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History of the Philippines (15211898)

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History of the Philippines

Prehistory (pre-900)

Paleolithic age

Awidon Mesa Formation

Callao Limestone Formation

Neolithic age

Callao and Tabon peoples

Arrival of the Negritos
Austronesian expansion
Angono Petroglyphs
Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens
Jade culture

Iron age

Sa Huyun Culture
Society of the Igorot
Ancient barangays

grave goods
Manunggul Jar
Prehistoric gems
Sa Huyun-Kalanay Complex
Maitum Anthropomorphic Pottery

Archaic epoch (9001521)


Zabag kingdom
Ten Bornean Datus

Hindu-Buddhist Kingdoms

Kingdom of Tondo
Kingdom of Namayan
Rajahnate of Butuan
Kedatuan of Madja-as
Rajahnate of Cebu

Sinified Nations


Animist States

Samtoy chieftaincy
Chiefdom of Taytay
Kedatuan of Dapitan

Muslim Sultanates
Kingdom of Maynila (Vassal of the Brunei Sultanate)
Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Maguindanao
Lanao confederacy


Laguna Copperplate Inscription - c.900 AD.
Butuan Ivory Seal
Limestone tombs
Batanes citadels
Golden Tara
Gold Kinnara
Ticao Stone Inscriptions
Butuan Silver Paleograph
Buddhist art
Majapahit conflict - 1365
Brunei War 1500

Colonial period (15211946)

Spanish era

Battle of Mactan
Spanish capture of Manila
New Spain
Captaincy General
Spanish East Indies
Manila galleon
Revolts and uprisings
Chinese invasion
Castilian War
Sulu Sea pirates
Doctrina Christiana
Dutch invasions
Brunei Civil War
Bohol secession
British Invasion
Florante at Laura
Propaganda Movement
Noli me tangere
La Solidaridad
El filibusterismo
La Liga Filipina
Philippine Revolution
SpanishAmerican War
American capture of Manila
Declaration of Independence
First Republic
PhilippineAmerican War

American colonial period

Tagalog Republic
Negros Republic
Zamboanga Republic
Moro Rebellion
Insular Government
"Bayan Ko"
Japanese occupation
Second Republic
Destruction of Manila

Post-colonial period (19461986)

Treaty of Manila
Third Republic
Cold War
Hukbalahap Rebellion
Bandung Conference
North Borneo dispute
Marcos dictatorship
ASEAN Declaration
CPPNPANDF rebellion
Moro Conflict
Spratly islands dispute
Vietnamese boat people

Contemporary history (1986present)

People Power Revolution

198690 coup attempts
Pinatubo eruption
1997 Asian financial crisis
Second EDSA Revolution
War on Terror
South China Sea disputes
Philippine Drug War

By topic
Ancient religions
List of Queen consorts
Military History
Science and technology


Philippines portal


Part of a series on the

History of New Spain

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatn
Spanish conquest of Petn
Spanish conquest of the Maya
Columbian Exchange
History of the Philippines (15211898)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Spanish missions in the Americas
Queen Anne's War
Bourbon Reforms
SpanishMoro conflict
Spanish American wars of independence

New Spain portal


The history of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898, also known as the Spanish Colonial
Times, begins with the arrival in 1521 of European explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailing for Spain,
which heralded the period when the Philippines was a colony of the Spanish Empire, and ends with
the outbreak of the SpanishAmerican War in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American
Colonial Era of Philippine history.


1Spanish expeditions and colonization

2Spanish control
o 2.1Political system
2.1.1National government
2.1.2Provincial government
2.1.3Municipal government
2.1.4Barrio government
2.1.5The Residencia and the Visita
2.1.6Maura law
o 2.2Economy
2.2.1Manila-Acapulco galleon trade
2.2.2Royal Society of Friends of the Country
2.2.3Royal Company of the Philippines
3Dutch attacks
4British invasion
5Resistance against Spanish rule
o 5.1Early resistance
o 5.2The opening of the Philippines to world trade
o 5.3Rise of Filipino nationalism
o 5.4Rise of Spanish liberalism
o 5.5Freemasonry
o 5.6Illustrados, Rizal and Katipunan
6The Philippine Revolution
7The SpanishAmerican War
10External links

Spanish expeditions and colonization[edit]

Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines on March 16, 1521. When European traders in search for a new
route to the Spice Islands, stumbled into the Philippines.

Although the archipelago may have been visited before by the Portuguese (who conquered Malacca
City in 1511 and reached Maluku Islands in 1512 ), the earliest documented European expedition to
the Philippines was that led by Ferdinand Magellan, in the service of the king of Spain. The
expedition first sighted the mountains of
Battle of Mactan

Samar at dawn on the 16th March 1521, making landfall the following day at the small, uninhabited
island of Homonhon at the mouth of the Leyte Gulf.[1] On Easter Sunday, 31 March 1521, at
Limasawa Island, Southern Leyte, as is stated in Pigafetta's Primo Viaggio Intorno El Mondo (First
Voyage Around the World), Magellan solemnly planted a cross on the summit of a hill overlooking
the sea and claimed for the king of Spain possession of the islands he had seen, naming
them Archipelago of Saint Lazarus.[2]
Magellan conquered and sought alliances among the natives beginning with Datu Zula, the chieftain
of Sugbu (now Cebu), and took special pride in converting them to Catholicism. Magellan's
expedition got involved in the political rivalries between the Cebuano natives and took part in a battle
against Lapu-lapu, chieftain of Mactan island and a mortal enemy of Datu Zula. At dawn on 27 April
1521, Magellan invaded Mactan Island with 60 armed men and 1,000 Cebuano warriors, but had
great difficulty landing his men on the rocky shore. Lapu-Lapu had an army of 1,500 on land.
Magellan waded ashore with his soldiers and attacked the Mactan defenders, ordering Datu Zula
and his warriors to remain aboard the ships and watch. Magellan seriously underestimated Lapu-
Lapu and his men, and grossly outnumbered, Magellan and 14 of his soldiers were killed. The rest
managed to reboard the ships.
The battle left the expedition with too few crewmen to man three ships, so they abandoned the
"Concepcin". The remaining ships - "Trinidad" and "Victoria" sailed to the Spice Islands in
present-day Indonesia. From there, the expedition split into two groups. The Trinidad, commanded
by Gonzalo Gmez de Espinoza tried to sail eastward across the Pacific Ocean to the Isthmus of
Panama. Disease and shipwreck disrupted Espinoza's voyage and most of the crew died. Survivors
of the Trinidad returned to the Spice Islands, where the Portuguese imprisoned them.
The Victoria continued sailing westward, commanded by Juan Sebastin Elcano, and managed to
return to Sanlcar de Barrameda, Spain in 1522. In 1529, Charles I of Spain relinquished all claims
to the Spice Islands to Portugal in the treaty of Zaragoza. However, the treaty did not stop the
colonization of the Philippine archipelago from New Spain.[3]
After Magellan's voyage, subsequent expeditions were dispatched to the islands. Five expeditions
were sent: that of Loaisa (1525), Cabot (1526), Saavedra (1527), Villalobos (1542),
and Legazpi (1564).[4] The Legazpi expedition was the most successful as it resulted in the discovery
of the tornaviaje or return trip to Mexico across the Pacific by Andrs de Urdaneta.[5] This discovery
started the Manila galleon trade, which lasted two and a half centuries.
Las Islas Filipinas was name after Philip II of Spain by Ruy Lpez de Villalobos

In 1543, Ruy Lpez de Villalobos named the islands of Leyte and Samar Las Islas
Filipinas after Philip II of Spain.[6] Philip II became King of Spain on January 16, 1556, when his
father, Charles I of Spain, abdicated the Spanish throne. Philip was in Brussels at the time and his
return to Spain was delayed until 1559 because of European politics and wars in northern Europe.
Shortly after his return to Spain, Philip ordered an expedition mounted to the Spice Islands, stating
that its purpose was "to discover the islands to the west". In reality its task was to conquer the
Philippines for Spain.[7]
On November 19 or 20, 1564 a Spanish expedition of a mere 500 men led by Miguel Lpez de
Legazpi departed Barra de Navidad, New Spain, arriving off Cebu on February 13, 1565, conquering
it despite Cebuano opposition.[8]:77
In 1569, Legazpi transferred to Panay and founded a second settlement on the bank of the Panay
River. In 1570, Legazpi sent his grandson, Juan de Salcedo, who had arrived from Mexico in 1567,
to Mindoro to punish the Muslim Moro pirates who had been plundering Panay villages. Salcedo also
destroyed forts on the islands of Ilin and Lubang, respectively South and Northwest of Mindoro.[8]:79
In 1570, Martn de Goiti, having been dispatched by Legazpi to Luzon, conquered the Kingdom of
Maynila (now Manila), a puppet-state of the Sultanate of Brunei.[8]:79 Legazpi then made Maynila the
capital of the Philippines and simplified its spelling to Manila. His expedition also
renamed Luzon Nueva Castilla. Legazpi became the country's first governor-general. With time,
Cebu's importance fell as power shifted north to Luzon. The archipelago was Spain's outpost in the
orient and Manila became the capital of the entire Spanish East Indies. The colony was administered
through the Viceroyalty of New Spain (now Mexico) until 1821 when Mexico achieved independence
from Spain. After 1821, the colony was governed directly from Spain.

Miguel Lpez de Legazpi

During most of the colonial period, the Philippine economy depended on the Galleon Trade which
was inaugurated in 1565 between Manila
and Acapulco, Mexico. Trade between Spain and the Philippines was via the Pacific Ocean to
Mexico (Manila to Acapulco), and then across the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean to Spain
(Veracruz to Cdiz). Manila became the most important center of trade in Asia between the 17th and
18th centuries. All sorts of products from China, Japan, Brunei, the Moluccas and even India were
sent to Manila to be sold for silver 8-Real coins which came aboard the galleons from Acapulco.
These goods, including silk, porcelain, spices, lacquerware and textile products were then sent to
Acapulco and from there to other parts of New Spain, Peru and Europe.
The European population in the archipelago steadily grew although natives remained the majority.
During the initial period of colonization, Manila was settled by 1200 Spanish families.[9] In Cebu City,
at the Visayas, the settlement received a total of 2,100 soldier-settlers from New
Spain (Mexico).[10] At the immediate south of Manila, Mexicans were present at Ermita[11] and
at Cavite[12]where they were stationed as sentries. In addition, men conscripted from Peru, were also
sent to settle Zamboanga City in Mindanao, to wage war upon Muslim pirates.[13] There were also
communities of Spanish-Mestizos that developed in Iloilo,[14] Negros[15] and Vigan.[16] Interactions
between native Filipinos and immigrant Spaniards plus Latin-Americans eventually caused the
formation of a new language, Chavacano, a creole of Mexican Spanish.They depended on the
Galleon Trade for a living. In the later years of the 18th century, Governor-General Basco introduced
economic reforms that gave the colony its first significant internal source income from the production
of tobacco and other agricultural exports. In this later period, agriculture was finally opened to the
European population, which before was reserved only for the natives.