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PART 2: 1928-1975 North Korea: with large military arsenal

COLD WAR South Korea: with large military arsenal


Nuclear Capability: North Korea and South Korea
DWIGHT EISENHOWER
1890-1969 COLD WAR
York (Pennsylvania) AIM: to defend democracy against communism
1952 Presidential Election without actual fighting involved
Dwight Eisenhower (Republican, New York) John Foster Dulles
v. Adlai Stevenson (Democrat, Illinois) SECRETARY OF STATE: 1953-1959
Eisenhower (red) v. Stevenson (blue) 1888-1959 (Washington D.C.)
1956 Presidential Election Nikolai Bulganin
Dwight Eisenhower (Republican, New York) CHAIRMAN OF COUNCIL OF MINISTERS (Premier)
v. Adlai Stevenson (Democrat, Illinois) 1955-1958
Eisenhower (red) v. Stevenson (blue) Nikita Khrushchev
CHAIRMAN OF COUNCIL OF MINISTERS (Premier)
KOREAN WAR (1958-1964)
involved actual fighting by American soldier Eisenhowers Strategies
Eisenhower 1. NEW LOOK DEFENSE PLAN
went to Korea to asses the war situation relying on airpower: (B-47 medium range
believed that small attacks cannot end the bomber), (B-52 long range bomber)
war relying on nuclear weapons
reviewed other ways of ending the war: SIGNIFICANCE:
1. full-scale war against China decreased the number of soldiers and sailors
2. nuclear attack on North Korea increased the number of the air force
demanded peace talks 2.MASSIVE RETALIATION
opted to bring the Korean War to an early launching instant nuclear attack at any time and
and honorable end at any place if the Soviet Union attacked any
Korean War Peace Talks nation
CONTRIBUTING FACTORS: SIGNIFICANCE: to force the Communists to think
1. threat by Eisenhower to use nuclear weapons twice before attacking because they are not sure
if the Communists refused where the United States may strike
2. death of Josef Stalin on March 5, 1953 3.MILITARY BASES BUILD-UP
3. fear by China and North Korea of the loss of encircling the Soviet Union with American military
Soviet assistance bases
Panmunjon Peace Talks: July 27, 1953 encircling China with American military bases
Armistice Agreement: SIGNIFICANCE: to curtail the military movement of
Place: Panmunjon the Soviet Union and China
Date: July 27, 1953 4. MUTUAL DEFENSE TREATIES (MDTs)
AIM: to insure the cessation of all hostilities signing mutual defense treaties with allies
and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a a. South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
final peaceful settlement is achieved ESTABLISHED: 1954
PROVISIONS: AIM: to foster collective defence in South East
1. put into force a ceasefire Asia
2. established the Korean Demilitarized Zone ORIGINAL MEMBERS: United States, Great
to serve as a de facto border between the Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand,
two Koreas Pakistan, Thailand, and Philippines
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ): constitutes a volatile SIGNIFICANCE: only two countries from South
region East Asia joined the SEATO
Korea Today remains a divided nation b. Central Eastern Treaty Organization (CENTO)
North Korea: Govt: Communist; Captl: Pyongyang ESTABLISHED: 1955
South Korea: Govt: Democratic; Captl: Seoul AIM: to foster mutual cooperation and
protection
also known as the Middle East Treaty POWERFUL: reported directly to the President and
Organization or the Baghdad Pact the National Security Council
c. Central Eastern Treaty Organization (CENTO) National Security Council
MEMBERS: United States (1958), Great Britai, FUNCTION: central place of coordination for
Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey national security policy in the executive branch
MDT SIGNIFICANCE: to involve more nations in Central Intelligence Agency
the war between democracy and communism ENTAILED PATRIOTIC WORK: a good way to fight
Communism
ARMS RACE EXCITING AND GLAMOROUS: attracted young,
AIM: to build bigger, more powerful weapons talented graduates of top American universities
1. Hydrogen Bomb like Harvard and Yale
United States: EXPLOSION OF H-BOMB (Hydrogen Bomb): GROWTH:
Date: 1952 1949: 300 employees, $4.7million budget
Place: Marshall Islands 1951: 6,000 employees, $82 million budget
Soviet Union: EXPLOSION OF H-BOMB (Hydrogen Bomb): SIGNIFICANCE: free to engage in espionage
Date: July 1953 operations; free to conduct covert (undercover)
Place: Siberia missions
H-Bomb Explosions IMPACT: IMPACT:
1. creation of a radioactive cloud 1. enabled the President to take quick action in
2. radiation poisoning trouble spots in foreign countries without
Cold War IMPACT: caused the United States and the waiting for congressional or public approval
Soviet Union to build bigger, more powerful bombs 2. gave the White House (Executive Department)
Peace Talks virtual control over foreign policy
PLACE: Geneva (Switzerland) ACTIVITIES:
DATE: 1954 1. to spy on the Soviet Union
2. ICBM 2. to prop up European democracies by secretly
August 1, 1957: SOVIET UNION funding democratic political parties, labor unions
tested its first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile and other pro-Western groups
(ICBM): a long-range missile carrying a nuclear 3. to engage in destabilization plots:
warhead a. bribing politicians
United States RESPONSE: b. hiring secret armies
1. expanded the B-52 bomber fleet c. assassinating troublesome political leaders
2. built submarines outfitted with nuclear missiles
3. installed a ring of short-range missiles in Europe IRAN
ISSUE: ownership of the Anglo-Persian Oil
SPACE RACE Company
October 4, 1957 Anglo-Persian Oil Company
SOVIET UNION: FOUNDED: 1908, after the discovery of an oil field
launched Sputnik into orbit around the earth in Masjed Suleiman (Western Iran)
Sputnik: 184 lb satellite first company to extract petroleum from Iran
United States RESPONSE: 1935: became the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company
1. increased funding for missile development 1954: became British Petroleum (BP)
1958: $4.3 billion majority stocks owned by the British
1959: $5.3 billion IMPACT:
2. established the National Aeronautics and Space 1. British control of Irans oil industry
Administration (NASA) 2. drain of Iranian wealth to Britain
3. funded weapons research in large American Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
universities SHAH (king) OF IRAN
CIA Destabilization Plots Young
Central Intelligence Agency AIM:to perform Insecure
functions and duties related to intelligence Indecisive
affecting national security leaves Iran for Italy for exile
Mohammad Mossadegh LANDMARK SUPREME COURT DECISION:
1951: became Prime Minister of Iran declared that state laws establishing separate
pushes for the nationalization of Irans oil fields public schools for black and white students
Nationalization of Iranian Oil Industry unconstitutional
IMPACT ON THE UNITED STATES: (1) constituted IMPACT: ordered desegregation in schools
the perfect breeding ground for Communism; (2) September 4, 1957: LITTLE ROCK CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL
endangered the supply of oil to the West (Arkansas)
CIA 9 black students were refused entry
AJAX: covert operation in Iran Orval Faubus (Governor of Arkansas) orders the
Ajax activities: Arkansas National Guard to block the entry of the
1. organize public and military support for the 9 black students
Shah Arkansas National Guard block the entry of the 9
2. oust Mossadegh and his supporters by force black students
Ajax RESULT: Dwight Eisenhower
1. restored the Shah to full power federalizes the Arkansas National Guard
2. signing of an agreement between the Shah orders them to return to their barracks
and Western oil companies for the purchase deploys the 101st Airborne Division to Little
and sale of Iranian oil Rock
orders the 101st Airborne Division to escort
CIVIL RIGHTS and protect the students
Civil Rights Movement
AIM: to end racial segregation and discrimination LITERATURE
Racial Segregation: where public facilities and Novels
government services were divided into white and 1951: The Catcher in the Rye (J.D. Salinger)
colored domains 1952: The Old Man and the Sea (Ernest
1951 Hemmingway)
13 parents from Topeka, Kansas filed a class 1956: Exodus (Leon Uris)
action suit against the Kansas Board of Education Fashion
Brown vs Board of Education Poodle Skirts
PLAINTIFF: Oliver Brown a wide swing felt skirt of a solid bold color
CLASS ACTION SUIT: Browns daughter had to displays a design (often a coiffed French
walk 6 miles to the bus stop to ride the bus poodle) appliqued or transferred to the fabric
going to Monroe Elementary for Blacks (1.6 Sweater Sets
miles) while Sumner Elementary for Whites garment intended to cover the torso and
was just seven blocks from her house arms
challenged the Kansas Board of Education often worn over a shirt, blouse, T-shirt, or
policy of segregated education in the U.S. other top
Supreme Court Motorcycle Jacket
advocated separate but equal education a jacket-length coat usually worn on top of
May 17, 1954: We conclude that, in the field another apparel or item of clothing; made
of public education, the doctrine of "separate from the tanned hide of various animals
but equal" has no place. Separate educational leather material is typically dyed black
facilities are inherently unequal. Therefore, Pencil Skirt
we hold that the plaintiffs and others similarly a slim-fitting skirt with a straight, narrow cut
situated for whom the actions have been generally the hem falls to, or is just below,
brought are, by reason of the segregation the knee
complained of, deprived of the equal tailored for a close fit
protection of the laws guaranteed by the named for its long and slim shape like a
Fourteenth Amendment. pencil
SIGNIFICANCE: that separate educational
facilities are inherently unequal
Bermuda Shorts 3. THEME: Space Age
also known as walking shorts or dress shorts 1951 The Day the Earth Stood Still
actually, a particular type of short trousers, 1953 Invaders from Mars
worn as semi-casual attire by both men and 1953 The War of the Worlds
women 1953 It Came From Outer Space
the hem, which can be cuffed or un-cuffed, is 4. THEME: Musicals (adaptation of stage
around 1 inch above the knee productions)
so-named because of their popularity in 1955 Oklahoma!
Bermuda, a British Overseas Territory, which 1956 The King and I
had a warm climate 1958 South Pacific
appropriate business attire for men when 5. THEME: Musicals
made of suit-like material and worn with 1951 An American in Paris
knee-length socks, a dress shirt, tie, and 1951Show Boat
blazer 1952 Singin in the Rain
Hair Style: Men 1956 Love Me Tender
POMPADOUR: high quaff, slicked-back with heavy 6. THEME: Teens
use of pomade 1953 The Wild One
IVY LEAGUE: 1959 Gidget
also known as Harvard Clip or Princeton 7. THEME: Walt Disney
a type of crew cut in which the hair on the 1950 Cinderella
top of the head is long enough to style with a 1951 Alice in Wonderland
side part 1953 Peter Pan
CREW CUT: Introduction of the Drive-in Theater
derived from the military haircuts given to Music
millions of draftees 1. Popular Music
favored by men who wished to appear Frank Sinatra
"establishment" or mainstream Tony Bennett
Hair Style: Women Perry Como
BOUFFANT: the hair is pushed upwards with Bing Crosby
excessive use of hairspray 2. Rock and Roll (single)
BEEHIVE: long hair is piled up in a conical shape Elvis Presley
on the top of the head and slightly backwards Chuck Berry
POODLE CUT: Ritchie Valens
the hair was tightly curled by means of Little Richard
perming giving the look of a cute and cuddly 3. Rock and Roll (group)
poodle The Platters
the hair was tightly curled by means of The Everly Brothers
perming giving the look of a cute and cuddly Television
poodle 1. THEME: Situation Comedies (Sitcoms)
GAMINE STYLE: also known as the pixie cut 1951-1960 I Love Lucy
1954-1960 Father Knows Best
ENTERTAINMENT 2. THEME: Crime
Films (1950s) 1952 Dragnet
AIM: to showcase the newly regained prosperity 3. THEME: Western
of the United States 1955 Gunsmoke
IMPACT: production of big-budgeted movies
COMICS
1. THEME: Biblical stories
1950 Peanuts
1953 The Robe
1951 Dennis the Menace
1956 The Ten Commandments
1954 Hi and Lois
1959 Ben Hur
2. THEME: Greek and Roman mythology
1958 Hercules
TOYS
1955 Matchbox cars
1957 frisbee
1958 hula hoop
1959 Barbie doll

NOVELTIES IN AMERICAN LIFE


1954 Peanut M & Ms
1954 Shakeys Pizza
1954 Burger King
1955 McDonalds hamburgers
1955 Kentucky Fried Chicken
1955 Pepperidge Farm cookies
1956 Certs mint
1958 Tang orange drink
1958 Ruffles potato chips
1958 Sweet and Low sugarless sweetener
1958 Jif peanut butter
1958 Pizza Hut franchise restaurants
1959 Haagen-Dazs ice cream
1960 Dominos pizza