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NASA Technical Memorandum 81927

(NASA-TB-81927) TWO-DIMENSiONAL AERODYNAMIC N81-23036


CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NACA 0012 AI_EOIL IN
THE LANGLEY 8 FOOT T_ANSONIC PRESSIIRE TUNNRL
(NASA) 139 p HC AO7/MF A01 CSCL 01A
G3/02

TWO-L)IMENSIONALAERODYNAMICCHARACTERISTICS
OF THE NACA 0012 AIRFOIL IN THE LANGLEY
8-FOOT TRA;_SONICPRESSURE TUNNEL

CHARLES D, HARRIS

APRIL 1981

NatLonal Aeronautics and


Space Admm_sTral_on

Lan_ey Research Cenler


Hampton Wrg,n_:_23665
TWO-DIMENSIONAL AFRODf_&MIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NACA 0012 AIRFOIL

I_ITHE LAN{_LEY 3-FOOT TRANSONIC PRESSURE TUNNEL

Rv Charles D. Harris
Langley Research Center

SIIMMARY

R,_sults of two-dimensional wind tunnel tests of the syn]netrlc_l NACA

0c)12 airfoil in the Lanqlev Research Center's 8-foot Transonic Pressure

Tunnel are reported. Tests were conducted at lift coefficients from near

zero through maximum values at Mach numbers from 0.30 to 0.86 for Reynolds

numbers of 3.0 millinn and 9.0 million with transition fixed at 5-percent

chord. A limited amount of data was obtained near- zero and maximum lift for

a Reynolds number of 6.0 million with transition fixed at 5-percent chord.

In aadition, transition free data were obtained through the Mach number

r_n,_e frem Q.3Q to O.R6 fnr zero lift and a Reynolds number of 3.0 million.

I,_ITRODUCTION

A.Hvances in computatienal methods and increased concern about wind

tunnel v;a!l interference effects in the transonic speed range have under-

scored the need for reliab!e two-dimensional experimental data. In an

eff:)rt to provide s,,ch data, tests have been conducted on the symmetrical

NACA OQI2 airfoil in the Langley Research Center's 8-foot Transonic Pressure

Tunnel. The 8-foot tunnel was chosen because, although it was not designed

as a two-dimensional tunnel, its geometry permits a model of large chord

while _m_intaining a larqe span-to-chord ratio, both of which are desirable

for two-dimensional testing. In addition, the ratio of sidewall-

displacement-thickness (_*) to tunnel width (b) for the 8-foot tunnel


(28"/b = 0.0084) is sma11, which tends to minimize sidewa11-boundary-1ayer

effects (ref. I). The 0012 airfoil was chosen since it has long been a

standard two-dimensional model for evaluating wind-tunnel test techniques

and computational methods (see, for example, ref. 2) and for making

comparisons between data obtained in different wind tunnels.

The purpose of this report is to document the resu|ts of these tests.

Consequent!y. results are presented without discussion.

SYMBOLS

Values are given in both SI and U.S. Customary Units. Measurements and

calculations were made in U.S. Customary Units.

PL - p'
C pressure coefficient, ..........
P q

chord of airfoil, cm (in.)

cd section profile-drag coefficient determined from wake measurements

(ref. 3),

Z , ._h
Cd -- _
wake

Cd point drag coefficient (ref. 3)

C_ll section pitching-moment coefficient,

c _i'-x(o._5 x) __E] u c 'Y (o.25 - x)


p c c p c c

C n section normal-force coefficient,

Z C x_ _ C :IX
p c u p c

h vertical distance in wake profile, cm (in.)


_! M_ch number

p static pressure, _/m 2 (Ib/ft 2)

q dvnamic pressure, _I/'_ (lh/ft 2)

Rn Reynolds number based on airfoil chord

x airfoil abclss_, c,n (in.)

z airfoil ordinate, cm (in.)

. angle of attack, angle between airfoil reference line and airstream

direction, deg

Subscripts :

L local point on airfoil

lower surface

u upper surface

_mdisturbed stream conditions

APPARATUS AND TECHNIQUES

Wind Tunnel Model

sketch of the 0012 airfoil mode] is presented in figure I and the

design and measured section coordinates are presented in table I. The

measured coordinates of the experimental model deviated slightly from the

design coordinates, but these deviations are small, nowhere greater than

_z/c = 0.0002 and generally less than 0.0001, and should not significantly

affect the results.

The wind-tunnel model spanned the width of the tunnel with a span-chord

ratio of 3.43. The body of the model was machined from aluminum with

embedded pressure tubes and the leading edge was made of stainless steel.

Angle of _ttack was changed manually by rotating the model about pivots in
the tunnel sidewalls. A sketch of the model installed in the tfJnnel is

shown in _igure 2.

Wind Tunnel

The investigation was conducted in the Langley _q-foot transonic

pressure t_nnel (ref. _. T!qiq t_nnel is a continuo_s flow,

variable-press_re wind t_innel with controls that permit the independent

variation of Mach number, stagnation pressure and te_perature, and

dewpoint. The up_er and lower test-section walls are axially slotted to

permit testing through the transonic speed range. The total slot width at

the position of the model averaged about 5 percent of the width of the upper

and lower walls. The tunnel has a square test section with filleted corners

so that the total cross-sectional area at the beginning of the slots is

equivalent to that of a 2.44-meter-diameter (8-foot-diameter) circle.

Measurements

Surface-pressure measurements.- Normal force and pitchinn moments

acting on the airfoil were determined from surface static-pressure

measurements. The s,_rface-press_Jre measurements were obtained from a

chordwise row of o-ifices located approximately 0.32c from the t_Innel center

line. Orifices were more concentrated near the leading and trailing edges

of the airfoil to define the pressure gradients in these regions and a

rearward facing orifice was included in the trailing edge (identified at an

!_p_er surface x/c location of 1.00). Pressures were measured with

electronically actuated differential pressure-scanning-valve units with a

transducer range of _68.Q kN/m2 (10 lh/in.?), _ccuracy of the transducers

was within 0.5-percent full scale.


Wake measurements.- Drag forces were determined from vertical

variations of the total and static pressures measured across the wake with

the nrnfile drag rake shown in figure 3. The profiles, schematically

ill_strated in Figure 4, represent the momentum losses as indicated by

st_(_-_t_on-pressur_ _ deficits across the wake. The middle section of these

profiles reflects viscous and separation losses in the boundary layer,

wher_a_ the "winqs" of the profile reflect direct losses in stagnation

pressure across the shock waves.

The rake was pnsitinned in the vertical center-line plane of the

t_Jnnel, one chord length rearward of the trailing edge of the airfoil. The

total-pressure tubes were flattened horizontally and closely spaced

vertically (0.36 percent of the airfoil chord) in the region of the wake

,_s_ociate(iwith skin-friction boundary-layer losses. Outside this region,

the t,be vertical spacing progressively widened until in the region above

_H_ _in_l wh_re only shock losses were anticipated, the total-pressure tubes

_.,_e s_)Rcpd _Ipart about 7.2 percent of the chord. Static-pressure tubes

w_r_ distributed as shown in figure 3. Each static pressure measured was

:_.eH over a section of the rake to determine local flow conditions in the

,,_('i,_tyof the static-pressure tube rather than using an average of all the

st_;-c pressures r_a_ured. The rake was attached to the conventional

c,_e.-_i_e sting mount nf the tunnel; this arrangement permitted it to be

,_ved vertically to center the close concentration of tubes in the

l_q_m_ary-i ayer wake.

Total and static pressures in the wake were also measured with

electronically actuated ,'ifferential-pressure scanning valve units. The


range ef the transducer in the valve connected to total-pressure tubes

intended to measure losses in the boundary-layer wake was 17.2 kN/m 2 (2.5

Ib/in2); the corresponding range for measuring shoc_ losses and static

pressures in the wake was t6.9 kN/m 2 (1.0 Ib/in2).

Reduction of Data

Calculation of cn and Cm.- Section normal-force and pitching-_oment

coefficients were obtained by numerical integration (based on the

trapezoidal Tnethod) of the local surface-pressure coefficient measured at

each orifice multiplied by an appropriate weighting factor (incremental

area).

Calculation of Cd.- To obtain section drag coefficients, point drag

coefficients were computed for each total-pressure measurement in the wake

by using the procedure of reference 3. These point drag coefficients were

then summed by numerical integration across the wake, again based on the

trapezoidal method.

Wind-Tunnel-Wall Effects

Two-dimensionalit X of flow.- Observation of the flow over the model and

on the tunnel sidewall at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.65 using the

fluorescent-oil film method described in reference 5 showed the flow to be

two-dimensional with no sidewall separation evident at maximum lift

conditions.

Corrections.- Because o _ the uncertainty in wall-induced |ift

interference effects and solid and wake blockage effects (particularly in

the presence of local supercritical flow) the basic experimental data is

presented without corrections for wall effects.


An indication of the influence of the tunnel walls on the flow over the

model is shownas a dashed line rotation of the normal force angle of attack

curves of figures 5 and 6. The dashed lines represent incremental changes

in angle of attack due to wall-induced downwashover the model. Using the

geometric characteristics of the 8-foot tunnel (slot spacing = 54.31 cm

(21.38 in.), tunnel semi-height of 108.61 cm (42.76 in.), and average

openness ratio in the vicinity of the model of 0.051) and the analysis of

reference 6, the incremental change in angle of attack (in degrees) was

estimated to be _ : -1.55 c n.

TEST CONDITIONS

Tests were conducted at lift coefficients from near zero through

maximum values at Mach numbers from 0.30 to 0.86 for Reynolds numbers of 3._

million and 9.0 million with transition ixed at 5-percent chord. A limited

amount of data was obtained near zero and maximum lift for a Reynolds number

of 6.0 million with transition fixed at 5-percent chord. In addition,

transition free data were obtained through the Mach number range from 0.30

to 0.86 for zero lift and a Reynolds number of 3.0 million.

Transition trips consisted of sparsely distributed O.25-cm-wide

(().10-in.) bands of carborundum grains sized according to the technique of

reference 7 and attached to the surface with clear lacquer. No. 54

carborundum grains were used for 3.0-million Reynolds number, No. 80 for

6.0-million and No. 100 for 9.0-million.

The stagnation temperature of the tunnel air was automatically

controlled at temperatures which ranged, dependent on Reynolds number and


Machnumber, from 311 K (IO0F) to 322 K (120F). The air was dried until

the dewpoint in the test section was reduced suffi<iently to avoid

condensation effects.
PRESENTATION
OF RESULTS

The experimental data reported herein are presented without discussion

in the following figures:


Figure

Force and moment characteristics. R n = 3.0 x 106 ,

transition fixed .................................................. 5

Force and moment characteristics. R n = 9.0 x 106 ,

transition fixed .................................................. 6

Effects of Reynolds number on force and moment

characteristics. Transition fixed ................................ 7

Effects of Reynolds number on drag-rise characteristics ............. 8

Chordwise pressure distribution for R n = 3.0 x 106 and

transition fixed, at:

M = 0.30 ........................................................ 9

M = 0.35 ....................................................... I0

M = 0.50 ....................................................... II

M : 0.55 ....................................................... 12

M = 0.60 ....................................................... 13

M =, 0.65 ....................................................... 14

M = 0.70 ....................................................... 15

M : 0.74 ....................................................... 16

M = 0.76 ....................................................... 17

M = 0.78 ....................................................... 18
M = 0.80 ....................................................... 19

M = 0.82 ....................................................... 20

M = 0.84 ....................................................... 21

M : 0._6 ....................................................... 22

Chordwise pressure distribution for Rn = 6.0 x 10 6 and

transition fixed, at:

M : 0.3{)....................................................... 23

M = 0.35 ....................................................... 24

M = 0.50 .... ,.................................................. 25

M = 0.55 ....................................................... 26

Effect of Mach number on chordwise pressure distributions.

Rn 6.0 , 106, angles of attack near zero, transition fixed...... 27

Chordwise pressure distribution for Rn - 9.0 x 10 6 and

transition fixed, at:

M = 0.5(3....................................................... 28

M = 0.55 ....................................................... 29

M = 0.6G ....................................................... 30

M = 0.65 ....................................................... 31

M = 0.70 ...................................................... 32

M = O. 74 ....................................................... 33

M = O. 76 ....................................................... 34

M = 0.78 ....................................................... 35

M z 0.80 ....................................................... 36

M = 0.82 ....................................................... 37

.L
Figure

M = 0.84 ....................................................... 38

M = 0.86 ....................................................... 39

Effect of Mach number on chordwise pressur_ distributions.

Rn = 3.0 x 106 , angles of attack near zero, transition free ....... 40

The pressure distributions presented show disturbances in the airfoil

pressure coefficient in some cases near 5-percent-chord. Examination of

these disturbances (figs. 15(a), 16(b), 17(a), for example) show that they

generally occur when the local velocity is near sonic velocity, and

therefore, more sensitive. These disturbances are believed to be caused by

the effect o_ the transition particles .Jnthe pressure orifices and may be

disregarded.

I0
REFERENCES

I. Barnwell, Richard W.: A Similarity Rule for Compressibility and

Sidewall Boundary-Layer Effects in Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnels. AIAA

Paper No. 79-0108, Jan. 1979.

2. Experimental Data Base for ComputerProgram Assessment Report of the

Fluid Dynamics Panel Working Group 04. _GARD-AR-138,


May 1979.
3. Baals, Donald D.; and Mourhess, Mary J.: _!umerical Evaluation of the

Wake-SurveyEquations for Subsonic Flow Including the Effect of Energy


Addition. NACAWRL-5, 1945. (Formerly NACAARRLSH27.)

4. Schaefer, William T., Jr.: Characteristics of Major Active Wind Tunnels

at the Langley Research Center. NASATMX-1130, 1965.

5. Loving, Donald L.; and Katzoff, S.: The Fluorescent-Oil Film Method and

Other Techniques for Boundary-Layer Flow Visualization. NASAMemo

3-17-59L, 1959.
6. Barnwell, Richard W.: Design and Performance Evaluation of Slotted
Walls for Two-Dimensional Wind Tunnels. NASATM-78648, Feb. 1978.

7. Braslow, Albert L.; and Knox, EugeneC.: Simplified Method for


F)etermination of Critical Height o# Distributed RoughnessParticles

for Boundary-Layer Transition at MachNu.T,


bers From0 to 5. NACATN

4363, 195o

II

Jal_,#,IL
TABLE I- SECTION COORDINATES OF NACA 0012 SYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL
[c = 63.5 cm (25 in.)]

z/c

x/c Measu red


Design
Upper Lower

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


.002 .0078 .0078 - .0078
.005 0122 .0121 - .0121
.01 01 70 .0169 - .0169
.02 0236 .0235 - .0235
.03 0284 .0283 - .0283
.04 0323 .0322 -.0322
.05 .0355 .0354 - .0354
.06 0384 .0383 -.0383
.08 .0431 .0430 - .0430
.10 .0468 .0467 - .0467
.12 04 99 .0498 - .0498
.14 .0524 .0523 - .0523
.16 .0544 .0544 - .0543
.18 .0561 .0561 - .0560
.20 .0574 .0574 - .0573
.0584 .0584 - .0583
.24 .0591 .0591 - .0590
.26 .0596 .0596 -.0595
.28 .0599 .0600 - .0599
.30 .0600 .0601 - .0600
.32 .0599 .0600 - .0599
.34 .0597 .0598 - .0597
.36 .0593 .0594 -.0592
.38 .0587 0588 - .0586
.40 .3580 .0581 -.0580
.42 .0572 .0573 -.0572
.44 .0563 .0564 - .O563
.46 .0553 .0554 - .0553
.48 .0542 .0542 -.0542
.50 .0529
- .UP," 8

12
TABLE I.- SECTION COORDINATES OF NACA 0012 SYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL.- Continued.
[c = 63.5 cm (25 in.)]

z/c

x/c Measured
Design
Upper Lower

.52 .0516 .0517 -.0516


.54 .0502 .0503 -.0502
.56 .0488 .0489 -.0487
.58 .0472 .0472 - .0472
.60 .0456 .0457 - .0456
.62 .0440 .0441 - .0440
.64 .0422 .0423 -.0422
.66 .0404 .0405 - .0404
.68 .0386 .0387 -.0386
.70 .0366 .0367 -.0366
.72 .0347 .0348 -.0347
.74 .0326 .0327 -.0326
.76 .0306 .0307 -.0306
.78 .0284 .0285 -.0284
.80 .0262 .0263 -.0262
.82 .0240 .0241 -.0240
.84 .0217 .0218 -.0216
.86 .0193 .0194 -.0192
.88 .0169 .0170 -.0168
.90 .0145 .0145 -.0144
.92 .0120 .0120 -.0119
.94 .0094 .0095 -.0093
.96 .0067 .0068 -.0067
.98 .O040 .0042 -.0040
_1
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