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PRESENT SIMPLE

Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa

I have walked I haven't walked Have I walked?

You have walked You haven't walked. Have you walked?

He, she, it has walked He, she, hasn't walked Has he, she, it walked?

We have walked We haven't walked Have we walked?

You have walked You haven't walked Have you walked?

They have walked They haven't walked Have they walked?

EL "PRESENT PERFECT" SE UTILIZA PARA DESCRIBIR

Una accin o situacin iniciada en el pasado y que contina en el


presente. I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= todava vivo all.)
Una accin realizada durante un periodo de tiempo an no concluido. She has
beento the cinema twice this week (= la semana todava no ha terminado.)
Una accin repetida en un periodo temporal inespecfico situado entre el pasado
y el presente. We have visited Portugal several times.
Una accin que ha concluido en un pasado muy reciente, lo que se indica
mediante 'just'. I have just finished my work.
Una accin para la cual no es importante el momento preciso en que
aconteci. He has read 'War and Peace'. (= lo relevante es el resultado de la
accin)

ACCIONES INICIADAS EN EL PASADO Y QUE CONTINAN EN EL PRESENTE

They haven't lived here for years.


She has worked in the bank for five years.
We have had the same car for ten years.
Have you played the piano since you were a child?
CUANDO SE HACE REFERENCIA A UN PERIODO TEMPORAL INACABADO

I have worked hard this week.


It has rained a lot this year.
We haven't seen her today.

ACCIONES REITERADAS EN UN PERIODO INESPECFICO, ENTRE EL PASADO Y


EL PRESENTE.

They have seen that film six times


It has happened several times already.
She has visited them frequently.
We have eaten at that restaurant many times.

ACCIONES CONCLUIDAS EN UN PASADO MUY RECIENTE (+JUST)

Have you just finished work?


I have just eaten.
We have just seen her.
Has he just left?

CUANDO LA DIMENSIN TEMPORAL NO ES RELEVANTE O CONOCIDA

Someone has eaten my soup!


Have you seen 'Gone with the Wind'?
She's studied Japanese, Russian, and English.
PRESENT PERFECT

Use of the Present Perfect

1.1. result of actions in the past is important in the present It is not important
when the actions happened.
I have cleaned my room.

1.2. recently completed actions.


He has just played handball.

1.3. states beginning in the past and still continuing


We have lived in Canada since 1986.

1.4. together with lately, recently, yet


I have been to London recently.

2. SIGNAL WORDS

just
yet
never
already
ever
so far
up to now
recently
since
for

Present Perfect Tense


English Grammar Rules
The Present Perfect Tense is formed using the following structure:
Affirmative: Subject + Have / Has + Past Participle

Negative: Subject + Haven't / Hasn't + Past Participle


Question: Have / Has + Subject + Past Participle

Affirmative Sentences
Subject Have Past Participle Rest of the Sentence

I have studied for the exam.

You have bought a new computer.

He has eaten my chocolate.

She has written an e-mail.

It has been cold this month.

We have won the championship.

You have tried to learn a lot.

They have forgotten my birthday.

Contractions
The contracted form of the perfect tense is quite common:

Have Contraction Examples

I have I've I've spent all my money.

You have You've You've worn that dress before.

He has He's He's slept all morning.

She has She's She's lost her purse.

It has It's It's fallen off the wall.

We have We've We've chosen you for the job.


You have You've You've begun to annoy me.

They have They've They've drunk too much.


We use contractions a lot when we are speaking.

Negative Sentences
The contraction of the perfect tense in negative form is:
Have not = Haven't
Has not = Hasn't

Subject Have Past Participle Rest of the Sentence

I haven't studied for the exam.

You haven't bought a new computer.

He hasn't eaten my chocolate.

She hasn't written an e-mail.

It hasn't been cold this month.

We haven't won the championship.

You haven't tried to learn a lot.

They haven't forgotten my birthday.

Questions
Have Subject Past Participle Rest of the Sentence

Have I been chosen for the team?

Have you bought a new car?

Has he eaten my sandwich?

Has she written the letter?

Has it started on time?


Have we won a trophy?

Have you kept my secret?

Have they driven there?

When do we use the Present Perfect Tense?


1. Unspecified point in the past

I have been to Spain three times.


(At some unspecified time in the past, I went to Spain).

Compare with the simple past:

I went to Spain three times in 2005.


(specified time in the past - the year 2005)

2. An action that occurred in the past, but has a result in the present (now)

We can't find our luggage. Have you seen it?


(The luggage was lost in the past, do you know where it is now?)

3. Talking about general experiences (ever, never)


It usually refers to an event happening at some moment in your life.

Has she ever tried Chilean wine before? (in her life)
I've never eaten monkey brains before. (in my life)

4. Events that recently occurred (just)

Do you want to go to a restaurant with me?


No, thanks. I've just eaten lunch. (I recently ate lunch.)

5. Events that have occurred up to now (yet)

Are Carlos and Rodrigo here? No, they haven't arrived yet. (they're still not
here now)

6. Events that occurred before you expected (already)

I've already graduated from University. (I expected to graduate at a later date.)


7. Events that began in the past and haven't changed (for, since)

Mike has worked at Woodward for 3 years.


(Mike started working at Woodward 3 years ago and he still works there now.)
Julie has worked at Woodward since September last year.
(Julie began working at Woodward in September of last year, and that hasn't
changed - she still works here now.)

For irregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For
regular verbs, just add ed.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed

Exceptions in spelling when adding ed Example

after a final e only add d love loved

final consonant after a short, stressed admit


vowel or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled admitted travel travelled

final y after a consonant becomes i hurry hurried

Use of Present Perfect


puts emphasis on the result
Example: She has written five letters.

action that is still going on


Example: School has not started yet.

action that stopped recently


Example: She has cooked dinner.
finished action that has an influence on the present
Example: I have lost my key.

action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of
speaking
Example: I have never been to Australia.

Signal Words of Present Perfect


already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

present Perfect

El presente perfecto equivale ms o menos al pretrito perfecto del espaol.


Veremos las diferencias en la seccin sobre usos. En general, es una mezcla entre el
presente y el pasado. Lo usamos para acciones en el pasado que tienen importancia
en el presente.
Grammatical Rules (Reglas gramaticales)

Form (Forma)

Para formar el presente perfecto, se usa el verbo auxiliar to have en el presente y el


participio pasado del verbo. Para verbos regulares, el participio pasado es la forma
simple del pasado. Ver la leccin sobre el pasado simple para ms informacin sobre
como formar el pasado.

Sujeto Verbo Forma Corta Participio Pasado


auxiliar

I, you, we, have Ive, youve, weve, talked,


they theyve learned, traveled

he, she, it has hes, shes, its talked,


learned, traveled

Nota: Ten en cuenta que hay muchos participios pasados irregulares en ingls.
A continuacin tienes una lista de unos de los participios pasados irregulares ms
comunes.

Verbo Pasado Simple Participio pasado

be was/were been
do did done
go went gone
make made made
see saw seen

Structure (Estructura)

1. Affirmative Sentences (Frases affirmativas)


Sujeto + verbo auxiliar (to have) + participio pasado

Ejemplos:

I have [Ive] talked to Peter. (He hablado con Peter.)


She has [Shes] gone to work. (Ha ido a su trabajo.)
We have [Weve] been to London. (Hemos ido a Londres.)
They have [Theyve] learned English. (Han aprendido ingls.)

2. Negative Sentences (Frases negativas)


Sujeto + verbo auxiliar (to have) + not + participio pasado

Ejemplos:

I havent talked to Peter. (No he hablado con Peter.)


She hasnt gone to work. (No ha ido a su trabajo.)
We havent been to London. (No hemos ido a Londres.)
They havent learned English. (No han aprendido ingls.)

3. Interrogative Sentences (Frases interrogativas)


Verbo auxiliar (to have) + sujeto + participio pasado?

Ejemplos:

Have you talked to Peter? (Has hablado con Peter?)


Has she gone to work? (Ha ido a su trabajo?)
Have you been to London? (Has ido a Londres?)
Have they learned English? (Han aprendido ingls?)
Uses (Usos)

Se usa el presente perfecto para acciones que ocurrieron en un tiempo no


concreto antes de ahora. El tiempo especfico no es importante. Por lo tanto, no
solemos usar expresiones de tiempo especficas (this morning, yesterday, last
year) con el presente perfecto. Se puede usar el presente perfecto con expresiones
de tiempo no concretas (never, ever, many times, for, since, already,
yet). Este concepto de tiempo no especfico es bastante difcil de comprender, por
este motivo, a continuacin tienes los usos particulares del presente perfecto.

1. Se usa el presente perfecto para describir una experiencia. No lo usamos para


acciones especficas.

Ejemplos:

I have never flown in a plane. (Nunca he volado en un avin.)


He has worked in many different museums. (Ha trabajado en muchos
museos diferentes.)
We have been to Ro de Janeiro. (Hemos ido a Ro de Janeiro.)

2. Se utiliza el presente perfecto para un cambio en el tiempo.

Ejemplos:

I have become more timid in my old age. (Me he vuelto ms tmido en mi


vejez.)
Their English has improved a lot this year. (Su ingls ha mejorado mucho
este ao.)
He has learned to be more patient. (Ha aprendido a ser ms paciente.)

3. Se usa para los xitos o logros.

Ejemplos:

Our football team has won the championship three times. (Nuestro
equipo de ftbol ha ganado el campeonato tres veces.)
Dan has finished writing his first novel. (Dan ha terminado de escribir su
primera novela.)
Scientists have succeeded in curing many illnesses. (Los cientficos han
tenido xito en la curacin de muchas enfermedades.)

4. Usamos el presente perfecto para acciones que todava no han sucedido. El


uso del presente perfecto en estos casos indica que an estamos esperando la accin,
por eso, frecuentemente usamos los adverbios yet y still.

Ejemplos:

The plane hasnt arrived yet. (El avin no ha llegado todava.)


Our team still hasnt won a championship. (Nuestro equipo an no ha
ganado un campeonato.)
You havent finished your homework yet? (No has acabado todava los
deberes?)

5. Se utiliza el presente perfecto para hablar sobre acciones en diferentes


momentos en el pasado. El uso del presente perfecto en estos casos indica que son
posibles ms acciones en el futuro.

Ejemplos:

We have spoken several times, but we still cant reach an


agreement. (Hemos hablado varias veces, pero todava no podemos llegar a un
acuerdo.)
Our team has played 4 games so far this year. (Nuestro equipo ya ha
jugado 4 partidos este ao.)
I love New York! I have been there 5 times already and I cant wait to go
back.(Me encanta Nueva York! Ya he estado all 5 veces y no puedo esperar
para regresar.)

6. En general, usamos el presente perfecto continuo para situaciones que han


empezado en el pasado pero siguen en el presente. Pero como hemos visto, hay
algunos verbos que no podemos usar en los tiempos continuos. En estos casos,
usamos el presente perfecto.

Ejemplos:

How long has Michael been in Barcelona? (Cunto tiempo ha estado


Michael en Barcelona?)
I have loved you since the day I met you. (Te he querido desde el da que
te conoc.)
Sample
She ____ (not/study) for the exam.
Adam and Natalie ____ (live) together for 3 years.
Where _____ he _____ (go)?
We ____ (not/leave) yet.
I ____ (want) a new car for a long time.
_____ the bus _____ (arrive) yet?
They ____ (bring) their children with them.
_____ you ever _____ (see) a shooting star?
_____ you ever _____ (see) a shooting star?
Present Perfect
FORM

[has/have + past participle]

Examples:

You have seen that movie many times.


Have you seen that movie many times?
You have not seen that movie many times.

Complete List of Present Perfect Forms

USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time
before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect
with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I
was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN
use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many
times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

Examples:

I have seen that movie twenty times.


I think I have met him once before.
There have been many earthquakes in California.
People have traveled to the Moon.
People have not traveled to Mars.
Have you read the book yet?
Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?

The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best
to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:
TOPIC 1 Experience

You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have
the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a
certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.

Examples:

I have been to France.


This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France.
Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
I have been to France three times.
You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
I have never been to France.
This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
I think I have seen that movie before.
He has never traveled by train.
Joan has studied two foreign languages.
A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.

TOPIC 2 Change Over Time

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a
period of time.

Examples:

You have grown since the last time I saw you.


The government has become more interested in arts education.
Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since
the Asian studies program was established.
My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

TOPIC 3 Accomplishments

We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and
humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.

Examples:

Man has walked on the Moon.


Our son has learned how to read.
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
Scientists have split the atom.
TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting

We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not
happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action
to happen.

Examples:

James has not finished his homework yet.


Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
Bill has still not arrived.
The rain hasn't stopped.

TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times

We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have
occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not
complete and more actions are possible.

Examples:

The army has attacked that city five times.


I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
We have had many major problems while working on this project.
She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows
why she is sick.

Time Expressions with Present Perfect

When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some
point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not
important.

Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do
this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month,
so far, up to now, etc.

Examples:
Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
They have had three tests in the last week.
She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for
three different companies so far.
My car has broken down three times this week.

NOTICE

"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the
year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In
the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time,
so it requires Present Perfect.

Examples:

I went to Mexico last year.


I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
I have been to Mexico in the last year.
I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and
now.

USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the
Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until
now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which
can be used with the Present Perfect.

Examples:

I have had a cold for two weeks.


She has been in England for six months.
Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.

Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous


Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and
"study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous
Verbs.

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only,
never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

You have only seen that movie one time.


Have you only seen that movie one time?

Have (in the simple present) + Verb (in the past participle form)

Positive Negative Interrogative

I have worked. I have not worked. Have you worked?

I have worked = I've worked I have not = I haven't worked


He has worked = He's worked He has not = He hasnt worked





Rule Examples

Verb + ed play - played


visit - visited
finish -finished

Infinitive Simple past Past participle

be was/were been
come came come
go went gone
do did done
meet met met