, and sensuality.
And other positive emotions are used to sell everything from laundry soap to video
games, mayonnaise, and life insurance. the goal of marketers everywhere is to tap into
the emotions of consumers in order to make sales!
Emotions are the primary reason why consumers prefer brand name products. After all,
many of the products we buy are available as generic and store brands with the same
ingredients and at cheaper prices. Why do we decide to pay more for brand name

A nationally advertised brand has power in the marketplace because it creates an

emotional connection to the consumer. A brand is nothing more than a mental
representation of a product in the consumers mind. If the representation consists only
of the products attributes, features, and other information, there are no emotional links
to influence consumer preference and action. The richer the emotional content of a
brands mental representation, the more likely the consumer will be a loyal user.

While emotion can be communicated effectively in a print ad or television commercial,

there are other important components of a brand which have emotional dimensions

the most important characteristic of emotions is that they push us toward action. In
response to an emotion, humans are compelled to do something. In a physical
confrontation, fear forces us to chose between fight or flight to insure our self-
preservation. In our daily social confrontations, insecurity may cause us to buy the latest
iPhone to support our positive self-identity.

Over time, marketers have developed theories about why consumers buy. Most of these
err by viewing the consumer through the lens of the product. Marketers start with the
features and benefits of a product and conduct consumer research to find matching
needs and motivations. More recently, Internet and digital media companies added a
new layer of suppositions to explain and predict consumer behavior. Their approach
views the consumer through the lens of digital technology. However, they misinterpret
data about the activity of online users as being a valid insight into the
consumer decision-makingprocess.

Consumers do not have a Pavlovian response to products and to their marketing

programs. Nor do the fundamentals of consumer behavior change to accommodate the
latest innovation in digital technology.

An understanding of consumer purchase behavior must be based on knowledge of

human emotion and include the paramount influence that emotions have on decision-

A good example of personal selling is found in department stores on the perfume and
cosmetic counters. A customer can get advice on how to apply the product and can try
different products. Products with relatively high prices, or with complex features, are
often sold using personal selling. Great examples include cars, office equipment (e.g.
photocopiers) and many products that are sold by businesses to other industrial