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Chapter 3 of the book philosophy and education by George R Knight discusses the Traditional

Philosophies and Education it starts of by discussing the function and limitations and labels,it

First it establishes, that any system for the classification of philosophic schools is, at best, only

loosely accurate. And that one should not think that philosophers may all be neatly categorized

into five or six boxes and that each of these groups is completely distinct from the rest,

Secondly it talks about overreliance of, labels to be a substitute for thought about the

significance of the differences between the systems and the variations between philosophers

within a particular school. Gaining an idea of the significance of the labels is the beginning

rather than the end of understanding the nature of philosophy. Thirdly it says that, labels

must be seen for what they area simplification of a complex field, so that a starting place can

be found and despite its limitations they still have a great deal of value.beacause the human

mind demands classification systems. As it tries to separate large amounts of data into

manageable segments based on various factors.It gives a it thengives two functions of a label

which are , to serve as handles by which we can get ahold of an area of thought, to aid us in

evaluating new material in the framework of what we already know.Next the Chapter discusses

Idealism by first talking about its background to which it defines idealis as a philosophic position

that is concerened with the eternal truths of reality.The philosophic position of idealism is then

discussed by first talking about the Areality of the mind it is re-emphasized that reality for the

idealist is dichotomous there is the world of the apparent, which we perceive through our senses,

and the world of reality, which we perceive through our minds. The world of the mind focuses

on ideas, and these eternal ideas precede and are more important than the physical world of
sensation. ,it then talks about truth as ideas it says that Knowing reality is not an experience of

seeing, hearing, or touching; it is taking hold of the idea of something and retaining it in the

mind.,it continues with Values from the ideal world. Where it states that The axiology of

idealism is firmly rooted in its metaphysical outlook.and If ultimate reality lies beyond this

world, and if there is an Absolute Self who is the prototype of mind, then the cosmos can

be thought of in terms of macrocosm which is the world of the Absolute Mind and microcosm.

Which is the earth and its sensory experiences may be a shadow of that which is ultimately real.

It then conludes idealism by discussing idealism and education, it talks about the learner who

strives for perfection,the teachers who serve the students as an example of what they can

become,the subject matter of idealism viewewed from epistemology where it says if truth is

ideas, then the curriculum must be formed around those subjects that bring students into contact

with ideas.The chapter moves on to Realism it forst gives a background which it describes

Realism as a reaction against the abstractness and otherworldliness of idealism. The basic

starting point for the realist is that the objects of our senses exist in their own right quite

independently of their being known by a mind.It moves onto Philosophic Position of Realism

which discusses a reality of things which For a realist, ultimate reality is not in the realm of the

mind. The universe is composed of matter in motion, so it is the physical world in which people

live that makes up reality. it is a straightforward approach, Truth through observation. Which

bases its method upon sensory perception. It utilizes the inductive method in investigating the

natural world and in arriving at general principles from observations , Values from nature.which

are obtained by the observation of nature. Through which one comes to know the laws that

provide the basis for ethical and aesthetic judgment. Values derived from this source are

permanent, since they are rooted in a universe that is stable it closes realism by talking about
Realism and education talks about the student being viewed as a programmable observer

allowing the teacher to be viewed as a sophisticated and knowledgable guide to the the natural

laws of the universal machine as learnt through research refraining from injecting their own

stance.finally chapter 3 is concluded by discussing Neo-Scholatisism which was an intellectual

movement that was developed in western Europe and had dominated the educational system.,it

hen moves onto Philosophic Position of Neo Scholatasism and discusses A reality and real of

god which is where the physical and spiritual reals are seen as two different things all together ,it

discusses truth through rationalism and insptiration where neo-scholastics believe in a hierarchy

of truth. At the lower level people rely on reason. This is the realm of nature and science and is

quite limited. The higher level is the realm of first principles and faith. These two realms often

overlap, and thus they form two routes to the same truth.Values realayted to rationality is then

discussed to which it says that it is a concept built upon the desire of people to give to their

material wants