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LTE Principle & Air Interface

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Content

LTE Background Introduction

LTE Network Architecture

LTE Channel Concept & Physical Layer Design

MIMO

Random Access

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Migration Towards EPS

HSPA R6 HSPA R7 HSPA R7 LTE R8

GGSN GGSN GGSN S- GW + P-GW

SGSN SGSN SGSN MME

RNC RNC

Node B (NB) Evolved Node


Node B (NB) Node B + RNC B (eNB)
Functionality

Flat architecture: single network element in user plane in radio User plane
network and core network Control Plane

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LTE Requirements

High Data rates


DL>100 Mbps
UL>50 Mbps

High spectral Efficiency

Low Delay Latency


Channel Setup <100ms
User Plane RTT <10ms

Spectrum Flexibility
Wide range of spectrum 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
Less Signaling

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Theoretical Peak Rates Of Cell And UE Under Different
Cell Bandwidth MIMO2x2
Cell Theoretical Peak Throughput
Bandwidth Category Downlink Theoretical Peak Throughput Uplink Theoretical Peak Throughput
1.4M Cat3 8.784 3.24
3M Cat3 22.128 7.992
5M Cat3 36.672 13.536
10M Cat3 73.392 27.376
15M Cat3 110.112 40.576
20M Cat3 150.752 51.024

Single User Theoretical Peak Throughput


Bandwidth Category Downlink Theoretical Peak Throughput Uplink Theoretical Peak Throughput
1.4M Cat3 8.784 3.24
3M Cat3 22.128 7.992
5M Cat3 36.672 13.536
10M Cat3 73.392 27.376
15M Cat3 102.048 40.576
20M Cat3 102.048 51.024

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LTE Specification
PARAMETER DETAILS

Peak downlink speed


100 (SISO), 172 (2x2 MIMO), 326 (4x4 MIMO)
64QAM (Mbps)

Peak uplink speeds


50 (QPSK), 57 (16QAM), 86 (64QAM)
(Mbps)

Data type All packet switched data (voice and data). No circuit switched.

Channel bandwidths
1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20
(MHz)
Duplex schemes FDD and TDD
0 - 15 km/h (optimized),
Mobility
15 - 120 km/h (high performance)
Idle to active less than 100ms
Latency
Small packets ~10 ms
Downlink: 3 - 4 times Rel 6 HSDPA
Spectral efficiency
Uplink: 2 -3 x Rel 6 HSUPA
OFDMA (Downlink)
Access schemes
SC-FDMA (Uplink)
Modulation types supported QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM (Uplink and downlink)

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Content

LTE Background Introduction

LTE Network Architecture

LTE Channel Concept & Physical Layer Design

MIMO

Random Access

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Packet Core Evolution
Policy Control
Evolved Packet Core Common for voice and
RAN data services
(EPC)
PCRF
BSC
S7c
Gb
2G S7
SGSN Gateway
S4 Rx+
Iu
Serving S5 PDN
RNC
GW
3G S12
GW SGi
S3
NodeB
Operator
S1-U S11
MME Services
S1-MME
LTE S6a S6b Internet
eNodeB Corporate
S10 Services
Non 3GPP S2c
AAA
ePDG
Untrusted Non-3GPP IP S2b
Access HSS
Trusted Non-3GPP IP Control plane
S2a User plane
Access

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LTE Network Architecture

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


HSS
eNB
Mobility
Management
Entity Policy & Charging Rule
S6a Function
MME S10
X2
Gx Rx
PCRF
S11

S1-U S5/S8 SGi


PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Evolved Node B
Gateway Gateway
(eNB)
LTE-UE
S-GW /P-GW

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Functional Split Between E-UTRAN And EPC

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LTE Radio Interface And The X2 Interface

(E)-RRC User PDUs .. User PDUs LTE-Uu interface


PDCP Air interface of LTE
RLC
Based on OFDMA in DL and SC-FDMA in UL
TS 36.300
FDD and TDD duplex methods
MAC
Scalable bandwidth 1.4MHz to currently 20 MHz
LTE-L1 (FDD/TDD-OFDMA/SC-FDMA) eNB

LTE-Uu

X2-UP
X2 interface
(User Plane) Inter eNB interface
X2-CP
X2AP: special signalling protocol
(Control Plane) User PDUs
Functionalities:
TS 36.423 X2-AP GTP-U
X2
In inter- eNB HO to facilitate handover and provide data
SCTP UDP TS 36.424
forwarding.
TS 36.422
IP IP
In RRM to provide e.g. load information to neighbouring
eNBs to facilitate interference management
TS 36.421 L1/L2 L1/L2 TS 36.421
Logical interface: It does not need direct site-to-site
connection, i.e. it can be routed via core network as
TS 36.420
well
[currently also in TS 36.300 20]
eNB
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S1-MME & S1-U Interfaces
S1-MME
S1 interface is divided into two parts: (Control Plane)

NAS Protocols
MME
TS 36.413 S1-AP
S1-MME interface
Control interface between eNB and MME TS 36.412 SCTP

S1AP:S1 Application Protocol IP


MME and UE will exchange non-access stratum signaling eNB L1/L2 TS 36.411
via eNB through this interface (i.e. authentication, tracking S1-U
area updates) (User Plane)
User PDUs Serving
Gateway
GTP-U
S1-U interface TS 36.414
UDP
User plane interface between eNB and serving gateway
IP
Pure user data interface (U=User plane)
TS 36.411 L1/L2

TS 36.410
[currently in TS 36.300 19]

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SAE/LTE Interworking With 2G/3G Networks

GGSN
Gb Gn Gi
GERAN SGSN PDN

Gr
Iu-PS
S4 S3
UTRAN Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
HSS

S6a
Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

MME S7
Evolved Rx+
LTE-UE
Node B S1-MME PCRF
(eNB) S11

S1-U S5/S8 SGi


cell PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Gateway Gateway

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Content

LTE Background Introduction

LTE Network Architecture

LTE Channel Concept & Physical Layer Design

MIMO

Random Access

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LTE Channel Concept & Physical Layer Design
LTE Basics

OFDMA

SCFDMA

Cyclic Prefix

Resource Grid information

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LTE Basic - Parameters

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LTE Basics-DL Physical Resources

12 sub-carriers f = 15 kHz
One Resource Block
12 x 7 = 84 resource elements

frequency

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LTE Basics-DL Physical Resources

12 sub-carriers f = 15 kHz
One Scheduling Block
180 kHz and 1 ms

frequency

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LTE Basics-DL&UL Physical Resources
DL Physical Resources (ie.6RB) UL Physical Resources (ie.6RB)
RS PHICH PDCCH PCFICH S-SS P-SS PBCH PDSCH RE reserved for RS Un-used
RS PUSCH PUSCH PUCCH SRS RA
Subframe 0 subframe 1 subframe 5 subframe 9
Subframe 0 subframe 1 subframe 9
Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 10 Slot 11 .. Slot 19 Slot 11
Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 ..
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
f72
f71 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
f70 f72
f69 f71
f68
RB6 f67 f70
f66 f69
f65 f68
f64
f67
f63
f62 f66
f61 f65
f60 f64
f59
f58
f63
f57 f62
f56 f61
f55
f60
RB5 f54
f53
f59
f52 f58
f51 f57
f50 f56
f49 f55
f48 f54
f47
f53
f46
f45
f52
f44 f51
RB4 f43 f50
f42 f49
f41 f48
f40
f47
f39
f38
f46
f37 f45
f36 f44
f35 f43
f34 f42
f33 f41
f32
f40
f31
RB3 f30
f39
f29 f38
f28 f37
f27 f36
f26 f35
f25
f34
f24
f33
f23
f22 f32
f21 f31
f20 f30
f19 f29
RB2 f18 f28
f17
f27
f16
f26
f15
f14 f25
f13 f12
f12 f11
f11 f10
f10 f9
f9
f8
f8
f7
f7
RB1 f6 f6
f5 f5
f4 f4
f3 f3
f2 f2
f1
f1

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LTE Basics- UE Category

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LTE Basics-Evolution

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LTE Basics-Frequency Domain Configurations
FDD Frequency Band

E-UTRA Uplink (UL) Downlink (DL) Duplex


Band FUL_low FUL_high FDL_low FDL_high Mode

1 1920 MHz 1980 MHz 2110 MHz 2170 MHz FDD RFT
2 1850 MHz 1910 MHz 1930 MHz 1990 MHz FDD TDD Frequency Band
3 1710 MHz 1785 MHz 1805 MHz 1880 MHz FDD
E-UTRA Uplink (UL) Downlink (DL) Duplex
4 1710 MHz 1755 MHz 2110 MHz 2155 MHz FDD
Band FUL_low FUL_high FDL_low FDL_high Mode
5 824 MHz 849 MHz 869 MHz 894MHz FDD
33 1900 MHz 1920 MHz 1900 MHz 1920 MHz TDD
6 830 MHz 840 MHz 875 MHz 885 MHz FDD
34 2010 MHz 2025 MHz 2010 MHz 2025 MHz TDD
7 2500 MHz 2570 MHz 2620 MHz 2690 MHz FDD
35 1850 MHz 1910 MHz 1850 MHz 1910 MHz TDD
8 880 MHz 915 MHz 925 MHz 960 MHz FDD
36 1930 MHz 1990 MHz 1930 MHz 1990 MHz TDD
1749.9 FDD
9 1784.9 MHz 1844.9 MHz 1879.9 MHz 37 1910 MHz 1930 MHz 1910 MHz 1930 MHz TDD
MHz
38 2570 MHz 2620 MHz 2570 MHz 2620 MHz TDD
10 1710 MHz 1770 MHz 2110 MHz 2170 MHz FDD
39 1880 MHz 1920 MHz 1880 MHz 1920 MHz TDD
1427.9 1452.9 MHz 1475.9 MHz 1500.9 MHz FDD
11 MHz 40 2300 MHz 2400 MHz 2300 MHz 2400 MHz TDD

12 698 MHz 716 MHz 728 MHz 746 MHz FDD

13 777 MHz 787 MHz 746 MHz 756 MHz FDD

14 788 MHz 798 MHz 758 MHz 768 MHz FDD

17 704 MHz 716 MHz 734 MHz 746 MHz FDD

...

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LTE Basics-Frequency Domain Configurations

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OFDMA Benefits And Drawbacks

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OFDMA & SC-FDMA Comparison

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Cyclic Prefix-Inter Symbol Interference
What is multipath

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Cyclic Prefix

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LTE Frame Structure

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LTE UL/DL Resource Grid Definitions

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LTE UL/DL Resource Grid Definitions

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Channel Mapping

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LTE Modulation schemes for LTE downlink and uplink

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Content
LTE Background Introduction

LTE Network Architecture

LTE Channel Concept & Physical Layer Design

MIMO

Random Access

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Multi Antenna Possibilities

High peak data rates


Extended coverage
High capacity

eNB

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Multi-antenna transmission

Multi-antenna transmisson

Single-antenna transmisson

Antenna port #4
Antenna port #3
Antenna port #2
Antenna port #1

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MU-MIMO Operation

UEs allocated same RBs


Spatially separated
No data rate increase
Reuse of resources

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Factor 3 MIMO mode is adaptive according to RF condition

SINR
Cell Center Cell Edge

TM 3 TM 2
Channel Quality (SINR)

TM3 (Cell Center) TM2 (Cell Edge)


Dual data streaming Single data MIMO principles:
Perform well when streaming There are 10 MIMO mode (TM1-10) defined in protocol;
LTE FDD 2T2R network use TM2 and TM3;
SINR is good. Perform better
The TM mode is adaptive, depend on channel quality and
than TM3 when independence;
SINR is poor. Normally Cell centre use TM3 and Cell Edge use TM2;
TM3 use Spatial Multiplexing which improve the throughput and
capacity of cell centre;
TM2 use Transmit Diversity, which improve the coverage and cell
TM3 turns to TM2 when SINR is poor edge throughput.

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Content
LTE Background Introduction

LTE Network Architecture

LTE Channel Concept & Physical Layer Design

MIMO

Random Access

Power Allocation and Power Control in LTE

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Background of RA
Background:
The Random Access feature is part of the LTE Basic functions in the LTE
RND. UE uses the RA process to gain new or renewed access and uplink
timing synchronization to the network.

Reasons:
Initial access to the network from the idle state
Regaining access to the network after a radio link failure
As part of the handover process to gain timing synchronization with a new
cell
Regaining uplink time alignment
Request uplink grant for UE without dedicated scheduling request resource.

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Two Kinds of Random Access

Contention Based Random Access(CBRA)


LTE uses the Contention Based Random Access. It involves the UE
selecting a random access preamble from a list available to all UE in the cell.
CBRA requires additional signaling to resolve contention that can occur with
multiple UE attempting to access the cell in the same PRACH using the same
preamble.

Contention Free Random Access(CFRA)


The Contention Free Random Access is not used in the current release of
LTE.

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Random Access Procedure - 1

UE EUTRAN
Step 1-RA Preamble
In the case of CBRA the UE randomly Random Access Preamble
selects a preamble to use based on the
available pool. Random Access Response
Each cell has a pool of up to 64 RA
preambles. Part of these are reserved for MSG3
CFRA and the remainder are available for RRC Connection Request
selection by UE attempting CBRA.
Contention Solution
RRC Connection Setup

RRC Connection Complete

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Random Access Procedure - 2

Step 2-RA Response


RA Response message is generated by MAC
layer in the eNB.
UE EUTRAN
The RAR message includes:
Timing Alignment information
Random Access Preamble
-Initial UL schedule grant
RA-preamble identifier Random Access Response
Assignment of Temporary C-RNTI
UE monitors the PDSCH for its specific RA-RNTI MSG3
address in order to read this message.
RRC Connection Request

Contention Solution
RRC Connection Setup

RRC Connection Complete

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Random Access Procedure - 3

UE EUTRAN
If UE failed to receive or decode RA response,
and the count has not reach the max NO., then Random Access Preamble

PREAMBLE_TRANSMISSION_COUNTER++ Random Access Response

If the count=preambleTransMax + 1, MSG3


Indicate a Random Access problem to upper RRC Connection Request
layers, wait a backoff time, trigger a new RA
Contention Solution
RRC Connection Setup

RRC Connection Complete

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Random Access Procedure - 4

Step 3-Scheduled Transmission


The first scheduled UL transmission on UL- UE EUTRAN
SCH:
data contained in a transport block of at least Random Access Preamble
80 bits.
HARQ is used with a maximum number of Random Access Response
HARQ transmits set via overhead message.
Different information blocks and data are MSG3
defined for the following events. RRC Connection Request
initial access.
radio link failure. Contention Solution
HO. RRC Connection Setup
other events.
RRC Connection Complete

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Random Access Procedure - 5

Step 4-Constent Resolution UE EUTRAN


The Contention Resolution message on DL-SCH:
early contention resolution shall be used.
HARQ is supported. Random Access Preamble
The Temporary C-RNTI is promoted to C-RNTI for
a UE which detects RA success and does not Random Access Response
already have a C-RNTI. A UE which detects RA
success and already has a C-RNTI, resumes MSG3
using its C-RNTI. RRC Connection Request

Contention Solution
RRC Connection Setup

RRC Connection Complete

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Random Access Procedure - 6

UE EUTRAN

Random Access Preamble

Random Access Response

MSG3
RRC Connection Request

Contention Solution
RRC Connection Setup

RRC Connection Complete

Contention Based RA successfully done!


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Contention-Free Random Access

The slightly unpredictable latency of the random access


procedure can be circumvented for some use cases
where low latency is required, such as handover and
resumption of downlink traffic for a UE, by allocating a
dedicated signature to the UE on a per-need basis. In
this case the procedure is simplified as shown in the
figure, it terminates with the RAR.

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Thank You

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