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FORM 1 (PT3) - SCIENCE Chloe Wong

Chapter 1 Introduction of Science 016 997 8396

1.1 Science is Part of Everyday Life Make things quickly and easier
With the help of machine produce large
What is Science?
quantities and in short time
1. Science is the study of natural phenomena.
Eg: Studies Enjoy our leisure
What/why happens Enjoyable with television, computer games
The growth of human being in the
Makes communication easy
mothers womb until it is an adult Telephones, computers, dics and satellites
Why a ball falls to the ground
2. Scientist uses his knowledge on science to Maintain good health
solve problems always expanding but has Able to live healthy with the discovery of
limits and cannot answer all questions or drugs, advance in surgery (transfer of
solve all the problems. organs from person to person)

Natural Phenomena
1. Incidents that take place on their own in our 1.2 Steps in Scientific Method
natutal surroundings. Scientific Steps
2. It takes place all the time, involving living 1. Identifying the problem
things and non-living things.
2. Suggesting a hypothesis
3. Eg : earthquakes, volcanic eruptions,
monsoons, eclipse of the moon and sun, 3. Identifying the variables
formation of rainbow, formation of seeds Constant variables
and fruit, freezing of water and melting of
Manipulated (Independent) variables
ice, germination of seeds, birth of babies
and their growth. Responding (Dependent) variables
4. Carrying out an experiment
Uses of Benefits of Science 5. Collecting data
Helps us :- 6. Analysing and interpreting data
7. Writing a report
Solve problems
Supply water to paddy fields by irrigation,
control floods, plant pests and produce
more water

Experiment 1.1 The Simple Pendulum
1. Set up the pendulum 50cm long.
How does the length of a pendulum affect the 2. Pull the pendulum bob aside and release it.
number of oscillations it makes in a given time? 3. Record the number of oscillation it makes
in one minute.
4. Repeat the experiment using length for
The shorter the pendulum, the more oscillations pendulum, such as 20cm, 30cm...
it makes in a given time. 5. Record the results.

To study the relationship between the length of Results

a pendulum and the number of oscillations it
Experiment Length of Number of
makes in a given time.
pendulum oscillations in
Variables (cm) 1 minute
1 50 42
a) Constant: Weight of pendulum bob, period 2 20 54
of time 3 30 67
b) Manipulated: Length of pendulum
c) Responding: Number of oscillations

A short pendulum makes more oscillations in a

given time than a long pendulum.

1.3 Steps in Scientific Method

Physical Quantities and Their Base Units 6. Prefixes commonly used are milli, centi
and kilo for length and mass.
1. Five physical quantities which need
Physical Quantity SI Unit Symbol 1 millimetre (mm) = m
Length metre m 1
1 centimetre (cm) = m
Mass kilogram kg
1 kilometre (km) = 1000m
Time second s
Temperature kelvin K
Electric current ampere A 1 milligram (mg) = g

I kilogram (kg) = 1 000kg

Prefixes and Symbol for Units
1. SI units have prefixes and symbols.
2. Prefixes show their values, ranging from the
smallest to largest values. 1.4 The Use of Measurement Tools
Measuring Length
Prefix Symbol Value 1. Length is the distance between two points.
giga G 1 000 000 000
mega M 1 000 000 1 km = 1 000 m

kilo k 1 000 1 m = 100 cm

hecto h 100
1 cm = 10 mm
deca da 10
desi d 0.1 2. Measured by ruler, must placed vertically
above the end of line of the object.
centi c 0.01
milli m 0.001
micro 0.000 001
nano n 0.000 000 001
pico p 0.000 000 000 001

3. The average length (3 measurements) is 7. Round subject such as big ball measured
calculated in order to get more accurate by blocks of wood.
4. Curve line must be measured by thread
and ruler.

8. Vernier Calipers or Micrometer screw

gauge used to measure thickness of a piece
of cardboard or diameter of a thin wire.

5. External calipers and ruler used for

measuring external diameters.
6. Interval calipers and ruler used for
measuring internal diameters.

Measuring Area 2. Area of irregular figure estimated by graph
1. Area is the surface covered by it.
Unit for Length Unit for Area
Eg. : 27cm2
mm mm2
cm cm2
m m2
km km2


Measuring Volume of Liquid

1. Volume is the spaces it occupies of an object.
1 cm3 = 1 ml

1 000 ml = 1 L

2. Measured by using :
Eg. :

Triangle cylinder


3. Correct techniques for using the measuring 2. Volume of a solid which floats on water can
tools :
be determined by using heavy weight
Place eyes at the same level as the bottom
of the meniscus. (sinker) to sink the solid in water.

Incorrect Volume of cork = 58cm3 - 52cm3 = 6 cm3


Meniscus Correct

3. Eureka can used to determined the volume
Measuring Volume of an Irregular Solid of an irregular solid which too big to be put
1. Volume of an irregular solid such as a stone into measuring cylinder.
can be determined by using the water
displacement method. Volume of stone is equal to volume of
water in measuring cylinder.
Volume of stone = 60cm3 - 50cm3

= 10 cm3

= 10cm3


Measuring Temperature of: 5. The moons gravitational pull is one-sixth
a) Liquid of the Earths.
Eg.: Astronaut weighing 600N on Earth but
only 100N on the moon.

Measured by laboratory thermometer in

degree celcius (C)
Range: - 10 to 110
Temperature increase, mercury rises ;
Temperature decrease, mercury falls.

b) Body
1. Is the quantity of matter (substances) in the
2. Mass of an object cannot change.
3. S.I. Unit is kilogram (kg), but also
Measured by clinical thermometer. measured in grams (g) and milligrams (mg).
Average body temperature of human is
37C 1 kg = 1 000 g
1 g = 1 000 mg
1.5 Mass

Weight 4. Measured by using level balance (A) and

1. Is the pull of the force of gravity of the triple beam balance (B).
Earth on it.
2. S.I. Unit is newton (N).
3. Measured by newton spring balance (A) and
compression spring balance (B).
4. The extension of spring is directly
proportional to the weight pulling it.

5. Electronic balance (C) much more accurate
and gives direct reading.

Differences Between Mass and Weight

Mass Difference Weight

Quantity of matter contained in an The Earths gravitational pull on an
object object

Kilogram (kg) S.I. unit Newton (N)

Level balance, triple beam Newton spring balance, compression

Measuring tools
balance, electronic balance spring balance
Mass of an object does not Weight of object changes from
change property different places