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Chemical Engineering Department

A Written Report on
MOTIVATION

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in


Engineering Management (ES08 EA)

August 25, 2014

Submitted by:
Mary Rose M. Estrada

Submitted to:
Engr. Edwin Richard R. Ortiz
Introduction

Managers have different responsibilities. They are not just assessed


in terms of the things that they do but also in terms of what they cause
others to do. This makes handling people one of the greatest challenges a
manager encounters. One aspect of handling people is motivation.

Motivation is an important part of a managers job since it involves


motivation of people to want to perform activities in order to achieve the
goals. The main goal of motivation is not to cause the people in the
organization to put forth best efforts with enthusiasm and effectiveness
in order to organizational objectives.
In studying management, it is essential to understand what
motivation is and how is it applied. This way, the importance of
motivation can be fully grasped and understood. However, studying
motivation is not very easy. The easier way to understand it is to
understand its results.

The objective of this paper is to give a thorough discussion of what


motivation is and what matters are to be considered when it comes to
motivation. In the following discussions, different factors about
motivation will be further elaborated.
Motives
A motive is an inner force that moves a person to behave in a
certain ways. It stems from the different needs of human beings. This
may stem from person physiological needs such the need for water, food
air, etc. It can also stem from humans psychological needs which includes
the need for self-esteem, affiliation, achievement and status.
One important factor that affects motivation is the environment.
Take for example in hunger, a person cannot feel that he is hungry not
unless he can smell or see food. This allows the awakening of the
physical need for food. In work situations, environment including climate
and physical aspect of work such as equipments, tools and buildings can
be considerably controlled by managers.
But, managing the work environment is not easy. It requires
different strategies and techniques in order to have an effective
environment to motivate the workers. One strategy in achieving this is
through reward and incentive system and punishment system. This
involves rewarding people for good behavior and punishing people for
bad performance. The reward can take be monetary, titles, bonuses,
awards, etc. Punishment, on the other hand, can be in the form of
demotion. Undesirable transfers, lack of recognition, etc. This system
may be a good motivational tool.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

In order to better understand the concept of motivation, different


theories are involved. The theories include:

1. Maslow Hierarchy-of-needs Theory


2. Hezberg: Two-Factor Motivation Theory
3. McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y
4. McClelland: Need-Based Motivation Theory
5. Likert: Participative-Management Approach
6. Mayo: Hawthorne Effect
7. Vroom: Preference-Expectance Theory
8. Skinner: Motivation Through Positive Reinforcement
9. Hall: The Relationship Between a Managers Motivation and Success
as a Manager

1. Maslow Hierarchy-of-needs Theory

This is a theory that was developed by Abraham H. Maslow. This


theory deals with human motivation based on the idea that needs form a
hierarchy. Furthermore, it is also elaborated that as one need is satisfied,
the need at the next higher level emerges.

According to Maslow, there are five levels of needs. This includes


psychological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualization needs. It is
arranged in hierarchy and this is shown in Figure 1 given below:
Self-
actu
aliz
atio
n
Esteem
Love
Safety
Physiological
Figure 1: Hierarchy of Needs by Abraham Maslow

Physiological needs involve the need to satisfy hunger, thirst,


sleepiness and sexual desire. These needs are considered to be
prepotent. This implies that if one need is in extreme level, all other
needs are forgotten. Take for example, hunger, if a person is extremely
and dangerously hungry, all other needs are no longer given attention
Safety needs are that needs which emerge after the satisfaction of
the physiological needs. Safety indicates the status of being safe from
wild animals, extreme temperatures, criminals, assault, murder, health
risks, tyranny, etc. In modern times, this need is satisfied by buying life
insurance, looking for a job with tenure, seeking for economic security,
etc.
Love needs are the needs that emerge after the satisfaction of the
two needs mentioned. This includes the need for affection, belongingness
and love. This need can be addressed to friends, to family members,
lovers, etc. the love needs both include giving and receiving love. If love
need is prevented, it can have serious consequence.
Esteem needs are the desires for self-respect and the respect for
others. It is the need to achieve and be recognized for the achievements
acquired. The satisfaction of such need will result to self-confidence and
a feeling of worth.
Self-actualization needs are the needs which arise after the
satisfaction of all the other needs in the hierarchy. It is the need to do
what one wants to do with ones life. If this will not be satisfied,
discontentment will be the result.
In sum, the theory helps determine what needs do people have.
According to Maslow, people differ in the degree to which they want to
security, but all people have the need. In a work situation, when
managers know what the employees need, they can address the needs
initially by asking What can we do to help satisfy those needs so that our
personnel will enjoy greater satisfaction and perhaps be more
productive?.

2. Hezberg: Two-Factor Motivation Theory

A psychologist, Frederick Herzberg, developed a motivation theory


which explains the worker motivation in two types of factor. The first
factors are the hygiene, or maintenance, job factors which are necessary
before an individual can be motivated. Hygienic job factors are factors
which are required to have a healthy organization and do not themselves
motivate a person to do maximum effort on a job. These factors include
acceptable salary, company policy, supervision, job security, work
conditions and interpersonal relationships with ones supervision, peers
and subordinates. Moreover, these factors must be properly and
effectively applied in order to prevent poor job attitudes from arising.
Herzberg further added that feelings of unhappiness in the workplace
are not associated with the job itself but with the conditions surrounding
the execution of the job.

The second factors are motivator factors which are essential to


motivation. The idea of motivators is based on the need for man to grow
psychologically. These include achievement, recognition, advancement,
the job itself and possibility for growth and responsibility. Herzberg
observed that a man tends to actualize himself in every area of his life
which includes job as one of the important areas. The conditions that
surround the execution of the job are not capable of providing basic
satisfaction. He added that it is only from the performance of the task
that the individual can get the rewards that will reinforce his aspiration.

3. McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y

Douglas Mcgregor identified two styles of managing: Theory X


(autocrat) and Theory Y (participative). These styles involve assumptions
concerning human nature.

The following are the assumptions of a Theory X manager:


1. The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will
avoid it if he or she can
2. Because of this human characteristic of dislike of work, most people
must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to get them
to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational
objective
3. The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid
responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all.
On the other hand, the following are the assumptions of a Theory Y
manager:
1. Work is a source of satisfaction and is as normal as play or rest
2. Threat of punishment is only one way to induce people to work and it
is not usually the best way. People who are committed to achieving the
organizations objectives will display self-motivation and self-direction.
3. A persons commitment to objectives depends on the rewards he or
she expects to receive when goals are achieved
4. Under the right conditions, the average person will both accept and
seek responsibility.
5. The abilities to think creatively, to innovate and to solve problems is
widely, not narrowly, distributed among people.
6. The intellectual abilities of most people are underutilized

4. McClelland: Need-Based Motivation Theory


The theory was developed by David McClelland. It states that
human beings have three basic motivational needs: power affiliation and
achievement.

Power is need which is expressed in a strong desire to alter the


course of events. People with are motivated by the need for power are
often effective speaker, can be argumentative, is into communicating and
desires to exercise influence.
Affiliation is a need that can exist in differing degrees. A person
which is motivated y the need for affiliation wants love and group
approval and value friendship very highly.
Achievement is divided into two desired: to succeed and not fail.
People who are motivated by the desire for achievement seek challenges,
set big goals, work hard and long and desire to win for the sake of
winning. According to McClelland, the need for achievement is increased
through education and training.

5. Likert: Participative-Management Approach

The theory was developed by Rensis Likert and his colleagues. The
main question that was involved in the development of the theory was
what management style gets best results?. Two styles were taken into
consideration in determining the answer to the question: highly
autocratic management (do it my way) and participative management
(what ideas do you have for getting the job done?).

Based from his research it was observed that managers who


practice effective human relations by letting lower-level personnel
participate in making decisions that affect them achieve better
cooperation, higher motivation and greater productivity. Moreover, Likert
also observed that people who do work want to be consulted about how
to do it.

6. Mayo: Hawthorne Effect

It is a theory that was developed by Elton Mayo, a Harvard


psychologist. He conducted an extensive study of worker motivation at
Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company. His experiments
involved the modification of the density of lights in the work area, pay
scales and the amount of rest time and other environmental factors. The
determination of the effect of the changes on the productivity of the
workers is the main objective of the experiment. It was determined that
the productivity of the workers in the study went up even when the
working conditions worsened. The increase in the productivity of thee
worker was attributable to the special attention that is focused on them.
His study also shows that the attitudes of the worker are a key to their
motivation. Furthermore, fair treatment improves the attitude of the
workers.

7. Vroom: Preference-Expectance Theory

Victor Vroom proposed that motivation relates two critical factors:


preference and expectancy. Preference is defined as the things that a
person wishes to have happen. Expectancy, on the other hand, is what a
person believes will probably happen if a certain behavior pattern are
pursued. The theory states that people have goals and motivated to have
the behavior that will allow them to accomplish those goals. In
management, it suggests that managers should communicate clearly how
goals are earned. It also suggests that once the recommended behavior is
communicated, it should be the basis for rewards.

8. Skinner: Motivation Through Positive Reinforcement

An advocate of behavior modification as motivational tool, BF


Skinner, is the one who developed the theory. He believes behavior is a
result of a stimulus. It can be modified by deciding what behavior pattern
is desired and then selecting and using the stimulus that produces the
desired behavior.

In management, a motivational stimulus can be virtually anything


that results in change in behavior. One of motivational stimulus in an
organization is positive reinforcement or rewards. It is the best way to
achieve desired behavior. Punishment, on the other hand, may result to
undesirable behavior. Managers who follow the philosophy of Skinner
emphasize praise, encouragement and prompt assistance in solving
problems. Although at some time the performance of the workers fall
short, these managers commend the worker on what he or she did right
and how can the task be done in a satisfactory manner next time.

9. Hall: The Relationship Between a Managers Motivation and


Success as a Manager

Jay Hall, a social psychologist, studied over 16,000 managers which


represents different companies. The study aims to determine the
behavioral differences among high, average and low achievers. Based
from his studies, he discovered that the need for self-actualization is the
dominant motivational influence for high achievers. Ego-status needs are
the main motivators for average achievers. Lastly, the low achievers are
mainly interested in creature comforts. They make minimal use of
participative practices.

Furthermore, managerial achievements do not depend on the


existence of personal traits and extraordinary skills unique to
outstanding individuals. It depends on the manner in the behavior of the
manager in conducting organizational affairs. It also depends on the
values the manager holds regarding personal and interpersonal
potentials. In general, the key to becoming an Achieving Manager is to
learn to behave like one.

BASIC FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE

Motivating workers is one of the challenging parts of a managers


responsibility. Although one can motivate anyone, however effective
motivation requires the consideration of different factors. The following
are the factors that must be considered:

1. Challenging Work

Challenging work can motivate many people. But most people tend
to perceive work as not challenging and thought of it in terms such as
toil, drudgery, and travail. With this perception, boredom may
arise. Boredom may be a motivational depressant. Thus, in order to
address this, managers should try to make work as challenging as
possible. However, sometimes, what is challenging t one may not excite
another person. Due to these individual differences, managers should
consider the aptitude, interest, intelligence, skills and education of
workers in making work assignments.

2. Participation in Planning

Motivation is increased if workers are asked to help plan their work


and shape the environment in which it is performed. The more
participation in planning is a strong motivational force. However, there
are some exceptions to participation in planning as a motivational force.
Some employees are more comfortable when the detail as to what they
are expected to do are given by managers. Thus, effective motivation
requires mangers to recognize individual preferences of workers.

3. Recognition and Status


Every worker desires for recognition and improved status. One
desires approval from ones peers as well as from supervisors.
Recognition is something that must be sincere and based on above-
average performance otherwise it will not be appreciated by recipients
and will be resented by others. The degree to which recognition serves as
a motivational force varies among individual. Some would crave for it,
other would be prefer not to be recognized (at least publicly). For status,
anything can be a status symbol. It can be a status symbol if it is
recognized by the group as a badge of distinction.

4. More Responsibility and Power

Not everyone wants more responsibility and power. However, most


individuals who are part of organized groups want more responsibility
and are motivated by the prospect of attaining it. Furthermore, more
people want t become bosses than other than the other vacancies permit.
Thus, a management should make use of the chances of promotion, more
power and greater responsibility in order to motivate people to perform
effectively.

5. Security

Security is the desire to be free from fear of such things as job loss,
demotion and loss of income. The degree of the desire for security varies
among people. To those people who consider security very important,
they tend to put up with almost any inconvenience and maltreatment just
to keep the job. Some people dislike the job but keep the job because he
or she is afraid to loss retirement benefits. One of the most difficult tasks
in management is establishing how much security should be provided.
Despite the capability of security to strongly motivate workers, it can also
pose harm.

6. Independence of Action

Everyone desires to have independence of action. One desires to be


his own boss. The desire is commonly strong for people who appear to
have more self-reliance than others. Sometimes, people to achieve
independence of action by putting up own businesses. However, complete
dictation of how the job is done for it is considerably easier lowers the
motivation for independence of action. The main problem in motivating
many assemblyline workers is the resentment at having to perform the
work that allows no deviation from prescribed procedure.

7. Opportunity for Personal Growth


One is motivated when given an opportunity to individually grow
and be more skillful as a result of work experience. The desire for
personal growth ties in the fact that people are goal oriented creatures.
Some of the activities of organization that would allow its employees to
grow personally are trainings, educational program, travel offers, job
rotation and other job-building experiences. The activities are good
applications of using personal growth as motivator.

8. Opportunity for Advancement

Opportunity for advancement involves promotions for higher


position in the organization. Most candidates who have best potentials
are turned off when an organizations promotions are unusually slow and
hard to come by. However, the desire for opportunity for advancement
varies among individuals. Some would prefer job security than
opportunity for advancement. Some would prefer a very stable
organization in which they are sure of a job.

9. Money and Other Financial Rewards

For some individuals, money is the strongest motivational


influence. These individuals are those who are pressed financially.
However, for some instances, money and other financial rewards are not
effective in stimulating superior performance.

The role of money in motivation has been controversial. No hard


conclusions are developed regarding the importance of money for
individuals of different ages, social classes, cultural background, job
types or organizational levels. In terms of productivity, it is most unlikely
that productivity would increase in proportion to the increase in
compensation. Most employees would soon become adjusted to new,
higher pay and take it for granted. The following are indication that
money may be overrated as a motivator:

Generally, the longest and most difficult strikes to settle are


relatively high-paying industries such as steel production, the
airlines and coal mining. Lower-paid employees are less likely to
call for work stoppages because of money matters

Supervisors often find it difficult to induce employees to work


overtime, even for double the normal pay. Employees may rather
participate in leisure activities than making money.
People with very high incomes are often willing to accept
substantial pay cuts to serve as government employees or to join
university faculties.

Some highly motivated members of various religious orders work


for what amounts to room and board and security in their old age

Countless thousands of people, highly motivated, work for no


compensation in hospitals and for charitable organization such as
Red Cross

Sometimes, the desire for money is related to the desire for


recognition and status. It may serve as a status symbol. Some would want
more money not to satisfy ones financial needs but to attain a certain
status.

10. Good Working Conditions

Working conditions include physical and psychological factors


surrounding the job. Working conditions as a motivator may vary in
importance. Some would not be motivated when working with ultra-
modern job environment with newest equipment and facilities. Some are
highly motivated in unattractive working environments.

11. Competition

Competition is an important motivator. It is in line with the


personnels desire to excel. For managers, some companies hold
recognition banquets to make awards those managers who outperformed
other managers. The event is done for two purposes. One is for the
recognition of the top performing manager and to encourage them to
keep up the good work and the other is to encourage those who lost to
try harder.

FACTORS THAT COMPLICATE THE TASK OF MOTIVATION

The idea of motivation is largely subjective and this is what makes


motivating other people difficult. Some factors that complicate
motivation are presented below:

1. Peoples Wants Differ

Some people are motivated by certain degrees by different


motivators. Effective managers are able to consider the difference of
each individual in terms of cultural background, intelligence, ambition,
education, ethical standards and many other aspects. Take for example
for status symbol. One may consider something a status symbol but for
the other it is not. Feelings also differ among individuals. One may regard
promotion as motivator but for some it is not. Due to the difference of
every individual in different aspect, managers must generally tailor
motivational efforts to individuals. The most effective managers are those
that are aware of the special needs and desires of the staff members.

2. Peoples Wants Change Over Time

Every individuals preferences may change over time. For


managers, a motivating strategy may work at first but after some time,
due to the change in the wants of every individual, this may no longer be
effective. Take for example young employees. Those who are starting out
may be intensely motivated to succeed, win promotion, make more
money and acquire power. But over years, the worker may be more
interested in security and holding on to a position already acquired as his
career settles down.

3. Social Conditions are Dynamic

Changes in social conditions complicate managing. These changes


in social conditions may include the ideas that people are better
educated than in the past, employees have more rights, people are more
affluent, much work has become boring and there is a tendency to reject
authority. Due to these changes, motivating factors that worked well a
decade ago may be ineffective today.

4. Management Lacks Control Over the Non-work Environment

Some factors are already out of the control of the managers. These
factors may also affect motivation. One of these factors is personal
problems. An individual workers personal problem can affect ones job
performance. But these problems cannot be solved by managers.

HIGH MORALE: RESULTS OF MOTIVATION

High morale is defined as a confident, resolute, often self-


sacrificing attitude of a group that has strong faith in its leadership and
believes organizational goals can be achieved. On the other hand, low
morale is characterized by depression, lack of confidence and negative
attitude towards the achievement of a goal. Motivation plays an
important role in defining the morale of workers. Given in the table
below is a list of the morale stimulants and morale depressants in an
organization.

Table 1: Factors that raise and lower morale


Morale Stimulants Morale Depressants
Organizational objectives are in Management forces an objective on
line with what the group wants personal against their wishes
Chances of success in achieving the The cause appears doomed even
objectives are good before the effort is started
Individuals take pride in being part The organization has a bad
of the organization reputation among its employees
The work is interesting and The work is dull and highly
satisfies the needs of individuals repetitious and lends itself to a
half-hearted effort
Individuals are permitted to Management issues orders in a
participate in at least part of the dictatorial fashion. Little freedom
decision-making process of expression is tolerated
Supervision is no tighter that Supervision is very strict and heavy
necessary and pressure on pressure is placed on workers to
individuals is minimized conform to work rules

Morale is intangible and hard to evaluate in an objective way.


According to theorist and practicing managers, there is an existing
correlation between morale and productivity at least over a long run.
Furthermore, an individual with high morale will have less turnover and
absenteeism, fewer accidents, produce more, use resources more
efficiently, cooperate more effectively, etc.
Some instances also show that an individual with low morale may
have higher productivity at least in a short run. These usually happen
during periods of recession and tight job markets. Under these
circumstances, a worker with low morale may produce more in hopes of
keeping their jobs.
JOB ENRICHMENT

Job enrichment is also known as job reform. It is the process of


designing jobs to make them more interesting, challenging and
meaningful. Job enrichment includes planned efforts of management to
make jobs more satisfying such as giving greater freedom to workers in
choosing work methods and letting them help plan the work and thus
affects job morale.

Types of Job Enrichment

Job enrichment is of different types. The most common types of job


enrichment are the following:
Job rotation It permits workers to move at frequent intervals
from one task to another. It allows the reduction of boredom and
gives employees more experience

Job enlargement It enables adding more tasks to a job to reduce


boredom and increase job interest. It involved increase in the
number of tasks, duties and responsibilities given to workers.

Job redesign It is the restructuring of a job to make it more


appealing to workers. It may involve changing the territory or
permitting the person to specialize with certain customers.

Flextime It requires all employees to be at work during a core


period but the workers have the right to decide when they will
begin and end their workday.

A model of Job Enrichment

Different models for job enrichment were developed by J.R.


Hackman, G. Oldham, R. Janson and K. Purdy. Three conditions must be
met if a worker is be challenged by a job. These conditions are: (1) there
must be experienced meaningfulness of the job, (2) personal
responsibility for the job and (3) knowledge of the result. Satisfying these
conditions may result to a good feeling and performance of the worker. If
one condition is not satisfied, then motivation drops significantly.

Five implementing concepts were formulated by Hackman and his


colleagues which will help in making the job enrichment work after
objective diagnosis is done. These implementing concepts are discussed
below:

Form natural or logical work units In this concept, the


workers are given a sense of responsibility for an identifiable body
of work, but to be asked to perform only fragments of many
different subjects

Combine task In this concept, workers should be given more


related work to do to form a larger module of work. More skills are
required when the tasks are combined, thus workers should
experience greater challenges.

Establish client relationship It involves the enabling and


encouraging of the workers to establish direct relationship with the
people they serve. It can result a considerable improvement in
motivation. Furthermore, feedback is improved due to the
knowledge of the workers on how satisfactory the work is.

Employ vertical loading It involves the adding og more


planning, other responsibilities and more control to workers job. It
can achieved by the following suggestions:

1. Give job holders greater responsibility for scheduling work


methods and checking quality
2. Give employees more authority.
3. Give people more freedom over time management (let them
decide when to start and stop work and take breaks)
4. Delegate more control over budgets. Let personnel know about
the costs of their jobs and how money is being spent

Open feedback channels It enables people to know as quickly


as possible how well they perform.

REFERENCES
Shwartz, David. Introduction to Management: Principles, Practices and
Processes. Harcourt t BJ Inc., New York, USA.1980. Ch. 16. p 465-487