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History 167: Westward Expansion

PART 1: 1865-1913 fire carrier


WESTWARD EXPANSION powder horn
spoons
WESTWARD EXPANSION ladles
PERIOD: 1865-1890 headdresses
The West signals
refers to all territory west of the area granted to the toys
United States by the Treaty of Paris (1783) TONGUE (D):
refers to the forested country to the west of the meat
Appalachian Ridge BEARD (E):
refers to all land west of the Mississippi River ornamentation
refers to all lands west of the Louisiana Purchase apparel
Territory weapons
RAWHIDE (F):
THE PEOPLES OF THE WEST containers
Plains Indians clothing
lived in the Great Plains region headdresses
lived in cone-like tents (tepees) food
typical full dress attire of warrior-chieftains medicine bags
made up of the following groups: shields
Comanche buckets
Sioux moccasin soles
Crow rattles
Blackfoot drums
Cheyenne drumsticks
Comanche splints
Center: Texas, Kansas, Oklahoma cinches
Sioux ropes
Center: South Dakota, North Dakota thongs
Crow saddles
Center: Montana stirrups
Blackfoot knife cases
Center: Montana bull boats
Cheyenne quirts
Center: Montana, Iowa, Oklahoma armbands
lance cases
Plains Indians horse masks
Depended on 2 very important animals horse forehead ornaments
Bison bullet pouches
Horse belts
Bison: large mammals of the bovine family group ornamentation
use their toes (usually hoofed) for standing, walking apparel
and running weapons
Uses of Bison BUCKSKIN (G):
SKULL (B): moccasin tops
ceremonies cradles
sun dance winter robes
prayer bedding
HORNS (C): breechclouts
cups shirts
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leggings also known as Buffalo Bill


belts hired by the railroad companies to hunt bison
dresses AIM: (1) to acquire hides of bison to be made into
pipe bags buffalo robes; (2) to prevent bison from stepping on
pouches the railroad tracks (damaged the railroad tracks); and
paint bags (3) to provide leisure and sport to the wealthy
quivers IMPACT:
tipi covers 1860 --- 15,000,000 bison
gun cases 1891 --- 551 bison
lance covers Destruction of the Mustang
coup flag covers AIM: (1) to be captured for military use; (2) to be
dolls slaughtered for use as pet food
HOOF and FEET (H): Destruction of Bison and Mustang
glue IMPACT:
rattles near extinction of a species
MEAT (I): near extinction of a people
pemmican (converted)
hump ribs immediately INDIAN WARS
jerky (converted) United States Cavalry
inner parts (eaten on the spot) refers to the mounted force of the United States
FOUR-CHAMBERED STOMACH (J): Army from the late 18th century up to the 20th
container for carrying and storing water century
cooking vessel accompanied the settlers who went to the West
SCROTUM (K): fought against the Indians who inhabited lands in
rattles the West
BLADDER (L): Indian Wars
sinew pouches series of skirmishes between the U.S. Cavalry and
quill pouches various Indian tribes in the Great Plains region
small medicine bags PERIOD: 1865-1890
PAUNCH (M): CHARACTERISTICS:
lining for buckets, cups, basins, dishes a. small skirmishes
SKIN OF HIND LEG (N): 1. Sitting Bull
moccasins or boots 1831-1890
BUFFALO CHIPS (O): Miles City (Montana)
fuel 2. Crazy Horse
signals 1845-1877
ceremonial smoking b. few pitched battles
Horse: more popularly called mustang 1. Battle of the Little Big Horn
Uses of Horses DATE: June 25-26, 1876
to traverse the Great Plains region PLACE: Montana
to trail after herds of bison U.S. CAVALRY:
to hunt bison superior weapons
Bison and Horses large numbers
SIGNIFICANCE: indispensable to way of life of Plains officers trained in warfare
Indians George Custer
Destruction of the Bison 1839-1876
PERIOD: 1860-1890 New Rumley (Ohio)
AIM: to feed the work crews building railroads in 2. Sioux Uprising
the West DATE: 1862
William Cody PLACE: Minnesota
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LITTLE CROW: leader of the Sioux HERD: moved 10-15 miles a day
CAUSE OF THE WAR: failure of the United States to TRAIL CREW: group of men responsible for herding
comply with provisions of the treaty signed with the cattle
Sioux Cattle Ranching Industry
RESULT: decisive victory of the Minnesota $5: cost of raising a steer on open public lands
Volunteers in the U.S. Army $50: price of steer when sold in large mid-West
Dawes Act cities
PASSED: 1887
PROPONENT: Henry Dawes MINING INDUSTRY
AIM: (1) to Americanize the Indian peoples; (2) to Discovery of Gold
make Indian peoples self-sustaining citizens through Coloma (California): 1849
the adoption of the way of life of the larger society Pikes Peak (Colorado): 1859
divided Indian lands into 64-hectare parcels and Tombstone (Arizona): 1862
distributed to households Helena (Montana): 1864
IMPACT: defeated, demoralized and reduced the Black Hills (South Dakota): 1874
Indians to a life of idleness in the reservations Discovery of Silver
Fort Peck Indian Reservation Virginia City (Nevada): 1859
CITIZENSHIP: American Leadville (Colorado): 1875
CULTURE: Indian Discovery of Gold and Silver
1. Sioux SIGNIFICANCE:
2. Cheyenne rise and growth of mining camps
3. Crow increase of population (5,000-10,000 per mining
camp)
CATTLE INDUSTRY development of urban services (paved streets, gas
Ranches: acquired the largest parcels of land in the lighting, water system, schools, churches, hospitals),
West; devoted to the raising of cattle i.e. Virginia City
Great Plains Region: made up of thousands of acres of
rolling arid grasslands PART 1: 1865-1913
Cattle Ranching Industry WESTWARD EXPANSION
SIGNIFICANCE: one of the biggest industries in the West
AIM: to provide inhabitants of cities with cheap meat
Chicago
Cowboy
important/colorful figure in the cattle ranch
Cowboy Attire
BROAD-BRIMMED HAT: served as shield against the
sun and rain; served as drinking pot and wash basin
(made of beaver pelt)
BANDANNA: served as washcloth; served as dust
screen when tied over the mouth
POINTED HIGH-HEELED BOOTS: designed for riding
in the saddle
Cowboy Skills
riding horses
roping calves
Cattle Drive
driving a herd of cattle from a ranch to a mid-West
city or town
HERD: made up of 2,500-3,000 cattle
COWBOY: responsible for 250-300 cattle
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HISTORY 167 8th District: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


WORLD WAR I 9th District: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
10th District: Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City
WOODROW WILSON 11th District: Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
1856-1924; Staunton, Virginia 12th District: Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
Democrat Federal Reserve Bank
1912 Election FUNCTION: to keep the reserve money of all national
Woodrow Wilson (Democrat, Virginia) banks
William H. Taft (Republican, Ohio) ADVANTAGE: to mobilize the total reserves in sustaining
Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive, New York) any one bank in crisis
Eugene Debs (Socialist, Indiana)
ELECTORAL VOTE: Legislative Agenda (2): modification of antitrust laws
Wilson --- 435 Clayton Antitrust Act
Roosevelt --- 88 ENACTED: October 14, 1914
Taft --- 8 PROVISION: added further substance to the U.S.
Debs --- 0 antitrust law by seeking to prevent anti-competitive
Woodrow Wilson practices
SIGNIFICANCE: first President from the South since declared Standard Oil a monopoly
Andrew Johnson Federal Trade Commission
Woodrow Wilson Election ESTABLISHED: in 1914 by the Federal Trade
PASSING OF AN ERA: newly elected President Woodrow Commission Act
Wilson (Democrat) with outgoing President William FUNCTION: to promote consumer protection" and
Howard Taft (Republican) the elimination and prevention of "anti-
U.S. Presidents competitive" business practices, such as coercive
REPUBLICAN DOMINATION: monopoly
1897-1901 William McKinley Federal Farm Loan Act
1901-1909 Theodore Roosevelt established twelve regional Farm Loan Banks to
1909-1913 William Howard Taft serve members of Farm Loan Associations
SIGNIFICANCE: (1) allowed farmers to borrow up to
LEGISLATIVE AGENDA 50% of the value of their land and 20% of the value
Woodrow Wilson of their improvements; (2) enabled small farmers to
SIGNIFICANCE: elected in 1912 on a wave of be more competitive with larger businesses by
progressive domestic reform making the banks provide them with loans at a
Legislative Agenda (1): banking and currency reform competitive rate to small businessmen
Federal Reserve Act
ENACTED: December 23, 1913 Legislative Agenda (3): tariff revision
PROVISION: created the Federal Reserve System, Revenue Act of 1913
the central banking system of the United States SPONSOR: Oscar Underwood (Alabama)
PROVISION: granted the Federal Reserve System PROVISION: lowered basic tariff rates from 40% to
the authority to issue legal tender 25%
Federal Reserve System SIGNIFICANCE: also known as the Underwood Act or
divided the United States into Federal Reserve Underwood-Simmons Act
Districts based in key cities
1st District: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS
2nd District: Federal Reserve Bank of New York 16th Amendment
3rd District: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia The Congress shall have power to lay and collect
4th District: Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived,
5th District: Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond without apportionment among the several States,
6th District: Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and without regard to any census or enumeration
7th District: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago February 3, 1913
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National Womens Party American military weapons used against Mexico


FOUNDED: 1916 SIGNIFICANCE: retaliation for Francisco Pancho
fought for womens rights to vote on the same Villa's illegal incursion into the United States and
terms as men attack on the village of Columbus, New Mexico
FOCUS: passage of a constitutional amendment during the Mexican Revolution
ensuring womens suffrage Francisco Pancho Villa
League of Women Voters conducted the raid because of the U.S.
FOUNDED: 1920 government's official recognition of the Carranza
aimed to help newly-enfranchised women exercise regime
their responsibilities as voters attacked a detachment of the 13th Cavalry Regiment
18th Amendment seized 100 horses and mules
After one year from the ratification of this article set part of the town on fire
the manufacture, sale, or transportation of Francisco Pancho Villas Raid
intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof RESULT: killing of 18 Americans
into, or the exportation thereof from the United
States and all the territory subject to the jurisdiction BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY
thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 1914
January 17, 1920 Cadillac develops the V-8 engine
Prohibition SIGNIFICANCE: Cadillac sets the standard for the
Dries: Supporters of Prohibition American automotive industry
Wets: Oppositors of Prohibition George Washington Carver develops soil-
SIGNIFICANCE: nationwide constitutional ban on replenishment program
the production, sale, importation and U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decides airplane patent
transportation of alcohol suit in favor of Wright Brothers
ROOTS/ORIGINS: Temperance Movement 1915
Temperance Movement first transcontinental call between Alexander
AIM: to curb the consumption of alcohol in the US Graham Bell (in New York) and Thomas Watson (in
Prohibition San Francisco)
ENFORCEMENT: Dodge introduces first all-steel auto body
search for stockpiles of alcohol founding of Union Carbide, maker of batteries
confiscation of alcohol (Eveready) and utilitarian wraps (Glad)
closure of bars selling alcohol
destruction of alcohol FASHION
IMPACT: Women
encouraged illegal manufacturing of alcohol 1900-1909
encouraged illegal sale of alcohol tailored jackets
hiding illegal alcohol for sale long skirts
Al Capone: head of a crime ring in Chicago that supplied high-heeled ankle boots
illegal alcohol 1900-1909: Day Outfit
Prohibition high-necked white or beige cotton blouse
IMPACT: opening of speakeasy dark, tight-fitting A-line skirt reaching from the
Speakeasy: bars that sell illegal alcohol ankle to just below the bust
Prohibition 1900-1909: Tea Gown
usually worn by 5pm
FOREIGN POLICY 1900-1909: Hair Style
Punitive Expedition against Mexico arranged in pompadour style
sent the United States Army to Mexico worn with large hats (meant to outshine the hair)
PURPOSE: to conduct a military operation 1912-1919: Day Dresses
American supply trains at U.S.-Mexican border tight fitting and flattering
U.S. Army troops in Mexico
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WORLD WAR I: AMERICA GOES TO WAR warned that the U.S. would regard any subsequent
1916 U.S. Presidential Election sinking as "deliberately unfriendly"
MAIN ISSUE: World War I (on its second year February 3, 1917
already, having started in 1914) SIGNIFICANCE: U.S. declares war against Germany
1914
AMERICAS POSITION: neutrality (World War I was a WORLD WAR I: RAISING AN ARMY
European war) Selective Service Act
Neutrality DATE: May 18,1917
MOST AMERICANS: grateful that the United States authorized the federal government to raise a
was not involved in Europes entangling alliances national army for Americas entry in World War I
that brought up the war PROVISION: required all men between the ages of
Neutrality Endangered 21 and 30 to register for military service
ZIMMERMANN TELEGRAM: telegram sent by Arthur Enlistment Poster
Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister, to Mexico RESULT:
Zimmermann Telegram drafting of 2.8 million Americans
SIGNIFICANCE: promised Mexico the return of SIGNIFICANCE: authorized the federal government
Arizona, Texas and new Mexico if Mexico declared to raise a national army numbering in the hundreds
war on the United States of thousands with which to fight a modern war
Neutrality Endangered
UNRESTRICTED GERMAN SUBMARINE WARFARE: WORLD WAR I: FINANCING THE WAR
created a war zone around Britain Floating of Bond Issues
threatened to sink all ships within the war zone called Liberty Loans
Lusitania Bond Issues
May 7, 1915: represented loans made by the government from
torpedoed by a German U-boat the people
ocean liner owned by the Cunard Line incentives to buy bonds
sank in eighteen minutes, eleven miles (19 km) off 1915
the coast of Ireland U.S. bankers led by John Pierpont Morgan float
1,198 of the 1,959 people aboard were killed $500 million loan to Britain and France to help in
Cunard Line the war effort
steamship service between New York and Liverpool
used large steamships to ferry passengers WORLD WAR I: RESTRICTING CIVIL LIBERTIES
Woodrow Wilson Restricting Civil Liberties
PLATFORM: supported preparedness but avoided OBJECTIVE: to make public opinion support the war
war with virtual unanimity
Charles Evans Hughes violated freedom of speech and of the press
PLATFORM: avoiding the war Espionage Act
1916 Election PASSED: June 15, 1917
ELECTORAL VOTE: PROVISION: levied stiff penalties on persons making
Wilson --- 277 false statements that might obstruct the
Hughes --- 254 prosecution of the war, incite disloyalty or hinder
Woodrow Wilson recruiting
February 3, 1917: appears in Congress, announces Trading-with-the-Enemy Act
the break in official relations with Germany PASSED: October 6, 1917
affirmed the right of Americans to travel as PROVISION: authorized the Post Office Department
passengers on merchant ships and called for the to set up a virtual censorship on foreign language
Germans to abandon submarine warfare against newspapers
commercial vessels, whatever flag they sailed under Sedition Act
called the sinking of the Lusitania as a cruel and PASSED: May 16, 1918
deadly attack on innocent civilians
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PROVISION: provided stiff penalties for persons 13. Poland shall be an independent country.
uttering disloyal, scurrilous or abusive language 14. A League of Nations will be formed that
about the Constitution, the government of the protects the independence of all countries no
United States, the armed forces and the flag, or matter how big or small.
language calculated to be such or to interfere with
war production WORLD WAR I: END OF THE WAR
Armistice
WORLD WAR I: FIGHTING IN EUROPE DATE: November 11, 1918
TERMS:
American Expeditionary Force 1. termination of military hostilities within six hours
American fighting force that fought in World War I after signature
COMMANDER: John Pershing 2. immediate removal of all German troops from
October, 21, 1917: arrived in France France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Alsace-Lorraine
deployed in north eastern France 3. subsequent removal of all German troops from
deployed in the St. Mihiel region territory on the west side of the Rhine plus
Fourteen Points 30 km radius bridgeheads of the right side of the
speech delivered by Woodrow Wilson to a joint Rhine at the cities of Mainz, Koblenz, and Cologne with
session of Congress on January 8, 1918 ensuing occupation by Allied and US troops
intended to assure the country that the Great War 4. removal of all German troops at the eastern front to
was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar German territory as it was on August 1, 1914
peace in Europe 5. renunciation of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with
Summary of the Fourteen Points Russia and of the Treaty of Bucharest with Romania
1. No more secret agreements between countries. 6. internment of the German fleet
Diplomacy shall be open to the world. 7. surrender of materiel: 5,000 cannons, 25,000
2. International seas shall be free to navigate machine guns, 3,000 minenwerfers, 1,700 airplanes,
during peace and war. 5,000 locomotive engines, and 150,000 railcars
3. There shall be free trade between the countries TOOK EFFECT: 11 a.m. (Paris time) on November 11,
who accept the peace. 1918
4. There shall be a worldwide reduction in (the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the
weapons and armies by all countries. eleventh month)
5. Colonial claims over land and regions will be
fair. WORLD WAR I: DICTATING THE PEACE
6. Russia will be allowed to determine its own Paris Peace Conference
form of government. All German troops will meeting of Allied Powers (victors) following the end
leave Russian soil. of World War I
7. German troops will evacuate Belgium and AIM: to set the peace terms for the Central Powers
Belgium will be an independent country. (losers)
8. France will regain all territory including the Period
disputed land of Alsace-Lorraine. START: January 18, 1919
9. The borders of Italy will be established such END: January 21, 1920
that all Italians will be within the country of Paris Peace Conference
Italy. BRITAIN: David Lloyd George
10. Austria-Hungary will be allowed to continue to FRANCE: Georges Clemenceau
be an independent country. AMERICA: Woodrow Wilson
11. The Central Powers will evacuate Serbia, SIGNIFICANCE: United States becomes a European
Montenegro, and Romania leaving them as power
independent countries.
12. The Turkish people of the Ottoman Empire will ENTERTAINMENT
have their own country. Other nationalities AIM:
under the Ottoman rule will also have security. to keep the nations spirits up
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to banish glumness THE ROARING TWENTIES


to cheer the soldiers
Theater Roaring Twenties
Broadway Street marked an era of great economic prosperity in the
area in Midtown Manhattan where most Broadway United States
theaters are located introduced a wide array of new consumer goods
extends from 40th Street to 54th Street, and from aligned United States industry to mass production
west of Sixth Avenue to east of Eighth Avenue acculturated United States society to consumerism
Ziegfeld Follies made the United States the richest country in the
elaborate theatrical productions held in Broadway world
Street in New York City
featured attractive women in expensive costumes Factors for Prosperity (1)
performing various show stoppers World War 1
inspired by the Folies Bergere of Paris, France UNITED STATES: supplied European nations with
Folies Bergere manufactured goods and agricultural products
featured elaborate costumes for women, frequently IMPACT: expanded Americas productive capacity
revealing, practically leaving them naked UNITED STATES: loaned money to European nations
Variety Show SIGNIFICANCE: enriched American banks and
Vaudeville corporate investors
featured musicians, dancers, magicians, jugglers,
acrobats animal shows, etc. Factors for Prosperity (2)
catered to popular taste Warren Harding
W.C. Fields (1880-1946; Darby, Pennsylvania) 29th U.S. President
Comedy 1921-1923
Will Rogers ELECTORAL VOTE:
1879-1935; Oologah, Oklahoma Harding: 404
Eddie Cantor Cox: 127
1892-1964; New York City Warren Harding
Movies NATIONAL SLOGAN: America First
The Birth of a Nation America First
set during and after the American Civil War AIM: to fight the economic recession experienced in
Poetry the United States after the end of World War I
Alfred Joyce Kilmer Budget and Accounting Act
1886-1918; New Brunswick, New Jersey PASSED: 1921
Trees AIM: to establish a framework for the federal
Novel budget
Tarzan of the Apes PROVISION: required the President to submit to
life story of John Clayton, born in the western Congress an annual budget for the entire federal
coastal jungles of equatorial Africa government
John Clayton, born in the western coastal jungles of SIGNIFICANCE: consolidated the spending agencies
equatorial Africa to a marooned couple from in the federal government
England, John and Alice (Rutherford) Clayton, Lord Charles Evans Hughes
and Lady Greystoke Secretary of State
1921-1925
Glens Falls (New York)
Knox-Porter Resolution
PROVISION: ended the state of war between the
United States and Germany-Austria
Philander C. Knox (Senate)
HISTORY 167 Stephen G. Porter (House of Representatives)
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SIGNIFICANCE: ended involvement of the United PROVISION: prohibits business activities that are
States in World War I anti-competitive
prevented American participation in the League of PROVISION: required the federal government to
Nations (earlier proposed by Woodrow Wilson) investigate and to pursue companies engaging in
League of Nations monopoly
FOUNDED: January 19, 1920 JOHN SHERMAN (Senate)
AIM: to prevent wars through: Andrew Mellon
1. collective security Secretary of the Treasury
2. disarmament 1921-1932
3. arbitration Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania)
U.S. in the League of Nations Revenue Act of 1921
SIGNIFICANCE: will tie up the United States in the PROVISION: reduced income tax:
problems of Europe 1. high income level (from 77% to 24%)
Henry Cantwell Wallace 2. low income level (from 4% to %)
Secretary of Agriculture SIGNIFICANCE: high income level (from 77% to 24%)
1921-1924 to enable the wealthy to invest their large fortunes
Rock Island (Illinois) in the economy
Packers and Stockyards Act SIGNIFICANCE: low income level (from 4% to %)
PASSED: 1921 to lessen the burden on those least able to bear
AIM: to regulate interstate and foreign commerce in taxation
live-stock, live-stock produce, dairy products, Thomas MacDonald
poultry, poultry products and eggs Chief, Bureau of Public Roads
SIGNIFICANCE: 1919-1953
prohibited meat packers (Armour, Swift, Libbys) Federal Aid Highway Act
from engaging in unfair and deceptive practices: PASSED: 1921
1. giving undue preferences to persons or localities AIM: to develop a national highway system in the
2. apportioning supply among packers in restraint of United States
commerce PROVISION: provided Federal 50-50 matching funds
3. manipulating prices for state highway building up to 7% of roads state-
Emergency Agriculture Credit Act wide
PROVISION: provided new loans to farmers for the SIGNIFICANCE: increased the number of roads and
raising and marketing of livestock highways in the United States
SIGNIFICANCE: strengthened the farm bloc in the
United States Factors for Prosperity (3)
Capper-Volstead Act Calvin Coolidge
SIGNED: 1922 VICE PRESIDENT: becomes president
AIM: to meet challenges to farm cooperatives 30th President of the United States: 1925-1929
created by anti-trust laws 1924 Presidential Election
Arthur Capper (Senate) ELECTORAL VOTE:
Andrew Volstead (House of Representatives) Coolidge: 382
PROVISION: authorized agricultural producers to Davis: 136
form voluntary cooperative associations for the La Follette: 13
purpose of producing, handling and marketing farm Calvin Coolidge
products but exempted from the application of anti- SETTING THE TONE: The business of America is
trust laws business; the man who builds a factory builds a
SIGNIFICANCE: protected farm cooperatives from temple; the man who works there worships there.
the application of anti-trust laws Herbert Hoover
Sherman Anti-Trust Act Secretary of Commerce
DATE PASSED: 1890 1921-1929
POLICIES and PROGRAMS:
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forged cooperative partnerships between HOT PLATE


government and business ELECTRIC STOVE
eliminated waste in business and industry due to: enabled Americans to cook food in different ways:
1. labor disputes 1. poach eggs
2. accident and injury 2. grill meat
3. oil spills 3. toast bread
promoted product standardization 4. make waffles
TELEPHONE: enabled Americans to talk to another
promoted long-term home mortgage person in another part of the city or state
promoted international trade RADIO: enabled Americans to hear news or music
PHONOGRAPH: provided American with music for
ROARING TWENTIES: TEMPER OF THE TIMES listening or dancing
TEMPER OF THE TIMES: Americans abandoned their Automobile
cautious attitudes caused by the uncertainty of war defined the United States in the 1920s more than
Americans embraced the freedom and joyousness any other consumer item
of peace 1927
Americans owned 4 out of 5 cars in the world
ROARING TWENTIES: A BOOMING ECONOMY Henry Ford
Industrial Productivity May 27, 1927
DEFINITION: amount of goods each hour of labor Ford manufactured 15,000,000 Model T cars
produced It (motor car) will be constructed of the best
U.S. Industrial Productivity materials, by the best men to be hired, after the
1922-1928: simplest designs that modern engineering can
increased by 70% the number of goods produced devise
IMPACT: It (motor car) will be so low in price that no man
1. corporate investors more than doubled their making a good salary will be unable to own one and
investments enjoy with his family the blessing of hours of
2. workers received higher wages pleasure
introduction of assembly line production Automobile Industry
IMPACT: SIGNIFICANCE: became Americas biggest industry
1. lower cost of manufacturing in the 1920s (boosted the entire economy of the
2. faster rate of production United States)
introduction of new technology and techniques IMPACT:
(electricity) required vast quantities of the following products:
IMPACT: 1. steel
1. provided greater efficiency in manufacturing 2. lead
2. powered more machines involved in 3. nickel
manufacturing 4. gasoline
FOCUS: production of goods that appealed to 5. glass
consumers 6. rubber
Consumer Goods IMPACT: created other businesses to serve the needs of
REFRIGERATOR: allowed fresh fruits and vegetables a mobile nation
to be available in stores all-year round garage
ELECTRIC IRON: removed creases from clothes; car wash
made clothes more pleasing to the eye restaurant
WASHING MACHINE: made laundering clothes, IMPACT: increased the mileage of concrete roads in the
linens and other textiles easier United States
VACUUM CLEANER: collected dust and dirt froM IMPACT: laid down the grid of national highways in the
floors, upholstery and draperies for later disposal United States (1924)
TABLE STOVE National Highways System
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History 167: Westward Expansion

even-numbered highways ran east-to-west 1. wider choice of products


odd-numbered highways ran north-to-south 2. lower prices
Automobile Industry 3. greater reliability
IMPACT: used by teenagers for dating
IMPACT: used by families for short day trips ART
IMPACT: enabled travel to distant places Art Deco: artistic style that combines traditional craft
motifs with imagery and materials of the modern age
ECONOMY: SELLING AMERICA influenced by elements from "primitive" arts of
Advertising Africa, classical-historical styles of Greece and
1920s: created a consumer-demand for products Rome, art of Babylon, Assyria, Egypt, Aztec Mexico
MESSAGE: Buy! Buy! Buy! based on geometric shapes (trapezoidal, zigzag)
MEDIA: Art Deco: Architecture
newspapers characterized by bold geometric shapes of buildings
billboards 1. Fisher Building
magazines 2. Penobscot Building
IMPACT: made new products attractive to the public 3. Empire State Building
IMPACT: changed the habits and modes of life of the 4. Wiltern Theater
people featured an opulent and lavish style
Credit 1. Chrysler Building
DEFINITION: purchase made by putting money down 2. Paramount Theater
and paying the balance in installment 3. Manila Metropolitan Theater
SIGNIFICANCE: increased the number/volume of 1931
products purchased by the public Architect: Juan Arellano
enabled Americans to buy products without having 4. Lyric Theater
to save money for it Architect: Pablo Antonio
5. Ideal Theater
Architect: Pablo Antonio
discouraged thriftiness
WOMENS FASHION
ECONOMY: WOMEN IN THE WORKFORCE marked by liberation from tradition
Women Flapper: referred to the women of the 1920s marked by
TRADITIONAL JOBS WORK: liberation from tradition
1. teacher Dress
2. nurse short skirt
NEW JOBS AVAILABLE: sleeveless
1. typist flat breasts
2. shop clerks straight waist
3. telephone operators Shoes
high heels
ECONOMY: SELLING AMERICA Stockings: made of silk or rayon
Chain Store Hair
DEFINITION: retail outlets sharing a brand name bob cut
consisting of at least 5 stores Hats
VARIETY STORE: Woolworth (1879, Utica, New York) close-fitted to the head
DEPARTMENT STORE: J.C. Penney (1902, Kemmerer, bell-shaped
Wyoming) made of felt
GROCERY: Safeway (1915, American Falls, Idaho) sconformed to the head
1918: 29,000 in number worn low on the forehead (the eyes below the
1929: 160,000 in number brim)
EXPANSION: Make-up
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History 167: Westward Expansion

bright red cheeks Charleston: entailed kicking forward and backward with
cherry-colored lipstick a pronounced tap
cupids bow Foxtrot: 2-person dance; similar to waltz
kohl-rimmed eyes
Behavior CINEMA/MOVIES
smoked cigarettes Silent Films
dated freely no spoken dialogue
drank alcohol openly dialogue is transmitted through:
danced provocatively 1. muted gestures
drove automobiles 2. pantomime
3. dialogue cards
MUSIC ACTING TECHNIQUES: emphasis on facial expression
introduction of jazz music and body language
Jazz: originated in African American communities in the Silent Films: Actressess
Southern United States Mary Pickford (1892-1979)
influenced by African and European music traditions Toronto, Canada
used European musical instruments: Lillian Gish (1893-1993)
1. banjo Springfield, Ohio
2. fiddle Theda Bara (1885-1955)
3. violin Cincinnati, Ohio
4. tambourine Silent Films: Actors
Jazz Bands Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926)
consisted of 7 to 12 musicians Castellaneta, Italy
Edward Kennedy Duke Ellington Douglas Fairbanks (1883-1939)
1899-1974 Denver, Colorado
Washington D.C. Charles Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977)
Louis Armstrong London, England
1901-1971 Lon Chaney (1883-1930)
New Orleans (Louisiana) Colorado Springs, Colorado
When the Saints Go Marching In
Hello, Dolly! LITERATURE
What a Wonderful World Ernest Hemmingway
The Sun Also Rises
Music composition A Farewell to Arms
George Gershwin For Whom the Bell Tolls
Rhapsody in Blue Death in the Afternoon
An American in Paris Francis Scott Fitzgerald
Summertime
SPORTS
Song Writing George Babe Ruth
Ira Gershwin originally with the Boston Red Sox as a starting
Someone to Watch Over Me pitcher
Music: George Gershwin later sold to the New York Yankees; converted to a
Lyrics: Ira Gershwin full-time right-fielder and became one of the most
Embraceable You prolific hitters
Music: George Gershwin was a mainstay in the Yankees' lineup that won four
Lyrics: Ira Gershwin World Series titles during his tenure with the team
named as the greatest baseball player in history:
DANCE first player to hit 60 homeruns in one season (1927)

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History 167: Westward Expansion

regarded as one of the greatest sports heroes in


American culture

AVIATION
Charles Lindbergh
flew from New York to Paris
RECORD-BREAKING FLIGHT: first solo non-stop flight
from America to Europe
FLIGHT: May 20-21, 1927
made the flight aboard a single-seat, single-engine
monoplane called the Spirit of St. Louis

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