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Philippine Normal University


LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS (LET)
Refresher Course

WHAT TO EXPECT
MAJORSHIP: MATHEMATICS
Focus: Number Theory
LET Competencies:

1. Solve problems involving


a. Congruence
b. Linear Diophantine equation
2. Apply Eulers function and theorems or Fermats theorem in
solving problems.

PART I. CONTENT UPDATE

Introduction

This review material discusses some applications of concepts in Number theory namely the theory of
congruences, linear Diophantine equations, Eulers function and theorems and Fermats theorem.

THE THEORY OF CONGRUENCES


If a and b are integers, m a positive integer and m(a b), we say that a is congruent to b modulo m. In
symbols, we write this as a b (mod m). CONGRUENCE was introduced by Karl Friedrich Gauss at the
beginning of the 19th century and is a convenient statement about divisibility.
The following are equivalent and may be used interchangeably.
a b (mod m).
m (a b) or (a b) is divisible by m.
a = b + mk, k Z.
Examples: It is true that 8 1 (mod 7) because 7 divides 8-1.
It is true that 5 -1 (mod 6) because 6 divides 5+1.
It is NOT true that 12 5 (mod 8) because 8 does not divide 12-5.
Theorem 1. If a and b are integers and m a positive integer then a b (mod m) if and only if a and b leave the
same remainder upon division by m.
Examples: It is true that 25 2219161310741 (mod 3)
It is NOT true that 22 16 (mod 7) because 22 leaves a remainder of 1 upon
division by 7 while 16 leaves a remainder of 2 when divided by 7.
Let m be a positive integer. A collection of m integers {a1 , a2 ,..., an } is called a complete residue system
modulo m if every integer b modulo m is congruent to exactly one of the elements in the collection.

Examples The set {-2,7,5,14,18, 9} forms a complete residue system modulo 6 because
18 0 (mod 6), 7 1 (mod 6), 14 2 (mod 6), 9 3 (mod 6), -2 4 (mod 6) and 5 5 (mod 6).
The set {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7} forms a complete residue system modulo 8. Moreover, it is also called
a set of least positive residues modulo 8.

Properties of Congruence
Congruence is an equivalence relation in the set of integers; that is, congruence is reflexive, symmetric and
transitive with respect to integers.
Examples: REFLEXIVE: 2 2 (mod 3) and -8(16) -8(16) (mod 4).
SYMMETRIC: If 7 3 (mod 4), then 3 7 (mod 4).
TRANSITIVE If 2 -1 (mod 3) and -1 5 (mod 3), then 25 (mod 3).
In the following, let a, b, c, and d be integers and m a positive integer.
If a b (mod m) then
a+c b+c (mod m).
ac bc (mod m).
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ar br (mod m) where r is a positive integer.

Examples: If 22 4 (mod 6), then (22-3) 4-3 (mod 6).


If 25 -1 (mod 2), then 25(25) (-1)(25) (mod 2).
If 14 6 (mod 8), then (14)3 (6)3 (mod 8).

If a b (mod m) and c d (mod m), then


a + c (b + d) (mod m).
ac (bd) (mod m).

Examples: If 25 7 (mod 9) and 12 3 (mod 9), then


25 + 12 (7 + 3) (mod 9).
(25)(12) (7)(3) (mod 9) .

m
If ac bc (mod m), then a b mod where d = (c, m).
d
24
Examples: If 80 8 mod 24 or (10)(8) (1)(8) (mod 24), then 10 1 mod since
8
(8, 24) = 8. Thus, it is true that 10 1mod 3 .
4
If 18 6 mod 4 or (9)(2) (3)(2) (mod 4), then 9 3 mod or
2
9 3 1(mod 2) since(4, 2) = 2.

The following are some applications of congruence.


Finding the units digit (or hundreds digits) of a very large number written in exponential
form; and
Finding the remainder when a very large number is divided by another number.

Example To determine the remainder when 2150 is divided by 7, observe that 23 8 1mod 7 and that

150 350 . Hence, 2150 2350 23 150 1mod 7 . This means that when 2150 is divided by 7, it produces
50

a remainder of 1.
To determine the last digit of 17104 is the same as getting 17104 modulo 10. Observe that
172 289 1mod10 and (172 ) (- 1) 1(mod10) . Hence, the last digit of 17104 is 1.
52 52

Let a, b be integers and m a positive integer. A linear congruence in x can be written in the form ax b
(mod m) where a 0.

Theorem 2. Let (a , m) = d. A linear congruence ax b (mod m) has a solution if and only if db. If a
solution exists, then there are exactly d mutually incongruent solutions of the form
cm
x0
d
a b m
where c = 0, 1, 2, , d-1 and x0 is a particular solution of x mod .
d d d

Examples 1. To determine the solution of 34 x 60mod 98 , notice that (34,98)=2 and 2 divides 60. This
means it has exactly two solutions mod 98. We now have the following.

17 x 30mod 49 .
17 x 23 30 23mod 49 .
391x 690mod 49 .
48x 4mod 49 .
x 4mod 49 .
x 45mod 49 .
Hence, 45 is a solution and so is 45 + 49 = 94.

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2. To determine the solution to 45x 3 (mod 48) where the solutions are to be as small as possible in
absolute value, we note that by inspection x0 = -1. Because (45,48) = 3, a complete solution is
48t
x = -1 + = -1 + 16t where t = 0, 1,2.
3
This means that the values of x may be 1, 15 or 31. Although 1 and 15 are elements of the smallest
in the absolute value in their congruence classes, we still need to fulfill the conditions of the problem. We
must replace 31 by 31 48 = -17. Hence, the final answer should be 17, -5 or 15.

Theorem 3. If (a , m) = 1, then the congruence ax 1 (mod m) has a unique solution. That is, if x1 and x2 are
solutions, then x1 x2 (mod m). If (a , m) 1, the congruence ax 1 (mod m) has no solution.

Examples The linear congruence 4x 1 mod 9 has only one solution because (4,9) = 1.
The linear congruence 18x 1 mod 9 has no solution because (18,9) = 2 1.

Theorem 4. Chinese Remainder Theorem


Let m1, m2, , mr, for r 2, be natural numbers such that
M = m1 m2 mr, and (mi , mj) = 1 for i j and a1,a2,a3,, ar for a set of r elements.
Then, the system of congruence x a1 (mod m1)
x a2 (mod m2)
x ar (mod mr)

has a unique solution (mod M).

The following steps are used in finding the solution of a system of linear congruences using the Chinese
Remainder Theorem.
Step 1. Take M = m1 m2 mr, and set for i = 1, 2, 3, , r
Step 2. Form the linear congruence Mibi 1 (mod mi)
Step 3. Form the solution x = a1M1b1 + a2M2b2+ + arMrbr
Example. Consider the system of linear congruences
x 5 (mod 11)
x 14 (mod 29)
x 15 (mod 31).

Observe that
a1 = 5 a2 = 14 a3 = 15
m1 = (29)(31) = 899 m2 = (11)(31)=341 m3 = (11)(29) = 319.

Hence, we now have,


m1 b1 5(mod 11) means 899 b1 1 (mod 11)
m2 b2 14(mod 29) means 341 b2 1 (mod 29)
m3 b3 15(mod 31) means 319 b3 1 (mod 31).

Moreover,
899 b1 1(mod 11) implies 8b1 1 (mod 11); b1 = 7
341 b2 1(mod 29) implies 22 b2 1 (mod 29) ; b2 = 4
319 b3 1(mod 31) implies 9 b3 1 (mod 31) ; b3 = 7.

Thus, x = 5 (899) (7) + 14 (341) (4) + 15 (319) (7) = 84 056.


However, 84 056 4 944 (mod 9889). Therefore, the final answer is 4 944 + 9889k where k is an
integer.
We continue our discussion by studying some important theorems by two of the most prolific
mathematicians in Number Theory namely: Pierre de Fermat and Leonhard Euler.

FERMATS AND EULERS THEOREMS


Theorem 5. (Fermats Little Theorem) Let p be a prime number and a Z . If p does not divide a, then

ap 1 1 (mod p) .
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Examples. Using Fermats theorem, it is true that the remainder when 230 is divided by 31 is 1 because 2
and 31 are relatively prime.
Using the language of congruence, if 17 divides 11104 1 , this means that 11104 1 0mod17 .
This is true since p = 17 is a prime and a = 11 is not divisible by 17 and by Fermats theorem, 1116 1mod17 .
To get the desired congruence, observe that 104 616 8 and 112 121 2mod17 . We write,

11104 1116 118 1624 16 1mod17 . Hence, 11104 1 1 1 0mod17 .
6

Theorem 6. (Fermats Second Theorem). Let p be a prime number and a Z . If p and a are relatively prime,
then
ap a (mod p) .

Example. It is true that the remainder when 231 is divided by 31 is 2 because 2 and 31 are relatively prime.

DEFINITION OF (m)
Let m be a positive integer greater than 1. The number of positive integers less than and relatively
prime to m is the value of Eulers totient or function at m and is denoted by (m) .

Examples: (4) = 2 since 1 and 3 are less than and relatively prime to 4.
(7) = 6 since 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are less than and relatively prime to 7.

Remarks: If p is prime, then ( p) = p 1.

Theorem 7. Eulers Theorem: If n is a positive integer and the greatest common divisor of a and n is 1, then
a n 1mod n .
Example Since 9 6 , then 20096 2009 9 1mod 9 , then dividing 20096 by 9 leaves a remainder of
1.

LINEAR DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS

An equation in one or more unknowns having integral solutions is called a Diophantine equation, in honor
of Diophantus of Alexandria.

Theorem 8. Given two integers a and b where (a , b) = d. The linear Diophantine equation
ax + by = c has an integral solution if and only if dc.

Examples The equation 24x + 138y = 18 has an integral solution because (24,138) = 6 and 6 divides 8.
The equation 3x + 6y = 29 has no integral solution since (3,6) = 3 and 3 does not divide 29.

Theorem 9. If the equation ax + by = c has a solution x = x0 , y = y0, then any other solutions can be
expressed in the form
b
x x0 t , t Z and
d
a
y y0 t , t Z.
d
Example To determine the integral solution of 24x + 138y = 18, we note that since (24,138) = 6 and 618.
Then we know that it has solution. We now have the following.
138 = 5 (24) + 18
24 = 1 (18) + 6
18 = 6 (3).
Moreover,
6 = 24 1(18)
= 24 [138 - 5 (24)]
= (-1)(138) + 6(24)

Furthermore,
18 = 3(6)
= 3[(-1)(138) + 6(24)]
=(-3)(138) +(18)(24)
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Thus, y0 = -3 and x0 = 18

Hence, the solution of the equation is of the form y = -3+23t and x = 18 4t where t is an integer.
There are problems which can be solved using linear Diophantine equations as working equations.

The following steps may be used in solving word problems which involve linear Diophantine equations in
two unknowns/variables:
Step 1. Represent the unknown values using any two variables.
Step 2. Form the equation using the condition given in the problem.
Step 3. Solve the resulting linear Diophantine equation.
Step 4. Determine the solution/s to the problem using the results in step 3.

Example. A certain organization charged P180 per adult and P75 per child in a show. If the total receipts
amounted to P9 000.00 and there were more adults than children, what is the least possible number of
children who attended the show?

Solution:
Step 1: Let x be the number of adults and y be the number of children.
Step 2: The required Diophantine equation is 180x+75y=9 000.
Step 3: Since (180,75) =15 and 15 divides 9 000, then the equation has an integral solution.
Step 4. We now have the following.
180 = 2(75) + 30
75 = 2 (30) + 15
30 = 2(15)
Moreover,
75 = 5(15)
= 5[75-2 (30)]
= 5[75-2 (180-(2(75))]
=25(75)+(-10)(180)
Furthermore,
9 000 = 75 (120)
=[25(75)+(-10)(180)](120)
= (-1 200)(180)+ (3000) (75)
Thus, x0 = -1 200 and y0 = 3 000 satisfy the equation and other solutions take the form x= -1 200 + 5t
and y= 3 000 - 12t where t Z. However, we want x and y to be positive and x > y. For the values to be
positive, we must have 240 < t < 250. We now have the following.
t x y 180x+75y=9 000.
241 5 108 9000
242 10 96 9000
243 15 84 9000
244 20 72 9000
245 25 60 9000
246 30 48 9000
247 35 36 9000
248 40 24 9000
249 45 12 9000

It can be observed that among these values of t, we will have solutions namely x=40, y=24 and x=45,
y=12 . Since we are after for the least possible number of children who attended the show, which is the value
of y, then the answer is 12.

Theorem 10. (Wilsons Theorem) If p is a prime, then (p-1)! 1mod p .

Example: It is true that (2 1)! 1! 1 1mod 2 and 12!13 1! 1mod13 .

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Part II. Analyzing Test Items

Directions: Read the following carefully and choose the best answer from the choices given. Write the
corresponding letter of you choice.

1. Which of the following is true?

A. 34 4mod 5 B. 54 5mod 25 C. 308 0mod11 D. 3 4mod 15

Solution: Note that 5 does not divide 34+4. Hence, option A is not the answer. The value of
54 5 625 5 620 is not divisible by 25. Moreover, 15 does not divide 3+4. On the other hand, 11 divides
308. Thus, option C is the answer.

2. Which of the following is a value of n in 23 3mod n ?

A. 2 B. 3 C. 23 D. 40

Solution: The expression 23 3mod n means that n divides 23-3=20. Observe that 2 divides 20. Therefore,
option A is the answer.

3. What is the remainder when 2200 is divided by 5?

A. -1 B. 1 C. 2 D. 4

Solution: It is the same as to get 2200 modulo 5. Note that 22 4 . Hence, 22 4 1mod 5 and

2200 22
100
1
100
1mod 5 . Thus, 1 is the remainder when 2200 is divided by 5.

4. What is the units digit of 7214 3 ?

A. 2 B. 3 C. 5 D. 9

Solution: The question asks us to get 7214 3 modulo 10. Since


7
49107 1
2 107 107
1mod 10 and 7214 3 1 3 2mod 10 .
Then, option A is the answer.

5. How many distinct incongruent solutions are there if 140 x 133mod 301 ?

A. 2 B. 5 C. 7 D. 10

Solution: Since (140,301)=7 and 7 divides 133, then there are 7 distinct solutions modulo 301.

6. Which of the following is congruent to 5 modulo 6?

A. -6 B. -5 C. -1 D. 1

Solution: Since 6 does not divide - 6 5; - 5 5 nor 1 5 then options A, B, and C are not the answer. Observe
that -1 5 = -6 and 6 divides -6. Thus, option C is the answer.

7. Which of the following is the remainder when 5224 is divided by 223?

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A. 5 B. 10 C. 25 D. 222

Solution: Note that 223 is a prime number and it does not divide 5. By Fermats theorem, 5222 1mod 223 .

Thus, 5224 52222 522252 1 52 25mod 223 . This means the answer is 25.

8. Claire argues that 12 10mod11 . Is she correct? Why?

A. Yes, because 11 divides 12-10. C. No, because 11 does not divide 12+10.
B. Yes, because 11 divides 12+10. D. No, because 12 10 111 .

9. Which of the following must be the value of x such that x 2 1mod 8 ?

A. x is an even number C. x is an odd number


B. x is a composite number D. x is a prime number

10. What is 31 ?

A. 0 B. 1 C. 13 D. 30

11. When 100 is divided into two parts such that one part is divisible by 7 and the other by 11, which of the
following are the parts?

A. 70 and 77 B. 49 and 33 C. 28 and 72 D. 56 and 44

12. What is the remainder when 2100 is divided by 101?

A. 1 B. 2 C. 10 D. 101

13. Which of the following the remainder when 423 is divided by 23?

A. -1 B. 0 C. 2 D. 4

14. Which of the following is the remainder when we divide a by 4 if a b mod 4 ?

A. 0 B. b C. a + b D. 4ab

15. Which of the following is the remainder when 15 25 35 ... 995 1005 is divided by 4?

A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3

16. What is the remainder when 2009! is divided by 131?

A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3

17. What is the remainder when 10! is divided by 7?

A. -1 B.0 C.1 D. 6

18. Which of the following is NOT an integral solution of 18x 7 y 302 ?

A. x=2 and y=38 B. x=9 and y=20 C. x=2 and y=16 D. x=16 and y=2
19. Which of the following is an integral solution of 5x 7 y 91 ?

A. x=14 and y=2 B. x=3 and y=8 C. x=2 and y=28 D. x=7 and y=8

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20. John Ralph has five-peso coins and ten-peso coins amounting to P45. Which of the following will NOT
produce the said amount?

A. One 5- peso coins; four 10-peso coins C. Three 5- peso coins; four 10-peso coins
B. Five 5- peso coins; two 10-peso coins D. Seven 5- peso coins; one 10-peso coins

21. If seven time a positive integer x added to five times another positive integer y gives a sum of 100, which
of the following is true?

A. x=10 and y=6 B. x=30 and y=70 C. x=35 and y=65 D. x=70 and y=30

22. What is the remainder upon dividing the sum 1!2!3!... 2008!2009! by 6?

A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4

23. Which of the following would be the remainder when 220 is divided by 41?

A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 40

24. Which of the following has an integral solution?

A. 25x 3mod 10 B. 24 x 7mod 15 C. 16 x 9mod 38 D. 18x 30mod 42

25. How many integral solutions does 9 x 21mod 30 have?

A. 2 B. 3 C. 7 D. 10

26. How many integral solutions does 35x 9mod 10 have?

A. None B. 1 C. 2 D. 9

27. What is the least positive integral value of x in the following linear congruences?
3x 7 (mod 5)
x 3 (mod 4)
5x 2 (mod 11)
A. 42 B. 49 C.156 D. 220

28. What is left when 1,024 books is divided equally among eleven students?

A. 0 B. 1 C. 5 D. 10

29. Which of the following is the value of x if 5x 2mod 26 ?

A. 2 B. 16 C. 20 D. 25

30. If a number of notebooks is divided equally among 77 students, there will be 27 left. On the other hand, if
these are divided among eight people, there will be none left. What is the smallest number of notebooks there
are?

A. 27 B. 44 C. 104 D. 105

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