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Unit 1 : Combustion

Study Guide!

1. What is combustion? Write down the equation for combustion.

Combustion is the process by which a hydrocarbon ( food/fuel ) burns in the presence of oxygen
and spark .
CxHy + O2 = H20 + C02 - delta H

2. What are the reactants and products of combustion?

Reactants : Fuel and oxygen Products : water, carbon dioxide and heat.

3. In terms of system and surrounding, which way does the energy flow in
combustion? What are those type of chemical reactions called? Draw a picture.
In Combustion, energy flows from the system to the surrounding. These are called exothermic
reactions.

4. In terms of system and surrounding, which way does the heat flow in reactions that
ABSORB energy? What are those reactions called? Draw a picture.

Reactions that absorb energy have energy travelling from the surrounding to the system and are
called endothermic reactions. Arrows are reversed as in the first diagram

5. When you are boiling water on the stove, you can see steam escaping. Is the process
endothermic or exothermic? Why?

Water boils and vaporizes absorbing energy from the surrounding. Hence it is an endothermic
process.

6. Draw the energy diagram with labels for an exothermic reaction or process.

7. Draw the energy diagram for an endothermic reaction or process. Label your graph.
8. What is the extra energy needed by reactants to start the reaction called? Imagine
rolling a stone uphill before rolling it down. What energy does it acquire on top of the hill?

Activation energy. It is the minimum amount of energy needed to start the reaction.

9. If we are measuring the temperature of the surrounding for a system undergoing a


change, and we see an increase in the temperature, what does it mean? Is the change
exothermic or endothermic?

It means the surrounding is getting heat from the system,. It is an exothermic reaction.
10. If we are measuring the temperature of the surrounding for a system undergoing a
change, and we see an decrease in the temperature, what does it mean? Is the change
exothermic or endothermic?

It means the system is absorbing heat from the surrounding,. It is an endothermic reaction.

11. What is enthalpy? What symbol do we use for it?

Enthalpy is the heat/ thermal energy of a system.

12. What kind of reaction has a positive enthalpy?

Endothermic reactions.

13. What kind of reaction has a negative enthalpy?

Exothermic reactions.

14. What is an example of a combustion reaction?

Digestion of food, burning a candle.

15. Draw the fire triangle ( what three things are needed for combustion to start?

Fuel, fire , oxygen.

16. A firecracker burns releasing heat and light. What kind of a reaction is it?

Exothermic.

17. In photosynthesis plants use suns energy to make glucose. What kind of a reaction
is it?

Endothermic.

18. Which kind of reaction ( exo/endothermic ) needs the reactants to gain more
activation energy? Look at the graphs to help you visualize!

Endothermic.
19. What are two other words or phrases we can use instead of enthalpy?

Heat of reaction, thermal energy.

20. Draw the system/surrounding and energy flow in an exothermic reaction.

21. Draw the system/surrounding and energy flow in an endothermic reaction.

22. Which reactions end up with products at a higher energy level?

Endothermic.

23. Which reactions end up with products at a lower energy level?

Exothermic.

24. What are the main elements in a food or fuel?

Carbon, Hydrogen.

25. What are the three essentials for combustion to occur?

Fuel, fire, oxygen.

26. What is the energy contained in food called?

Chemical Potential Energy

27. What is energy?

The capacity to do work.

28. What equation do we use to calculate the energy in food?

Q = m d delta t
29. What is the unit of heat?

Calories, KiloCalories, Joules, KiloJoules

30. What is 1 Calorie?

The amount of heat required, to raise the temperature of 1 gm of water through 1 Degree
Celsius.

31. What does the variable m represent?

Mass, unit Grams/KiloGrams

32. What variable do we use to indicate a difference in temperature?

Delta t

33. What is a chemical change?

A process where two or more compounds react to produce a new substance/substances.

34. Give an example of a physical change.

An ice cube melting, water boiling.

35. Which way does energy flow when bonds break?

From surrounding to system. Energy is absorbed by the system.

36. Which way does the energy flow when new bonds are formed?

From system to surrounding. Energy is released by the system.

37. Two compounds AB and CD react to form two new compounds AC and BD. Draw a
diagram to describe this reaction at the molecular level. Indicate energy flow with arrows.
Write down the enthalpy change in the equation if it was endothermic.

Energy goes in to break bond, energy comes out when new bonds are formed. Endothermic,
enthalpy change is negative ( heat goes out from the system)
38. What is intermolecular force?

The force that holds molecules of a substance together.

39. If a substance has strong intermolecular force, will its evaporation rate be high or
low? Why?

If a substance has molecules that stick together with a stronger force, more energy will be
needed to break them apart. Hence its rate of evaporation will be low, as it would take longer for
it to absorb enough energy for its molecules to vaporize.

40. Evaporation is a physical change. Is the process exothermic or endothermic?

Evaporation is an endothermic process. During this physical change, substances change


phase, from liquid to vapor by absorbing energy from the surroundings.