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Metal Building Systems Manual

Table 3.1: Serviceability Considerations – Metal Roofing

ROOFING

STRUCTURAL

DEFORMATION

RECOMMENDATION

LOADING

TYPE

ELEMENT

   

HORIZONTAL

100’ TO 200’ MAXIMUM

 

EXPANSION JOINTS

MOVEMENT

THERMAL

METAL ROOFS

ROOF

SLOPE

1

/ 2 IN. PER FOOT MINIMUM

DRAINAGE

THROUGH

       

FASTENER TYPE

VERTICAL

 

L

/ 150

PURLIN

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

SNOW LOAD

 

VERTICAL

 

DL

+ 0.5 S

PURLIN

DEFLECTION

POSITIVE DRAINAGE

DL

+ 5 PSF

   

HORIZONTAL

150’ TO 200’ MAXIMUM

 

EXPANSION JOINTS

MOVEMENT

THERMAL

METAL ROOFS

ROOF

SLOPE

1

/ 4 IN. PER FOOT MINIMUM

DRAINAGE

STANDING SEAM

 

VERTICAL

 

L

/ 150

 

PURLIN

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

SNOW LOAD

 

VERTICAL

 

DL

+ 0.5 S

PURLIN

DEFLECTION

POSITIVE DRAINAGE

DL

+ 5 PSF

Note:

The data originally published by AISC in Design Guide No. 3 for Through Fastened Roofs in Table 3.1 contained an error, which has been corrected here per AISC errata.

Table 3.2: Serviceability Considerations - Skylights Supports

DEFORMATION

RECOMMENDATION

LOADING

 

SKYLIGHT FRAME

 

1

/ 4 IN.

 
SKYLIGHT FRAME   1 / 4 IN.  

RACKING

GASKETED MULLIONS

DL

+ LL

SKYLIGHT FRAME

 

1

/ 8 IN.

 

RACKING

FLUSH GLAZING

DL

+ LL

DEFLECTION

   

NORMAL TO

L / 300 ø 1 IN. MAXIMUM

DL

+ LL

GLAZING

 
   

±

1 / 8 IN.

 

1 + 2

ø 25 DEGREES

DL

+ LL

1 + 2

± 5 / 16 IN. 25 < < 45 DEG.

DL

+ LL

   

±

1 / 2 IN.

 

1 + 2

œ 45 DEGREES

DL

+ LL

 

3 - 4

L 1 / 240 ø 1 / 2 IN. MAXIMUM

DL

+ LL

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Metal Building Systems Manual

Table 3.3: Serviceability Considerations – Cladding

CLADDING

       

SUPPORT

TYPE

STRUCTURAL

ELEMENT

DEFORMATION

RECOMMENDATION

 

LOADING

 

METAL PANELS / BARE FRAME

DRIFT

H

/ 60 TO H / 100 MAXIMUM

 

PERPENDICULAR

10

YEAR WIND

TO WALL

 

METAL PANELS / GIRTS

HORIZONTAL

 

L

/ 120

 

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

10

YEAR WIND

METAL PANELS / WIND COLUMNS

HORIZONTAL

 

L

/ 120

 

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

10

YEAR WIND

 

DRIFT

   

PRECAST WALLS / BARE FRAME

PERPENDICULAR

TO WALL

 

H

/ 100

MAXIMUM

10

YEAR WIND

UNREINFORCED MASONRY WALLS / BARE FRAME

DRIFT

1 / 16 IN. CRACK BASE OF WALL

 

PERPENDICULAR

10

YEAR WIND

TO WALL

 

FOUNDATION

REINFORCED MASONRY WALLS / BARE FRAME

DRIFT

   

PERPENDICULAR

TO WALL

 

H

/ 200

MAXIMUM

10

YEAR WIND

MASONRY WALLS / GIRTS

HORIZONTAL

L

/ 240 ø 1.5 IN. MAXIMUM

 

DEFLECTION

10

YEAR WIND

MASONRY WALLS / WIND COLUMNS

HORIZONTAL

L

/ 240 ø 1.5 IN. MAXIMUM

 

DEFLECTION

10

YEAR WIND

MASONRY WALLS / LINTEL

VERTICAL

L

/ 600 ø 0.3 IN. MAXIMUM

 

DEFLECTION

 

DL

+ LL

MASONRY WALLS / LINTEL

ROTATION

 

ø 1 DEGREE MAXIMUM

 

DL

+ LL

 

PRE-ASSEMBLED UNITS / COLUMNS

RELATIVE

 

1

/ 4 IN.

 

SHORTENING

MAXIMUM

 

0.5

LL

COLUMN

PRE-ASSEMBLED UNITS / BARE FRAME

RACKING

 

H

/ 500

10

YEAR WIND

 

CURTAIN WALLS / BARE FRAME

RACKING

 

H

/ 500

10

YEAR WIND

CURTAIN WALLS / SPANDRELS

VERTICAL

 

3

/ 8 IN.

DL PRIOR TO CLADDING

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

CURTAIN WALLS / SPANDRELS

VERTICAL

L

/ 480 ø 5 / 8 IN. MAXIMUM

 

SPANDREL

DEFLECTION

 

TOTAL DL

     

L

/ 360

 

CURTAIN WALLS / SPANDRELS

VERTICAL

DEFLECTION

ø 1 / 4 - 1 / 2 IN.

MAXIMUM

 

0.5

LL

       

DL INCL.

CURTAIN WALLS / SPANDRELS

VERTICAL

DEFLECTION

L

/ 600 ø 3 / 8 IN. MAXIMUM

CLADDING

WEIGHT

Note: A limit of height divided by 100 can be used for reinforced masonry walls / bare frame if a hinge type base can be employed.

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Table 3.4: Serviceability Considerations – Ceilings & Partitions

FINISH

STRUCTURAL

     

TYPE

ELEMENT

DEFORMATION

RECOMMENDATION

 

LOADING

PLASTERED

 

VERTICAL

 

L

/ 360

 

0.5

LL OR

CEILING

ROOF MEMBER

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

50

YEAR SNOW

   

VERTICAL

 

L

/ 240

 

0.5

LL OR

NON-PLASTERED

ROOF MEMBER

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

50

YEAR SNOW

CEILING

FLOOR BEAM / GIRDER

VERTICAL

L / 360 ø 1 IN. MAXIMUM

 

DEFLECTION

 

DL

   

HORIZONTAL

 

H

/ 500

 

FRAME

MOVEMENT

MAXIMUM

10

YEAR WIND

 

VERTICAL

3

/ 8 IN. TO 1 IN. MAXIMUM

 

0.5

LL OR

PARTITION

ROOF MEMBER

DEFLECTION

50

YEAR SNOW

FLOOR BEAM / GIRDER

VERTICAL

L / 360 ø 3 / 8 IN. TO

 

0.5

LL

DEFLECTION

1

IN., MAXIMUM

 

Note: Table 3.4 originally published by AISC in Design Guide No. 3. For the IBC Code, Table 1604.3 has applicable vertical deflection limits (see Table 1.3.1(b) of this manual).

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Table 3.5: Serviceability Considerations - Equipment

EQUIPMENT

STRUCTURAL

DEFORMATION

RECOMMENDATION

LOADING

TYPE

ELEMENT

 

RUNWAY

TOTAL INWARD

1/2 IN.

LL OR 50 YEAR SNOW

SUPPORTS

MOVEMENT

MAXIMUM

RUNWAY

TOTAL OUTWARD

 

1 IN.

SNOW

SUPPORTS

MOVEMENT

MAXIMUM

 

HORIZONTAL

L

/ 400

 

TOP RUNNING

RUNWAY BEAM

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

CRANE LATERAL

CRANES

     

CRANE

RUNWAY BEAM CMAA ‘A’, ‘B’ & ‘C’

VERTICAL

DEFLECTION

L/600

MAXIMUM

VERTICAL

STATIC LOAD

     

CRANE

RUNWAY BEAM

CMAA ‘D’

VERTICAL

DEFLECTION

L/800

MAXIMUM

VERTICAL

STATIC LOAD

     

CRANE

RUNWAY BEAM CMAA ‘E’ & ‘F’

VERTICAL

DEFLECTION

L

/1000

MAXIMUM

VERTICAL

STATIC LOAD

TOP RUNNING

 

DRIFT AT RUNWAY ELEVATION

H / 240 ø 2-IN. MAXIMUM

CRANE LATERAL OR 10 YR. WIND

CAB OPERATED

BARE FRAME

TOP RUNNING

       

PENDANT

OPERATED

BARE FRAME

DRIFT AT RUNWAY ELEVATION

H

/ 100

MAXIMUM

CRANE LATERAL OR 10 YR. WIND

UNDERHUNG

RUNWAY BEAM CMAA ‘A’, ‘B’ & ‘C’

VERTICAL

L

/ 450

CRANE

CRANE

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

VERTICAL

   

VERTICAL

H

/ 225

CRANE

JIB CRANE

BOOM

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

VERTICAL

     

H

/ 500

 

BARE FRAME

DRIFT

MAXIMUM

10 YEAR WIND

ELEVATORS

MACHINE / SHEAVE BEAMS

VERTICAL

L

/ 1666

 

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

DL

+ LL

MACHINE / SHEAVE BEAMS SUPPORTS

VERTICAL

H

/ 1666

 

DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM

DL

+ LL

Note: The data originally published by AISC in Design Guide No. 3 for Table 3.5 contained an errors, which has been corrected her per AISC errata.

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Metal Building Systems Manual

AISC 360, Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, (AISC, 2010) AISI S100, North American Specification for Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members (AISI, 2007) with 2010 Supplement, dated 2010 AISI S200, North American Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing -General Provisions (AISI, 2007) AISI S214, North American Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing - Truss Design (AISI, 2007) with Supplement 2, dated 2008 ASCE 3, Standard for the Structural Design of Composite Slabs (ASCE, 1991) ASCE 8-SSD-LRFD/ASD, Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Structural Members (ASCE, 2002) SJI Standard Specifications, Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders. See references.

2002) SJI Standard Specifications, Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders. See
2002) SJI Standard Specifications, Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders. See
2002) SJI Standard Specifications, Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders. See
2002) SJI Standard Specifications, Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders. See
2002) SJI Standard Specifications, Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders. See
2002) SJI Standard Specifications, Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders. See

Model building codes require that the deflection of structural members divided by the span, l, not exceed certain values. For example, see Table 1604.3 of the International Building Code. Some applicable provisions from these references are excerpted below:

Excerpts From 2012 IBC Table 1604.3

CONSTRUCTION

LIVE

SNOW OR WIND a

DEAD + LIVE

Roof members:

     

Supporting plaster ceiling

l

/ 360

l

/ 360

l

/ 240

Supporting nonplaster ceiling

l

/ 240

l

/ 240

l

/ 180

Not supporting ceiling

l

/ 180

l

/ 180

l

/ 120

Roof members supporting metal roofing:

l

/ 150

-

-

Structural Metal Roof and Siding Panels b

-

-

l / 60

Floor Members

l

/ 360

 

-

l

/ 240

Exterior walls and interior partitions:

     

With brittle finishes

 

-

l

/ 240

 

-

With flexible finishes

-

l

/ 120

-

Secondary wall members supporting metal siding

-

l / 90

-

(a) The wind load is permitted to be taken as 0.42 times the component and cladding loads for the purpose

of determining deflection limits herein.

(b) For roofs, this exception only applies when the metal sheets have no roof covering.

Roof slopes can be directed to drains by sloping the structure, using tapered insulation, sloping fill, or by using a combination of these methods. Roof drains, gutters or scuppers are located at the low points. As the NRCA notes, from time to time, roof drainage points do not wind up at roof low points and can cause problems for the structure.

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