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COMMON NAME OR PORTAL OF

PARASITE INFECTIVE STAGE HABITAT SOURCE OF INFECTION SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT
DISEASE ENTRY

A. NEMATODES
Ascaris lumbricoides Giant Intestinal IS- Embryonated eggs Mouth Lumen of Eggs from contaminated Vague abdominal Eggs in stool Mebendazole
Roundworm DS- fertilized egg & small intestine soil or food distress, intestinal Pyrantel pamoate
unfertilized egg Fecal-oral transmission obstruction Albendazole

Trichiuris trichiura Whipworm IS - Embryonated eggs Mouth Cecum & Eggs from contaminated Abdominal discomfort Eggs in stool Mebendazole
(Football,Barrel-shaped, DS - Unembryonated eggs rest of colon soil or food Bloody stools
Japanese lantern shape) Fecal-oral transmission Anemia

Enterobius vermicularis Pinworm, Seatworm IS - Embryonated eggs Mouth Large intestine Eggs in environment Anal pruritis Scotch tape swab Pyrantel pamoate
(D-shaped) Oxyuriasis Autoinfection irritability for eggs in perianal Mebendazole
Enterobiasis "mother complex" area Pyrvinium pamoate

Capillaria philippinensis Pudoc disease DS- Unembryonated eggs Mouth Small intestine Eggs from contaminated Intestinal malabsorption Mebendazole
(peanut-shaped) Mystery disease IS - Infective larvae soil or food Chronic diarrhea
(Flattened bipolar) Intestinal Capillariasis

Trichinella spiralis Trichina worm DS-Encysted Larval stage Mouth Small intestine Poorly cooked pork or Orbital edema, muscle Muscle biopsy Mebendazole
(threadlike-worms) Trichinosis IS- Ingestion of undercooked bear meat pain, conjunctivitis,
meat High eosinophilia

HOOKWORMS:
Necator americanus New World Hookworm IS - Filariform larva penetrates Skin, feet Intestine Contact with filariform Anemia, GI symptoms in Eggs in stool Mebendazole
Uncinariasis in the skin DS- larvae in soil early phase, Growth Pyrantel pamoate
Eggs in feces retardation Iron for anemia

Ancylostoma duodenale Old World Hookworm IS - Filariform larva penetrates Skin, feet Mucosa of small Contact with filariform Anemia, GI symptoms in Eggs in stool Mebendazole
Ancylostomiasis in the skin DS- intestine larvae in soil early phase, Growth Pyrantel pamoate
Eggs in feces retardation Iron for anemia

Creeping eruption, DS- Eggs in feces of cats & Soil containing dog and Serpiginous and pruritic skin Thiabendazole, orak or
Ancylostoma braziliense
Cutaneous larva migrans dogs IS - Skin Small intestine cat hookworm larvae lesions local
Filariform larva

Toxocara canis High eosinophilia


IS- Embryonated eggs with Hepatosplenomegaly, skin
Toxocara cati Lumen of High serum IgE Thiabendazole
Visceral larva migrans larva DS- Liver, eyes Eggs from contaminated rashes, pneumonitis,
intestine Diethycarbamazine
Larva in tissue chorioretinitis

Skin, Body Often asymptomatic, but can


Manzonella ozzardi Spp. Culicoides and Blood smear for
cavities (pleural cause fever, arthralgia,
M. perstans Simulium flies unsheathed mf
& peritoneal) angioedema
COMMON NAME OR PORTAL OF
PARASITE INFECTIVE STAGE HABITAT SOURCE OF INFECTION SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT
DISEASE ENTRY
Loa loa Blood smear for
IS- L3 larva enter the bite Skin, adults Lymphatics Intermittent & migratory sheathed mf in
Loaisis
wound DS - subcutaneous, Subcutaneous Chrysops fly angioedema, ocular afternoon Diethycarbamazine
Eye worm
sheathed microfilariae mf in blood tissues migration of worm Lesions called
Calabar swelling

Dracunculus medinensis IS- Larvae undegoes two molts


in the copepod and becomes Typical lesions,
Mouth Inflammatory ulcers of legs Thiabendazole
Guinea worm L3 larva Lower extremities Infected cyclops in water calcified worms by X-
Subcutaneous and feet Metronidazole
DS- Female worms emerge ray
from skin

Anisakis Anisakiasis 1st IH - L3 larva in fish and Stomach, Small Infected raw fish, Irritation of throat, abdominal History of eating raw
Mouth Endoscopy Surgery
Phocanema spp Herring disease squid intestine undercooked seafood pain, intestinal obstruction fish often

FILARIA:
Wuchereria bancrofti Bancrofts filarial worm Skin Lymphatics Infected mosquitoes Recurrent lymphangitis Microfilaria in direct Diethylcarbamazine
DS- Sheathed microfilariae in
Filariasis with fever, swollen filtered or conc blood Ivermectin
lymph and blood IS-
L3 larva enter the skin
Elephantiasis limbs, scrotum, varicocele

Brugia malayi Malayan Filarial worm Skin Lymphatics Infected mosquitoes Microfilaria in direct Diethylcarbamazine
DS- Sheathed microfilariae in Recurrent lymphangitis with
Filariasis filtered or conc blood Ivermectin
blood IS- fever, swollen limbs,
L3 larva enter the skin scrotum, varicocele

CESTODES:
Taenia saginata Beef tapeworm DS- Eggs or gravid proglottid Mouth Small intestine Cyst in muscle of raw or Usually none Segments & eggs Niclosamide
(Taeniasis) in feces IS- poorly cooked beef in stool Praziquantel
Oncosphere develop into
cysticerci in muscle Scotch tape swab

Taenia solium Pork tapeworm DS- Eggs or gravid proglottid Mouth Small intestine Cyst in raw or Usually none Segments & eggs Niclosamide
(Cysticercosis) in feces IS- poorly cooked pork in stool Praziquantel
Cysticercus cellulosae Oncosphere develop into Scotch tape swab

Diphyllobothrium latum Fish or broad fish tapeworm DS - Unembryonated eggs in Mouth Small intestine Megaloblastic type of Eggs in stool Niclosamide
feces anemia may occur Praziquantel
Plerocercoid in freshwater
IS- Plerocercoid larva 1st
fish, Poorly cooked or raw
IH : Freshwater copepods
fish
(Cyclops) 2nd: Freshwater
fishes & Crustaceans
DS - Unembryonated eggs in
feces
Plerocercoid in freshwater
IS- Plerocercoid larva 1st
fish, Poorly cooked or raw
IH : Freshwater copepods
fish
(Cyclops) 2nd: Freshwater
fishes & Crustaceans

COMMON NAME OR PORTAL OF


PARASITE INFECTIVE STAGE HABITAT SOURCE OF INFECTION SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT
DISEASE ENTRY
Echinococcus multicularis Alveolar hydatid cyst X-rays, CT scan, Albendazole
IS- Embryonated egg in feces
Eggs from infected dogs RUQ mass and discomfort,
DS - Hydatid cyst in liver & Mouth Liver, lungs
and foxes cough
lungs
eosinophilia, serology Surgery

DS & IS- Embryonated egg in Eggs from fecal


Lumen and villi of Abdominal discomfort Eggs in stool, mild Niclosamide,
Hymenolepis nana Dwarf tapeworm contaminated food, water, Mouth contamination,
Small intestine eosinophilia Praziquantel
hands and feces autoinfection

DS - Eggs passes in stool


Eggs from fecal
IS - Cystercerci in body cavity Lumen and villi of Eggs in stool, mild Niclosamide,
Hymenolepis diminuta Rat tapeworm Mouth contamination, Abdominal discomfort
of insects ingested by rodents Small intestine eosinophilia Praziquantel
autoinfection
or man

TREMATODES:
Paragonimus westermani Oriental Lung fluke 1st IH: Brotia asperata Mouth Lungs Metacercariae on fresh- Cough, hemoptysis, X-ray Praziquantel
DS - Unembryonated eggs 2nd IH: Mountain crabs water crabs or crayfish fever, variable if CT scan Bithionol
IS - Cercariae in Crustacean (Parathelpusa gnapsoides) aberrant localization Eggs in sputum
(Sundathelpusa philippina) Eosinophilia

Fasciola hepatica Sheep Liver fluke 1st IH: Lymnea philippinensis Mouth Liver and biliary Metacercariae on water- Abdominal pain, fever, Eosinophilia Bithionol
DS - Unembryonated eggs 2nd: Ipomea obscura tracts cress Hepatomegaly, jaundice CT scan
IS - Metacercariae in water
plants Stool exam for eggs

Fasciolopsis buski Giant Intestinal fluke 1st IH: Segmetina or Hippeutis Mouth Small intestine Metacercariae on edible Abdominal pain Eggs in stool Praziquantel
DS - Unembryonated eggs 2nd IH: Eulocharis tuberosa water plants and vegetables diarrhea Niclosamide
IS - Metacercariae in water
plants Trapa bicornis edema

Liver Fluke, "Old DS - Emrbyonated eggs in


Abdominal discomfort,
Clonorchis sinensis Fashioned Electric bulb" feces IS - Metacercariae on raw
Mouth Bile ducts of liver recurrent cholonagitis, Eggs in stool Praziquantel
1st IH- Parafossarulus Metacercariae in fresh water freshwater fish
tender liver
Opistorchis viverini manchouricus; 2nd IH Cyprinoid fish fish ingested by man

Schistosoma mansoni Schistosomiasis DS - eggs in urine & feces Skin Rectum & colon Cercariae from freshwater Liver fibrosis Eggs in stool Praziquantel
(eggs with lateral spine) Intestinal Bilharziasis IS: Cercaria released by snail snail Chronic dysentery
Mansons Blood fluke IH: Biomphalaria, Tropicorbis

Schistosoma japonicum Oriental Schistosomiasis DS - eggs in urine & feces Skin Small intestine Cercariae from freshwater Liver fibrosis Eggs in stool Praziquantel
(eggs with lateral rudimentary Katayama Disease IS: Cercaria released by snail snail Dysentery
spine) IH: Oncomelania quadrasi

COMMON NAME OR PORTAL OF


PARASITE INFECTIVE STAGE HABITAT SOURCE OF INFECTION SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT
DISEASE ENTRY

Schistosoma haematobium Vesical Blood Flukes DS - eggs in urine & feces Skin Urinary bladder Cercariae from freshwater Urinary Disturbance Eggs in urine Praziquantel
(eggs with terminal spine) IS: Cercaria released by snail snail Hematuria

IH: Bulinus, Biomphalaria,


Physopsis

PROTOZOA
Human Blood Stage:
DS-Trophozoite, schizont,
Plasmodium vivax Benign Tertian Malaria gametocyte Skin RBC Infected Anopheles mos- Chill, fever, sweating, Blood smear Chloroquine, Primaquine
48 hrs., drug resistant (14 days incubation period) IS- Sporozoite (young RBC) quitoes, Blood transfusion, headache and myalgia (12-24 merozoites) Pyrimethamine
Mosquito Stage: syringes of addicts Enlarged spleen Schuffner's dots Sulfadiazine, Quinine
IS- Sporozoite Tetracycline
Mefloquine

Human Blood Stage:


DS-Trophozoite, schizont,
Plasmodium falciparum Malignant Tertian Malaria gametocyte Skin RBC Infected Anopheles mos- Chill, fever, sweating, Blood smear same as above
Gametocyte - banana shape, (12 days incubation period) IS- Sporozoite (young/mature) quitoes, Blood transfusion, headache and myalgia (ring-form gametocyte)
sausage shape Mosquito Stage: syringes of addicts Enlarged spleen (12-74 merozoites)
36-48 hrs., drug resistant IS- Sporozoite Maurer's dots

Human Blood Stage:


DS-Trophozoite, schizont,
Plasmodium malariae Quartan Malaria gametocyte Skin RBC Infected Anopheles mos- Chill, fever, sweating, Blood smear same as above
72 hrs. (15-30 days incubation period) IS- Sporozoite (matured RBC) quitoes, Blood transfusion, headache and myalgia (6-12 merozoite)
Mosquito Stage: syringes of addicts Enlarged spleen Ziemann's dots
IS- Sporozoite

Plasmodium ovale Ovale Malaria Human Blood Stage: Skin RBC Infected Anopheles mos- Chill, fever, sweating, Blood smear same as above
48 hrs. (15 days incubation period) IS- Sporozoite (young RBC) quitoes, Blood transfusion, headache and myalgia (8 merozoite)
Mosquito Stage: syringes of addicts Enlarged spleen James dots
IS- Sporozoite

Entamoeba histolytica Intestinal amebiasis IS & DS - Cyst & trophozoite Mouth Lumen and wall Fecal contamination with Intermittent diarrhea Cyst in cold stool, Diodoquin
(1-4 nuclei) in feces of colon or rectum cysts in food and water constipation, dysentery, trophozite in purged Metronidazole
Amebic hepatitis Liver heptomegaly and fever stool Dehydroemetine
Amebic liver abscess Emetine
Montezuma Revenge

COMMON NAME OR PORTAL OF


PARASITE INFECTIVE STAGE HABITAT SOURCE OF INFECTION SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT
DISEASE ENTRY
Dientamoeba fragilis IS & DS - trophozoite in feces Mouth Large intestine Iodoquinol
Trophozoite from fecal
Diarrhea, abdominal Stool exam for Paromomycin
contamination (more
discomfort trophozoite
resistant form)
Tetracycline

DS - Cyst & trophozoite in


Pond mud Meningitis, fever Motile amoeba in
Naegleria fowleri Free living amoebas tissue Nose Amphotericin B
Acanthamoeba spp. Amebic meningoencephalitis IS - Trophozoite in feces conjunctiva Contaminated contact headache, eye pain CSF Itraconazole plus
Keratitis Brain and eye lenses inflammation Biopsy & culture topical miconazole

Giardia lamblia Giardiasis IS - Cyst in feces Mouth Upper small Fecal contamination with Diarrhea with foul Cysts and trophozoite Quinacrine
(falling leaf, kite-like motility) "Old Man's Eyeglasses" DS - Cyst & trophozoite intestine cyst in food and water smelling stols in stools Metronidazole
in feces Abdominal discomforts Furazolidone
Weight loss

DS - Trophozoite in secretions
Trichomonas vaginalis Trichomoniasis & urine Genitalia Genitalia Trophozoite in vaginal Frothy vaginal discharge Trophozoite in vaginal Metronidazole
(jerky, tumbling motility) IS - Trophozoite in vagina Vagina and prostatic secretions and prostatic fluid Periodic vinegar
or orifice of urethra Prostate douches

Balantidium coli Balantidiasis DS & IS- Cyst in feces Mouth Large intestine Ingestion of cysts Diarrhea, dysentery Trophozoite and cyst Tetracycline
(largest intestinal protozoa) Balantidial dysentery Abdominal discomfort or in stool exam / biopsy Metronidazole
(only pathogenic ciliate) pain with nausea & vomiting

DS- trophozoite or merozoite in


Babesia microti Babesiosis blood Skin Blood Bite of Ixodes ticks Fatigue, fever Blood smear Quinine plus
IS - Sporozoite in blood Hemolytic anemia Clindamycin

Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidiasis DS & IS - Oocyst Mouth Small intestine Oocysts by fecal Diarrhea, severe in Special stain for None yet
fecal contamination from immunosuppressed oocysts in stool
man and cows

Cystoisospora belli Coccidiosis DS - Oocyst in feces Mouth Small intestine Oocysts by fecal Diarrhea, abdominal Oocysts in stool Pyrimethamine
formerly known as Isospora IS - Mature oocysts with contamination discomfort, malabsorption Biopsy of Small Sulfadiazine
belli sporozoite intestine

Microsporidium spp. Microsporidiosis DS & IS - Cyst Mouth Small intestine Oocysts by fecal Diarrhea, malabsorption Biopsy None yet
Eye contamination Eye pain Examination by EM
Pneumocystis carinii Interstitial plasma Lungs Lungs Inhalation from infected Cough Bronchoalveolar lavage Trimethoprim
Cell pneumonia people / environment Interstitial pneumonia Biopsy Sulfamethoxazole
Pneumocystis pneumonia Special stain, IFA Pentamidine
abbautista '15