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Introduction

Design strength

Net area

Staggered fasteners

Block shear

INTRODUCTION

tensile forces. Examples include:

Members in trusses

and earthquake

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 1

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

Stresses (f) in axially loaded members are calculated using the

following equation

P

f =

A

load.

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 2

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

What are the gross and net areas for the bar?

Gross area:

Net area:

Section B (Design Requirements), D (Tension Members), and J

(Connections) of the AISC LRFD Specification, 3rd Edition.

DESIGN STRENGTH

Fracture

limiting stresses on the gross section to less than the yield stress.

For yielding on the gross section, the nominal strength is:

Pn = Fy Ag

than the ultimate tensile strength. For fracture on the net section,

the nominal strength is:

Pn = Fu An

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 3

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

Resistance (or phi) factors are applied to these nominal strengths

strengths:

0.9 Fy Ag ; 0.75 Fu An

Consider the example from the text that is reproduced below. The

gusset plate connection is subjected to service dead and live loads

of 35 and 15 kips, respectively. Steel is A36. Bolts are 0.875-inch

in diameter. Assume that the effective net area is 85% of the

computed net area.

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 4

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

NET AREA

response of its connections. The LRFD Specification introduces a

measure of connection performance known as joint efficiency,

which is a function of

Fastener spacing

Stress concentrations

Shear lag

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 5

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

The LRFD Specification introduces the concept of effective net

area to account for shear lag effects.

Ae = UAg

Ae = UAn

where

x

U = 1

L

centroid of the connected member and L is the length of the

connection in the direction of the load. Figures from the text are

reproduced below to illustrate these definitions.

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 6

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

Specification (Section B.3) gives values for U that can be used in

lieu of detailed calculation. Different values are given depending

on whether there are more or less than two fasteners per line in the

direction of loading as follows.

0.67 or more and are connected through the flanges with at

least three fasteners per line in the direction of the applied

load, U = 0.9.

0.85.

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 7

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

3. For all members with only two fasteners per line, U = 0.75.

0.67 or more and are connected through the flanges, U = 0.9.

The figure below from the textbook illustrates the calculation for

bolted connections.

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 8

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

The effective net area will only be less than the net area if some

elements of the cross-section are not connected. For tension

members such as single plates and bars connected by longitudinal

fillet welds,

and 0.75 for l 2 w, 1.5w l 2 w, w l 1.5w, respectively.

effective net area is equal to the area of the connected element of

the cross section.

examples from the textbook that are reproduced on the following

two pages.

Bolted connection

Welded connection

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 9

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 10

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

STAGGERED FASTENERS

fastener geometries.

line.

placed in more than one line

Staggered fasteners

examples of staggered connections

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 11

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

considered for calculation of the effective net area is shown in red;

another is given by line abcd. For fracture plane abcd, the equation

f=P/A does not apply because stresses on bc are a combination of

normal and shearing stresses.

LRFD Specification makes use of the product of the plate

thickness and the net width. The net width is calculated as

s2

wn = wg d +

4g

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 12

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

All possible failure patterns should be considered. For example,

consider the plate shown below for use with 1-inch diameter bolts.

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 13

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

How is the net area calculated if connections are made in both legs

of an angle?

The gross width is the sum of the leg lengths minus the

thickness.

by the thickness of the angle.

Consider the angle connection below. The holes are for 0.875-inch

diameter bolts. Steel is A36.

effective net area?

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 14

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

What are the design strengths for:

Yielding?

Fracture?

BLOCK SHEAR

connections. Consider the figure below that shows the connection

of a single-angle tension member. The block is shown shaded.

In this example, the block will fail in shear along ab and tension on

bc. The LRFD procedure is based on one of the two failure

surfaces yielding and the other fracturing.

on the tension surface

on the shear surface

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 15

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

for yielding where the second subscript t denotes area on the

tension surface (bc in the figure above). The yield and ultimate

stresses in shear are taken as 60% of the values in tension. The

LRFD Specification considers two failure modes:

Because the limit state is fracture, the equation with the larger of

the two fracture values controls. Consider the single angle in

tension shown below.

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 16

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

Agv = 0.375 (7.5); Anv = 0.375[7.5 2.5 1]

the LRFD Specification with adequate

Gross area

Net area

Slenderness

L

300 to prevent vibration, etc; does not apply to

r

cables.

must account for the area lost to the boltholes.

values of U are generally used for preliminary design.

Connections to angles are generally problematic if there are two

lines of bolts. Consider the figure below that provides some

guidance on sizing angles and bolts.

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 17

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

Gage distances g 2 and g3 apply when there are two lines

long to resist the loads shown. Use A36 steel.

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 18

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

Assume that the angle is connected through the long leg and

estimate a value of U (0.85), calculate values of An and Ae .

THREADED RODS

Pn = As Fu 0.75 Ab Fu

where

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 19

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

and 0.75 is a lower bound (conservative) factor relating As and

Ab . See Section J3.6 of the LRFD Specification for details.

PIN-CONNECTED MEMBERS

components machined to tight tolerances (plus, minus 0.001). The

figure below from the textbook shows failure modes for pin-

connected members and each failure mode must be checked for

design.

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 20

CIE 428 Module B Instructor: Andrew Whittaker

Shear on the effective area

d

sf Pn = 0.75(0.6 Asf Fu ) = 0.75(0.6[2t{a + }]Fu )

2

service loads producing stresses of 90% of yield.

Pn = 0.90( Ag Fy )

- END OF MODULE -

8/21/2002 9:13 AM 21

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