21 views

Uploaded by novey_casio

Number Theory

- Program Genap
- Diop Han Tine
- NJCCS Mathematics HS
- Residue Number Systems
- Ejemplo
- Cryptology Presentation
- Non-Associative Algebraic Structures on MOD Planes
- Whitehead - Guide to Abstract Algebra
- Linear Congruences
- IJETR021515
- articol22009
- v17_n3
- Polar Form of a Complex Number
- Rsa
- specialized methods - lesson plan 3
- Nurturance for Differential Equation
- elimpowerpoint
- chapter 2 warm ups
- l8.Systems of Linear Equations
- linear algebra systems

You are on page 1of 8

LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS (LET)

Refresher Course

WHAT TO EXPECT

MAJORSHIP: MATHEMATICS

Focus: Number Theory

LET Competencies:

a. Congruence

b. Linear Diophantine equation

2. Apply Eulers function and theorems or Fermats theorem in

solving problems.

Introduction

This review material discusses some applications of concepts in Number theory namely the theory of

congruences, linear Diophantine equations, Eulers function and theorems and Fermats theorem.

If a and b are integers, m a positive integer and m(a b), we say that a is congruent to b modulo m. In

symbols, we write this as a b (mod m). CONGRUENCE was introduced by Karl Friedrich Gauss at the

beginning of the 19th century and is a convenient statement about divisibility.

The following are equivalent and may be used interchangeably.

a b (mod m).

m (a b) or (a b) is divisible by m.

a = b + mk, k Z.

Examples: It is true that 8 1 (mod 7) because 7 divides 8-1.

It is true that 5 -1 (mod 6) because 6 divides 5+1.

It is NOT true that 12 5 (mod 8) because 8 does not divide 12-5.

Theorem 1. If a and b are integers and m a positive integer then a b (mod m) if and only if a and b leave the

same remainder upon division by m.

Examples: It is true that 25 2219161310741 (mod 3)

It is NOT true that 22 16 (mod 7) because 22 leaves a remainder of 1 upon

division by 7 while 16 leaves a remainder of 2 when divided by 7.

Let m be a positive integer. A collection of m integers {a1 , a2 ,..., an } is called a complete residue system

modulo m if every integer b modulo m is congruent to exactly one of the elements in the collection.

Examples The set {-2,7,5,14,18, 9} forms a complete residue system modulo 6 because

18 0 (mod 6), 7 1 (mod 6), 14 2 (mod 6), 9 3 (mod 6), -2 4 (mod 6) and 5 5 (mod 6).

The set {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7} forms a complete residue system modulo 8. Moreover, it is also called

a set of least positive residues modulo 8.

Properties of Congruence

Congruence is an equivalence relation in the set of integers; that is, congruence is reflexive, symmetric and

transitive with respect to integers.

Examples: REFLEXIVE: 2 2 (mod 3) and -8(16) -8(16) (mod 4).

SYMMETRIC: If 7 3 (mod 4), then 3 7 (mod 4).

TRANSITIVE If 2 -1 (mod 3) and -1 5 (mod 3), then 25 (mod 3).

In the following, let a, b, c, and d be integers and m a positive integer.

If a b (mod m) then

a+c b+c (mod m).

ac bc (mod m).

St. Louis Review Center, Inc San Pablo City Branch

http://www.slreviewcenter.com | https://www.facebook.com/SLRCspc 1

(049)562-2239 | 0917-584-8106

| Mathematics Major [7]

ar br (mod m) where r is a positive integer.

If 25 -1 (mod 2), then 25(25) (-1)(25) (mod 2).

If 14 6 (mod 8), then (14)3 (6)3 (mod 8).

a + c (b + d) (mod m).

ac (bd) (mod m).

25 + 12 (7 + 3) (mod 9).

(25)(12) (7)(3) (mod 9) .

m

If ac bc (mod m), then a b mod where d = (c, m).

d

24

Examples: If 80 8 mod 24 or (10)(8) (1)(8) (mod 24), then 10 1 mod since

8

(8, 24) = 8. Thus, it is true that 10 1mod 3 .

4

If 18 6 mod 4 or (9)(2) (3)(2) (mod 4), then 9 3 mod or

2

9 3 1(mod 2) since(4, 2) = 2.

Finding the units digit (or hundreds digits) of a very large number written in exponential

form; and

Finding the remainder when a very large number is divided by another number.

Example To determine the remainder when 2150 is divided by 7, observe that 23 8 1mod 7 and that

150 350 . Hence, 2150 2350 23 150 1mod 7 . This means that when 2150 is divided by 7, it produces

50

a remainder of 1.

To determine the last digit of 17104 is the same as getting 17104 modulo 10. Observe that

172 289 1mod10 and (172 ) (- 1) 1(mod10) . Hence, the last digit of 17104 is 1.

52 52

Let a, b be integers and m a positive integer. A linear congruence in x can be written in the form ax b

(mod m) where a 0.

Theorem 2. Let (a , m) = d. A linear congruence ax b (mod m) has a solution if and only if db. If a

solution exists, then there are exactly d mutually incongruent solutions of the form

cm

x0

d

a b m

where c = 0, 1, 2, , d-1 and x0 is a particular solution of x mod .

d d d

Examples 1. To determine the solution of 34 x 60mod 98 , notice that (34,98)=2 and 2 divides 60. This

means it has exactly two solutions mod 98. We now have the following.

17 x 30mod 49 .

17 x 23 30 23mod 49 .

391x 690mod 49 .

48x 4mod 49 .

x 4mod 49 .

x 45mod 49 .

Hence, 45 is a solution and so is 45 + 49 = 94.

http://www.slreviewcenter.com | https://www.facebook.com/SLRCspc 2

(049)562-2239 | 0917-584-8106

| Mathematics Major [7]

2. To determine the solution to 45x 3 (mod 48) where the solutions are to be as small as possible in

absolute value, we note that by inspection x0 = -1. Because (45,48) = 3, a complete solution is

48t

x = -1 + = -1 + 16t where t = 0, 1,2.

3

This means that the values of x may be 1, 15 or 31. Although 1 and 15 are elements of the smallest

in the absolute value in their congruence classes, we still need to fulfill the conditions of the problem. We

must replace 31 by 31 48 = -17. Hence, the final answer should be 17, -5 or 15.

Theorem 3. If (a , m) = 1, then the congruence ax 1 (mod m) has a unique solution. That is, if x1 and x2 are

solutions, then x1 x2 (mod m). If (a , m) 1, the congruence ax 1 (mod m) has no solution.

Examples The linear congruence 4x 1 mod 9 has only one solution because (4,9) = 1.

The linear congruence 18x 1 mod 9 has no solution because (18,9) = 2 1.

Let m1, m2, , mr, for r 2, be natural numbers such that

M = m1 m2 mr, and (mi , mj) = 1 for i j and a1,a2,a3,, ar for a set of r elements.

Then, the system of congruence x a1 (mod m1)

x a2 (mod m2)

x ar (mod mr)

The following steps are used in finding the solution of a system of linear congruences using the Chinese

Remainder Theorem.

Step 1. Take M = m1 m2 mr, and set for i = 1, 2, 3, , r

Step 2. Form the linear congruence Mibi 1 (mod mi)

Step 3. Form the solution x = a1M1b1 + a2M2b2+ + arMrbr

Example. Consider the system of linear congruences

x 5 (mod 11)

x 14 (mod 29)

x 15 (mod 31).

Observe that

a1 = 5 a2 = 14 a3 = 15

m1 = (29)(31) = 899 m2 = (11)(31)=341 m3 = (11)(29) = 319.

m1 b1 5(mod 11) means 899 b1 1 (mod 11)

m2 b2 14(mod 29) means 341 b2 1 (mod 29)

m3 b3 15(mod 31) means 319 b3 1 (mod 31).

Moreover,

899 b1 1(mod 11) implies 8b1 1 (mod 11); b1 = 7

341 b2 1(mod 29) implies 22 b2 1 (mod 29) ; b2 = 4

319 b3 1(mod 31) implies 9 b3 1 (mod 31) ; b3 = 7.

However, 84 056 4 944 (mod 9889). Therefore, the final answer is 4 944 + 9889k where k is an

integer.

We continue our discussion by studying some important theorems by two of the most prolific

mathematicians in Number Theory namely: Pierre de Fermat and Leonhard Euler.

Theorem 5. (Fermats Little Theorem) Let p be a prime number and a Z . If p does not divide a, then

ap 1 1 (mod p) .

St. Louis Review Center, Inc San Pablo City Branch

http://www.slreviewcenter.com | https://www.facebook.com/SLRCspc 3

(049)562-2239 | 0917-584-8106

| Mathematics Major [7]

Examples. Using Fermats theorem, it is true that the remainder when 230 is divided by 31 is 1 because 2

and 31 are relatively prime.

Using the language of congruence, if 17 divides 11104 1 , this means that 11104 1 0mod17 .

This is true since p = 17 is a prime and a = 11 is not divisible by 17 and by Fermats theorem, 1116 1mod17 .

To get the desired congruence, observe that 104 616 8 and 112 121 2mod17 . We write,

11104 1116 118 1624 16 1mod17 . Hence, 11104 1 1 1 0mod17 .

6

Theorem 6. (Fermats Second Theorem). Let p be a prime number and a Z . If p and a are relatively prime,

then

ap a (mod p) .

Example. It is true that the remainder when 231 is divided by 31 is 2 because 2 and 31 are relatively prime.

DEFINITION OF (m)

Let m be a positive integer greater than 1. The number of positive integers less than and relatively

prime to m is the value of Eulers totient or function at m and is denoted by (m) .

Examples: (4) = 2 since 1 and 3 are less than and relatively prime to 4.

(7) = 6 since 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are less than and relatively prime to 7.

Theorem 7. Eulers Theorem: If n is a positive integer and the greatest common divisor of a and n is 1, then

a n 1mod n .

Example Since 9 6 , then 20096 2009 9 1mod 9 , then dividing 20096 by 9 leaves a remainder of

1.

An equation in one or more unknowns having integral solutions is called a Diophantine equation, in honor

of Diophantus of Alexandria.

Theorem 8. Given two integers a and b where (a , b) = d. The linear Diophantine equation

ax + by = c has an integral solution if and only if dc.

Examples The equation 24x + 138y = 18 has an integral solution because (24,138) = 6 and 6 divides 8.

The equation 3x + 6y = 29 has no integral solution since (3,6) = 3 and 3 does not divide 29.

Theorem 9. If the equation ax + by = c has a solution x = x0 , y = y0, then any other solutions can be

expressed in the form

b

x x0 t , t Z and

d

a

y y0 t , t Z.

d

Example To determine the integral solution of 24x + 138y = 18, we note that since (24,138) = 6 and 618.

Then we know that it has solution. We now have the following.

138 = 5 (24) + 18

24 = 1 (18) + 6

18 = 6 (3).

Moreover,

6 = 24 1(18)

= 24 [138 - 5 (24)]

= (-1)(138) + 6(24)

Furthermore,

18 = 3(6)

= 3[(-1)(138) + 6(24)]

=(-3)(138) +(18)(24)

St. Louis Review Center, Inc San Pablo City Branch

http://www.slreviewcenter.com | https://www.facebook.com/SLRCspc 4

(049)562-2239 | 0917-584-8106

| Mathematics Major [7]

Thus, y0 = -3 and x0 = 18

Hence, the solution of the equation is of the form y = -3+23t and x = 18 4t where t is an integer.

There are problems which can be solved using linear Diophantine equations as working equations.

The following steps may be used in solving word problems which involve linear Diophantine equations in

two unknowns/variables:

Step 1. Represent the unknown values using any two variables.

Step 2. Form the equation using the condition given in the problem.

Step 3. Solve the resulting linear Diophantine equation.

Step 4. Determine the solution/s to the problem using the results in step 3.

Example. A certain organization charged P180 per adult and P75 per child in a show. If the total receipts

amounted to P9 000.00 and there were more adults than children, what is the least possible number of

children who attended the show?

Solution:

Step 1: Let x be the number of adults and y be the number of children.

Step 2: The required Diophantine equation is 180x+75y=9 000.

Step 3: Since (180,75) =15 and 15 divides 9 000, then the equation has an integral solution.

Step 4. We now have the following.

180 = 2(75) + 30

75 = 2 (30) + 15

30 = 2(15)

Moreover,

75 = 5(15)

= 5[75-2 (30)]

= 5[75-2 (180-(2(75))]

=25(75)+(-10)(180)

Furthermore,

9 000 = 75 (120)

=[25(75)+(-10)(180)](120)

= (-1 200)(180)+ (3000) (75)

Thus, x0 = -1 200 and y0 = 3 000 satisfy the equation and other solutions take the form x= -1 200 + 5t

and y= 3 000 - 12t where t Z. However, we want x and y to be positive and x > y. For the values to be

positive, we must have 240 < t < 250. We now have the following.

t x y 180x+75y=9 000.

241 5 108 9000

242 10 96 9000

243 15 84 9000

244 20 72 9000

245 25 60 9000

246 30 48 9000

247 35 36 9000

248 40 24 9000

249 45 12 9000

It can be observed that among these values of t, we will have solutions namely x=40, y=24 and x=45,

y=12 . Since we are after for the least possible number of children who attended the show, which is the value

of y, then the answer is 12.

http://www.slreviewcenter.com | https://www.facebook.com/SLRCspc 5

(049)562-2239 | 0917-584-8106

| Mathematics Major [7]

Directions: Read the following carefully and choose the best answer from the choices given. Write the

corresponding letter of you choice.

Solution: Note that 5 does not divide 34+4. Hence, option A is not the answer. The value of

54 5 625 5 620 is not divisible by 25. Moreover, 15 does not divide 3+4. On the other hand, 11 divides

308. Thus, option C is the answer.

A. 2 B. 3 C. 23 D. 40

Solution: The expression 23 3mod n means that n divides 23-3=20. Observe that 2 divides 20. Therefore,

option A is the answer.

A. -1 B. 1 C. 2 D. 4

Solution: It is the same as to get 2200 modulo 5. Note that 22 4 . Hence, 22 4 1mod 5 and

2200 22

100

1

100

1mod 5 . Thus, 1 is the remainder when 2200 is divided by 5.

A. 2 B. 3 C. 5 D. 9

7

49107 1

2 107 107

1mod 10 and 7214 3 1 3 2mod 10 .

Then, option A is the answer.

5. How many distinct incongruent solutions are there if 140 x 133mod 301 ?

A. 2 B. 5 C. 7 D. 10

Solution: Since (140,301)=7 and 7 divides 133, then there are 7 distinct solutions modulo 301.

A. -6 B. -5 C. -1 D. 1

Solution: Since 6 does not divide - 6 5; - 5 5 nor 1 5 then options A, B, and C are not the answer. Observe

that -1 5 = -6 and 6 divides -6. Thus, option C is the answer.

http://www.slreviewcenter.com | https://www.facebook.com/SLRCspc 6

(049)562-2239 | 0917-584-8106

| Mathematics Major [7]

A. 5 B. 10 C. 25 D. 222

Solution: Note that 223 is a prime number and it does not divide 5. By Fermats theorem, 5222 1mod 223 .

Thus, 5224 52222 522252 1 52 25mod 223 . This means the answer is 25.

A. Yes, because 11 divides 12-10. C. No, because 11 does not divide 12+10.

B. Yes, because 11 divides 12+10. D. No, because 12 10 111 .

B. x is a composite number D. x is a prime number

10. What is 31 ?

A. 0 B. 1 C. 13 D. 30

11. When 100 is divided into two parts such that one part is divisible by 7 and the other by 11, which of the

following are the parts?

A. 1 B. 2 C. 10 D. 101

13. Which of the following the remainder when 423 is divided by 23?

A. -1 B. 0 C. 2 D. 4

A. 0 B. b C. a + b D. 4ab

15. Which of the following is the remainder when 15 25 35 ... 995 1005 is divided by 4?

A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3

A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3

A. -1 B.0 C.1 D. 6

A. x=2 and y=38 B. x=9 and y=20 C. x=2 and y=16 D. x=16 and y=2

19. Which of the following is an integral solution of 5x 7 y 91 ?

A. x=14 and y=2 B. x=3 and y=8 C. x=2 and y=28 D. x=7 and y=8

http://www.slreviewcenter.com | https://www.facebook.com/SLRCspc 7

(049)562-2239 | 0917-584-8106

| Mathematics Major [7]

20. John Ralph has five-peso coins and ten-peso coins amounting to P45. Which of the following will NOT

produce the said amount?

A. One 5- peso coins; four 10-peso coins C. Three 5- peso coins; four 10-peso coins

B. Five 5- peso coins; two 10-peso coins D. Seven 5- peso coins; one 10-peso coins

21. If seven time a positive integer x added to five times another positive integer y gives a sum of 100, which

of the following is true?

A. x=10 and y=6 B. x=30 and y=70 C. x=35 and y=65 D. x=70 and y=30

22. What is the remainder upon dividing the sum 1!2!3!... 2008!2009! by 6?

A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4

23. Which of the following would be the remainder when 220 is divided by 41?

A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 40

A. 2 B. 3 C. 7 D. 10

A. None B. 1 C. 2 D. 9

27. What is the least positive integral value of x in the following linear congruences?

3x 7 (mod 5)

x 3 (mod 4)

5x 2 (mod 11)

A. 42 B. 49 C.156 D. 220

28. What is left when 1,024 books is divided equally among eleven students?

A. 0 B. 1 C. 5 D. 10

A. 2 B. 16 C. 20 D. 25

30. If a number of notebooks is divided equally among 77 students, there will be 27 left. On the other hand, if

these are divided among eight people, there will be none left. What is the smallest number of notebooks there

are?

A. 27 B. 44 C. 104 D. 105

http://www.slreviewcenter.com | https://www.facebook.com/SLRCspc 8

(049)562-2239 | 0917-584-8106

- Program GenapUploaded byEdi Mulyadi
- Diop Han TineUploaded byHazel Clemente Carreon
- NJCCS Mathematics HSUploaded byAnthony Rossetti
- Residue Number SystemsUploaded byMeera Bommi M
- EjemploUploaded byAstrid Carolina Matamoros Lugo
- Cryptology PresentationUploaded byjohnbrunzell
- Non-Associative Algebraic Structures on MOD PlanesUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Whitehead - Guide to Abstract AlgebraUploaded bychungsam19
- Linear CongruencesUploaded byJohn Albert Reyes
- IJETR021515Uploaded byerpublication
- articol22009Uploaded byIoana Ionescu
- v17_n3Uploaded bynarmo66
- Polar Form of a Complex NumberUploaded byJade Oviedo Sentinellar
- RsaUploaded byShireesha Yeddu
- specialized methods - lesson plan 3Uploaded byapi-301234287
- Nurturance for Differential EquationUploaded byMark
- elimpowerpointUploaded byapi-327041524
- chapter 2 warm upsUploaded byapi-259543534
- l8.Systems of Linear EquationsUploaded byMichael Jefferson T. Valdez
- linear algebra systemsUploaded byAndre McAuslin Pinsonault
- assessment project of recordUploaded byapi-208358319
- math 8 unit 1 3 unit studyUploaded byapi-270891801
- WS1 Factors MultiplesUploaded bydogsdontdomath
- Substitution Method Lesson3Uploaded byHLSSummerInstitute
- 05-LinearEquationsUploaded bytamleduc1810dn
- MetamaterialUploaded byRatsih
- abcUploaded byshahid
- Application of Math Principles to Engineering.pdfUploaded byEseosa Musa
- onestepeqseUploaded byapi-271860894
- rpt math t2Uploaded byHe Si Ru

- 8 Let Trigonometry.pdf7Uploaded bynovey_casio
- Prc Let DocsUploaded bynovey_casio
- Variation ProblemsUploaded bynovey_casio
- Mathematics FormulaUploaded byOliver Molitas
- Identifying Sentence Errors.docxUploaded byNéè Roz
- Secondary Sept.2015 LET Math 1 1Uploaded bynovey_casio
- 4 Let Arithmetic.pdf9Uploaded bynovey_casio
- 6-let_geometry.pdf13.pdfUploaded bynovey_casio
- 1 Analytic Geometry.pdf3Uploaded bynovey_casio
- Sect 3.x VARIATION 094.pdfUploaded bynovey_casio
- 3 Let Advanced Algebra.pdf6Uploaded bynovey_casio
- fx-115_991ES_PLUS_C_EUploaded byDrew B Mrtnz
- 2 Calculus.pdf5Uploaded bynovey_casio
- 5 Let Basic Algebra.pdf12Uploaded bynovey_casio
- 6-let_geometry.pdf13.pdfUploaded bynovey_casio

- Nonhomogeneous Equations: Variation of ParametersUploaded byNicole S. Flores
- Chapter 1 Real Numbers and their PropertiesUploaded byKal Buenaflor
- SetsUploaded byCharina May Lagunde
- Answer 2Uploaded by廖宥丞
- differentials and error.pdfUploaded byLuis Ignacio Lomeli Galaz
- Bat dang thuc luong giacUploaded byapi-19473489
- Arithmetic ProgressionUploaded byJuan Chee Wong
- Spring 12 Math 106 Sample Final Key (1)Uploaded byAli Jonson
- Chapter 13 Vector Valued Functions and Motion in Space v3Uploaded byBelleRz12
- NumericalUploaded byመልሠው ብዙአየሁ መኮንን
- Math 780 NotesUploaded byVlad Copil
- ADDAUploaded byAnupam Kumar
- documentUploaded byAnonymous gC6zjrhQM
- SS JNTU HYDUploaded bygiribabukande
- Algebra HandbookUploaded byDhiman Nath
- CLERC Constriction PSOUploaded byAnonymous PsEz5kGVae
- 01216163Uploaded byKishan Bhushan Sahay
- LUHN PRIME NUMBERSUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Signals and Systems NotesUploaded byZakir Ullah
- Fuhrmann M. - Locally Compact Quantum Groups and Groupoids(2003)(246).pdfUploaded byoscura
- 6 IJAEST Volume No 2 Issue No 2 Representative Based Method of Categorical Data Clustering 152 156Uploaded byiserp
- Assignment 1Uploaded byHassan Tariq
- Chapter 1nUploaded byNuraddeen Magaji
- Game TheoryUploaded bykshitijsaxena
- double integralsUploaded byElena Pinka
- EHS Algebra 1 2013/2014Uploaded bySmithMath
- Cadeias MarkovUploaded byFelipe Álvares
- Module 4Uploaded byNagamalli Swamy
- matlabUploaded byhonnamb
- 64-FuscoUploaded byGiovanni Gatto