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1. Define safety and health management system?

Safety and health management system means the part of the overall management system
that includes the organisational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices,
procedures and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and
maintaining the occupational safety and health policy.
2. List out the key elements of an accident prevention programme ?

Key elements of an accident prevention programme or plan should include:

Management commitment;

OHS policy, plans and procedures;

Consultation (discussed in other readings);

Hazard identification, risk assessment and control (discussed earlier); and training.

3. What is the purpose of EMS?

The purpose of EMS is:
Manage and improve its environmental performance
Comply with environmental laws & regulations
Generate financial savings through well-managed use of resources and efficient
Improve its standing and reputation with staff, client companies, partner
organizations and wider stakeholders and
Adapt to a changing environment.
4. Write the sequence of accident factors according to dominos theory?

According to W.H. Heinrich (1931), who developed the so-called domino theory, 88% of all
accidents are caused by unsafe acts of people, 10% by unsafe actions and 2% by acts of
God. He proposed a five-factor accident sequence in which each factor would actuate
the next step in the manner of toppling dominoes lined up in a row.
The sequence of accident factors is as follows:
Ancestry and social environment
Worker fault
Unsafe act together with mechanical and physical hazard
Damage or injury.

5. What does site specific safety plan mean? Write its purpose?
Site Specific safety plan is designed by keeping the specific hazards that are most common
in the work place in mind. As with the changing work place, the nature of hazards also
changes. So, the safety plan that is designed for a specific site is known as site specific
safety plan.
A site specific safety plan is a documented procedure that is designed to cover the hazards
with a high chance of occurrence. Safety plans are custom made documents that can be
amended and changed keeping in view the hazards of the work place.
6. Define the terms line function and staff function?
Line Function:

A "line function" is one that directly advances an organization in its core work. This always
includes production and sales, and sometimes also marketing.

Staff Function:

A "staff function" supports the organization with specialized advisory and support
functions. For example, human resources, accounting, public relations and the legal
department are generally considered to be staff functions. Both terms originated in the

7. List out the common barriers of effective communication?

The use of jargon. Over-complicated, unfamiliar and/or technical terms.
Emotional barriers and taboos. Some people may find it difficult to express their
emotions and some topics may be completely 'off-limits' or taboo.
Lack of attention, interest, distractions, or irrelevance to the receiver. (See our page
Barriers to
Effective Listening for more information).
Differences in perception and viewpoint.
Physical disabilities such as hearing problems or speech difficulties.
Physical barriers to non-verbal communication. Not being able to see the non-verbal
cues, gestures, posture and general body language can make communication less effective.
Language differences and the difficulty in understanding unfamiliar accents.
8. List out the steps in safety and health education & training?
It is important that everyone in the workplace be properly trained Managers and
supervisors, Outside contractors, Part-time and temporary employees and volunteers
Allow only properly authorized and instructed employees to do any job.
Make sure no employees do any job that appears unsafe.
Hold emergency-preparedness drills for employees.
Pay particular attention to employees learning new operations to make sure they
have the proper job skills and awareness of hazards.
Train supervisors and managers to recognize hazards and understand their

9. Explain the domino theory?

The Domino theory
According to W.H. Heinrich (1931), who developed the so-called domino theory, 88% of all
accidents are caused by unsafe acts of people, 10% by unsafe actions and 2% by acts of
God. He proposed a five-factor accidents sequence in which each factor would actuate
the next step in the manner of toppling dominoes lined up in a row.
The sequence of accident factors is as follows:
1. Ancestry and social environment
2. Worker fault
3. Unsafe act together with mechanical and physical hazard
4. Accident
5. Damage or injury.
10. What is global warming?
Global Warming:
It is the increase of earths average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases
such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossils fuels or from deforestation, which
trap heat that would escape from earth. This is a type of Green House Effect.

11. Explain the basic stages in establishing work place precautions?

The control of risks is necessary to comply with the requirements of the 2005 Act and the
relevant statutory provisions. There are three basic stages in establishing workplace
H a z a r d identification identifying hazards that could cause harm;
R i s k assessment assessing any risk that may arise from identified hazards;
R i s k control deciding on suitable measures to eliminate or control risk.
12. State any ten unsafe actions and unsafe conditions?
Unsafe acts:
Working without authority;
Failure to warn others of danger;
Using dangerous equipment;
Using wrong equipment;
Failure to issue control measures.; and
Unsafe Conditions:
Inadequate or missing machine guards;
Defective tools or equipment;
Fire hazards;
Ineffective housekeeping;
Excessive noise; and
Poor ventilation and lighting and others.

13. Define the normative safety?

Normative safety
Normative safety is achieved when a product or design meets applicable standards and
practices for design and construction or manufacture, regardless of the product's actual
safety history.

14. Differentiate between safety policy and safety objectives?

Safety Policy:
A health and safety policy is a written statement by an employer stating the company's
commitment for the protection of the health and safety of employees and to the public. It is
an endorsed commitment by management to its employees regarding their health and
Safety Objective:
To provide a structured management system to eliminate or control risk in
operations into an acceptable level.
To set up Safety Management System Unit to oversee the development and
implementation of the
Aerodrome Safety Management Unit and to ensure that the application of effective
Management System is integral to all our activities.
Develop and embed a safety culture in all our activities that recognize the
importance and value of effective Safety Management and acknowledge at all times that
safety is paramount.
Clearly define for all staff their accountabilities and responsibilities for the
development and delivery of safety strategy and performance.
To ensure that all staff is provided with adequate and appropriate safety
To provide the necessary training to build and maintain a meaningful aerodrome
operational safety leadership skills.
To ensure that the measurement of the organizational safety performance and safety
targets are in place

15. Draw the model diagram for two way communication?

Two-way communication is when one person is the sender and they transmit a message to
another person, who is the receiver. When the receiver gets the message, they send back a
response, acknowledging the message was received. The model looks like this:

Two-way communication is essential in the business world. Messages are transmitted

between employers, employees, customers and other stakeholders, and feedback is
required to be certain that the message was received and understood.
16. What is the purpose of EMS?
The purpose of EMS is:
Manage and improve its environmental performance
Comply with environmental laws & regulations
Generate financial savings through well-managed use of resources and efficient
Improve its standing and reputation with staff, client companies, partner
organizations and wider stakeholders and
Adapt to a changing environment.

17. List out the contents of training course?


Full/partial participation;
Refusal/inability to attend;
Equipment/aids used;
Clear proof of understanding, e.g. quizzes, exams, multiple choice,
Oral, practical etc.;
Confirmation of training received, which may include certificates or Statements of
18. List out the general training requirements?
Within a company or organisation:
There should be management commitment and support for the
Training/competence strategy and service delivery;
Management should allocate sufficient time and resources to
Implement, develop, deliver and review the service;
A training needs analysis can help you to identify what is required.
This may be informed by analysing the causes of accidents, a formal
Health and safety audit process and/or risk assessment;
Induction training;
On-the-job training
Additional training when changing jobs;
Refresher training;
Assessment to verify competence;
Periodic review of training needs.
19. List out the functions and duties of safety committee?

Functions and duties of the Safety Committee shall include-

(a) assisting and co-operating with the management in achieving the aims and objectives
outlined in the 'Health and Safety Policy' of the occupier;
(b) dealing with all matters concerning health, safety and environment and to arrive at
practicable solutions to problems encountered;
(c) creating safety awareness amongst all workers;
(d) undertaking educational, training and promotional activities;
(e) deliberating on reports of safety, environmental and occupational health surveys,
emergency plans safety audits, risk assessment and implementation of the
recommendations made in the reports;
(f) carrying out health and safety surveys and identify causes of accidents;
(g) looking into any complaint made on the likelihood of an imminent danger to the safety
and health of the workers and suggest corrective measures; and
(h) reviewing the implementation of the recommendations made by it.

20. Explain different types of safety?

Types of safety
It is important to distinguish between products that meet standards, that are safe, and those
that merely feel safe.
The highway safety community uses these terms:
Normative safety
Normative safety is achieved when a product or design meets applicable standards and
practices for design and
construction or manufacture, regardless of the product's actual safety history.
Substantive safety
Substantive or objective safety occurs when the real-world safety history is favorable,
whether or not standards are met.
Perceived safety
Perceived or subjective safety refers to the users' level of comfort and perception of risk,
without consideration of standards or safety history. For example, traffic signals are
perceived as safe, yet under some circumstances, they can increase traffic crashes at an
intersection. Traffic roundabouts have a generally favourable safety record yet often make
drivers nervous.

21. Explain briefly about five fundamentals of accident prevention?

Fundamentals for Accident prevention:
1. Engineering revision
2. Education and training
3. Enforcement
4. Enthusiasm
5. Example to lead them to correct way to ensure safety.
Engineering Revision:
Poor illumination and ventilation of work area unguarded machines etc such unsafe
conditions should be eliminated at the design stage itself.
Substitution for dangerous material and machines can be brought about.
Purchase, QC, Production department should work in close conjunction with safety
department so that unsafe machines and unsafe conditions can be eliminated effectively.
Education and training:
New workers should be trained in doing the job in the correct way.
Employees should be trained regularly in safety.
Safety exhibitions, film, seminars etc can help in improving knowledge.
The employment of the worker should be on the basis of right man for right job.
The management should implement all the legal provisions and they should seek
guidance from the enforcement authority.
The management should think of providing alternative employment to accident prone
Workers who come drunk and willfully indulge in unsafe actions should be punished as
per legal provisions.
The management should involve the trade union in maintaining safety.
Suggestions for improving the safety performance can be invited from the workers and
good suggestions can be rewarded.
The interest of the workers in the safety field should be kept up by conducting safety
contests, etc.
Individual shop competitions for best shop in housekeeping can be conducted.
22. Explain the functions and duties of safety committee?

Functions and duties of the Safety Committee shall include-

(a) assisting and co-operating with the management in achieving the aims and objectives
outlined in the 'Health and Safety Policy' of the occupier;
(b) dealing with all matters concerning health, safety and environment and to arrive at
practicable solutions to problems encountered;
(c) creating safety awareness amongst all workers;
(d) undertaking educational, training and promotional activities;
(e) deliberating on reports of safety, environmental and occupational health surveys,
emergency plans safety audits, risk assessment and implementation of the
recommendations made in the reports;
(f) carrying out health and safety surveys and identify causes of accidents;
(g) looking into any complaint made on the likelihood of an imminent danger to the safety
and health of the workers and suggest corrective measures; and
(h) reviewing the implementation of the recommendations made by it.

Determine the Structure of the Safety Committee

Some consideration should be given to the structure of the safety committee. Employee
wellness can be included in the responsibilities and duties of the safety committee, or the
Wellness Committee can work in combination with the Safety Committee. The Wellness
Committee does not need to be implemented during the initial start-up phase of the safety
committee. It can be incorporated at a later time if this is a desired element of the safety
committee. The Wellness Committee can address concerns of employee health and wellness

23. What are the safety promotional activities? Give details?

Safety Promotional Activities:
In the effort to improve occupational safety and health awareness among workers,
employers, and customers, the Department disseminated information and provided
guidance pertaining to the safety and health legislation.
This was to ensure compliance to all occupational safety and health laws. Among the
publicity and promotional activities conducted by DOSH include:
Giving talks and explanations as well as training on occupational safety and health;
Organizing campaigns and exhibitions on occupational safety and health;
Providing expertise on occupational safety and health to public agencies, the private
sector, associations of employers and employees as well as professional bodies; and
Collecting and providing informational materials on occupational safety and health for
reference, lending, and dissemination.
The awareness campaigns promoted by NSC greatly help to create and sustain awareness
on SHE matters and highlight the current issue at the national level.
National Safety Day / Week :
It is initiated to commemorate the Foundation Day of the National Safety Council. It is
organized every year on 4th March since 1972. It has expanded its duration now and it is
celebrated for a week from 4th March.
Fire Services Day / Week :
It is observed in memory of the tragic fire disaster that took place on 14th April 1945 at
Bombay dock yard to bring about awareness about the need to prevent fires at work places.
It is observed for a week from 14th April every year.
World Environment Day :
It is celebrated every year on 5th June to spread message on environmental issues as
directed by UNO.
The chapter brings out information package on the above occasions in the form of banners,
posters, tip cards, utility articles with safety messages printed on them.
Safety Posters :
Varieties of safety posters (500mm x 750mm size) are available on current topics of safety,
health & environment.
Safety Tip Cards
Safety tip cards both in English and Kannada (90mm x 135mm size) are available. The
topics covered are
1 Fire safety 9 Safety while handling sheet materials
2 Chemical Safety 10 Ladders
3 Compressed Air safety 11 Machine operation safety
4 Electrical Safety 12 Ten commandments of safety
5 Electric arc welding 13 Supervisors
6 Roof repairs safety 14 Housekeeping 5s way
7 Gas cylinders 15 Environment Protection
8 Material handling
The chapter brings out Kannada English bilingual safety calendars every year to promote
safety awareness at the grass root level. It is a multi-color wall calendar on art paper
depicting cartoons drawn by reputed cartoonists with appealing messages on matters
related to SHE.

The chapter bringing out a quarterly newsletter showcasing the activities of the chapter. It
is sent to all members regularly.
24. State any ten qualities of good leader and also state any five leadership styles?
Qualities of a good leader:
1. Honesty:
The foundation of any relationship, both personal and professional, is honesty. People
want to work for a leader they can trusta leader that has morals, values, and integrity.
They want to work for a company that offers a great product or service they can believe in,
and that has an honorable reputation. Honest Abe, or Abraham Lincoln, is said to have
been one of the greatest Presidents to ever lead our country, and he didnt achieve his
success or earn that nickname by being dishonest. Your workers want to feel good
about their jobsits important to establish core values for both the business and yourself as
a leader, and to then live and lead by those values as an example to your employees.
2. Communication
Without clear communication, your employees wont understand your mission, goals, and
vision. Employees want to work toward something they believe in, so its important they
understand that they are working toward the same goals you are. Communication should
also be consistent in establishing work expectations, giving constructive feedback, and in
training new employees. With great communication, your employees will know exactly
what they are working for, will rely on you, and will give their best effort for you.
3. Confidence
When things go wrong, employees look to you for the answers and judge the situation
based upon your reaction. Even if the company is experiencing a major downturn, its
important to always be confident, calm, and set a good example. If you arent confident
with the organization in a situation, then be confident in your own leadership skills. Your
job is to maintain the happy work environment, and continue leading the team in their
daily work.
4. Inspiration
Whether youre starting a new business, or youre leading a team in a business thats
already been established, its important to get employees invested in the vision and future
of the company. You must be inspired and invested in the company in order to inspire
others, like Larry Page and Sergey Brin, the founders of Google. The product of their own
inspiration has inspired millions of others across the world, and has significantly impacted
the world we live in today. Though inspiration often looks forward to the future, its also
important for the present; it gives employees a reason to work, to succeed, and to do their
best in everything they do. Make them feel invested in the company through inspiration
and theyll be loyal, hard-working employees.
5. Positivity
Regardless of the situation, always stay positive. Positivity is essential to productivity,
employee happiness, and work environment. When mistakes are made- even if they are
serious, its important to look at the bright side of things. You are setting the tone for the
work day, and your attitude directly affects those under your leadership. Bringing snacks,
giving compliments, and even showing an appropriate interest in an employees personal
life can have a significant impact on their work day.
6. Delegation
If there is a highly-important project, it can be difficult to trust employees without
micromanaging. Trusting them to do their best possible work is a sign of strength in your
leadership, and will encourage them to live up to your expectations. When it comes to
delegation, the idea is to decide what strengths each employee possesses, and to assign
them tasks that best fit those strengths. The ability to delegate successfully will lead to
higher quality work and productivity.
7. Commitment
Nothing shows commitment and humility like getting your hands dirty with the rest of the
workers. Showing your commitment sets the example for others to follow, and leads to
greater loyalty and respect for you as a leader. Always be committed in whatever you do,
whether it is a promise to have a holiday party, a day off, or a meeting time. You are in the
spotlight as a leader, and you will be judged harder for your actions than others will be. Set
the tone of commitment, and others will follow suit.
8. Humor
Although not a requirement, a sense of humor goes a long way in leadership. It helps create
a positive work environment and enhances the feeling of camaraderie. Warren Buffett, for
example, once said, I buy expensive suits. They just look cheap on me. Your unique
personality and sense of humor shows your employees that you are more than a leader,
and that you arent a machine, which encourages them to feel comfortable around you.

9. Creativity
Some decisions have to be made quickly, and catch us by surprise. In times like these, its
up to you to think outside the box to find a solution. Your team will be looking to you in
these situations for guidance, so a quick decision must also be a good decision. Henry Ford
faced a situation like this when demand for his vehicles was so high he couldnt possibly
keep up. Instead of making the obvious decision to hire more people, he thought with
creativity and developed the assembly line. You may even brainstorm with your team to
build upon some of your ideas. When your employees are involved in a decision or idea,
they often feel more invested, respected, and important. When you are in a situation where
creativity is necessary, your creativity level and experience can either gain your employees
loyalty and respect, or
damage it.
10. Intuition
Sometimes we are presented with situations that arent in the textbooks, and for which you
might not be prepared as a leader. The first decision isnt always the best one, and taking
your time to come up with a unique solution can be in the best interest of your workers and
organization. Sometimes, leaders have to draw upon their instincts, past experiences, and
mentors for help in these complicated situations.

25. Explain the emergency preparedness and responses?

Emergency Preparedness and Response
The organisation should establish and maintain procedures to respond to accidents and
emergency situations, and to prevent and minimise the safety and health impacts
associated with them. Emergency planning should cover:
T h e development of emergency plans;
T h e testing and rehearsing of these plans and related equipment, including fire fighting
equipment and fire alarms;
t r a i n i n g personnel on what to do in the event of an emergency, particularly those
people who have to carry out duties (e.g. Fire-fighting teams, first- aiders);
a d v i s i n g people working or living near the installation about what they should do in
the event of an emergency;
f ami l i a r i s i n g the emergency services with the facilities at the organisation so that
they know what to expect in the event of an emergency.
The emergency plan itself should include:
d e t a i l s on the installation, availability, and testing of suitable warning and alarm
D e t a i l s of emergency scenarios that might occur, including the means for dealing with
these scenarios;
the emergency procedures in the organisation, including the responsibilities of key
personnel, procedures for fire-fighting and evacuation of all personnel on site, and first-aid
D e t a i l s of emergency services (e.g. Fire brigade, ambulance services, spill clean-up
services), and the contact arrangements for these services;
I n t e r n a l and external communications plan;
t r a i n i n g plans and testing for effectiveness;
D e t a i l s on the availability of emergency rescue equipment and its maintenance log.
The organisation should periodically test, review, and revise its emergency preparedness
and response procedures where necessary, in particular after the occurrence of accidents or
emergency situations. The plan should dovetail with the safety statement as required by
section 20 of the 2005 Act.
26. Explain different types of accident causation theories?

Accident Causation Theories:

1. The domino theory
According to W.H. Heinrich (1931), who developed the so-called domino theory, 88% of all
accidents are caused by unsafe acts of people, 10% by unsafe actions and 2% by acts of
God. He proposed a five-factor accident sequence in which each factor would actuate
the next step in the manner of toppling dominoes lined up in a row. The sequence of
accident factors is as follows:
1. Ancestry and social environment
2. Worker fault
3. Unsafe act together with mechanical and physical hazard
4. Accident
5. Damage or injury.
In the same way that the removal of a single domino in the row would interrupt the
sequence of toppling, Heinrich suggested that removal of one of the factors would prevent
the accident and resultant injury; with the key domino to be removed from the sequence
being number 3. Although Heinrich provided no data for his theory, it nonetheless
represents a useful point to start discussion and a foundation for future research.

2. Multiple causation theory

Multiple causation theory is an outgrowth of the domino theory, but it postulates that for a
single accident there may be many contributory factors, causes and sub-causes, and that
certain combinations of these give rise to accidents. According to this theory, the
contributory factors can be grouped into the following two categories:
Behavioural. This category includes factors pertaining to the worker, such as improper
attitude, lack of knowledge, lack of skills and inadequate physical and mental condition.
Environmental: This category includes improper guarding of other hazardous work
elements and degradation of equipment through use and unsafe procedures.
The major contribution of this theory is to bring out the fact that rarely, if ever, is an
accident the result of a single cause or act.

3. The pure chance theory

According to the pure chance theory, every one of any given set of workers has an equal
chance of being involved in an accident. It further implies that there is no single discernible
pattern of events that leads to an accident. In this theory, all accidents are treated as
corresponding to Heinrichs acts of God, and it is held that there exist no interventions to
prevent them.
4. Biased liability theory
Biased liability theory is based on the view that once a worker is involved in an accident,
the chances of the same worker becoming involved in future accidents are either increased
or decreased as compared to the rest of workers. This theory contributes very little, if
anything at all, towards developing preventive actions for avoiding accidents.

5. Accident proneness theory

Accident proneness theory maintains that within a given set of workers, there exists a
subset of workers who are more liable to be involved in accidents. Researchers have not
been able to prove this theory conclusively because most of the research work has been
poorly conducted and most of the findings are contradictory and inconclusive. This theory
is not generally accepted. It is felt that if indeed this theory is supported by any empirical
evidence at all, it probably accounts for only a very low proportion of accidents without
any statistical significance.

6. The energy transfer theory

Those who accept the energy transfer theory put forward the claim that a worker incurs
injury or equipment suffers damage through a change of energy, and that for every change
of energy there is a source, a path and a receiver. This theory is useful for determining
injury causation and evaluating energy hazards and control methodology. Strategies can be
developed which are preventive, limiting or ameliorating with respect to the energy
Control of energy transfer at the source can be achieved by the following means:
Elimination of the source
Changes made to the design or specification of elements of the work station
Preventive maintenance.
The path of energy transfer can be modified by:
Enclosure of the path
Installation of barriers
Installation of absorbers
positioning of isolators.
The receiver of energy transfer can be assisted by adopting the following measures:
Limitation of exposure
Use of personal protective equipment.

27. Explain the key elements of safety and health management with neat


The key elements of a successful safety and health management system are set out in this
Diagram 1 on page 10 below outlines the relationship between them. They also comply
with the main
elements of an occupational safety and health management system as set out in the ILO
Guidelines. The manner and extent to which the individual elements will be applied will
depend on factors such as size of the organisation, its management structure, the nature of
its activities, and the risks involved.


The organisation should prepare an occupational safety and health policy programme as
part of the
preparation of the Safety Statement required by section 20 of the 2005 Act. Effective safety
and health policies should set a clear direction for the organisation to follow. They will
contribute to all aspects of business performance as part of a demonstrable commitment to
continuous improvement. Responsibilities to people and the working environment will be
met in a way that fulfils the spirit and letter of the law. Cost-effective approaches to
preserving and developing human and physical resources will reduce financial losses and
liabilities. In a wider context, stakeholders expectations, whether they are shareholders,
employees or their representatives, customers or society at large, can be met.


The organisation should formulate a plan to fulfil its safety and health policy as set out in
the Safety Statement. An effective management structure and arrangements should be put
in place for delivering the policy. Safety and health objectives and targets should be set for
all managers and employees.


For effective implementation, the organisation should develop the capabilities and support
mechanisms necessary to achieve its safety and health policy, objectives and targets. All
staff should be motivated and empowered to work safely and to protect their long-term
health, not simply to avoid accidents.
The arrangements should be:
u n d e r p i n n e d by effective staff involvement and participation through appropriate
consultation, the use of the safety committee where it exists, and representation systems;
s u s t a i n e d by effective communication and the promotion of competence which
allows all employees and their representatives to make a responsible and informed
contribution to the safety and health effort.

The organisation should measure, monitor and evaluate its safety and health performance.
Performance can be measured against agreed standards to reveal when and where
improvement is needed. Active self-monitoring reveals how effectively the health and
safety management system is functioning. Selfmonitoring looks at both hardware
(premises, plant and substances) and software (people, procedures and systems, including
individual behaviour and performance). If controls fail, reactive monitoring should find out
why they failed, by investigating the accidents, ill-health or incidents that could have
caused harm or loss. The objectives of active and reactive monitoring are:
To determine the immediate causes of substandard performance;
To identify any underlying causes and implications for the design and operation of the
safety and health management system.
Longer-term objectives should also be monitored.


The organisation should review and improve its safety and health management system
continuously, so that its overall safety and health performance improves constantly. The
organisation can learn from relevant experience and apply the lessons. There should be a
systematic review of performance based on data from monitoring and from independent
audits of the whole safety and health management system. These form the basis of
complying with the organisations responsibilities under the 2005 Act and other statutory
provisions. There should be a strong commitment to continuous improvement involving
the development of policies, systems and techniques of risk control. Performance should be
assessed by:
I n t e r n a l reference to key performance indicators;
E x t e r n a l comparison with the performance of business competitors and best practice
in the
organisations employment sector.
Many companies now report on how well they have performed on worker safety and
health in their annual reports and how they have fulfilled their responsibilities with regard
to preparing and implementing their
safety statements. In addition, employers have greater responsibilities under section 80 of
the 2005 Act on
Liability of Directors and officers of undertakings which requires them to be in a position
to prove they have
proactively managed the safety and health of their workers. Data from this Auditing and
Reviewing Performance process should be used for these purposes



28. Explain the principles of work place training?

Principles of Workplace Safety:
Because it is apparent that questions of accident prevention can be solved not in isolation,
but only in the context of their relationship with production and the working environment,
the following principles for accident prevention can be derived:
1. Accident prevention must be built into production planning with the goal of avoiding
2. The ultimate goal is to achieve a production flow that is as unhindered as possible.
This results not only in reliability and the elimination of defects, but also in the workers
well-being, labour-saving methods and job safety.
Some of the practices commonly used in the workplace to achieve job safety and which are
necessary for disruption-free production include, but are not limited to the following:
Workers and supervisors must be informed and aware of the dangers and potential
hazards (e.g., through education).
Workers must be motivated to function safely (behaviour modification).
Workers must be able to function safely. This is accomplished through certification
procedures, training and education.
The personal working environment should be safe and healthy through the use of
administrative or engineering controls, substitution of less hazardous materials or
conditions, or by the use of personal protective equipment.
Equipment, machinery and objects must function safely for their intended use, with
operating controls designed to human capabilities.
Provisions should be made for appropriate emergency response in order to limit the
consequences of accidents, incidents and injuries.
The following principles are important in understanding how accident prevention concepts
relate to disruption-free production:
1. Accident prevention is sometimes considered a social burden instead of a major part of
disruption prevention. Disruption prevention is a better motivator than accident
prevention, because improved production is expected to result from disruption prevention.
2. Measures to ensure workplace safety must be integrated into the measures used to
ensure disruption-free production. For example, the instructions on hazards must be an
integral part of the general directions governing the flow of production at the workplace.

29. Explain the initial safety and health management system review?
The organisation should carry out an initial review of its safety and health management
arrangements. This review should compare existing safety and health practice with:
T h e requirements of safety and health legislation;
T h e provisions set out in the organisations Safety Statement;
S a f e t y and health guidance in the organisation;
E x i s t i n g authoritative and published safety and health guidance;
B e s t practice in the organisations employment sector.
As a minimum, in order to comply with safety and health legislation, the organisation
i d e n t i f y hazards and carry out their risk assessments;
p r e p a r e and implement the Safety Statement requirements;
h a v e effective safety consultation and employee participation programmes in place;
f a c i l i t a t e the selection of and support the role of the Safety Representative.
The initial review of the organisations safety and health management system should cover
the issues listed above. The following checklist may be used for the review:
I s the Safety Statement clear and concise so that it can be read and understood by those
who may be at risk?
I s it available at the workplace to which it relates and are workers given relevant extracts
where they are at specific risk?
I s the overall safety and health policy of the organisation and the internal structure for
implementing it adequate, e.g. are responsibilities of named persons clearly outlined?
D o e s the Statement contain a systematic identification of hazards and an assessment of
risks for the workplace(s) it covers?
A r e risk assessments being carried out on a regular basis as risks change, and are the
necessary improvements made to keep the safety and health management system up to
A r e the necessary safety control measures required for a safe workplace identified and
implemented - e.g. the provision of safe access and egress, good housekeeping, clear
passageways and internal traffic control?
Are written safe procedures available for those operations that require them, e.g. For
routine processing and ancillary activities, handling and using chemicals, preventive
maintenance, plant and equipment breakdown maintenance, accident and ill-health
investigations, emergency planning, assessment of personal protective equipment (PPE)
A r e procedures available for monitoring the implementation of safety systems and
control measures, e.g. Are safety audits being carried out?
I s safety and health training being carried out and does the training give adequate
information to workers on risks they might be exposed to.
30. Explain the competence building training?

Competency, as we know, is the summation of skills, knowledge, and job attitude in job
behaviour that can be measured, observed, and evaluated. It is an important determining
factor for successful performance. Thus competency development has become one of the
most important aspects in modern Human Resources in organizations.
Competency building is a complex process where competencies are traditionally assumed
for their exchange value should also be conceived for their use value. By exchange value,
it is meant that individual competencies that are officially recognized, formally produced,
and valued in the labour market. And on the other hand, by use value, it is meant that
trans-individual competencies that are specific, and generated within organizational
process creation and use.
An integrated competency building system is built around three policy levels under
globalizing learning economy. These are:
1. Firm Level: Enterprise build their knowledge assets largely based of context-specific
2. Inter-Firm Level: Inter-firm employee mobility, diffused forms of cooperation, alliance
and networking among firms.
3. Overall Level: Alliances must be made among education, society, and industry with
regard to the social capital production.
The purpose of competency building is to assist job cycles of employees in terms of
selection, performance management, training and succession planning. All the HR
functions assessments for selection for various positions, performance management,
succession planning programs for talents, and training need assessments would be
anchored in these competencies

31. Explain the adequate resources provided for developing workplace safety
and health policy?
Developing a Workplace Safety and Health Policy
By law, employers are obliged to plan their overall approach to managing safety and
health and must commit the necessary resources to implement the plan. As an initial
step, employers must develop a safety and health policy which should form part of the
Safety Statement. It must be specific to their organisation and be in a written format. The
content of the safety and health policy of an organisation should be based on the hazards
and risks present in the organisation and should reflect the fact that systematic hazard
identification and risk assessment have been undertaken.

As a minimum, the policy should contain a commitment that safety and health legislation
will be complied with, and should specify those responsible for implementing the policy
at all levels in the organisation, including senior managers, first-line managers, and
supervisors. It should also define their safety and health responsibilities. Employees
responsibilities should also be addressed. The safety and health policy
Should specify the organisations commitment to ensuring it will manage and conduct its
work activities, so far as is reasonably practicable, so as to be safe for employees and
others in its workplace, and it will not allow improper conduct or behaviour which is
likely to put safety and health at risk. In particular, it should specify that adequate
resources will be provided for critical safety and health issues such as the:
D e s i g n , provision and maintenance of a safe place of work for all employees;
D e s i g n , provision and maintenance of safe means of access to and egress from each
part of the workplace;
D e s i g n , provision, and maintenance of any article, plant, equipment or machinery
for use at work in a safe manner;
provision of systems of work that are planned, organised, performed, maintained or
revised, so as to be safe, particularly for safety-critical process operations or services;
P e r f o r m a n c e of on-going hazard identification and risk assessments, and
compliance with the general principles of prevention as set out in the legislation;
P r o v i s i o n and maintenance of welfare facilities and PPE;
P r e p a r a t i o n of emergency plans and the provision of first-aid training;
r e p o r t i n g of accidents and dangerous occurrences to the Authority and
their investigation;
P r o v i s i o n and dissemination of safety and health information, instruction, training
and supervision as required;
O p e r a t i o n of safety and health consultation, employee participation and
safety representation programmes;
review and keeping up-to-date the safety and health policy in order to prevent
adverse effects on the safety and health of employees from changing processes,
procedures, and conditions in the workplace;
A p p o i n t m e n t of people responsible for keeping safety and health control systems
in place and making them aware of their responsibilities;
E s t a b l i s h m e n t of monitoring arrangements, including safety and health inspections
And audits, which should be used by the employer to ensure on-going compliance with
legal duties, responsibilities and controls;
D e v e l o p m e n t of in-house safety and health competence;
E m p l o y m e n t of external safety and health experts as required;
U s e of standards, codes of practice, guidelines, or industry practices;
C o - o p e r a t i o n required from employees and disciplinary procedures for
non- compliance.

The above list is not exhaustive and the critical safety and health issues that could be
covered by the policy will depend on the risks in the organisation. If the above issues
are adequately covered elsewhere in the Safety Statement or in the safety and health
management system, they might need only to be referred to in the safety and health
policy. Backup documentation may also be referred to in the policy.

The executive board of directors or other senior management controlling body of the
organisation needs to accept formally the contents in the safety and health policy and
publicly acknowledge its collective role in providing safety and health leadership in its
organisation by:
c o m m i t t i n g to continuous improvement in safety and health;
e x p l a i n i n g the boards expectations to senior managers and staff and
howthe organisation will deliver on them;
ensuring the safety statement is a living document, is prepared in consultation with
workers, is reviewed as conditions change, and is brought to the attention of all
32. Draw the flow chart for key stages of risk assessment and control?
Key stages of risk assessment and control:
Prepare an inventory of all work activities, tasks, equipment,
processes and materials

For each of the above identify the hazards

Assess the risks Are precautions in compliance with

relevant safety and health legislation, recognised
standards, codes of practice or guidelines?

Yes No

Make a record
the the
it into

Take Appropriate Remedial

Carry record the
risk and keep Action
it up
33. Explain the global warming and their effects?

Global warming effects - mitigate temperature increase

We would like to show the urgent need to act in order to mitigate global warming. For this
purpose, we simulate different scenarios for the future emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2)
and calculate their effects on the rise of the average temperature on Earth. Information
about the simulation model can be found further down at the end of this article.

Let's first repeat some basic facts of global warming:

Global warming is caused by the emission of greenhouse gases. 72% of

the totally emitted greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore CO2 emissions
are the most important cause of global warming .

CO2 is created by burning fossil fuels like e.g. Oil, natural gas, and
diesel. The emissions of CO2 have been dramatically increased within the last 50 years and
are still increasing (CO2 emissions by country).

Carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere for 80 to 200 years.

According to recent investigations, unimaginable catastrophic changes in

the environment are expected to take place if the global temperatures increase by more
than 2 C (3.6 F). A warming of 2 C (3.6 F) corresponds to a carbon dioxide (CO2)
concentration of about 450 ppm (parts per million) in the atmosphere.

The current (year 2007) concentration of CO2 is at about 380 ppm and it
is currently increased by 2 to 3 ppm each year.

34. Explain the following terms.

a) BIS 14489-1998 b) EPA standards c) ILO

(a) BIS 14489-1998:

In order to promote public education and public safety, equal justice for all, a better
informed citizenry, the rule of law, world trade and world peace, this legal document is
hereby made available on a non-commercial basis, as it is the right of all humans to know
and speak the laws that govern them.

EPA has broad authority under the law to issue:

Information collection regulations that require the submission of health and
safety studies which are known or available to those who manufacture, process, or
distribute in commerce specified chemicals; and
Regulations designed to gather information from manufacturers and
processors about production/import volumes, chemical uses and methods of
disposal, and the extent to which people and the environment are exposed.


Labour Organization SMS model
Since there are many models to choose from to outline the basic components of a safety
management system, the one chosen here is the international standard promoted by the
international (ILO). In the ILO document ILO-OSH 2001 Guidelines on Occupational Safety
and Health Management Systems, the safety management basic components are:
Planning and implementation
Action for improvement
Although other SMS models use different terminology, the process and workflow for safety
management systems are usually similar;
1. Policy Establish within policy statements what the requirements are for the
organization in terms of resources, defining management commitment and defining OSH
2. Organizing How is the organization structured, where responsibilities are and
accountabilities defined, who reports to whom and who is responsible for what.
3. Planning and Implementation What legislation and standards apply to our
organization, what OSH objectives are defined and how are these reviews, hazard
prevention and the assessment and management of risk.
4. Evaluation How is OSH performance measured and assessed, what are the
processes for the reporting of accidents and incidents and for the investigation of accidents
and what internal and external audit processes are in place to review the system.
5. Action for Improvement How are preventative and corrective actions managed
and what processes are in place to ensure the continual improvement process. There is a
significant amount of detail within each of these sections and these should be examined in
detail from the ILO-OSH Guidelines document.

35. Explain the OS&H audit?

Executing the OS&H Audit

This would include a field visit with the auditee organization by the audit team which
would cover the following activities. During this field visit, the
Concerned officials of the auditee would accompany the team during their visits around
the plant.

Opening Meeting

The purpose of an opening meeting is to;

introduce the members of the audit team to the auditors senior management;

review the scope and the objectives of the audit;

provide a short summary of the methods and procedures to be used to conduct the

establish the official communication links between the audit team and the auditee;

confirm that the resources and facilities needed by the audit team are available;

fix a schedule of visits to individual plants/departments;

discuss the auditors senior management; the areas of concerned and suggested areas of
focus by the audit team;

confirm the time and date for the closing meeting and any interim meetings of the audit
Team and the auditors senior management;
clarify any unclear details of the audit plan,
Presentation by auditee management on organization, manufacturing processes;
organization structure and specified requirements of the OS&H system.

collecting evidence
Evidence should be collected through interviews, examination of documents, and
observation of activities and conditions in the areas of concern. Clues suggesting
nonconformities should be noted if they seem significant, even though not covered by
check-lists, and should be investigated. Information gathered through interviews should be
tested by acquiring the same information from other independent sources, such as physical
observation, measurements and records (see Annex B).

NOTE a questionnaire for performing safety audit has been given in Annex C for
guidance only.

Audit observations

Ail audit observations should be documented. After all activities have been audited, the
audit team should review all of their observations to determine which are to be reported as
nonconformities. The audit team should then ensure that these are documented in a clear,
concise manner and are supported by evidence.
Nonconformities should be identified in terms of the specific requirements of the standard
or other related documents against which the audit has been conducted. Observations
should be reviewed by the lead auditor with the responsible auditee manager. All
observations of nonconformities should be intimated to the auditee and acknowledged by

It should be remembered that purpose of audit is not to comprehensively check

implementation of each safety system element- The purpose is to sample/test check the
implementation of each element of the OS&H system. Therefore, the information is to be
corrected for a few cases of nonconformity in respect of each element; as a basis for
evaluating implementation of that element. However, recommendations are not only to
correct the observed nonconformities, but the implementation of the element as a whole.

Audit Recommendations

The desired end result of an OS&H audit is the identification of primarily unrecognized
hazards, in the light of experience and early recognition of short comings in the areas such
as the maintenance and testing of critical equipment. The auditor should make
recommendations to the auditee for the improvements to the OS&H system.

In case of an organization whose OS&H system specified requirements/description are

well developed; it would be sufficient to point out nonconformities with the requirement.
However when these are not well laid down, it becomes all the more important to make

These recommendations are of two types:

For improvement in the system's specified requirements; and

For more effective implementation of the specified requirements of the system.

It is up to the auditee to determine the extent, the way and means of actions to improve the
OS&H system as per recommendations of the audit team. However, the recommendations
regarding compliance with statutory and legal requirements are to be fully implemented.

Closing Meeting with Auditee

At the end of the OS&H audit, prior to preparing the audit report, the audit team should
hold a meeting with the auditors senior management and those responsible for the
functions concerned. The main purpose of this meeting is to present audit observations and
recommendations to the senior management in such a manner so as to ensure that they
clearly understand the results of the audit.

The lead auditor should present observations and recommendations, taking into account
their perceived significance. The lead auditor should present the audit team's conclusions
regarding the OS&H system's effectiveness in ensuring that objectives will be met.
Records of the closing meeting should be kept.

OSH Audit Documents

Audit Report Preparation

The audit report is prepared under the direction of the lead auditor, who is responsible for
its accuracy and completeness.

Report Content

The audit report should faithfully reflect both the tone and content of the audit. It should
be dated and signed by the lead auditor. It should contain the following items, as

An executive summary of the report presenting introduction, objectives and

methodology, overview of the site, plant description, managements OS&H system,

36. Explain the role of supervisors in motivating safety?

Supervisors Role in Motivating safety:

Leading from the Middle

Supervisors or middle managers are responsible for multiple priorities but have limited
time in which to manage them. In addition, many people are promoted into these positions
for their technical expertise and may not have received formal training in management and

Engaging supervisors and managers effectively in safety requires more than a general
charge to support safety. Organizations need to define specific activities that can be
integrated with the supervisors or managers other tasks and demands, including (at least):

Practice safety-critical behaviours At-risk behaviours can occur at any level.

Supervisors and managers must be able to identify how their behaviours influence hazards
and consciously practice behaviours that reflect their support of safety.
Make regular safety contacts Supervisors and managers need to assure basic
safety functioning beyond the usual safety meeting. Together with senior leaders,
this level can define essential safety practices that can be tracked over time for the
workgroup. For example, safety planning with employees before a particular job or
personally signing work permits.
Remove system barriers Supervisors and managers are well-positioned to correct
organizational conditions and systems that contribute to exposure. Addressing
equipment availability or applying exposure recognition systems, for example, can
help align the safety objective and conditions on the ground.
Monitor and correct working interface conditions Supervisors and managers
need to track leading indicator data and correct identified exposure conditions as
they occur. To support this, this group needs to build fluency with the hierarchy of
controls and its application in reducing or eliminating exposures.
Build the culture Finally, supervisors and middle managers need to develop
strong working relationships with their employees. In many respects, workers take
the words and deeds of their supervisors and managers to represent the
company. Qualities such as the perceived fairness of a supervisors decisions and
the level of a managers credibility powerfully contribute to a safety-supporting

Conflict refers to some form of friction, disagreement, or discord arising within a
group when the beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either
resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group. Conflict can
arise between members of the same group, known as intragroup conflict, or it can
occur between members of two or more groups, and involve violence, interpersonal
discord, and psychological tension, known as intergroup conflict


Conflict refers to some form of friction, disagreement, or discord arising within a

group when the beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either
resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group. Conflict can
arise between members of the same group, known as intragroup conflict, or it can
occur between members of two or more groups, and involve violence, interpersonal
discord, and psychological tension, known as intergroup conflict.