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SECTION 15.

6 DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND THE GRADIENT VECTOR 1

|||| 15.6 Directional Derivatives and the Gradient Vector

A Click here for answers. S Click here for solutions.

1 5 |||| Find the directional derivative of f at the given point in the 14. f x, y, z  sxyz, 2, 4, 2, v  4, 2, 4
direction indicated by the angle .
15. tx, y, z  xe yz
 xye , z
2, 1, 1, v  i  2j  3k
1. f x, y  x 2 y 3  2x 4y, 1, 2,   3
16. tx, y, z  x tan1 yz, 1, 2, 2, vijk
2. f x, y  sinx  2y, 4, 2,   34
17. tx, y, z  z  x y,
3 2
1, 6, 2, v  3 i  4 j  12 k
3. f x, y  xe2y, 5, 0,   2

4. f x, y  x  y ,
2 3
3, 1,   34
1823 |||| Find the maximum rate of change of f at the given point
5. f x, y  y ,
x
1, 2,   2 and the direction in which it occurs.
18. f x, y  sx 2  2y, 4, 10

69 ||||
19. f x, y  cos3x  2y, 6, 8
(a) Find the gradient of f .
(b) Evaluate the gradient at the point P. 20. f x, y  xey  3y, 1, 0
(c) Find the rate of change of f at P in the direction of the
21. f x, y  lnx  y ,
2 2
1, 2
vector u.
6. f x, y  x 3  4x 2 y  y 2, P0, 1, u   35 , 45  22. f x, y, z  x  yz, 4, 3, 1

7. f x, y  e x sin y, P1, 4, u   1 2


,
s5 s5
 23. f x, y, z 
x
y
y
 ,
z
4, 2, 1

 

1 1 1
8. f x, y, z  xy z , 2 3
P1, 2, 1, u  , ,
s3 s3 s3 2430 |||| Find equations of (a) the tangent plane and (b) the
normal line to the given surface at the specified point.
9. f x, y, z  xy  yz  xz , 2 3
P2, 0, 3,
24. xy  yz  zx  3, 1, 1, 1
u   ,  , 
2 1 2
3 3 3

25. xyz  6, 1, 2, 3

1017 |||| Find the directional derivative of the function at the given 26. x 2  y 2  z 2  2xy  4xz  4, 1, 0, 1
point in the direction of the vector v.
27. x 2  2y 2  3z 2  xyz  4, 3, 2, 1
10. f x, y  xy, 6, 2, v  1, 3 
28. xe yz  1, 1, 0, 5
11. f x, y  sx  y, 5, 1, v  12, 5
29. 4x 2  y 2  z 2  24, 2, 2, 2
12. tx, y  xe xy, 3, 0, v  2 i  3 j
30. x 2  2y 2  z 2  3, 1, 1, 2
13. tx, y  e x cos y, 1, 6, vij
2 SECTION 15.6 DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND THE GRADIENT VECTOR

Answers

E Click here for exercises. S Click here for solutions.



1. 7 3 16 2. 22 20. 5, 1, 2 21. 2 5 5 , 1, 2

17
3. 10 4. 672 2 22. 11, 1, 1, 3 23. 2
, 1, 0, 4
5. 1 24. (a) x + y + z = 3
 2   
2
6. (a) 3x 8xy i + 2y 4x j (b) x = y = z
(b) 2 j (c) 85 25. (a) 6x + 3y + 2z = 18
1 1 1
x
7. (a) e sin y i + e cos y j
x (b) 6
(x 1) = 3
(y 2) = 2
(z 3)

(b) 2
e (i + j) (c) 1 e 26. (a) 3x y + z = 4
2 10
  x1
2 3
8. (a) y z , 2xyz , 3xy z
3 2 2 (b) = y = z 1
3
20
(b) 4, 4, 12 (c) 3
27. (a) 8x + 5y = 14
  x3 y+2
3 2
9. (a) y + z , x + z , 2yz + 3xz
2 (b) = , z = 1
8 5
43
(b) 27, 11, 54 (c) 3 28. (a) x + 5y = 1
y
10. 2 510 11. 7 (b) x1= ,z =5
52 5

12. 29 13. 1 + 3
e 29. (a) 4x + y + z = 12
13 2 2
x2
14. 16 15. e 714 (b) =y2=z2
4

16. 17. 8 30. (a) x + 2y + 2z + 3 = 0
4 3
 y1 z+2

17 13 (b) x+1= =
18. 6
, 4, 1 19. 2
, 3, 2 2 2
SECTION 15.6 DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND THE GRADIENT VECTOR 3

Solutions

E Click here for exercises. A Click here for answers.


 
2 3
1. f (x, y) = x y + 2x y
4
fx (x, y) = 2xy 3 + 8x3 y f (x, y) = 1/y, x/y 2 ,
10. f (x, y) = x/y
  
and fy (x, y) = 3x y + 2x4 . If u is a unit vector in the
2 2
f (6, 2) = 12 , 32 , u = 110 , 310 and
direction of = 3 , then from Equation 6,
Du f (1, 2) = fx (1, 2) cos 3 + fy (1, 2) sin 3 Du f (6, 2) = 2110 2910 = 410 = 2 510 .
   
= (32) 12 + (14) 23 = 7 3 16 11. f (x, y) = x y

f (x, y) = 12 (x y)1/2 , 12 (x y)1/2 ,
2. f (x, y) = sin (x + 2y) fx (x, y) = cos (x + 2y) and
 
fy (x, y) = 2 cos (x + 2y). If u is a unit vector in the f (5, 1) = 14 , 14 , and a unit vector in the
 
direction of = 3
4
, then from Equation 6, direction of v is u = 12 , 5 , so
13 13
Du f (4, 2) = fx (4, 2) cos 3
4
+ fy (4, 2) sin 3
4 Du f (5, 1) = f (5, 1) u = 12
5
= 7
.
52 52 52
   
 
= (cos 0) 2 + 2 (cos 0) 2 = 22
2 2
12. g (x, y) = xe
xy
g (x, y) = exy (1 + xy) , x2 exy ,

3. f (x, y) = xe
2y
fx (x, y) = e2y and g (3, 0) = 1, 9, u = 213 , 313 and
2y
fy (x, y) = 2xe . If u is a unit vector in the direction of Du g (3, 0) = 2 + 27
= 29
.
13 13 13
= 2 , then
x
Du f (5, 0) = fx (5, 0) cos 2 + fy (5, 0) sin 2 13. g (x, y) = e cos y
g (x, y) = ex cos y, ex sin y,
= 1 0 + (10) 1 = 10    
 2 3 g 1, 6 = 23 e, 12 e , u = 12 , 12 and
4. f (x, y) = x y Du f (x, y) =
 2 2  2  

3 x y (2x) cos 4 + 3 x2 y (1) sin 3


3
. Thus Du g 1, 6 = 232 e + 21
2
e = 1 2+2 3 e.
    4
2 2
2
Du f (3, 1) = 3 (8) (6) 2 3 (8) 2
= 672 2. 14. f (x, y, z) = xyz
2

x f (x, y, z) = (xyz)1/2 yz, xz, xy,


1
5. f (x, y) = y  1  2
 
  f (2, 4, 2) = 1, 2 , 1 , u = 23 , 13 , 23 and
Du f (x, y) = (y x ln y) cos 2 + xy x1 sin 2 = xy x1 .  
Thus Du f (1, 2) = (1) (2)11 = 1. Du f (2, 4, 2) = 1 23 + 12 13 + 1 23 = 16 .
yz
3
6. f (x, y) = x 4x y + y
2 2 15. g (x, y, z) = xe + xyez
    g (x, y, z) = e + yez , xzeyz + xez , xy (eyz + ez ),
yz
(a) f (x, y) = fx i + fy j = 3x2 8xy i + 2y 4x2 j
g (2, 1, 1) = 2e, 4e, 4e, u = 1 1, 2, 3 and
(b) f (0, 1) = 2 j 14
(2e)(1)
(c) f (0, 1) u = 85 Du g (2, 1, 1) =
14
+ (4e)(2)

14
+ (4e)(3)

14
= 2e

14

x
7. f (x, y) = e sin y = e 714
x x
(a) f (x, y) = fx i + fy j = e sin y i + e cos y j 1
16. g (x, y, z) = x tan(y/z) g (x, y, z) =
   1  2   
(b) f 1, 4 = 22 e (i + j) tan (y/z) , xz/ y + z 2 , xy/ y 2 + z 2 ,
     
(c) f 1, 4 u = 22 e 15 = 110 e g (1, 2, 2) = 4 , 14 , 14 , u = 13 1, 1, 1 and
()(1) (1)(1) (1)(1)
2 3 Du g (1, 2, 2) = + + = 4
8. f (x, y, z) = xy z 4 3 4 3 4 3 3

23
(a) f (x, y, z) = fx (x, y, z) , fy (x, y, z) , fz (x, y, z) 17. g (x, y, z) = z x y
   
= y 2 z 3 , 2xyz 3 , 3xy 2 z 2 g (x, y, z) = 2xy, x2 , 3z 2 ,
3
 
(b) f (1, 2, 1) = 4, 4, 12 g (1, 6, 2) = 12, 1, 12, u = , 4 , 12 , and
13 13 13

(c) f (1, 2, 1) u = 4
+ 4
+ 12
= 20
Du g (1, 6, 2) = (12)(3)
13
+ (1)(4)
13
+ (12)(12)
13
= 8.
3 3 3 3

2 3 18. f (x, y) = x2 + 2y
9. f (x, y, z) = xy + yz + xz

(a) f (x, y, z) = fx (x, y, z) , fy (x, y, z) , fz (x, y, z) x 1
  f (x, y) =
,
. Thus the
= y + z 3 , x + z 2 , 2yz + 3xz 2 x2 + 2y x2 + 2y

17
(b) f (2, 0, 3) = 27, 11, 54 maximum rate of change is |f (4, 10)| = 6
in the
1 43
 
(c) f (2, 0, 3) u = 3
(54 11 + 108) = 3
direction 23 , 16 or 4, 1.
4 SECTION 15.6 DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND THE GRADIENT VECTOR

2 2 2
19. f (x, y) = cos (3x + 2y) 26. F (x, y, z) = x + y z 2xy + 4xz
f (x, y) = 3 sin (3x + 2y) , 2 sin (3x + 2y), so the F (x, y, z) = 2x 2y + 4z, 2y 2x, 2z + 4x,
   F (1, 0, 1) = 6, 2, 2
maximum rate of change is f 6 , 8 = 132
in the
 (a) 6 (x 1) 2 (y 0) + 2 (z 1) = 0 or
direction 3 2 2 , 2 or 3, 2.
3x y + z = 4
  x1
20. f (x, y) = xe
y
+ 3y f (x, y) = ey , 3 xey , (b) = y = z 1
3
f (1, 0) = 1, 2 is the direction of maximum rate of
2 2
27. F (x, y, z) = x 2y 3z + xyz 2
change and the maximum rate is |f (1, 0)| = 5.
F (x, y, z) = 2x + yz, 4y + xz, 6z + xy,
 2 2

21. f (x, y) = ln x + y F (3, 2, 1) = 8, 5, 0
 
2x 2y   (a) 8 (x 3) + 5 (y + 2) + 0 (z + 1) = 0 or 8x + 5y = 14
f (x, y) = , , f (1, 2) = 25 , 45 .
x +y x +y
2 2 2 2
x3 y+2

2 5 (b) = , z = 1
Thus the maximum rate of change is |f (1, 2)| = 5
in 8 5
 
the direction 25 , 45 or 1, 2. yz
28. F (x, y, z) = xe
  F (x, y, z) = eyz , xzeyz , xyeyz ,
1 y
22. f (x, y, z) = x + y/z f (x, y, z) = 1, , 2 ,
z z F (1, 0, 5) = 1, 5, 0

so the maximum rate of change is |f (4, 3, 1)| = 11 in (a) 1 (x 1) + 5 (y 0) + 0 (z 5) = 0 or x + 5y = 1
the direction 1, 1, 3. y
(b) x 1 = , z = 5
5
x y
23. f (x, y, z) = + 2 2 2
y z 29. F (x, y, z) = 4x + y + z , F (2, 2, 2) = 16, 4, 4
 
1 1 x y (a) 16x + 4y + 4z = 48 or 4x + y + z = 12
f (x, y, z) = , 2 , 2 , so the maximum rate
y z y z x2 y2 z2 x2
  (b) = = or =y2=z2
of change is |f (4, 2, 1)| = 217 in the direction 12 , 0, 2 16 4 4 4
or 1, 0, 4.
2 2 2
30. F (x, y, z) = x 2y + z
24. F (x, y, z) = xy + yz + zx F (1, 1, 2) = 2, 4, 4
F (x, y, z) = y + z, z + x, x + y,
(a) 2x 4y 4z = 6 or x + 2y + 2z + 3 = 0
F (1, 1, 1) = 2, 2, 2
y1 z+2
(b) x + 1 = =
(a) 2x + 2y + 2z = 6 or x + y + z = 3 2 2
(b) x 1 = y 1 = z 1 or x = y = z

25. F (x, y, z) = xyz F (x, y, z) = yz, zx, xy,


F (1, 2, 3) = 6, 3, 2
(a) 6x + 3y + 2z = 18
1 1 1
(b) 6
(x 1) = 3
(y 2) = 2
(z 3)