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MODERNIST ISLAM, 1840-1940

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MODERNIST ISLAM,
1840-1940
A SOURCEBOOK

Edited by CHARLES KURZMAN

OXPORD
UNIVERSITY PRESS

2002

OXFORD
UNIVERSITY PRESS
Oxford New York
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Copyright © 2002 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Published by Oxford University Press, Inc.
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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Modernist Islam, 1840-1940 : a sourcebook, edited by Charles Kurzman.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
ISBN 0-19-515467-3; 0-19-515468-1 (pbk.)
1. Islamic renewal—History—19th century. 2. Islamic renewal—History—20th century.
3. Islamic countries—Intellectual life—19th century. 4. Islamic countries—Intellectual
life—20th century. I. Kurzman, Charles. II. Title.
BP60 .M55 2002
297'.09'04—dc21 2002022046

The editors thank the original copyright holders for permission to re-publish the works in this
anthology. We thank the Noor Research Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for their financial support.
We thank Ihsan 'Abbas, Edward A. Allworth, Ali Badran, Margot Badran, Niyazi Berkes,
Leon Carl Brown, Kenneth Cragg, Hager El Hadidi, Raghda El Essawi, Howard L. Goodman,
Abu Bakar Hamzah, Achmad Jainuri, Erni Haryanti Kahfi, Nikki R. Keddie, Lathiful Khuluq,
Javed Majeed, Helena Malikyar, Ishaq Masa'ad, Akhmad Minhadji, Natalie Mobini-Kesheh,
Ken Petersen, Samiha Sidhom Peterson, Lisa Pollard, Christopher Shackle, Durlab Singh,
Devin Stewart, Christian W. Troll, and Yektan Tiirkyilmaz as well as our fellow editors, for
their fine translations.
We thank Butrus Abu-Manneh, Engin Akarli, Louis Brener, Daniel W. Brown,
Abdelwahab El-Affendi, Carl W. Ernst, Paulo Fernando de Moraes Farias, Thomas
Hinnebusch, Hasan Javadi, Ahmet T. Karamustafa, Enes Karic, Bruce B. Lawrence, Roman
Loimeier, Ma Haiyun, Hossein Modarressi, Ebrahim Moosa, Henry Munson, R. Sean O'Fahey,
Shantanu Phukan, Stefan Reichmuth, Saba Risaluddin, Heba Mostafa Risk, Andrew Robarts,
David W. Robinson, William R. Roff, Holly Shissler, Devin Stewart, Amin Tarzi, Mohamad
Tavakoli-Targhi, Ibrahima Thioub, Ghulam Vahed, John O. Voll, and Muhammad Qasim
Zaman for their kind advice and assistance.

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Printed in the United States of America
on acid-free paper

Contents by Region

Introduction 3 Chapter 7
Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui
Kenya, 1890-1947 86
Section I. Africa
Chapter 8
Chapter I Abdullah Abdurahman
Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi South Africa, 1870-1940 90
Egypt, 1801-1873 31
Chapter 9
'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis
Chapter 2 Algeria, 1889-1940 93
Khayr al-Din
Tunisia, 1822-1890 40 Chapter 10
Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub
Chapter 3 Sudan, 1908-1976 96
Muhammad 'Abduh
Egypt, 1849-1905 50
Section 2. Iran/Afghanistan
Chapter 4
Chapter I I
Qasim Amin
Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
Egypt, 1863-1908 61
Iran, 1838-1897 103
Chapter 5
Chapter 12
Bahithat al-Badiya
Mirza Malkum Khan
Egypt, 1886-1918 70
Iran, 1833-1908 111

Chapter 6 Chapter 13
Muhammad Rashid Rida Muhammad Husayn Na'ini
Lebanon-Egypt, 1865-1935 77 Iran, 1860-1936 116

vi Content s by Region

Chapte r 14 Chapte r 26
Mahmu d Tarzi Dz•emaluddin C•aus•evi
c•
Afghanistan , 1865-1933 126 Bosnia, 1870-1938 198

Chapter 27
Sectio n 3. Ottoman Empire 'Abd al-Qadi r al-Maghrib i
Lebanon , 1867-1956 207
Chapter 15
'Abd al-Qadi r al-Jaza'ir i Chapte r 28
Algeria-Syria , circa 1807-1883 133 Halid e Edib Adivar
Turkey, 1882-1964 215
Chapter 16
Ali Suavi
Turkey, 1839-1878 138 Sectio n 4. Russian Empire

Chapter 17 Chapter 29
Nami k Kema l Ismai l Bey Gasprinski i
Turkey, 1840-1888 144 Crimea , 1851-1914 223

Chapter 18 Chapte r 30
S•emseddin Sami Frashër i Munawwa r Qari
Albania-Turkey , 1850-1904 149 Turkistan-Uzbekistan , 1878-1931 227

Chapter 19 Chapte r 31
'Abd al-Rahma n al-Kawakib i Ahmed Aghayev
Syria, 1854-1902 152 Azerbaijan, 1869-1939 229

Chapter 20 Chapter 32
Mahmu d Shukri al-Alusi Abdullah Bubi
Iraq , 1857-1924 158 Tatarstan , 1871-1922 232

Chapte r 21 Chapter 33
Abdullah Cevdet Rizaeddi n bin Fakhreddi n
Turkey, 1869-1932 172 Tatarstan , 1858-1936 238

Chapter 22 Chapte r 34
Musa Kazim Abdurrau f Fitra t
Turkey, 1858-1920 175 Bukhara-Uzbekistan , 1886-1938 244

Chapter 23 Chapte r 35
Jama l al-Di n al-Qasim i Musa Jarullah Bigi
Syria, 1866-1914 181 Tatarstan , 1875-1949 254

Chapte r 24 Chapter 36
Mansurizad e Sa'id Mahmu d Khoja Behbudi y
Turkey, 1864-1923 188 Turkistan-Uzbekistan , 1874-1919 257

Chapte r 25 Chapter 37
Ziya Gökal p Abdulhami d Sulayma n Cholpa n
Turkey, 1876-1924 192 Turkistan-Uzbekistan , 1893-1938 264

Contents by Region vii

Section 5. South Asia Section 6. Southeast/East Asia

Chapter 38 Chapter 46
Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali Al-Imam newspaper
North India, 1837-1914 273 Singapore, 1906-1908 339

Chapter 39 Chapter 47
Chiragh 'Ali Achmad Dachlan
North India, 1844-1895 277 Java, 1868-1923 344

Chapter 48
Chapter 40
Syekh Ahmad Surkati
Sayyid Ahmad Khan
Sudan-Java, 1872-1943 349
North India, 1817-1898 291
Chapter 49
Chapter 41 Hadji Agus Salim
Muhammad Iqbal Sumatra-Java, 1884-1954 355
North India, 1877-1938 304
Chapter 50
Chapter 42 Ahmad Hassan
Muhammad Abdul Khader Maulavi Singapore-Indonesia, 1888-1958 360
Malabar, 1873-1932 314
Chapter 51
Chapter 43 Muhammad Hasyim Asy'ari
Ameer 'Ali Java, 1871-1947 365
Bengal, 1849-1928 316
Chapter 52
Ya'qub Wang Jingzhai
Chapter 44
China, 1879-1949 368
Abu'l-Kalam Azad
Bengal-India, 1888-1958 325
Glossary 377
Chapter 45 Index of Quranic Citations 379
Muhammad Akram Khan
Bengal-Pakistan, 1868-1968 334 Index of Personal Names 381

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1874-1919 257 Afghanistan. 1868-1923 344 . 1851-1914 223 Singapore. 1865-1933 126 Chapter 38 Chapter 19 Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi North India. 1908-1976 96 Chapter 36 Chapter 14 Mahmud Khoja Behbudiy Mahmud Tarzi Turkistan-Uzbekistan. 1877-1938 304 Turkey. Contents byTheme Cultural Revival Chapter 33 Rizaeddin bin Fakhreddin Chapter 7 Tatarstan. 1869-1932 172 Chapter 29 Chapter 46 Ismail Bey Gasprinskii Al-Imam newspaper Crimea. 1858-1936 238 Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui Kenya. 1890-1947 86 Chapter 35 Musa Jarullah Bigi Chapter 10 Tatarstan. 1875-1949 254 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub Sudan. 1906-1908 339 Chapter 30 Chapter 47 Munawwar Qari Achmad Dachlan Turkistan-Uzbekistan. 1854-1902 152 Chapter 41 Chapter 21 Muhammad Iqbal Abdullah Cevdet North India. 1837-1914 273 Syria. 1878-1931 227 Java.

1801-1873 31 Abu'l-Kalam Azad Bengal-India. 1871-1922 232 . 1857-1924 158 Chapter 17 Chapter 22 Namik Kemal Musa Kazim Turkey. 1854-1902 152 Syria. 1869-1939 229 Chapter 41 Political Reform Muhammad Iqbal North India. 1876-1924 192 Chapter 52 Chapter 31 Ya'qub Wang Jingzhai Ahmed Aghayev China. 1888-1958 325 Chapter 2 Khayr al-Din Tunisia. 1860-1936 116 Algeria-Syria. 1858-1920 175 Tatarstan. 1840-1888 144 Turkey.x Contents by Theme Chapter 49 Chapter 25 Hadji Agus Salim Ziya Gokalp Sumatra-Java. circa 1807-1883 133 Chapter I 6 Chapter 20 Ali Suavi Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi Turkey. 1838-1897 103 Chapter I 3 Chapter 15 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri Iran. 1858-1920 175 Chapter 19 Chapter 23 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi Syria. 1877-1938 304 Chapter I Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi Chapter 44 Egypt. 1849-1905 50 Chapter 9 Chapter 6 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis Muhammad Rashid Rida Algeria. 1865-1935 77 Chapter 12 Chapter I I Mirza Malkum Khan Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Iran. 1884-1954 355 Turkey. 1839-1878 138 Iraq. 1866-1914 181 Chapter 22 Chapter 32 Musa Kazim Abdullah Bubi Turkey. 1870-1940 90 Egypt. 1833-1908 111 Iran. 1822-1890 40 Religious Interpretation Chapter 8 Chapter 3 Abdullah Abdurahman Muhammad 'Abduh South Africa. 1879-1949 368 Azerbaijan. 1889-1940 93 Lebanon-Egypt.

1849-1928 316 Chapter 42 Muhamma d Abdul Khade r Maulav i Malabar . Content s by Them e xi Chapter 39 Chapter 37 Chirag h 'Ali Abdulhami d Sulayma n Cholpa n Nort h India . 1888-1958 360 Turkey. 1886-1918 70 Chapte r 50 Chapte r 24 Ahma d Hassan Mansurizad e Sa'id Singapore-Indonesia . 1870-1938 198 Scienc e and Educatio n Chapter 27 'Abd al-Qadi r al-Maghrib i Chapter 11 Lebanon . 1868-1968 334 Egypt. 1844-1895 277 Turkistan-Uzbekistan . 1817-1898 291 Bengal. 1873-1932 314 Women' s Rights Chapter 45 Chapter 4 Muhamma d Akram Khan Qasim Amin Bengal-Pakistan . 1872-1943 349 Egypt. 1850-1904 149 Glossary 377 Chapte r 34 Index of Quranic Citations 379 Abdurrau f Fitra t Bukhara-Uzbekistan . 1864-1923 188 Chapter 51 Chapte r 26 Muhamma d Hasyim Asy'ari Dzemaluddi n C•aus•evi c• Java. 1867-1956 207 Sayyid Jama l al-Di n al-Afghan i Iran . 1893-1938 264 Chapter 40 Chapte r 43 Sayyid Ahmad Khan Ameer 'Ali Nort h India . 1886-1938 244 Index of Personal Names 381 . 1838-1897 103 Chapte r 28 Halid e Edib Adivar Chapter 18 Turkey . 1863-1908 61 Chapter 48 Chapte r 5 Syekh Ahmad Surkati Bahitha t al-Badiya Sudan-Java . 1882-1964 215 S•emseddin Sami Frashër i Albania-Turkey . 1871-1947 365 Bosnia .

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Ben-Dor (China) Howard M. Hermansen (South Asia) Roland E. Altstadt (Caucasus) Ahmet Kanlidere (Tatarstan) Adeeb Khalid (Central Asia) Edward J. Commins (Levant) M. S. Federspiel (Southeast Asia) Michael F. Rahme (Levant) A. Lazzerini (Crimea) South Asia Marcia K. Laffan (Singapore) Jonathan N. Miller (Malabar) Sufia Uddin (Bengal) Southeast/East Asia Zvi A. Kevin Reinhart (Turkey) Itzchak Weismann (Levant) Asim Zubcevic (Bosnia) Russian Empire Audrey L. Lipman (China) .iikrii Hanioglu (Turkey) Joseph G.Section Editors Africa Randall Pouwels (East Africa) Emad Eldin Shahin (North Africa) Iran/Afghanistan Charles Kurzman (Iran) Helena Malikyar (Afghanistan) Mahmoud Sadri (Iran) Ottoman Empire David D.

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1840-1940 .MODERNIST ISLAM.

The Moon of the Fourteenth Night: Being the Private Life of an Unmarried Diplomat in Persia during the Revolution (London: Hurst & Blackett. 1910). FINDING REASONS FOR THE CONSTITUTION IN THE KORAN (FROM "MULLA NASIR-UD-DIN THE PERSIAN "nwcn") Source: Eustache de Lorey and Douglas Sladen. p. . 98.

4 In 1908. 4-5. 1906. p. Jurisprudence. 3 . he Valmont's suspicion of modernist Islam was com- held that Iranians."1 States. even among scholars who suffer "the lack of real comprehension of the spirit of studied Islam. Valmont's memoir included caliph "cannot set up beside himself a constitutional a cartoon. Duncan B. Duncan Black Macdonald (United the Constitution. Valmont was bemused. Valmont saw an image lampoon- combining religious and secular forces."2 The cartoon said nothing about consti- Tehran. even apparently enlightened ones. a few years of that statement. Mehmed doesn't bear scrutiny. Valmont's use of this cartoon that a parliamentary democracy. Islam was compatible with democratic principles. 3."3 Yet within ing. in Azeri Turk- ish: "I cure the ill by writing down verses [from the 2. but rather mocked an old-fashioned re- erupted and came to power in 1906. but chapter 3)—the highest-ranking religious official in such claims don't bear close scrutiny. rather. He is the pointing with one hand to the Qur'an and holding up successor of Muhammad and must rule. Mulla Nasruddin. 58. Macdonald. appointed famed satirical journal of Baku. 1966). In a ghostwritten memoir. "Valmont" was a pseudonym. Eustache de Lorey and Douglas Sladen. the Fourteenth Night: Being the Private Life of an Unmar. as an absolute monarch. The caption read: "Finding reasons for the consti. from antitraditionalism to antimodernism. p. 147-148. Egypt—wrote privately in 1904 that he supported It is. argued that ing an Islamic scholar and inverted its meaning. for example. when a constitutionalist movement tutionalism. reproduced at left. ley: University of California Press. Kerr. September 22. 156. Muhammad 'Abduh (Egypt. This movement. 1863-1943). ligious practice. pp. within [di- his other hand to block curious onlookers from peek. The Development of Moslem Theology. mon among Christians. showing a clerical figure assembly and give it rights against himself. It read. 1848-1917)—the chief a slightly different drawing in Mulla Nasruddin. the religious authority of the Ottoman Empire. Trans- lation from Azeri by Mahmoud Sadri. The original—published with Cemaleddin Efendi (Turkey. and Constitutional Theory (New 1. vine] limitations. Azerbaijan—had an entirely different caption. The Moon of York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Malcolm H. some of the leading tution in the Koran (from 'Mulla Nasir-ud-din[." The message seems clear: Muslims contrary. Islamic Reform: The Political and ried Diplomat in Persia during the Revolution (London: Hurst Legal Theories of Muhammad 'Abduh and Rashid Rida (Berke- & Blackett. Iran. 4. 1903). wrote in 1903 that As evidence of the difficulty modern institutions Islam does not allow constitutionalism because the faced in an Islamic country. Charles Kurzman Introduction: The Modernist Islamic Movement Edouard Valmont was a French diplomat serving in Qur'an]. see may claim that Islam supports constitutionalism. 1849-1905.'] the scholars of the Islamic world were arguing exactly the Persian 'Punch'). 1910). pp.

These proposals tury. 67. The modern the twentieth century: on one hand secularists who period both required and permitted this accident to downplayed the importance of Islam in the modern be repaired: the threat of European domination made world. (By contrast. The boundaries of the modernist Islamic move- ponent of modernity)." which sought to constitutionalism. p. pp. (new) and genf (young). William R.5 Also in 1908. J. agi. as several Islamic states adopted European mili- formed part of a movement that generated tremen. also wished to preserve and improve Islamic faith in patibility of Islam and constitutionalism also ignored. have dated the moment of decline at roughly 1940. Abdul-Hadi Hairi. socialism. privileging authenticity and tation for political liberalization or decolonization. modern-style movement from previous Islamic reform movements. cultural revival.. muda. ford University Press. progress and enlightenment. women's rights. but its core was clear: a set and their goals by the Arabic terms jadid (new) and mu'asir (contemporary).)7 A second character- like to know if it would be possible to execute Islamic istic involved the usage of a self-consciously Islamic provisions without a constitutional regime!"6 discourse. 1908-1913) (Istanbul. p. on the other hand religious revivalists with European domination made repair possible. scientific investigation.9 (a feature of modernity) but also "modernist" (a pro. The Origins of Malay Nationalism. 1994). we and the establishment of a periodical press through. Netherlands: E. Shi'ism and Constitutionalism in the present book because their work was included in this ear- Iran (Leiden. 5. The authors and activists alists who rejected modern values. 1998). 1798-1939 (London: Oxford University Press. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age. freedom of religious in. 2d ed. chap- 1978). . Siyasi Hatimlar. the combination of modernist and Islamic dis- that is. Finally. the half-century's crescendo of propos. ity. Malay for young. as well as of discourse. The who espoused modern values (such as social equal- modernist Islamic movement pioneered the forma. This combination of characteris- or dismissed. it distin- engaged in this movement saw the tension between guished the movement from two of its successors. education. Activists described themselves ment could be imprecise. ed. the modern world. and certain forms of human equal. Following one classic study. Late in the twentieth cen- the self-conscious adoption of "modern" values— tury. divine mandates.8 out the Islamic world. 8. Albert Hourani. especially rationality. the Turkish terms yenl 7. which supplanted modernist Islam in the middle of dent. Roff. privileging nationalism. though modernist Islam continued to spread in swcsev- One defining characteristic of this movement was eral regions after this date. 489-490. Modernism distinguished the modernist Islamic terpretation. (Kuala Lumpur. 1902-1908 (New York: Ox. 43-47. Charles Kurzman. Liberal Islam (New York: Ox- ford University Press. Preparation for a ter 13. not an inherent feature of Islam. science. lier anthology. Revolution: The Young Turks. and mass education) but down- tion or reformation of educational institutions. that I have labeled "liberal Islam. 242. 9. tary and technical organization. and a bundle of other which did not identify their values as modern. played their modernity. two senior scholars of languages. Several authors are omitted from 6. values that authors explicitly associated with courses was revived in a subset of modernist Islam the modern world. Cemaleddin Efendi. and similar words in other stitutionalism. 1962). Thus this movement was not simply "modern" earlier modernists. nationalism. pp. and themes discussed later in this introduction (see also from contemporaneous competitors such as tradition- the Contents by Theme). codified law. initially a pejorative term applied by opponents to the ment in Iran's Constitutional Revolution: "We would modernist Islamic movement.4 Introduction directly by the caliph—said that he too supported con. §iikrii Hanioglu. and various Muslim dous intellectual ferment throughout the Islamic travelers to Europe brought back influential tales of world in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Turkey: Terciiman. We have picked the date This movement sought to reconcile Islamic faith and 1840 as a rough marker of the emergence of this form modern values such as constitutionalism. Malaysia: Oxford University Press. or other repair necessary. Islamic faith and modern values as a historical acci. 2001). M. was Shi'i Islam telegraphed their support at a crucial mo. 1908-1913 (Po. Activists were not simply Muslims but Macdonald's blanket statement about the incom. Brill. 1977). and the modern values associated ideologies. resuscitate the reputation and accomplishments of ity. litical Memoirs. tics emerged in the first part of the nineteenth cen- als for Islamic constitutionalism.

THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 5 of key figures who served as lodestones for Mus. Supporters cited and debated the statements tributions from the authors they have chosen. finally. by arguing that their own. Crimea. The modernist Islamic movement was educations qualified them to speak on Islamic issues. Readers should note that the editors modernist Islamic project located themselves in re. 1898. for Second Muslim Reformism. criticized—indeed. the and opportunities posed by the onslaught of moder- anthology presents a cross section of themes and nity. Inevi- of these figures. but it is grouped russe (Annals of the Russian World). colleagues who served as section editors and project Namik Kemal (Turkey. pp. published in Paris and Istanbul. 111.10 but not so that this was the central intellectual issue of the move- well known to other Muslims or scholars of Islam. Three figures in particular were famed scholarship and rejection of traditional scholarship. by laying out their modernist vision of Islam. the selection of authors and works in this anthology. Sayyid Ahmad Khan's Tahdhib al-Akhlaq indeed. published in Paris. tably. In order to defend modern values. I propose Africa to East Europe to Southeast Asia. modernists criticized one another 1873. al-Nabhani in the Age of 'Abd al-Hamid II. "Histoire et interpretations 10. 1838-1897. 1884. Islam but rather to make available in a single volume The present anthology includes influential writ. relevant. In addition.. chapter 11). or Jadidism)." paper presented at the Middle East Studies Association. This is to be expected of any intellec- 1883-1914. Europhilism and anti-imperialism. published in Cairo. Yet the modernist Islamic movement. and didactic fiction of various sorts. 19-20. and collaborator 'Abduh. volume 37. 1868. and advisers. plus regional pioneers Sayyid I would like to take this opportunity to thank my Ahmad Khan (North India. each influential in their regional contexts. Ijtihad. 1851-1914. and Modernity: Yusuf erty. movement was not limited to central figures. throughout the Islamic world: Sayyid Jamal al-Din return to a pristine early Islam and updating of early al-Afghani (Iran. and this What can we learn from these voices? The follow- anthology seeks also to highlight the contributions ing sections explore four issues that emerge from the of authors from around the Islamic world who were writings of the modernist Islamic movement. and Gasprinskii's Tercuman/Perevodchik (The for going too far. chap. especially the periodicals they ed. leading modernists were "irreligious" and even "sa- 1896. opponents charged that 'Abduh and other (Refinement of Morals). (to be discussed in a moment) may be in question— 1935. or not far enough. and 'Abduh's student and Considerations of influence and diversity guided collaborator Muhammad Rashid Rida (Syria-Egypt. plays. and variation."11 The modernism of some authors may be (Warning). ists' Islamic faith encompassed both mysticism and lim intellectuals of the late nineteenth and twentieth abhorrence of mysticism. 1870. 1996. applying their expertise to the selection of Ismail Bey Gasprinskii (Crimea. The modern. published in Aligarh. ists had to defend the right to defend modern values. important. p. 71. stories. Yahya Abdoulline. in one direction Interpreter). Even authors who disagreed with the tual movement. 1998. ment: the right to say novel things in an Islamic dis- The anthology also samples the modernists' varied course. numbers 1- here with the rest of Africa to provide cross-regional balance. Much of North Africa. by pioneering new forms of discourse. and characteristic con- ter 29). Cahiers du monde example. chapter 17). Amal Ghazali. strategic use of traditional centuries. and poems. or another. . existed on virtually all subjects. These ues included both state-building and limits on state power. 1840-1888. The Islamic faith of a couple of authors al-Manar (The Beacon). modern- forms of discourse: journalistic essays. his student practices in keeping with historical change. published in Bakhchisaray. chapter 40). and some decisions may be con- (The Strongest Link). The regional classifications are inevitably somewhat contemporaines du second reformisme musulman (ou djadi- arbitrary. do not wish to construct a "canon" of modernist lation to these central figures. 11. often nontraditional positions. scholarly trea. including This they did by referring to the particular challenges dialogues. even deep disagree. a representative sampling of major voices in the ings by these authors. from South organized around the freedom of speech. discipline and lib. 1865-1935. "Sufism. chapter 6). Rida's troversial. Namik Kemal's Hurriyet (Liberty) and Ibret tanic. the anthology omits certain important figures ited: Afghani and 'Abduh's al-'Urwa al-Wuthqa for lack of space. and. elitism and egalitarianism. ment. 1817-1898. as political control and circuits of training reached disme)" (Contemporary History and Interpretations of the across geographic boundaries. Modern val. never monolithic. tises. Chicago. was part of the Ottoman Empire. 2. succinct.

30. worldviews with its dramatic claims of success. Ahmad Khan. chapter 14): "European states. modern institutions of government seemed.." in John L. tify his call for democratic reform: "every intelligent course.: Syracuse University lization. Sumayya Damluji Shahbandar (London: Saqi Press. John Obert Voll. including Islamic homelands. M. a European increases in productivity and to exploita- period whose revivalist activity "created an under. with the imperialist expan. Nazik Saba Yared. which threatened Islam in emphasized the medieval Islamic roots of modern at least five registers. to demonstrate stan. In addition to natural re- Prophet): "God sends to this nation at the beginning sources.Y. trans. cited the hadith (saying of the those of the entire world. Books. for example. Islam: Continuity and Change in the 14. All. p. p. not only exploit their own mines. Khayr al-Din (Tunisia. 1970). The Cambridge History of Islam (Cam. they are also capable of industrial produc- of every century someone who renews its religion. "Revival and Reform in Islam. contrast. to maintain social peace and build national unity in ways that con- 12. had lost territory and ness and even a positive disaffection towards Islam submitted to treaties allowing foreign intervention in as it has been shaped in our time." According to the empire's domestic affairs. 1865-1933. This is simply because they have the knowledge Yet the modernists faced a challenge that earlier and we do not. how- Europe to conquer vast regions of the Islamic world. modern means of warfare allowed raculous advances made in recent years. person realizes that as long as this tyrannical admin- istration prevails in the state. John Obert Voll. Such calls could be heard already in the street lamps and other indicators of prosperity." in P." Ottoman "state will undoubtedly sink" if current Politically.6 Introduction problematics remain vivid today for Muslims who trends continued. ." and the nal luminous face of Islam. According to bridge. recognized science as a challenge to Islamic This trend had begun in the seventeenth century but understandings of the world. pean "progress in the governance of mankind. Voices of Resurgent Islam (New York: Oxford University Press. Muslim visitors to Europe in the history to claim a dire need for reform and revival of early and mid-nineteenth century marveled at the gas the faith. Fazlur Rahman. p. contribute towards spreading them—there will arise 1949. pressed. N. chapter 2). Even the Ottoman Empire. the in the hearts of people an uneasiness and careless- most powerful Islamic state. "Like a convict. Euro- ume 2." tion. while others emphasized the seemingly mi- Militarily. but also ter 6). 1822-1890. Arab Travellers and Western Civi- Modern World." wrote Musa Jarullah Bigi (Tatarstan. among others. the Mus. ever. for example. it appears. science. argued that "the [Ottoman] na. 633. this threat required Muslims to wipe ter 17). 1994). England: Cambridge University Press. identified this threat even as he that modernist Muslims worried about the prospect embraced modern scientific disciplines: "I am cer- of complete subjugation. Cognitively. by their continuity with Islamic tradition. Rida (chap. Modernity was not a disembodied set of ideals. modern science challenged other nity. according to their proponents. which lamic History. Modernist Muslims attributed this prosperity both to ments recurred up through the eighteenth century."13 A combination of resentment and respect is ex- Some modernists called upon this and other prece. the "black stains" of traditionalism from "the origi- tion is faced with the threat of extinction. rather. (Syracuse. vol. by Mahmud Tarzi (Afghani- dents of reform. Namik Kemal (chap. ed.. foreign interventions cannot be stopped.14 eighth and ninth centuries. 36. 1983). namely the onslaught of moder. Some sion of Christian Europe. Modernist Muslims accepted these claims. help and control. 1875. temporary Islamic states could not. 1996). 2d ed.. Ahmad Khan (chap- gained such momentum by the nineteenth century ter 40). too. in part. Holt et al. eds. Esposito. lying theme for the modern Islamic experience. for example. 13. tain that as these sciences spread—and their spread- lim world remains everywhere under someone else's ing is inevitable and I myself after all. modernity appeared to generate wealth and commodities that the Islamic world Modernism is hardly the first movement in Islamic lacked and desired. it was associated. He used this dire prediction to jus- wish to espouse modern values in an Islamic dis.12 and revivalist move. tion of other regions. "Renewal and Reform in Is." reformers had not." Why Speak Now? Economically. chapter 35).

Moralistes et politiques musul- 16. tions. p. requisite of Christianity.18 Accord- who have seen the constitutional countries have told ing to §emseddin Sami Frasheri (Albania-Turkey. rev. and thus deem distancing 1890-1947. whose pillars have been tottering for 17. according to modernist Muslims. 1982). By realizing flected upon the state of these people [Europeans]. The Emergence of Modern Af- ghanistan: Politics of Reform and Modernization. their Even colonial dependence had positive implica- ways of [conducting] meetings. Calif. many Muslims ated French colonizers of North Africa with his criti- worried that Islam would not be able to compete. p. 46. the religion of Islam which prevents Muslim nations gion. and rearing their children great duties. 450. Iran: 1882) (Cairo. masses of our own nation take it to be a symbol or tices. Islamic societies could you. 1801-1873. modern ideals. volume 2. "Had you not re. which he identified as "the basis of the 1902. In the context (France. "The published in Iran and Afghanistan suggested that greatest benefit that the peoples of the Orient have "The black smoke rising from the roof of the father- derived from the Europeans was to learn how real land / Is caused by us. / The flames that devour us government ought to be. most innova- founded Iranian parliament: "I've never seen the con. or others like you. modernity introduced novel patterns long exclusively to the Christian nations. ignorant of behavior that threatened to displace existing prac. 4. 1843-1921) noted in a speech to the newly hardly blameworthy. some modernists argued. would not have considered this not only survive but thrive.: Stanford University Press. their love of coun." Muslims could not have developed Yet these challenges also provided an opportu- this independently. Fereydun Adamiyat."15 Ayatullah Muhammad Taba. original ideals of their faith. Egypt: Institut fransais d'archeologie orientale Intisharat-i Payam." A poem the European kingdoms. in fact."16 stance that. Gilbert Delanoue. ages."17 this knowledge. "All new things are taba'i (Iran. which unfavorable circumstances did in a healthy way. tions are praiseworthy. Muhammad Iqbal try. not permit us to perform. ed." Thomas Ismael Urbain threaten the very existence of Islam. 167. me. and with good customs and man. as well as recover the to be part of Islam." 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (Syria. like their pastimes. . as well as the assimilation of from left and right / Are caused by us." relied primarily on respect for personal and more. 1997)." Rida wrote in 1907. later an Muslim women cut their hair in European styles but apostle of Pakistani independence. and those Tahtawi (Egypt. "It is a regrettable circum- and flourishing of the country. chapter 41). p. (Stanford. 1975). from becoming civilized. 1877-1938. because today civilization seems to be- Culturally. Youssef M. 18. Choueiri. but the spirit of the and crafts and cooking. 1854- political rights. argued that the ought rather to value "the knowledge European British Empire was "a civilizing factor" in the Islamic women have in fixing up their houses and making world: "England. and other things like these. 1969)." but not "their good customs. and the ability they have in [doing] handy work Muhammadans which it protects. . du Caire. On the contrary. . will remain in the world only a few days tries." wrote Rifa'a Rafi' al- stitutional countries myself. nity. We can affirm that it is not that are good and which do not contradict our reli. 1880-1946 15. nonetheless defended the Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali (North India. 1812-1884). Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui (Kenya." British Empire that makes it the greatest Muham- In sum. that the constitution is the cause of the security 1850-1904. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 7 has led to the utmost point of prosperity for their coun. But I've heard. It is not the number of ners.. chapter 19) feared that "danger has come great development of knowledge and civilization in close—may God forbid it—to the heart. the challenges of modernity appeared to madan Empire in the world. (London: Pinter. a convert to Islam who infuri- of social Darwinist competition. 1837-1914. Fikr-i dimukrasi-i ijtima'i dar mans dans I'Egypte du XIXe siecle (1798-1882) (Muslim nahzat-i mashrutiyat-i Iran (Social Democratic Thought in Moralists and Politicians in Egypt of the 19th Century." (North India. Vartan Gregorian. cism of their brutality. and not only in ways it to be a religious duty. p. is doing one of our own them comfortable and neat. 1798- the Iranian Constitutionalist Movement) (Tehran. potential of colonization to develop "an administra- chapter 38) worried that the "dilapidated hall of the tive organization favorable to the development of true religion. chapter 18)." Muslims adopted alcohol and European garb. Islamic Fundamentalism. chapter 7) worried that "every day we themselves from it and guarding themselves against see ourselves mimicking whites. in this view. he continued. their solidarity. chapter I).

29. Through Muslim Eyes: M. First published in 1932. which "can- Idol-worshipping. Turkey whether the Dutch colonial government was "exer. technical skill and advanced industries. Shaikh stitute of Islamic Thought. rather. alone has shaken off its dogmatic slumber. p.. Martyr) (Beirut. The Secrets of the Self(Asrar-i khudi). Ibrahim bin Abu Bakar. drinks from her hand nisian press and "prohibiting the entry into Tunisia A poison sweet. Pilgrimage of Eternity (Javidnamah)." Hadji Agus Salim key for its drastic Westernizing reforms: "The truth (Sumatra-Java. . pp. chapter 49) questioned is that among the Muslim nations of today."19 Some modernists seemed. .25 19. 23. conflicted Sayid Syekh al-Hadi (Malaya. 1839-1878. Pakistan: Institute of Islamic Cul- 22."24 On the other pendent country?" 'Abd al-'Aziz al-Tha'alibi (Tuni. for example. warned Muslims against modernity colonizers as God's "righteous servants. Va. Emad Eldin Shahin. 1867. Pakistan: Shaikh Muhammad Ashraf. Lebanon: Dar al-Gharb al-Islami. or justice . Liberal Islam. Muhammad Iqbal.. chapter 16). Some distinguished between knowledge of to-day. for example. England: Oxford University Press. and at- cising its power in accordance with the spirit of the tained self-consciousness. Long have I been running to and fro. Reynold 20. 1968). even as they berated Europeans for fail- ligion and of justice. 262. On one hand. such as Ali Suavi (Tur- And have made me intimate with their roses. 1867-1934). idol-selling. pp. of modernity. Later in life. 76-77. p. key. hand. idol-making!23 not possibly countenance any nationalistic awaken- ing or agitation for progress. Do not seek the nature of Truth from this Rida. 1871-1919) (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. tion. 1930). 159-160. frankly. Thought in Islam (Oxford. ing to live up to these ideals. Islamic Modernism in Ma. dom and equality. he castigated Turkey for Westernizing: sia. so that Indonesians can have their own inde. 1961).8 Introduction agriculture and commerce . 1950). La Tunisie martyre (Tunisia the ture. what can I say except elsewhere. Mahmud Ahmad (Lahore. 1884-1954. p. a large system of public educa. 24.: International In. torn from the self. Nicholson (Lahore. trans. p. press with French colonial decrees limiting the Tu- Enravished by the West. concluded that "all that we need infidel's cup! to acquire from Europe is its scientific achievements. laya: The Life and Thought of Sayid Syekh al-Hadi."22 Yet these critics embraced the ideals God save him."21 Others. volume 1. 1934 (Kuala Lumpur. 162. that warn one not to European ideals in the age of imperialism: "Just look smell them— how those Frenchmen talk pretentiously about free- Like paper roses. The acqui- Learning the secrets of the New Knowledge: sition of these aspects does not require all this amount Its gardeners have put me to the trial of Westernization. one of about European civilization. right of intellectual freedom. he praised Tur- fall of its dominant power. Iqbal offered similarly antagonistic as such agitation would spell the inevitable down. She alone has claimed her times. Malaysia: University of Malaya Press. 21. ed. India. that is. A. Charles-Robert Ageron. First published in 1920. keen intellectual and moral struggle. the founders of the Singapore reformist journal al. Rashid Rida and the West (Herndon. The Reconstruction of Religious 1994). went so far as to praise British mission in 1909. trans. aspects worthy of adoption and those to be rejected. 25. 1993). Iqbal (chapter 41). she alone has passed ing these people to develop their own independent from the ideal to the real—a transition which entails talents. 1888-1958. also in Kurzman. all the while seeking world domi- Since this garden ceased to enthral me nation like Caesar. Les Algeriens musulmans et la France (1871-1919) (Muslim Algerians and France. an organization of re." Abu'l-Kalam Azad (Bengal- I have nested on the Paradisal tree. . 1985). quoted above praising colonialism's "civilizing" Imam (chapter 46). 1879-1944) compared the freedom of the French The Turk. and finally various philanthropic institutions. 49. taking on the responsibility for prepar.. 167. Abdelaziz Thaalbi. p. p. chapter 44) was bitingly critical Modern knowledge is the greatest blind— of the "inequity" of British colonialism. and since the antidote of newspapers and writings published in France and He has renounced."20 a few years later: Not all modernists fawned so enthusiastically over But do not seek the glow of Love from the European civilization. a mirage of perfume. opinions. noted the hypocrisy of Roses! Tulips. First published in 1915. 404. reform.

' The Prophet then said. and draw arguments The authority of the past crystallized in the prac. N. 137-138. Bearman et al. a term that literally meant to follow (Iraq. Netherlands: E. chapter 48) wrote that taqlid was not only ter 23)—among many others—quoted a hadith in contrary to reason and revelation. volume 3. (Leiden. p. 'And if you do not find a ruling in dernity may be at odds with his English-language God's book?' He said. chapter 20) called it "outlandish" established scholars but which modernists ritually to "state that one is obliged to follow the madhhab denigrated as blind. as stated by Muhammad Abdul Khader Maulavi gued that active reinterpretation of Islamic sources (Malabar. Brill. namely the Qur'an and the chapter 15). 'How would you act as judge?' He said. Calder. chapter 13). it has no principles that contradict reason.28 The modernists latched on to the such arguments. 2000). God's Messenger. and he struck his chest. 1971). This widened door of ijtihad should not have been cumstances. Muhammad said." Second was the better to follow a beast than an imitator. as he has pleased the Messenger of God. They did so by challenging two term and broadened its scope to include three distinct forms of scholarly authority that stood in their way: usages. J. 1860-1936. and even more outlandish is All of the lodestone figures in the modernist move." wrote Muhammad Husayn Na'ini (Iran. En. to contend that of idolatry. modernists con- from the early Islamic era in support of this position." had for centuries been lim- Who Can Speak? ited to a fairly technical meaning." wrote Abdullah Bubi (Tatarstan. eds.. 1996).. chapter 42). precedent of the Prophet and his Companions—to dictory. 'I would judge by God's book." in the words of 1922.27 as did others: "It is adopt one of the four madhhabs. 29. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 9 Iqbal's Persian and Urdu poetry denouncing mo. Liberal Islam. "Islam is a religion that is compatible with reason. "Idjtihad. 'I would perform ment as a whole. to the sacred sources. 9.29 First was the right to reach across the sev- the authority of the past and the authority of the eral legal schools (madhhabs) in which scholars tra- credential. (Leiden.'" The concept of ijtihad. rive at legal rulings on matters not covered in the the modernists had to defend their right to make sacred sources. p. you do not find it there?' He said.' opportunity. from any and all of them—Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi tice of taqlid. "put the Qur'an in its rightful place.: Austin & Winfield. Some cited revelation and precedent shut in the early centuries of Islam. Legal Reform in the Muslim cyclopedia of Islam. "Taklid. 1857-1924. that is. to serve as governor of Yemen: main Sunni schools of law] whom those practicing "The Prophet said to him. 1866-1914. the modernists ar. the Early 20th Centuries on the Usage of Ijtihad as a Legal 27. Netherlands: Brill.. Modernity involved both threat and ijtihad [rational interpretation] and spare no effort. 2d ed. Third was the effort to reconcile obedience to political tyrants. World: The Anatomy of a Scholarly Dispute in the 19th and volume 10. the opinion of those who state that one is obliged to ment weighed in on this theme. Encyclopedia of Islam. "Taqlid of religious leaders who Muhammad Akram Khan (Bengal-Pakistan. 1871. Tool (San Francisco. 1868- pretend to present true religion is no different from 1968. chapter 32). [founders of the four Jabal (died 627). Syekh Ahmad Surkati (Sudan-Java. ditionally limited themselves. Mu'adh ibn to the instructions of the imam?. Schacht. J. eds.' The 28." wrote ' Abd right to bypass the madhhab?. 2d ed. circa 1807-1883. was permitted and even necessary under certain cir. irrational imitation of tradition. . chap. and reach back directly al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri (Algeria-Syria. J. London: Luzac.26 of a particular scholar. pp. Calif. 1943. of God. But this tension repre. tended. chapter 45)." in Bernard Lewis et al. 'Praise God vation. Modernists argued that the crisis demanded to give success to the messenger of the Messenger drastic reform in the Islamic world. 8. Muneer Goolam Farced. Prophet then said. pp. 'By the sunna [precedent] of prose embracing modernity. 1872- Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (Syria.. 26. external imposition and internal reno. 'And if sents the challenge of the modernist Islamic move. but also "contrary which Muhammad sent a companion. 1873-1932. "Taqlid and Islam are mutually contra. referring to the intellectual effort of trained Islamic scholars to ar- Logically prior to the substance of their arguments. Kurzman." in P." Rather than follow precedent. 1026-1027. derived from a root mean- ing "effort" or "struggle. Either one is a form the sacred sources with human reason.

number 2. ed. Similarly. of taqlid was enforcement of conformity. therefore the latest religion. 1888-1958. Modernists saw taqlid not as a religious require. 1925 a 1940 (Muslim Reformism in Algeria from 1925 to ume 3. for example. Muntaqid (The Critic). quoted above. p.32 and modern. intel- Indonesia.117-124. 55-59. likened taqlid such lies and the extravagant praise and miracles at. A History of Islamic Legal Theories (Cam. most of which did not conform to more qualified than earlier ones." Die Welt Wael B. then a great deal taqlid—"on the basis that they themselves are not of knowledge would be lost. 1996). they go directly to the hadith as the source things like earlier men?" Qasimi asked. chapter 50) accused support.. Yann Richard. the building of legal uniformity and predictabil. 77. 1861- the modernists' polemical denunciation of tradi. 1936) of the Ahl-i-Qur'an movement. they engage in limited to the books of the ancients. according to designed to suppress challenging views. if one believes in progress. "Shari'at Sangalaji: A Reformist 31. vol. lectual. 2001. 68.31 Indeed. Recent scholarship suggests that the original purpose Theologian of the Rida Shah Period. number 1. penetrating minds 'original' scholars and may not use hadith directly.36 Or per- at the authority of conservative scholars than at their haps." Islamic Law and Society. "The Social Logic of Taqlid and 35. Daniel W. 1890-1944). articulate tongues would be blunted." In political and religious authorities who sought "to a more critical tone. p. des Islams (The World of Islam). 1940) (Paris: Mouton & Co. later scholars are actual writings. and see Prophet. But if they disagree.30 Musa Kazim (Turkey. We have the Badis (Algeria. England: Cambridge Univer- University Press. and both to idolatry. p. bridge." Indeed. then they go tenth century scholar (chapter 23): "If people were to their earlier scholars"—that is. nized no intermediary between the Creator and the pletely. to political tyranny. Modernists in Dam. as scholars—even scholars espousing created." in Said Amir Arjomand. ity—see Mohammad Fadel. by Bubi (chapter 32): "Since God's creation is pro- ascus. Ingeborg Baldauf. who "would not have approved of cal authority. it is quite possible and in accordance with ists in Central Asia had to tiptoe around the issue 33. or in more flatter. 34. was not nec- tional Islamic thought may have been aimed more essarily superior to that of other Muslims. volume 41. were repeatedly accused by gressing day by day. chapter 22) wrote that "all of the 'ulama' and sultans. "Islam tributed to them. University of New York Press. compose. some modernists suggested delivered man from the slavery of priests.. England: Cambridge University Press. and we would hear nothing but repetition." wrote Mirza Riza Quli Shari'at-Sangalaji taqlid—were forced by changed circumstance to (Iran. 32. 114. pp. directed its same need. 172. and religious affairs. 1967). 445-446. 1889-1940. It recog- that the door of ijtihad had never been shut com. 1988). sity Press. Na'ini. quoting a of this agreement. 193-233. David Dean Commins. 1858-1936. 1990). 51-52. . pp." Rizaeddin bin to avoid trouble. ties on charges of espousing ijtihad. Islam. Hallaq. Ahmad Hassan (Singapore. . Islamic Reform: Politics and 36.10 Introduction taqlid claim to be imitating." The Algerian reformist newspaper al- [religious scholars] in every era wrote books in ac. especially a parallel argument about Muslims' veneration of the analogy between religious authority and politi- saintly figures. "Do not later men study. Recent scholarship has confirmed this view—see Reformism and Modernism in the Muslim World. chapter 9). is the most perfect religion of all the religions. 62-63. rule [the community's] political. economic. pp. Authority and Political Culture in Shi'ism (Albany: State ing terms.33 The theme of authority arises Fakhreddin (Tatarstan. ." Even the ment but as an instrument of institutional authority Prophet's understanding of Islam. Rethinking Tradition in Modern Social Change in Late Ottoman Syria (New York: Oxford Islamic Thought (Cambridge. Khwaja Ahmad Din Amritsari (North India. 1997)."35 ers of taqlid of adopting the practice only when it Modernists proposed that contemporary scholars suited them: "When these traditionalist religious are just as qualified as their predecessors to engage scholars agree with the actions and words of the in ijtihad." would go astray. Ali Merad. "Jadidism in Central Asia within 30. conservatives and interrogated by Ottoman authori. . Brown. servative thought "useful only to oppressive rulers 1858-1920. We must also reform the theological opening editorial against the combined tyranny of books in accordance with the needs of our era. chapter 33) made time and again in the modernists' works. a theme broached the modernists' caricature. Le reformisme musulman en Algerie de the Rise of the Mukhtasar. 1996.34 Bubi (chapter 32) called con- devise novel approaches. edited by ' Abd al-Hamid Ibn cordance with the needs of the d a y . pp.

Islamic Revival in British India: p.J. the porating modern discipline—for example. who Western-style schools. "is the popular perception that they have ates from meaningful intellectual work. Abul Kalam Azad (Delhi. Deoband. Muslims had a duty to engage in ijtihad. Several modernists of Islam. who created in this umma him who would rectify with They sought to reform the seminaries by incor- his sword my deviations. 127. S. tion (1880-1960) (Leiden.J. in the words of one invited all Muslims to judge the propriety of his ac. J. the creased pilgrimages by Muslims: "The question of Qur'anic verse. invented by "infidels" but resulting in in- than the person who is stating it. 37." The Singapore news- Musa (Egypt. leaving the field open to the modern-educated." The Young Ansar-Ud-Deen Society. number 4. Afghani (chap- 39. p. respectively—both cite the precedent of the founded in Nigeria in 1923. its founders. 1886-1951). Press. ies themselves. Brill. (Sura 4." For Azad. let him among you who sees any This critique emerged from within the seminar- deviation in me set it right. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT II God's sunna that in our time there might be scholars ter 11) likened traditional scholarship to "a very nar- of the same degree as. Modern Muslim Koran Interpreta. of the Muslim world to remain lifeless and motion- ligious scholars. "O people. Educational pioneer Nabawiyah less." (The Caspian) wrote that traditional schools "do not and said that even he would not proceed without a deserve to be called schools. established a series of second caliph." The Azerbaijan newspaper Kaspii mosque in Cairo objected to this act as "heretical. p. on top of which is a very small flame that the past.38 Further. mod. Netherlands: E. Shi'i. grades. 'Umar told the Mus. Abdurrauf Fitrat (Bukhara. 1995). Feminists. In Khayr al-Din's telling. ume 26. N." Bigi (chapter 35) blamed seminaries for the ernists faced a second hurdle: many of them lacked "widespread stoppage of brains that caused the mind the seminary credentials historically required of re. ers. 1988). 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-644). 1905- 1920 (Cambridge. 198-199. pp. 1985). Khayr al. Margot Badran. "Do they not consider the Qur'an?" studying is just the same.37 Modernists combated their handicap by Education in secular subjects.: ligious Associations Among Yoruba Muslims: The Ansar-Ud- Princeton University Press." Journal of Religion in Africa. argued. in India. 1996." In these precedents. and therefore to decline. Deen Society of Nigeria. J. Islam. since the verse did not limit "they" to a small live in illiteracy. or better than. Under the new system. 373. a teenager prevented by paper al-Imam (chapter 46) excoriated traditional her family from attending school. because it is easier." A man stood up and said. reformists—not necessarily full-fledged modern- tify it with our swords. vol- 38. 16. and in every generation one or group. pioneered by traditionally trained "By God. Baljon. "Praise God ists—who admired aspects of modern education. pp. and sought to interpret up time. both women and men will be- Din (chapter 2) and Na'ini (chapter 13)—Sunni and come learned. 40. Tadeusz Swietochowski. Stefan Reichmuth." traditional educations had become so sterile and wrote a founder of the Nadwat al-'Ulama' seminary scholastic that they actively disqualified their gradu. 1860-1900 (Princeton. by contrast. 1961). along with al-Jaza'iri (chapter 15). taught herself to teachers who assigned rote exercises "in order to take read. if we saw in you deviation we would rec." 'Umar replied. examina- independent religious judgment of noncredentialed tions. that "by this means alone . . prepare students properly for the practice and study nopolize religious interpretation. . A male relative studying at the al-Azhar ing] plants grow. and prizes at the Deoband seminary in Muslims was deemed praiseworthy. that "the chapter 34) made the analogy with trains and steam- intelligent person must consider the statement rather ships. legitimated widespread interpre. some modernists suggested that all two great scholars appear. the scholars of row wick. Verse 82). arguing. 104-105. p. also Ian Henderson Douglas. women are deprived of learning and most of the men tation.. 1982). England: Cambridge University Press. Under the old system. 1886-1938. 30. Russian Azerbaijan. 40." neither lights its surroundings nor gives light to oth- Even if they overcame the hurdle of taqlid. N. and Nation: Gen. be better studied and understood. Barbara Metcalf. India41—and modern disciplines.: Princeton University India: Oxford University Press. can Islam tions. memorized the Qur'an."39 mentor. lazily believing that [education is like watch- its verses."40 lims. "A major reason for Some modernists went further and argued that the decline in the 'ulama"s influence in the country. would arguing that credentialed scholars ought not to mo. "Education and the Growth of Re- der and the Making of Modern Egypt (Princeton. 41. M.

Munawwar Qari (Turkistan-Uzbekistan. combining religious and secular coursework. 1988). sent a ponents viewed religious training merely as a cover leading student to study at al-Azhar. 1997). J. pp. 266-268. for example.. Islam. §iikrii Hanioglu. 1981). Hamid Algar.. were accepted 42. 44. N. is as futile as to expect one to reach out to a bird fly- cial hierarchy. pp. "Religious Education and with great delight when it was proved that they were the Rhetoric of Reform: The Madrasa in British India and latent in Islam. Reform of Religious Teaching in Najaf Since the Beginning cuse University Press.'Abduh's plans for al. p. Reform within Islam: The Tajdid and Jadid Movements among the Kazan Tatars (1809-1917) (Istanbul.Y. pp. 176-189. Islam in China (London: Mor."42 Some seminarians despaired of reforming the Even when they failed in their attempts at insti. The New Mamluks: Egyp. 1932. p. p. so that in worldly matters their ing of a "a Shi'ite Muhammad 'Abduh. leading internal critics served as 1878-1931. Hakan Kinmli. chapter 12). Ugdal Nesriyat. 45. tutional reform. 49. p. Authority and Political Culture Cevdet: A Political Thinker and His Era) (Istanbul. M. 82. N. for religious knowledge. Brill. born 1904).J.43 At al-Azhar in take 15 to 20 years to study introductions [to canoni- Cairo." in Arjomand. without any particular merit in its inspired Shi'i modernists who never studied in own right. pp. Marshall Broomhall. erlands: E." Comparative Studies in Society and History. 1910).: Princeton University Press.48 and Muhsin Sharara (Lebanon. 59. 51. One strain of Islamic modernism went so far in proved methods" of education. "The Clerics of Jabal 'Amil and the tian Society and Modern Feudalism (Syracuse. schools of Bukhara—condemned such institutions Shihabuddin Marjani (Tatarstan. reer.12 Introduction withdrawn into their cells and know nothing about Iraq. such as Shaykh Asadullah Mamaqani (Iran. Ende. ondary education as qualifying him to guide the Ira- Muzaffar (Iraq. Neth- gan and Scott. The Twelver Shia in Modern Times (Leiden. 1833-1908. The Shi'is of Iraq (Princeton."50 Abdullah Cevdet (Turkey. Bir Siyasal Dusunur Olarak 48." He told a British seminaries be reformed on the model of 'Abduh's audience of his strategic approach to Islamic educa- plans for al-Azhar. Sabrina Mervin. 262-268. producing graduates who often considered to the Balkans as a convinced modernist and called themselves legitimate competitors with seminarians 'Abduh "Respected Teacher" for the rest of his ca. National Movements and National 50. tion: "ideas which were by no means accepted when coming from your agents in Europe. To hope for them to the chief religious official of Egypt he helped to in. . Yitzhak Nakash. p. who proposed that Shi'i nian nation toward "civilization.: Syra. A. vol. chapter 21) made similar comments. Turkey: in Shi'ism (Albany: State University of New York Press. Cairo. ing in the sky while standing in a well. Mirza Malkum Khan (Berkeley: Uni- Identity among the Crimean Tatars (1905-1916) (Leiden. One such student. Amira El-Azhary Sonbol. many: Klaus Schwarz Verlag. versity of California Press. Said Amir Arjomand. of the Twentieth Century. Mirza Malkum Khan (Iran. 1994). 1996). J. 1901-1946).47 'Abduh even for modern values. even kent. Chris Eccel. 1973). In Bukhara. impart a knowledge of the sciences of the present age corporate al-Azhar graduates into a state-run judi. 1869- Pakistan. and our colleges ormation leader Martin Luther. pp. Muhammad Qasim Zaman. 47. Ahmet Kanhdere. Turkey: Eren Yaymcihk. considered his French sec- early twentieth century) and Muhammad Rida al. 13-17. another returned to China dedicated to "im. 2000)."49 guidance is entirely unworthy of attention. eds. Brill. who called in 1928 for the com- the state of the world.45 Nonetheless. to teach only reading and writing. 1999. 325-341." Qari founded Azhar fired the imagination of dozens of young the first usul-ijadid (new principles) school in Tash- religious scholars who came to study with him. Europeans seeking to inculcate modern values in an 43.46 A Tatar seminary its devaluation of traditional scholarship that its pro- in Crimea. attempting comparable reforms. pp. Egypt." in Rainer Brunner and Werner 46.51 as did ume 41. 1870-1938. returned world. West Ger. seminaries. for limiting themselves to commentaries on commen- spired a generation of seminary-trained modernists taries. 183. 2000). 1984). 70-71. for brief periods. "Ideological Revolution in Doktor Abdullah Cevdet ve Donemi (Doctor Abdullah Shi'ism. 51. Netherlands: E. number 2. "Our present schools take four or five years who considered him comparable to Protestant Ref. ed. 'Abduh achieved little reform44—though as cal texts] and the four readings. Dzemaluddin Similar schools emerged throughout the Islamic Causevic (Bosnia. 306. chapter 30)—trained at the traditional role models for cadres of modernists. chapter 26). 1818-1889) in. and Social Change: al- Azhar in Conflict and Accommodation (Berlin.

(chapter 3) offered a warning from the early centu. pp. But once I had no other choice but to do whatever 1860-1960 (Cambridge. or personal by nature. Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Fundamentalist Thought (New York: St." Middle volume 16. 109-121. England: Cambridge University Press. "Russian Jadidism and the Islamic tute for Inner Asian Studies. ligious official]." but not for the "horde of heretics" who en- not imply complete democratization of the right to gage in "chatter. modern education. Islamic and 1925 a 1940 (Muslim Reformism in Algeria from 1925 to Slavic Fundamentalisms: Foes or Allies? The Turkestanian 1940) (Paris. France: Mouton. volume 31. 1975. ment administratifs en Perse (Essay on Administrative Re- . forms and Training in Persia) (Paris: Ernest Leroux. . 56. Other Europeans considered modernist Islam a threat to colonial control and sided instead with con." Surkati (chapter 48) limited ijtihad only virtuosity—as compared both with their scholarly to "those who have the capacity and opportunity to opponents and the "masses.57 speech on the pragmatic grounds that open debate In sum. pp. Rida's resentment at Gasprinskii's leadership of pan- ries of Islamic history.52 This strain shaded into outright Other modernists limited ijtihad to those who secularists. Essai de reformes et d'enseigne. Despite the precedents with wrong. pp. by their imperfect faith. interpretation. Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850 (New York: pp. . 88-90. uted to the polemic between the Sunni and Shi'i sects. as in Ahmad Khan's statement (chapter 40): "I am an ignorant person. They ex- "not by any traditional argument. 1915). Le reformisme musulman en Algerie de servative Muslims—for example. "Mirza Path Ali Akhundzadeh and the russe et sovietique (Annals of the Russian and Soviet World). France and Islam in West Africa. and Harry.. Call for the Modernization of the Islamic World. Ayesha Jalal. Reagent (Bloomington: Indiana University." leading to dangerous schisms. p. Ahmad Indian leadership of the modernist Islamic movement Khan (chapter 40)—while favoring freedom of in South Asia. Martin's. Columbia University Press." Ibn Badis condemned opposing make independent religious judgments. the modern. number 3. who saw no need for the religious freedom "on condition that it adheres to the pretense of Islamic education and doubted that Islam principles of religion"—meaning the principles that could ever be construed as compatible with modern he emphasized. 1987). temporary Debates in Islam: An Anthology of Modernist and 57.55 a ists generally replaced one form of credentialing with charge that was often leveled against the modernists another—just as modernists did outside the Islamic themselves. Rida (chapter 6) supported "freedom values. neither a maulavi [religious scholar]. Mehrdad Kia. when "every opinion-monger Islamic conference planning in Cairo. Christopher Harrison. see Guy Imart. 1908. nor by any proofs pressed confidence in their own qualifications— of the mujtahids based on independent judgment. 2000). dress. and to limit the relativistic damage of Dick. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 13 Islamic language. and The modernists' critique of seminary training did work." and sought to justify his position this breach. Mansoor Moaddel and Kamran Talattof. through a single maneuver. And competition within the paper that denied the existence of God. 422^48. nor a preacher. 2001). opinion. nor a qadi [judge]. Martin Kramer." Cahiers du monde 53. Research Insti. Ali Merad. writing. sophistry. I do not say that whatever I investigated is true. 231-234." giving the example of a French news. 7. Suavi (chapter 16) rejected a defini. but seminary training. positions as bid'a (impermissible innovation). speech.56 or the took his stand upon the liberty of thought the Qur'an Calcutta-based challenge to Ahmad Khan's North enjoined. nor a mufti [re- 52. urging all Muslims to nents or critics. 'Abduh movement led to other polemics—for example. sembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses (New York: 54. 383-424. though not all. p.53 of religion. World: Ismail Gasprinskii in Cairo. Con. 1812-1878). 1967). they opened a space for the right to speak. 1995." fications were asserted in humble terms. 55. the modernists sought to breach the mo- advanced the search for truth54—was dismissive of nopoly of traditional religious scholars over Islamic "the opinion or independent judgment of every Tom. Several authors. Thomas Kuttner. pp. pp. such as Mirza Path 'Ali Akhundzada agreed with them. and insolence in criticizing their oppo- that some modernists cited. Gustave Demorgny. tion of freedom that permits "saying whatever comes considering the other to be disqualified from ijtihad to one's mind." Even when these quali- understand the proofs of God and His laws. contrib- world as well. audacity in mixing right engage in Islamic reasoning. . 189. 1988). Tahtawi (chapter 1) supported (Azerbaijan. Routledge. 41-45. 1986). Islam As- Eastern Studies. eds.

. Michael F. eds. and Japan. number 22. Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi. 2001. and Culture. Pakistan: Institute of Islamic Culture." East Asian History. Hali explained: much as possible" (chapter 33). pp. 2002). Jakob Skovgaard. long suspect within ery language. Mirza Siradj ad-Din Hakim. Brill. and has been bequeathed to the Muslims as a World (Istanbul. 35-76. 93.60 as in Kawakibi's fictional pan-Islamic assem. 419-424. for the purpose of awakening Art. England: Palgrave. Essai sur les doctrines sociales et Petersen. pp. Netherlands: 1953). Mehr Afroz Murad. Bosworth et al." in C. pp." in C. Turkey: Fakiilteler Matbaasi. number 1. Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali.. 126-127. India: Oxford University Press. Henri Laoust. 1976). "Portrait of the Intellectual as a Young Man: Rashid politiques de Taki-d-Din Ahmad b. my heart became sick of the old poetry. irrelevant fantasy. Egypt: 1'Institut fran§ais d'archeologie pp. legacy from the Arabs.63 in which—according to the au- the structure with nontraditional content. as reported by 'Ali Ahmad al- themes were insufficiently attuned to the concerns of Jarjawi (Egypt. trans. pp. Lapensee de I'Islam (The 60. Mod- ernists commandeered the travelogue format. tent. as de- literary forms of the past were inadequate. "Al-Tahtawi as Translator of the continues to be written about this. J. The Encyclopedia of Islam. Majeed (Delhi. mid-nineteenth-early twentieth contemporary Muslims. . Hali's "The graphic literature was transformed into modern bi- Flow and Ebb of Islam" (chapter 38). Iran and the Surrounding World (Seattle: was also adopted and infused with modernist con. eds. E. 59." European and a Bukharan Muslim is staged with the author embodied in the European character. . Christopher Shackle and Javed Nu'mani (Lahore. eds. 141-161. Taimiya (Essay on the Rida's Muhawarat al-muslih wa-al-muqallid (1906). then I had certainly to do ex. Souvenirs de voyage pour les gens de Boukhara (Travel Memoirs for the People of Bukhara). throughout the Islamic world. ed. Monica Ringer. as in Fakhreddin's study of the 14th cen- traditional Urdu structure of the musaddas. main- How to Speak taining the positive comparison of Islam with reli- gions of other lands. but filled the modernists. Modernist Islamic vived by Muhammad Shibli Nu'mani (North India. was re- with noble and useful themes. . a popular figure among particular rhyme scheme and verse length." in Nikki R. Intellectual Modernism of Shibli Flow and Ebb of Islam. (Leiden. scribed by Siraj al-Din Hakim (Bukhara. But no one has Culture of Parisian Society. Various articles on "Shi'r. modernists specified at least three ways in which the circa 1790-1845). 2001. In an un.58 One of the most in. 145-170. 1993). Brill. E. 2001). E. Hali's Musaddas: The 62. volume 12. and 61. Thought of Islam) (Istanbul. 1997). and I began to feel the development of novel forms of religious writing. Wagner. volume 9. trans. century). for example. orientale. pp. E. Laffan. God knows by Fitrat (chapter 34). 2d ed. and partisanship is avoided as poem. Stephane 58. pp. Turkey: Research Centre for Islamic History. adapted traditional poetic forms 1857-1914) and Ismail Hakki Izmirli (Turkey. bly (chapter 19) and the startling inversion effected actly what I did and what I am still doing. and crude humor clerical circles for its rationalist heritage. 1992). Taymiya) (Cairo. . 63. Jarjawi. The books by Tahtawi and Mirza Saleh Shirazi (Iran. Keddie and Rudi The traditional literary form of debate (munazard) Matthee. Netherlands: "Making Meiji Muslims: The Travelogue of 'Ali Ahmad al- E. volume 7. A second movement among modernists involved When I beheld the new pattern of the age.61 Theology (kalam). ashamed of stringing together empty fabri- cations. with its tury reformer Ibn Taymiyya.59 Century Travel Literature. 541-575. as in found expression in novel forms of discourse. 2d ed.. 4-50. in which debate between a my pure intention. poets. 1939). but also Iran and India. 1997)." in Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu. 1877- First.. which makes a natural appeal to Transfer of Modern Science & Technology to the Muslim all. among others. "The Quest for the Secret of Strength in Iranian Nineteenth- the community. Refashioning Iran (Houndsmills. p. pp. J. Dudoignon (Paris: Actes Sud. They sought to replace flow. Bosworth et al. 1869-1946).. thor—"every piece of information and fact is exam- usually extensive and reflexive introduction to the ined meticulously. 565-568. It is true that much has been written. modernists held that long-standing literary 1914). 1999). 462-410." Islam Social and Political Doctrines of Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn and Christian-Muslim Relations. adopted the ography. University of Washington Press. Hilmi ZiyaUlken. (Leiden.14 Introduction could be done by me. "Munazara. pp.62 Traditional hagio- fluential exemplars of this adaptation. yet written poetry. Nadia Abu Zahra. 93-104. The Encyclopedia of Islam. pp.. but also stressing the wonders The novel approaches of modernist Islam frequently of modernity—generally focused on Europe.

historian novation of the modernist Islamic movement was the periodical press. The modernist Is- project of outreach and uplift. p. Ralph Russell. The Repentance ofNasuh. the first modern medan religion" in 1929." in C." Ph. illnesses of nations may be cured with the publica- acter burns a roomful of old books and identifies the tion of journals"70—but participated in producing the antidote for such "poison" as "books of faith and two most influential modernist papers. pp. 1994). Frances W. The Volga Tatars (Stanford. Nether.. 1986). p. (Egypt. every community of the Islamic world. Brill.67 Life) in Kazan (1906-1917). A sive strategies were deemed necessary. narrative fiction. author of the confidence in the medium: "Faced with a gun. Damascus" (paper under review). Self and Sovereignty. University of Malaya in Singapore. The relatively Egyptian State: Muftis and Fatwas of the DarAl-ifta (Leiden. Daniel R. p."65 Similarly."71 Yet conservatives in Malaya "a place for preaching and exhortation. for which new discur.. 1991). "The Umma Below the Winds: zines. Brower and Edward J. 60. The Politics of Muslim Cultural Re. Din ve Ma 'ishat (Religion and nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries." It "alerts the entice the reader to absorb its useful information and unattentive" and "has taken it upon itself to spread instructions. dissertation. p. 131. 746-773. bring first modern play in Central Asia. the title char. this anthology include pioneers from Mombasa 1997). 1997). 66. Michael F. 192. 1993). Cairo. 64. Jalal. 1874-1919. lamic movement held great hopes for its impact. the first modern also made use of the same media. and Reaction amongst the Malays. and entertaining works. Aus- tralia. as items were read aloud). ... eds. Lazzerini. The Genesis of Arabic Narrative Dis. and the Debate eds. a poem. The latter works breed boredom and lead the Egyptian pyramids: the newspaper is "the nourish- readers to shun them. p. Indonesia." "the tongue of heavenly secrets. p. Reformist Islam. Azade-Ayse form: Jadidism in Central Asia (Berkeley: University of Cali. he Arabic and foreign books in arts and sciences. 2d edition (Leiden. causing the introduction to one of the first Arab novels: traditionally garbed religious scholars to run fleeing from the power of the paper. and perhaps the greatest discursive in." in K. 1836-1912)." this useful book in a form of attractive narrative to and "guidance for those who seek. 1998). founding periodi- Turkish play was produced in 1859. University of Sydney. by "These days there are people who believe that the Nazir Ahmad (North India. 186. and a Conceptualization of reached a relatively large readership (and listener. maga- 70."69 Later. which have been collected from many the sciences among the common people. 1962). 72. p. which it established in virtually 68. James C. low cost and wide distribution of newspapers. 69. E. for example. 1900-1941. Nets of Awareness: Urdu Po. (chapter 7) to Durban (chapter 8). 159. Papers on Malayan History (Singapore: De- etry and Its Critics (Berkeley: University of California Press.73 In the 1920s. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 15 The effort to rejuvenate Islam involved an intensive ship.. 1992).. Bosworth et al. and al-Haqa'iq (Truths) The third. 68. p. and journals opened a stream of words that Mecca. The Encyclopedia of Islam. Pritchett. 170. 65. 73. Mahmud Khoja Behbudiy An Indian opponent of the modernists mocked their (Samarqand. as a young I have realized that the readers are inclined to reading epic tales. Selections in Russia's Orient (Bloomington: Indiana University Press.64 admitted a certain skepticism about this power— In an early Urdu novel. volume 6. Rorlich. Netherlands: Brill. described theater as out a newspaper. paid homage to the power of the newspaper in rather than works on pure scientific or practical con. Defining Islam for the (chapter 42) to Singapore (chapter 46). The Pursuit of Urdu Literature (Lon- don: Zed Books. comparing it favorably to the legacy of the cerns. 'Overly-Europeanized' Falsifiers. Adeeb Khalid. and from Malabar 69.68 'Abduh. about the 'Woman Question' in Early Twentieth-Century lands: E. man.. This persuaded me to write ment of the spirits. J."66 The first feared the power of periodicals of "the new style" plays in the Arab world were adaptations of French enough to try to ban "papers debating the Muham- works produced in Lebanon in 1847. and other Islamic cals such as Isha 'at al-Sunna (News of Tradition) in regions appear to have followed suit at the end of the Lahore (founded 1878). 71.' Ali Mubarak 1907 cartoon in Mulla Nasruddin. ed. Sabry Hafez. 130-131. morality. Laffan. William Roff. Various articles on "Masrah. Calif: Hoover Institu- fornia Press. "Kaum Muda—Kaum Tua: Innovation course (London: Saqi Books. tion Press. p. G. Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen. 1824-1893) made this reasoning explicit in showed a modernist waving a newspaper. 178. partment of History. chapter 36). pp. Scholars. "'Pious' Religious 67. Gelvin.72 Religious conservatives Urdu play was performed in 1853. in Damascus (1910-1913).D. Tregonning.

especially a periodical press that nese race ." ing movements around the world. The Calligraphic State: Textual Conservatives also pointed to the massive changes Domination and History in a Muslim Society (Berkeley: Uni. were more adept at producing. "Technology and Religious Change: Islam and the Impact of Print. published in Calcutta. 76. and Patronage: Hadith Our sleep has changed. expressed in its very form the deep enough to capture a significant portion of the modernists' view of progress. interpretation has already been covered in this intro- mat exerted pressure toward brevity. pp. volume 62. 1906. who defeated the six-foot-tall giants. the vigilant eager students or the lecturers themselves sometimes overseer of the government. Like other periodi.16 Introduction 'Abd al-Wasi al-Wasi'i (Yemen. they trum. glibness. they often reprinted. Brinkley Messick. the instructive school. 1993. increasing the density of linkages across for a phone call. 1846-1921): 75. and a duction. talk to be delivered only in an abbreviated form. volume 27. Muhammad changed. In sum. 60-81. the modernist movement adapted tradi- offering inspiration." Bulletin of the changed. The newspaper for. preferred to write texts without detailed citations and porter of the isolationist Yemeni imamate. be summarized in any number of ways. Another kind of rain falls from the sky. died 1959). 229-251. neered new forms.75 despite Afghani's complaint that his host "caused this The press brought news of parallel and compet. they were witnessing. news- paper writers were vulnerable to accusations of shal- lowness. which nity and the indicator of its condition. A similar case could be made for lectures."74 Religious conserva. So forgive me if I hasten or if I gloss regions and language groups. credited extended quotations. Allahabadi (North India. published. Japanese apologies may mask the lack of full scholarly appa- military victories over Russia in 1904. Yet in the competition for religious author. cals of the era. The minstrel and the music—both have ies. wrote at length on the impli. a sup. nationalist Mustafa Kamil (Egypt. ritualized peted models of successful modernization. Religious ing news and ongoing debates. Francis Robinson. which seminary-trained writers newspapers as "the great force. opinion within the modernist movement." Modern Asian Stud. the tale we told has and the Madrasas in Modern South Asia. . Print. A wide enough to involve significant differences of properly informed person had to keep up with break. was published exclusively on hand-copied manuscripts. The Malay newspaper al-Imam tional literary forms to modernist purposes and pio- (chapter 46) commented on "the ascent of the Japa. School of Oriental and African Studies. p. August 17. translated. Each issue presented modernist writings included in this anthology." These inelegant. The color in the cheeks of spring has changed. 1874-1908). 12-16. Similarly. 74. The Iranian newspaper Habl al-matin (The Firm Rope)." Rida wrote years The substance of the modernist Islamic appeal may later in Egypt (chapter 6). for example. Habl al-matin (The Firm Rope). Afghani's Calcutta lecture on teaching tives also published printed books rather than relying and learning (chapter 11). each of which is daily newspapers. chapter 27) published a lecture in Beirut summarized articles they found interesting from other despite complaining that his host "gave me time only periodicals. or 1867-1956. writers without seminary training may have The sense that cultural decline had gripped the Is- lamic world was not limited to modernist authors. pp. over certain aspects. I choose to The immediacy of the periodical press. In addition. num- ber 1. . "Commentaries. What to Speak cations of Japan's success. and we turn now to the other four. as for example Akbar versity of California Press. for example. minimum of scholarly citations. and the latest word. especially emphasize five general topic areas. . 1999. number 1." emphasized the contemporaneity of knowledge and and referred to writings on Japan by the Egyptian deemphasized scholarly citation.76 "We need an indepen- dent renewal like that of Japan. 1993). Qasim Zaman. ratus expected of written work on religious subjects. 'Abd al-Qadir al-Maghribi (Lebanon. Cultural Revival ity. As a result. superseding previous statements. pp. 118. The nightingale now sings a different song. the scales for [weighing] the activity of the commu. were carried "live" in the newspapers of the world.

Uzbekistan: Fan. in Kulliyat (Complete Works) (Aligarh." Central Asian Survey. 1997). but the The sanctity of the temple priest has been person who follows the religion. [but] this is a divine secret which the in an optimistic moment.81 A third set Islamic modernism to secular modernism. has overturned the world of the Westerners. arts. 1878-1969). THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 17 The grain that grows upon our land has images involved rebirth and renewal. England: Cambridge University Press. chapter 47). 80. also in tics of Modernization: Negotiating Modernity in Iran (Cam- Kurzman. 201. more authentic culture. L. 139-170. The Reconstruction. and the delicate ship of thought has incorporated into the words for "intellectual": embarked on its course. practices. 496. Hidden in the Lute: An Anthology of Europe. but later it appears to become dull. cational Book House. p. 391-392. Hamza Hakimzada Niyaziy. Those who fa- [Turkestan]" in 1918. Ralph Russell. the same The distinctiveness of the modernists lay in seeing way Europe has done with religious reformation and modernity as a promising avenue for cultural revival. and the as- tion of Religious Thought in Islam." Iqbal (chapter 41). Justin Jon Rudelson. which from nur (light). pp. 145. which has erased all marks of Achmad Dachlan (Java. England: Islamic modernists. "There is no reason to reject or ignore ment of the Kazakh Intelligentsia at the Beginning of the 20th something which is correct and demonstrable sim- Century. customs. p. 1868-1923.77 ers. sciences." ocean. Translation from Uzbek by 83." wrote Rida (chapter 6). The descendants of the Greeks. p. as in the involved motion. "Truly. earlier times. "Truly. and Persian. used in Arabic.&2 A fourth set of similation of the culture. especially if we had p. . bridge. organi- zation. Ottoman Turkish. Kazakh!" in 1911. volume 2. drew on parallel imagery: of recurrent metaphors. such as the "principle of move- case of Hasan Taqizada (Iran. University Press. worship of antiquity. 1997. vored almost complete erasure crossed the line from it is time to awaken" in the early 1930s. (chapter 2).79 "Awaken. often with ref- changed. p. homeland must erase existing cultural forms. 2000). Mosque). 255-269." Such imagery was nullified. let us see what colors the sky now "Awake ye Arabs and recover. and ziyali (person associated with ziya. volume 16. 78. A second set of images in.78 a motif The modernists disagreed vehemently among adopted in the poetry of Central Asian nationalism: themselves as to the extent to which cultural revival "Waken. 1995).83 around Beirut and Damascus in 1880. in a moment of Modernists described this revival with a handful respect for the West. Arabic and Islamic Themes (London: of aspects of recent culture as a recovery of older or Luzac & Company. pp. 1865-1939. life. Tola asarlar toplami (Complete Collection of Works) (Tashkent. and anonymity. who fa- ment" that Iqbal sought to recover in The Reconstruc- vored "absolute submission to Europe. Ali Mirsepassi. and the whole attitude of 77.80 and "Awaken! Hey! Uyghur. A revolution has brought this about. Iqbal. "Masjid-i Qurtuba" (Cordova Adeeb Khalid. Muhammad Iqbal." Ahmed The soul of the Muslim has a similar ferment Aghayev (Azerbaijan. without any exception save language. 54. (chapter 34) worried that Muslims "will sleep forever Let us see what springs from the bottom of this in the land of dishonor. 84. lowliness. justified the erasure Carcanet. Oasis Identities: Uyghur Na. aged by their or light). Fitrat tongue is unable to express. munawwar al-fikr (enlightened of thought). ed. Intellectual Discourse and the Poli- 82. In the words of Khayr al-Din 79. Tibawi. 148. A." began a poem posted turns. Liberal Islam. have become youthful volved awakening. erence to the Protestant Reformation in Christianity. awakening has encompassed the Muslims. chapter 31) wrote today. modernization. pp. pp. Gulnar Kendirbay. 1974). One set involved light. This effort must com- bine "religious renewal and earthly renewal. 119. we are in a dire need for renewal and renew- In all the realms of nature all has changed. India: Edu- 81. Less optimistically. it is not religion that becomes dull. 1995). number 4. religion Germany has witnessed the upheaval of the shines. by contrast. "Throughout the world a spirit of again with the pleasures of renewal. First published in tionalism Along China's Silk Road (New York: Columbia 1933. ply because it comes from others. derived The French have also seen a revolution. 308. used in Uzbek. 1988-1989)." wrote Reformation. "The National Liberation Move. "Originally."84 Two Centuries of Urdu Literature (Manchester. as in the European Enlightenment. Translation from Urdu by Muhammad Qasim Zaman.

in Africa or China for example. p. 89.Y. . Community and Identity in the Netherlands East Indies. Christian. other Islamic modernists: "To be sure. that of capitalism. with figures such as Hadji Mohammad Mis- Non-Arab Muslims such as Marmaduke Pickthall bach (Java. (London: Quartet Books. 1900-1942 (Ithaca. 1912-1926 (Ithaca. 1990). Natalie Mobini-Kesheh. 92. Race and Slavery in the Middle East Egypt. wrote that "all-round Westernization" reinforced gullibility." ism was indeed the dominant economic theme in the and concluded. . 69."88 who can cause it to increase. in luxury and social evolution. .. circa 1876-1940) criticizing Salim and (England. 1882-1964. . constrained by their social situation or the dis- On the contrary. N. Different Shades of Colonialism: 85. 1857-1964 (London: Oxford University Press. 91. . and paign in Southeast Asia to allow female descendants rather fear and love the will of Satan—that Satan of the Prophet Muhammad to marry Muslim men whose evil influence is apparent in this present age who did not share this descent. 1925 (Berkeley: University of California Press. for example the cam. 1877-1931) espoused the right wise—replaced older forms of racism with a new of Muslims "to attend to their religious obligation version based on scientific research into the alleged without sacrificing their worldly prosperity. sand years ago. Put bluntly.89 Adivar's reference to race introduces the issue of Modernists also adopted a second form of social purportedly biological social hierarchies.. Press. . ." and expressed the "vital racial in. p. tify the lesser value of their courtroom testimony. denouncing in mentioning groups at a particular "stage in their the latter for their "submersion . The Hadrami Awakening: stan. 91-107. Wilfred Cantwell Smith.: Cornell Southeast Asia Program. they perform dency among Arab scholars to "think that the Arabs the precepts of the religion of Islam. calism in Java." and put it to use. they oppose or defy the commands of God ." In more provocative language. . profits increase accordingly. chapter 28) discussion of women." elsewhere." Salah al-Din Khuda Yet modernists—Muslim. 1901-1962)90— as Europeans and others did. whose "weak self-confidence. Certainly many Muslims engaged (chapter 49). and Muhammad Hif- in racial discrimination prior to the modern era. vored social-democratic reform—notably Salim trines of the era." 1910s. . 1990). The Modernist Muslim Movement in In.: Cornell University 88. . 1986).Y. Some modernists fa- modernists valued along with other "scientific" doc. Great Britain. of these racialized distinctions. pp. Bernard Lewis. Those men'. and lack of discipline" are said to jus- rights that "Islam had already proclaimed .. p. a thou. Takashi Shiraishi. which hierarchy. Bakhsh (North India.87 Salim likened this in [the system of] Capitalism. 1865- (New York: Oxford University Press. Aziz Ahmad. Islamic Modernism in India and Paki- 87. Deliar Noer. and the Mastery of the Sudan. 1946). but people who invested in modern economic and cul- Maghribi (chapter 27) is typical of many modernists tural enterprises and those who did not.85 Arabs such as and an Islamic Communist movement emerged to the Kawakibi (chapter 19) objected to Ottoman Turkish left of the social democrats in Indonesia in the late "use of the term 'Arab' for slaves and black animals.18 Introduction formerly possessed it and it had been taken from us. An Age in Motion: Popular Radi- 1999). don: Victor Gallancz. Khayr al-Din (chap- constitutes one of the main reasons for the spread of ter 2) praised societies in which "the circulation of Islam in the world. 64. just zurrahman Sihvarvi (North India. 90. 1875-1936) detected and detested the ten. . and other. but they pick are still 'the patrons'. . donesia. and belong to those who hamper the development and wealth is put into the hands of the most proficient spread of Islam. 201-204. . 1900-1942 (Singapore: Oxford University Press. pp. Eve Troutt Powell."86 One modernist theme was the erasure that do not suit them they throw away. Marmaduke Pickthall: British Muslim ter 4. there is an obligation to restore it position of their temperament to adopt polygamy. Modern Islam in India (Lon- 1973). in this anthology. p. "It is this spirit of democracy which modernist Islamic movement. 2002). and choose those precepts that suit their desire. 32. A similarly scientized view is evident in Maghribi's Halide Edib Adivar (Turkey. 1967). Peter Clark."91 Support of capital- to "the struggle between aristocracy and democracy. N. 285. chap- 86. Similar views have been documented in Egypt and stinct" of "the Turkish soul. Those who extinguish this spirit capital is expanded. It may Modernists made a moral distinction between rich be unfair to single out a particular author."92 hierarchy and evolution of human capabilities. and the non-Arabs their 'freed.

" Rida (chapter 6) assailed from such practices lured sham clerics eager to "gain the faction of Egyptians that. pp. Re- the Cultural-Enlightenment Movement in Baku. the Muslims gion and despises the devout. tutions in Nineteenth Century Egypt (Leiden. p. Netherlands: Brill. 1993). ed. rejecting of glory other than ostentation and wealth. and the matter deserves systematic ject and what to maintain was frequently a subject study. Populist Protest. was a Sufi sage and justified his early twentieth century. 1886-1918. chapter 5). 94. ed. 1872-1944). Netherlands: Brill. is hostile to reli. p." Aghayev warned. tion of religious practices. One becomes lifestyles. Fakhreddin (chapter 33).99 The profit to be had grows weak and vanishes.94 Sufi organizations to develop into a political party. "The Azerbaijani Bourgeoisie and Elizabeth Sirriyeh. "As a result. al- lamic constitutionalism in eastern Turkistan in the Jaza'iri (chapter 15). 1999). including Frasheri. a leading merchant who supported Is." At the same time. A. Turuq and Turuq-Linked Insti- Identity and Change (Durham. 99. Jo-Ann Gross." in Press. between. but something in.93 or H. 188. Colonial Encounters (Algeria and 95." in Ronald thinking and Rejection of Sufism in the Modern World (Rich- Grigor Suny. ernists as a whole.. Islamic p." according to heretics of Europe and its liberals. while promoting Islam" and "an international or purely human con- education in modern subjects. Bahithat al-Badiya who defended Sufi mysticism as both "the basis of (Egypt. adoption of Western culture.. presumably. such as Husayn Sufism. Brill. who urged Albanian tieth centuries. just as religious conservatives aimed them at mod. and beliefs. Modern Reformist Thought in 93. Macartney at the Muslim World (Islamabad. Taste of Modernity: Sufism. 1999). p. Frederick de Jong and Bernd Radtke."100 and trying to ban the commercializa- neither Eastern nor Western. and their avoidance of any kind sidered themselves in happy equilibrium. the scope the qualities of the other.97 Some Islamic modernists worried about wholesale and 'Ubaydullah Sindhi (Sindh. "Beyond Renewal: The Jadid Tunisia. Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of 101. 199-209. Norris. 164. India. N. J. T. 1982). Yet what to re- coincidental. with all the weaknesses of the one without as to other Islamic practices and beliefs. 97. Transcaucasia. Edward J. It is probably not the most important Islamic values.C. 170. 98. E. 1890-1918 (London: Methuen. Salafiyya. rev. Frederick] de Jong.: Duke University Press. Itzchak Weismann. majority of the nation. who constitute the were overwhelmed in economic and political affairs.. 1994). 1978). and Social mond. Nationalism. Lazzerini."98 More commonly. Sufis and Anti-Sufis: The Defense. stitute. All modernists. espe- civilization. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 19 carnal appetites. Tagiev and rationalism on thoroughly Sufi grounds. C. 96. H. P. Change. accusing them of "spending their lives in Western civilization to the Orient will only result in the pursuit of the things of this world and lavish doubling the misery of the Oriental. Netherlands: 1992). 222." in the existing customs where necessary while maintaining words of Kawakibi (chapter 19). con. 19. that the modernist movement was bankrolled of debate. the most influential modernist in Damascus. Clancy-Smith. Some modernists had Sufi backgrounds— Baybacha. Chinese. and a nation that has lost its civilization cially the veneration of saints. Z. and Aghayev mocked others. Skrine and Pamela Nightingale. Pakistan: Islamic Research In- Kashgar: New Light on British. tables. Rebel and Saint: Muslim No- 1996). (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 2000). "Simply to transplant grounds. part 2. Mazheruddin Siddiqi. 1800-1904) (Berkeley: University of California Response to the Pressure for Change in the Modern Age. Islam in the Balkans (London: Hurst & Company. pursue everything Western we shall destroy our own modernists held Sufi practices to be abhorrent. 1973). Mysticism Contested (Leiden. eds. 100. England: Curzon. . "in imitation of the fame and earn more worldly profit. 157). and Arabism in Late Ottoman Damascus (Leiden. and Russian Activi. ed.101 In relation to Sufism." Salim (chapter 49) criticized and so were destined to be crushed under the feet of "taqlid" of Western manners. ties in Sinkiang. One broad field of disagreement was the in part by industrialists and traders promoting topic of popular religious practices associated with international economic linkages. Audrey Altstadt. Julia A. p.96 Some other industrialists who supported cultural reform modernists wished to maintain certain Sufi practices in Azerbaijan in the late nineteenth and early twen. suggested that "If we ception of a universal religion. p."95 Modernists aimed these critiques at one another. reformist Sufi leaders con- the "Westernized Oriental" as "Western only on the demned certain of their colleagues on similar surface.

" al-'Ulama' Khalkhali (Iran. 105. Law. nor an obstacle to innovation in any sphere of able and the base. Islamic does it lay down specific rules of conduct in the Civil dictates on human equality were marshaled in support."102 Sayyid 'Abd al-'Azam 'Imad the people. the Ottoman Empire. of justice. . and a fuller constitution in 1882. 1844-1895. mid-nineteenth-early These and other Islamic arguments accompanied twentieth century). Brill. the right to delegate authority to the leaders and de- gued. serfs and nisia briefly in 1861 and then. Netherlands: E. or moral. Liberal Islam. 1988).. 'Abd al-Raziq (Egypt. after the colonial in- kings. but them. writing soon after the promulga. but does not limit "the rights of the dent. "for there is only one justice. according to Abdullah Abdurahman they will be questioned" (Sura 21. Iran briefly in 1906. The Genesis of Young Ottoman the holy law.. intellectual.104 Ibn Badis (chapter 9) quoting a speech of the people. (Sura 3. 1870-1940." but was "not possible when people Thought (Princeton. He made them equal in ac. pp."103 as it came to be understood over the course of the Modernists referred to a variety of sacred sources twentieth century: universal adult suffrage. then again masses. "He but sharing the same laws. "And seek their counsel in the matter" within and outside the modernist Islamic movement. ser." Mustafa Fazil Pasha (Turkey. Sayyid 'Abd al-'Azam 'Imad al-'Ulama' Khalkhali. and Muslim States (Leiden. 32-34. con- (South Africa. that Islam dictates human fate ing that kingship was not required by sacred prece- in the afterlife. most exalted. Egypt promulgated a constitutionalist docu- "God has not made any distinction among his obe. Dustur: A Survey of the Constitutions of the Arab sity of New York Press. religious authorities and the then again in 1908. Kurzman. the old and the young. and so on.105 Muslims." not a "warden" or a "guardian. constitutionalist movements around the Islamic tion of the first Iranian constitution. Tu- dient servants. nor implementation of constitutionalism. §erif Mardin. reduction to establish the legitimacy of constitutionalism." life. and being equal before [God] cannot be questioned about what He does.20 Introduction and meaning of cultural revival was contested both junction. protection of a growing list of rights. terlude." trans. "Equality means nothing Na'ini (chapter 13) quoted the Qur'anic verse. vants and masters. are all equal and Yet the modernists of this period did not neces- partners in their obligations. whether political. no distinction between man and man. Hamid Dabashi. concluding that "the salvation of the state today is dependent upon the adoption of the method of consultation. p." he ar. or in large countries" such as p. there is no such thing as a democratic insti. with no distinction between the honor. 104. Verse 23). in 1959. according to the laws sarily intend constitutionalism to mean democracy." and therefore cannot justify tyranny: "there first caliph. the rich and the poor. 281." 'Ali country. concluded that "It is the people that have are no Christian politics or Moslem politics. preferred some to of Muhammad are neither barriers to spiritual devel- others in endowments. 1962)." wrote Tahtawi (chapter 1)." Similarly. Author. N. ity and Political Culture in Shi'ism (Albany: State Univer. Verse 159)." conclud- lamic constitutionalism. Here too. men and women. and constitutional Namik Kemal (chapter 17) quoted the Qur'anic in. in Said Amir Arjomand. ment in 1860. ed. chapter 8): "If God made cluding that "Absolute power belongs only to God.J. social. opment or free-thinking on the part of Muhammad- countability. Prophets and messengers. 1966). And until we are regarded as equal in this against the absolute power of earthly tyrants. the leader and the subordinate. ed.: Princeton University Press. No one can rule without the consent of justice incarnate. stressed that world. 1888-1966) quoted Qur'anic tution. in one of the earliest manifestos of Is. 1829-1875) verses referring to the Prophet as a "warner" or a wrote in 1866. ans. J. Suavi (chap- ter 16) argued that "democracy is the highest form of egalitarian government and the most in accord with 102. descendants of the Prophet and non-Arab in 1909. "A Treatise on the Meaning of Constitutional Government. the Ottoman Empire briefly in 1876. which needed a sultanate to 103. or unity. we had no right yet [reactionaries] declared it un-Islamic to struggle to do so. fairness. chapter 39) argued that "the A second major goal of the modernists was the Qur'an does not interfere in political questions. of monarchs to symbolic offices. 337. and politics is pose them. lack morals." concluding that "the Qur'an or the teachings "[Although God. "reminder." Chiragh 'Ali (North Political Reform India. and equality.

number 4. A cartoon in Mulla Nasruddin. 1995). Clergy. he wrote. There was. The benefits of science by training and drilling it in the performance of its are immeasurable. executing the seized Tunisia. Jon Tiirklerin Siyasi Fikirleri. order"107—a view expressed in the Young Turk slo. 89. (Richmond. aggression. their thoughts to explain science and its nobility." making Afghanistan "the beam of ing sufficient state power to effect societal changes. died 1909). position between the age of Islam and the pre-Islamic 107. era and their influence on later European scientific 1908) (Ankara. 1895. and an administrative system duly complied Science and Education with be the causes of an increase in wealth. this statement by Afghani (chapter 11): ing. English. Islam and Politics in Afghanistan ume 29. Turkey: Turkiye 1§ Bankasi Kiiltur Yaymlari. but that the contrary should cause a dimi."110 God's custom in His world that justice. accounted gether for the sake of other reforms. p. the scale of justice and equality in Asia. Rejali. Colo. ternative to prostrating itself humbly before science neled their energies into lobbying the king to an. Thus I say: If someone looks deeply into wrote an Iranian educator. England: Curzon Press."106 eloquent speakers and sages have already expressed Other modernists reversed the order and consid. and these finite thoughts cannot function. for the reverses suffered by the Islamic world: "The for example. and British Imperial Policy in Afghanistan during the 19th and Early 20th Cen- turies. he will see that science rules the world. in the world-view nution in all of these things. Rather it is science that everywhere mani- after. 48. was to hold the sultan's ministers ened majesty. In reality this usurpation. and acknowledging its submission. p. the beacon of the nation and the reli- accountable to an elected parliament. 119. There is no way to educate and strengthen something. thousands of speed. 1994). as in a 1903 Egyptian educational text: "There is How difficult it is to speak about science. §erif Arif Mardin. Afghan modernists such as Tarzi (chapter 14) fests its greatness and power. vol. Their solution to this dilemma lay in the idea that rul."108 Indeed. Despite this." whose "ever-increasing innate talent and In addition. until it can accomplish it with smoothness. p. nounce social and economic reforms. and will be no ruler in the world but gan of "Union and Progress. "State. Tarzi praised circumstances. The power of science. Torture and Modernity: Self. ered state power the prerequisite for all other reforms. the French have constitutionalist movement in 1909. for 1964). gion. 109." This oppositional pair. 110. Timothy Mitchell. he concluded. as in role of the state lay in cultivating consent through train. ." Elsewhere. ernist Islamic authors made the parallel explicit. and precision. and State in Modern Iran (Boulder. Asta Olesen. capability has caused continuous growth and tween limiting state power to protect liberty and build. Modern science held such power. p. re- 108. of modernist Islam sacrificed political reform alto. movement's religious leader. were "security and the question. that it could only be described adopted the recently developed European view that the in terms generally reserved for divine entities. Maulawi Muhammad and conquest have not come from the French or the Sarwar Wasif (Afghanistan." International Journal of Middle East Studies. ing by consent would increase the state's effectiveness. and property. and Government without a King. Besides. nature does not permit me not to explain The "first conditions of any progress and reform. In Afghanistan. Indeed. except no end or limit to science. 1988). would resemble in- as in Khayr al-Din's formulation (chapter 2): "It is organic substance or a car without an engine. a nation or fatherland "without Government. Darius M. and population. counting the scientific advances of the early Islamic 1895-1908 (Political Thought of the Young Turks. is. peoples. "science" versus "igno- rance"—denigrating all forms of knowledge aside 106.: Westview Press. from modern science—paralleled the traditional op- England: Cambridge University Press. advancement. developments. 598. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 21 remain "in conformity with its geographical location. Senzil Nawid. constitutionalists faced a tension be.109 There. Ignorance had no al- abandoned hopes for constitutionalism and chan. Afghani continued. the monarch suppressed an Islamic English have reached Afghanistan." Some modernists of modernist Islam. encompass what is infinite. 1997. Colonising Egypt (Cambridge." its virtues." The best to be hoped the king in lavish phrases as "his great and enlight- for. numerous mod- ciety. one strain science. good manage- ment. So- age of ignorance (jahiliyyd).

suggesting that centuries of scientific stagnation sistent with Islam. Mulla Nasruddin. invoke the Qur'an to lend its support to the achieve- in An Islamic Response to Imperialism: Political and Reli- ments of modern research in the different spheres of gious Writings of Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani (Berke- scientific thought. Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani. centuries. 1909. such as Ameer 'Ali's science might result in Muslims' rejection of Islamic emphasis on destruction wrought by the Mongol faith. none of the things in their hands today is the Russian Empire. While Pride in the past greatness of Islamic science was expressing deep respect for science." trans. 1968). Nikki R. 'Abduh. importation was problematic. Keddie. p." conquest. It is natural that national language!" Ahmad Khan (chapter 40).113 The danger of atheism helped to moti- gious elite "tried to stifle the sciences" and "was vate education reform. 114 coreligionists who lived eight or ten centuries ago.22 Introduction example.. pp. criticized Western-style schools for trying to turn Muslims into Europeans. hitherto proudly regarded as the invention skills that we see we greatly need in order to resist and sole monopoly of modern Europe. The knowledge that Europe derived from the scholars of Islam was very 112. would-be reformer of undermined any pride in past accomplishments: al-Azhar in Cairo. which The Europeans borrowed many things from us. published in 1930. science along with the belief that science was con- ther. Others attributed the shift to internal de. trans. and bringing him view of Khayr al-Din (chapter 2): "If it was permis- into the closest affinity with the modern world of sible for the virtuous ancestors to take such things thought. developed "a true and to translate it from Greek when they saw it as and strongly marked scientific spirit. distinguish. what for centuries. the cycle has been repeated many times. then what nated over all its achievements. volume 1. Some attrib. "Muhammad 'Abduh on Sci- from Azeri by Hasan Javadi. scholars. she planted that seed. Muslims who knew European languages and sci- Europe borrowed a seed of civilization from the ences but were "unable to read and write in their own Islamic world. 1995. being among the beneficial instruments. John W. May 17. xl. excoriated Russian-educated something that was borrowed from our ancestors. was perfectly intrigues and attract benefits?" understood by the Muslims. p. that is to say from our ancestors or more precisely our he likened to making chickens lay goose eggs. First present. modernists also worried that excessive respect for uted the shift to external forces. Translation 114. 224. Abu'l-Kalam Azad. pioneer ofjadid schools in however. Afghani accused Ahmad Khan of "naturism. ." Muslim World. Azad ridiculed the attempt "to 113. Along similar lines. The tists] could find out for themselves without the aid Europeans have taken our ancient science and of any revealed scripture. 130-171. not an expres- 43) credited the Prophet Muhammad as well for his sion of the original Islamic spirit. Sayyid Jamal ad-Din "al-Afghani": A Political Biography (Berkeley: University of California Press. sought to pro- fruit. Keddie and Hamid Algar. but we have remained back. 111. The deductive objection can there be today to our adopting certain method. showed a speaker castigating an audience: 1. . as if the Qur'an was delivered over ley: University of California Press. 1972). 12. Syed Abdul Latif (Bombay. Yet this importa- "devotion to knowledge and science ."112 reached civilization. volume 85. Ameer 'Ali continued. "The Refutation of the Materialists. A countertheme in modernist Islam held that early ward. numbers 3-4. 1962). The Tarjuman al-Qur'an (In- terpretation of the Qur'an). but by India: Asia Publishing House. in the ing him from all other Teachers. with the result that its very genus has changed.." pete with European-run schools by teaching modern Frasheri (chapter 18) took this accusation a step fur. [European scien- hadiths about science being obligatory upon all. a seed should decompose in the earth in order to bear founder of the Aligarh school in India. 1849-1928. and was in turn accused of atheism by conservative velopments. Livingston. 65-80.300 years ago just to endorse in advance. as in Afghani's accusation that a reli.day standards it is nothing. which was intended to com- marvelously served in its designs by despotism. which domi. pp. tion was a favorable sign of Islam's openness. p. in the "Sirs! There are hundreds of [Qur'anic] verses and form of riddles." For others. chapter Islamic science was a foreign import. Gasprinskii (chapter 29).. ence."111 Ameer 'Ali (Bengal." The intellectual centers of the early Islamic as logic from outside their own religious community. That seed decomposed. many leading coupled with dismay at later stagnation. Nikki R. considerable by [the standards of] the time.

ed. using an Islamic discourse. 158. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 23 vide an Islamic response to English education. though. p. Aligarh's First Generation man.: Princeton 1979).122 yet the republicans in Turkey refused. defended hijab. 123. Aside from edu- "Except for the Pathan. took a more radical Islamic regions began to demand gender reforms of position. 1880-1932). haviors.: Yale University Press. even one nineteenth-early twentieth century) told a women's who had himself called for such a ban. emphasized this theme in her presiden.other (male) modernists were scandalized."119 than gender lines. and South Asia. meeting the same year. "Pay atten. Women's Movement. Liberation. University Press. ed." ference in 1926: "The opponents of female education As these examples indicate. The Azerbaijan of the modernist Islamic movement was the promo. Fie! essarily predict a modernist's position on any particu- They call themselves Muslims and yet go against the lar aspect of women's rights. Muslim Women in Mombasa. p. Press. when you demand your polygamy. we are at the eve women's right to equal treatment by their husbands. emphasizing the Qur'anic guarantee of tion to every corner of the world. 105.J. Afsaneh Najmabadi.121 Similarly. 289- 118. The World of Muslim Women 290.ing. 105. many others. Martin's tion and Muslim Social Reform in Colonial India (Delhi. 1906-1929. calling for a complete ban. p. Rokeya Sakhawat Hossein (Ben. 122. that women of the died 1919). of a revolution. Aral. gender did not nec- say that women will become wanton and unruly. Representation and Discourse. J. A Man to Match His Mountains. a 115. conference in Istanbul in 19II. . 117 modernists debated women's right to divorce and Among the most common themes in this segment their right to participate in politics. 116.: Princeton University Press. Sonia Nishat Amin. Russian Azerbaijan. Aynur Demirdirek." such as camel-racing with his wife and watching Women's Rights entertainment together in a mosque. modernists disagreed as to which He is clever but is ardent in suppressing women. Margaret Strobel. Gail Minault. which (chapter 33). David Lelyveld. p. p. University of Chicago. so that it would not infringe on the rights freedom [from the British]. women—and men—in many gress." Fatma Nesibe Hamm (Turkey. Secluded Scholars: Women's Educa- Images of "The Turkish Woman" (New York: St. pp.polygamy.. 1978). pioneering educator and The rights of women extended to a variety of be. "In Pursuit of the Ottoman Ph. Kamp. "The Prophet himself says divided modernist Muslims along ideological rather that women and men both should be educated. p. "O Pathan. wrote Fakhreddin the work of other Iranian women who objected to it. 1999). In Iran. a woman." a rights women should enjoy."118 As Mazrui (chapter 7). Calif. India: Oxford University Press. "Crafting an Educated House- 119. mid." in Zehra F. born circa (Princeton. Even hijab—modest basic tenets of Islam. Eknath Easwaran. 129. 1998). Marianne R." in Lila Abu-Lughod. According to Maghribi (chapter 27). cation. 129. Brill. 1876-1939 (Leiden. Swietochowski." 117. 1998).women's association in India called for an end to eth centuries. a various sorts in the late nineteenth and early twenti. in Colonial Bengal. 1863-1908." since women have thus "been protected from gal. 145-146. and Nazira Zein-ed-Din (Lebanon. a pioneer in women's education in the danger of being identified with party politics.123 Qasim Amin (Egypt. One focused on the fusal that Adivar (chapter 28) called "perhaps a bless- rights of women. chapter 4).D."115 "Many of the ways [the Prophet] used to treat his wives we see today as inappropriate and unsuitable. p.editor Maryam Amid Muzayyan al-Saltana (Iran. dissertation. wife.. emphasized. the women have no enemy. 2d ed. Deconstructing 121.People's Republic granted women's suffrage in tion of girls' schooling. Netherlands: E. but published early years of Islam engaged in. a re- schools on various grounds. 78.be stopped for political reasons. Modernists justified girls' 1918. N. 1998). Remaking Women: Feminism 1890-1975 (New Haven. 101. including military service.120 In 1918. Conn.J. among a potent symbol of Muslim women's oppression. 1996). 120. p. 1998. 110.: Nilgiri Press. which accords women an equal "Islamic" dress—which Western observers took as right to education. "Unveiling Uzbek Women: (Tomales. N. In 1917. Nonviolent Soldier of Islam: Badshah Khan. why do you deny it to of first wives. the (male) All-Russia Muslim Con- women?"116 Similarly. Muslim Pathan woman named Nagiria wrote in the journal women's organizations in Russia urged limits on Pushtun in 1919. and Modernity in the Middle East (Princeton. left "the inner spirit dead.their activities outside the political world could not tial address to the Bengal Women's Education Con.

women in men's occupations or men in women's fended it. God in His creation has set laws whose transforma- ring the middle-class garb of Western Europeans of tion cannot be decreed [by humans]. la legislation islamique. pp. and then some. home economics. volume 2.125 men. 1899-1935) attacked those "condemning or in reading and writing?" The founder of the first women to eternal ignorance. instinct. by contrast. held that ety for the Progress of Women. women needed only to learn child- body. 1994). that it may well constitute a third strand. Tahar Haddad. Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi's Bihishti Zewar (Berkeley: University pp. 1996). responding to turbing "third sex. died 1953). . ter how much a mother has been educated. . 1990).124 a woman. women to their children and in many respects even Egypt. 132. . The Women's Awakening in Egypt 129. plus the recurrent 1943). of California Press. eds. . de."126 the view—common in global scientific discourse of A second strand justified girls' schools on the the era—that education desexed women: "No mat- grounds of benefit to society."129 accomplishment of her duties as mother of the fam. a woman. formation would not occur through employing and Bahithat al-Badiya (chapter 5). Perfecting Women: Maulana (Tunis. Zaynab Fawwaz (Lebanon. First published in 1928.: Yale University Press. Tunisia: Maison Tunisienne de 1'Edition. ed.. Islamic Legislation."130 This line of rea- women's usefulness: "man and woman are equal in soning allowed some modernists to call for limits on mental capacity and are two members of one social girls' education. without these activities preventing the bring to nought our efforts in educating them. In Ahmad Khan's words: "The learning that will be beneficial today to women is the same that benefited 124. 101-106. p. (New Haven. Even quite conservative religious scholars. . in such a way as to attract educated young men of such as medical treatment of infants and women's her own race. education. men from marrying foreigners. and Society) 130. First published in 1930. associated such work with a dis. 1990). while Rida (chapter 6) and Kazim. isolation]. 147. On the contrary. could support women's education on the association of women with family—would allow grounds that ignorance. Qasim Amin (chap. This would help to prevent our educated and all the functions involved with health. pp. "the ruination of the religion society to make use of human resources that were of the women of Hindustan. Niliifer Gole. But this trans- the era.. Notre femme. Haven't you seen ignorant women and peasant sists of liberating your women from the bondage of women ignore their crying child for hours? Were ignorance and hijab [here. et la societe (Our Woman. al-Badiya (chapter 5) made this case. 1860-1914) objected to any limits on had its effects on their husbands. teaching in orphanages and kindergartens. 222-224. occupations. Margot Badran and Miriam Cooke. p. ties. It is critical that women grounds that it "would enable a girl to run her home have access to certain careers of social importance. . from among her relatives or fellow diseases. The Forbidden Modern: Civilization 128. . the Gates: A Century of Arab Feminist Writing (Bloomington: p. Nazira Zein-ed-Din. 125. 42. this would not cause also linked women's education to the aspirations of her to forget her children nor to lose her maternal male modernists: "There is a way of raising your.24 Introduction 1905). inveighed against hijab. . Beth Baron."128 priate for women to perform certain forms of work A variant of this argument. Indiana University Press. despite all the grave girls' schools in the Sudan. both of which are equally indispensable. 1864- gendered limits of Haddad's list. Yusuf Bedri and Peter Hogg (London: Ithaca Press. prefer. .. 1980). citizens. Babikr Bedri (Sudan. the more enlightened she selves up to the highest level of civilization—the kind becomes. while the founder of the Soci." in Kurzman. It con. and moral virtue. p. a thing which would and culture. trans. "Unveiling and Veiling. the more aware she is of her responsibili- of civilization you aspire to. dangers for our present society and future generations 1860-1954). The Memoirs of Babikr Bedri." Tahar Haddad these women also occupied in preparing legal cases (Tunisia. 127. Liberal Islam. Bahithat. Fatima Rashid schools would make women better mothers. adopted so commonly outside of the home. 1978). such as ily. Babikr Bedri. 223. rearing. Conn. Barbara Daly Metcalf. 126. or in ter 4) adopted the language of women's rights but whatever profession she works. Opening and Veiling (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 47-48. justified modern education on the that illiteracy presents."127 Training women for these roles—notice the Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanavi (North India. considered it appro. Bahithat (Egypt. went beyond the currently being wasted.

dissertation. if he does produce any at all. with this army of vagabond softas [seminary students] 135. better than our non-men. hadith for the requirements of modern political life. p. in a large number ing boys. Fazlur Rahman. For ex- ity. Malkum Khan (chapter 12) goaded male Islam. Modem Movements among 134. Studies in Society and History. pp. of theological tractates. ." Fitrat study of Islamic modernism that "we need not expect (chapter 34) accused traditional religious scholars of much to result in the way of uplift to Islam from ra- pederasty—"indecent acts with a beardless youth"— tionalizing and intellectual defence and pruning."136 with our own hands. Najmabadi. Refashioning Iran. ers. Leila Ahmed. 276. 171.: Yale Uni- University of Chicago. 221. whose ideas of faith do not go beyond voluptuous University of California at Berkeley. men who did not embody the ern Egypt in 1897. Senzil Nawid. 442-467. incapacitated liberating us [women] as he has been about our en- half of our body and have destroyed our subsistence slavement. We are weary of his despotism. p. and to Protect. 113- 134. the vation and protection. "The Erotic Vatan (Homeland) as Beloved and dise?"134 Iqbal (chapter 41) turned the image of Mother: To Love. a Christian missionary concluded from his the men. 1850-1921). 1. to Possess. Lisa Pollard.D. Afsaneh desires to own beautiful girls and boys in Para. religion and practical presumptively male—"whose low. 1997. tends to be "as despotic about women of education. an experience that "has convinced masculine roles associated with success in the mod.135 The male modernist.: cal Roots of a Modern Debate (New Haven."131 tokens the dearth of soul in his body. bene. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 25 them in the past. Not all observers have been so critical. rep- country's first girls' schools in 1921: "Women are resenting the nation as a female in need of male sal- in charge of bringing up the future generation. p. 1916). 132. 1997. 378. with these snuff-addicted preachers. The Development of Secularism in Moslems (New York: Fleming H. me that there is no hope anywhere to be found in ern world. Islam and Modernity (Chicago. p. ity. Revell Company. complains of daughter of Mahmud Tarzi (chapter 14). to find support in Qur'an and tional religious scholars of "adultery. namely." Male fit to society. "Nurturing the Nation: The Family Politics of the 1919 Egyptian Revolution. I had made myself a romance about these re- readers by noting that certain women "have perceived formers. the Orientalist Ignac Goldziher (Hungary. we have. volume 39. 1919-29 (Costa Mesa. p. p. 1888-1914 (New York: Alfred A." Comparative emasculation onto modern-educated Muslim men. The crisis and decline of the Islamic world that it won't amount to much. 1998). eats sparingly. 136."137 the meaning and virtues of Humanity far better than In 1916. If we deprive Bahithat protested."138 identifying premodern maleness with homosexual. 133. Niyazi Berkes. 111. sonal Narrative of Events. drinking": "How can we restore the vitality of this as also for the requirements of progress in civil life great religion with these Shaykh al-Islams [religious officials]. but I see that it has no substantial basis.133 and a Turkish modernist accusing tradi. as did a cartoon in Mulla Nasruddin showing ample. 77." Ph. in his submissiveness. My Diaries: Being a Per- in Afghanistan. that is. It was not in vain that Hazrat Muhammad (may peace be upon him) made the ac- quisition of knowledge obligatory for both men and The Legacy of Modernist Islam women. Turkey. have said all along culinity. (London: Hurst & Company. combined sleepless nights. Religious Response to Social Change 137. 1906. even many sympathetic observers. Samuel Graham Wilson. One British supporter was associated in male authors' writings with effemi. his community. and women's rights—in consecutive modernists projected their conception of an idealized sentences in her announcement of the opening of the heterosexual family onto the nation as a whole. p. mirrored in the modernist Islamic discourse on mas. 1922). and produces unhealthy children for all three sorts of arguments—benefit to family."132 The emphasis on women's role as mothers was Many observers of the modernist Islamic movement. 138. 1999). 182. May 19. Tavakoli-Targhi. homosexual. who takes pride Queen Surayya Tarzi (Afghanistan. 1992). in effect. 1897-1968). Mulla Nasruddin. most important responsibility in life. traditionally garbed men groping and kissing danc. noting the "efforts. Wilfrid Scawen Blunt. Conn. bemoaning "the brainy graduate of high culture"— pp. 1982). Knopf. versity Press.: Mazda Publish. number 3. 2d ed. Women and Gender in Islam: Histori- 131. Calif. timid voice be- morality. rescinded his optimism after being attacked in west- nate men—that is.

p." The Muslim World. social levels. Malaysia: Aliran." concluded with cau. Ignaz Goldziher. and the Islamic Revolution. 1879-1949. Among secularists. that are making them." The Iranian 140. Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr. Mohammad Javad Hojjati Kermani. hun. the Arab World. political. ed. for example—mod- selves felt in various parts of the Muslim world. old and new. carry ernist Islam seems to have had greater staying power. The centennial of the death of Afghani recently led and by religious revivalist movements emphasizing a high-level official in the Islamic Republic of Iran the Islamic aspects. inti. 145. contribut- the movement appears to have diffused beyond the ing to global intellectual trends shifting away from elite intellectual circles that spawned it. 1992). 1850 to c. the Soviet to praise modernism as "necessary for the survival Union witnessed the most spectacular denunciations of Islam at the theoretical. 93. Scholars. and other modern- movement was in serious decline. c. 1981). First pub."142 An- Thousands read modernist Islamic newspapers. Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub (Sudan. Islamic Movement. Rachid al-Ghannouchi. N. Journal of International Affairs." in Ulrike Freitag and William G. such sympathies largely dissi. nisia. pp. 236. ments—Algeria and Indonesia. where Ocean. millions opposed interest in modernist Islamic figures among Muslim the modernist Islamic movement. ism via Southeast Asia.141 In regions where Muslim tious optimism. 1997. volume 9. Audrey Altstadt. 1997). chapter 10) and other college graduates developed a 142. other approach might view the split-up of modernist dreds of thousands of families sent children to re. practical. and fascism. lished in 1910. born 1941) has dedicated his recent work on pated. maut—where a "boomerang effect" brought modern- 143.). al-Hurriyyat al. . Lebanon: Markaz Dirasat al-Wihda al-'Arabiyya."139 A recent critic has suggested that this bifurcation Many Muslims of the early twentieth century reflected a "disintegrative tendency" inherent in the seem to have agreed with Goldziher's assessment. juxtaposition of "modernist" and "Islamic. and of previous identities—Azerbaijani Islamic modern. 131. even among the educated. 'Abduh. and Iran. Princeton University Press. 1950. India. and Statesmen in the Indian numbers in the 1920s and 1930s. "Modernism. the aspect that appears to attract contemporary example140—but similar transitions occurred even Muslim thinkers. By the 1930s. and the Hadhra. 1993. 139. Clarence-Smith. At the same time. with authenticity on the and the Ottoman Empire (1908). scholars played an active role in nationalist move- mately related to religious life. the civil rights to Afghani. vol- ume 83. others only began to study in the Middle East in large Hadhrami Traders. the toleration of multiple identities. Rachid Ghannouchi (Tu- In midcentury."145 ists signed an open letter admitting that "we were The modernist Islamic movement's primary leg- deceived and mistaken" in their earlier views. pp.143 Chandra Muzaffar (Malaysia. born 1947) has by secular nationalism.224-229. the Sudan. millions more par. 1750s-1960s (Leiden. where Ya'qub 141. Netherlands: Brill. "Religious Modernism in modernist-Islamic nationalism. for acy. the seeds of a new phase in the evolution of Islam. Riddell. Islam in terms of the weakening of liberalism formed Islamic schools. Admitting occur evenly throughout the Islamic world: modern- ist Islam was still arriving during this period in some regions. trans.J.. p. 1993). etc. The Universalism of Islam and Law. is its defining feature: the attempt to without the threat of Soviet purges. number 1.: Hoover Institution Press. millions of Muslims cele.. but sympathy for intellectuals of the late twentieth century. eds. The Azerbaijani Turks (Stanford. pp. throughout the world—not just among Muslims— brated the constitutional revolutions in Iran (1906) during the Interwar period. which republished excerpts from Ameer 'Ali and Azad. This lamic modernists in North Africa and South and approach might find support in the resurgence of Southeast Asia.144 emphasized the modernist aspects of modernist Islam. This split did not reconcile modern values and Islamic faith. chapter 52) and Hadhramaut and the Malay-Indonesian World. "Religious Links between Wang Jingzhai (China. right and the "New Man" on the left crowding out ticipated in the anticolonial movements led by Is. Introduction to Islamic Theology 144. its energies sapped ists. 1979). Chandra Muzaffar. socialism. 1908-1976. such as West Africa or China. number 1.26 Introduction (the question of women.'ammafi al- dawla al-islamiyya (Public Liberties in the Islamic State) (Beirut. 43-45. Peter G.: (Penang. Andras and Ruth Hamori (Princeton. "These cultural tendencies. fascism and communism. Calif. 263.

(Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 50.146 cepts of citizenship and rights with the Islamic con- Accepting modern values as modern is only the cept of equality. escape from either of them. Arabs Face the Modern World volume 3. critical. and we cannot mulations does not necessarily amputate the under. and Islamic values into mod- bally). modernist Islam involves particularly difficult pair- ists share many of these concerns—though they might ings: the Islamic concept of justice with the modern be scandalized by association with their modernist concept of law and judicial systems. But rejecting such for. the Islamic concept of consultation first step in reconciliation. Nissim Rejwan. inquisi- munication. and globalized commodities markets have tive. ues into Islamic terms. rational and emo- craven. 1998). and by international organizations). 1995). who suggested that every human may strike later readers as embarrassingly foolish and is composed of two separate parts. p. Translations are famously imperfect. with the modern concept of constitutional democ- rize the compatibility of such values with Islamic racy. This search for consistency may itself be a lose something in translation. the modern con- roots. ed. What. David D. and the second believing. assured. through a process of double translation: modern val- ern lines). 146. Some of the admis. 147. Mass education. Critics may argue that these concepts faith. 118-123. then. 1889-1973). such as Taha Husayn sions generated in the first century of modernist Islam (Egypt. and so on. Esposito. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 27 that one has both modern values and Islamic faith is a coherent individual self. the first personality from being scholarly. rapid international com. but the modernist Is- characteristically modern concern. the are imbued with modern values such as cultural revival modernist Islamic movement has taken up the task (defined in a particular manner). science and education (as practiced glo. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Is- lamic World (New York: Oxford University Press. pp. as- generated huge populations in the Islamic world who piring to the highest ideals?"147 More commonly. The second step is to theo. Commins. and particular rights for women (as articulated ern terms. . democracy (on West. is to hinder lying values. Even Islamic revival.. Even some modernists the first step in this reconciliation. as previous eras lamic movement argued that they gain something were less insistent on the discursive construction of through juxtaposition." in John L. have rejected such an attempt. with our constitution and make-up. "Modernism. such as references to European civilization as tional: "Both of these personalities are connected the world's sole civilization.

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which produced thousands of translated works in various fields. and was only able to return four years later. also excerpted here. Tahtawi directed the Medical School. 469-477. each according to his wealth. (Beirut.1 The Extraction of Gold. revised Eldin Shahin. to a rural family of modest means yet with a line of descent from the Prophet Muhammad. Article 4: Each one has an independent personal- 1814:] ity. pp. As a result of a falling out with Khedive 'Abbas (reigned 1848-1854). al-Husry. or an Over- view of Paris (Takhlis al-ibriz Ha talkhis Bariz). 31 . 1984). and became the mission's main translator. Tahtawi translated two dozen French works and wrote several original books. Thanks to Heba Mostafa Risk for her assis- by Charles Issawi. in Modern Arab Thought (Princeton. Albert Hourani. excerpted here. pp. al-Murshid al-amin li 1. Nobody may in- Article 1: All Frenchmen are equal before the law. 11-31. pp. 1980). Civil Rights Established for the French Article 3: Each one is qualified to attain any po- sition or rank. Tahtawi also served as editor of the official newspaper and an educational journal. and a book of guidance. When he returned to Egypt. in Muhammad 'Imara.: tance with this translation. 1973). al-A'mal al-kamila li Rifa'a 83. Translation of in the Contemporary Era) (Cairo. N. He then assumed the directorship of the Military School and participated in several educational reform commissions. [The French Constitutional Charter of June 4. Tahtawi was exiled to the Sudan. fringe upon it except in rights that are stipulated in the law and in the way the law is deemed applicable by the judge. translated from Arabic by Ihsan 'Abbas. Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi. or Article 2: They pay. He also read the writings of major French thinkers. his own brainchild. I Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi The Extraction of Gold. after 'Abbas's death. Rifa'a al-Tahtawi: Ra'id al-tanwirfi al- al-Nashr. a program for the reform of Egypt. 180 l-l 873) was a pioneering figure in the Arab intellectual awakening of the nineteenth century. Origins of Modern Arab Political al-Tahtawi (The Complete Works of Rifa'a al-Tahtawi) Thought (New York: Caravan Books. volume 2. pp. Tahtawi was born in Tahta. 1970). He studied for seven years at the famous al-Azhar mosque in Cairo. he ran the School of Foreign Languages.J. then worked as a translator for the Artillery School. Khaldun S. 67- Boys). edited by Ra'if Khuri. 429-435. Kingston Press. Egypt: Dar al-Mustaqbal second selection from Arabic and introduction by Emad al-'Arabi. First 'asr al-hadith (Rifa'a al-Tahtawi: Pioneer of Enlightenment published in 1834 and 1875. In 1835. without distinction. The Extraction of Gold. 1983). including a didactic memoir of his experiences in France. 102-105. whose freedom is guaranteed. where his mentor nomi- nated him to serve as religious leader for a student mission to Paris. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age: al-banat wa al-banin (The Honest Guide for Girls and 1798-1939 (London: Oxford University Press. whose emphasis on the Egyptian watan (homeland) constituted one of the first statements of nationalism in the Arab world. a speci- an Overview of Paris fied sum of money to the Treasury. learned French. Upper Egypt. respectively. or an Overview of Paris and The Honest Guide for Girls and Boys Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi (Egypt. Tahtawi stayed in France from 1826 to 1 8 3 1 . Lebanon: al-Mu'asasa al-'Arabiyya li al-Dirasat wa Muhammad 'Imara.

especially when zakat [alms the Parliament tax]. It is true that the griffin believed Article 10: The state shall have the exclusive pre. must. Taxes might have some France. People do not mind pay- and satisfying the poor by convincing them that they ing. denied predestination. "Kharaj proceedings can be initiated even against the king him. especially in that the wealthy are protected sive principles among the French. land-tax is the pillar of kingship" is an established self. who believe in transmitting arts and crafts from which the following verse applies: father to son by inheritance. according to [this his- . fay' [revenue from state lands]. and lute justice as well as perfect faith. the griffin. If it does. from doing so. reason for such a procedure. "All Frenchmen are equal not meet the need of the Treasury or are prevented before the law. without distinc. Treasury. be considered as relative and not absolute. own craft. the law being the one condition like that of the Chinese and the Indi- reference and the guide. for abso- body. Arabs and Franks [Europe- rogative of compelling people to sell their property ans]. nowadays. which had to be inherited by his sons. The ghoul. Article 8: No one in France shall be denied the right to print and publish their opinion. A historian states that the law of the ancient Copts assigned to everyone his And justice filled it from end to end. I never heard any complaint against taxes.32 Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi Article 5: All who live in France may profess their In general. harm to the payer and at the same time benefits the This criterion has become one of the most comprehen. because taxes are levied in a way that does no are great as far as legal proceedings are concerned. and the faithful friend. lion. in helping the wronged imposts. It can be stated that had taxes been clearly set in Muslim coun- tries. so that all may be promoted to a higher posi- and justice. What One of its merits is that it encourages everyone to they hold dear and call liberty is what we call equity learn. whether high or low. circa 699-767]. with no intervention by any. complete purity. This is indeed a country to ans. as they are in that country. [Ahmad ibn Muhammad] al-Tha'labi [died 1035] in Article 9: All property and possessions are invio. to have the head of an eagle and the body of a for the public welfare." means that all those who live in from being levied totally. be subject to the provisions of the law. It is clear proof of against injustice and bribery. quate price before acquisition. then it shall existing species of birds mentioned by botanists. Thus the French could acquire different kinds establish equality through judgments and laws. if justice exists in any country it must religion as it requires. so that of knowledge and their civilization is not limited to the ruler cannot wrong anybody. Consider this first article: it has great Paris. does not exist. During my stay in anyone else. his Qisas al-Anbiya [Stories of the Prophets] mentions lable and nobody shall encroach on the property of the story of the griffin and King Solomon and how it another. anybody who molests them in this shall be stopped and similar things do not exist anywhere. they shall be assisted to accomplish that. the griffin. that is. because it is an it does not contravene the law. and the faithful friend. Thus there is no point in limiting impossible things Article 6: The religion of the state is the Apos. for to rule according to liberty means to tion. power in establishing justice. The And in it were happiness and sincerity. be suppressed. yet it does exist as a bird. Christians. The second article is purely political. advanced their cultural program has become. provided that it pays an ade. and booty can- The first article. roots in Islamic law according to some sayings of the tion. and judgment can be passed against him like maxim among ancient wise men. provided that This is not true about the griffin. Legal Great Imam [Abu Hanifa. to the ghoul. by the common people. of tolic Roman Catholic faith. and other levies. which the poet says: Article 7: The maintenance of Catholic and other When among the people of my time I found no Christian churches shall be met by money of the faithful friend to choose. this would have been Rights of the People Secured by a course of satisfaction. how highly justice is valued among them and how The third article does not cause any harm at all. and none of that money shall be allocated I became certain that the impossible things are for the maintenance of places of worship that belong three: to other religions.

Thus one does not aspire to what is higher but directs his at. if it could not be date news. which deserves its When I heard of him I heard of one. 689- achieve his aim. . coming from the noble people. for it helped them reach the degree of The ninth article is the heart of justice itself. lished laws. weeping over the passage of time. land. sixth. high and low.] So if we show some of the opinion given to you by a lowborn man. Sometimes the latter discover what the for it the same way people might yearn for the gar- former miss. and much came in its praise in out any alteration in. Thus the popu. In people do not prefer any country to their homeland." which publish up-to. they still contain news It has been the custom that those who are away which the people may wish to know. making it thus a good lesson to others. This procedure was necessitated by cir. [. whereas if other crafts were whose breeze has reared him and in which he grew open to him he would prove to be successful and up. One of the great merits of the newspaper is that if a The Egyptians' Attachment to man does an outstanding deed. whether good or bad. for the pearl merits of the mother of the world and of the bless- does not lose its value because of the mean status of ings [that is. . past and the present. The homeland [watan] is the nest of man. Abu 'Amr ibn al-'Ala' [linguist and poet. [. the case clear [Qur'anic] verses and hadiths [traditions of the . and made known to all people. A Discourse on the Homeland tention to inventing new things that can carry his craft to a higher degree of perfection. Although these achieved within. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 33 torian]. and rational people yearn for their country his opinions. and when I children's hearts to be inclined toward it.] Noth- are thinking. with. and yearn and the vulgar. Generous people gressed with the many foreigners who migrated to it. yearning for the return of compatriots. he states his case in the orable place. Free whatever occurs to him if it does not harm others. and seventh articles are very the generosity of its nature is the longing for home- useful for both natives and foreigners. especially on reading the daily sheets ing keeps away sane people from their homeland called "journals" and "gazettes. . it appears to us that it is considered the first of all homelands in the world. It is the father's craft. except the search for eminence. long for their beloved ones like the lion longs for its The eighth article encourages every man to express jungle. fifth.. and one man can represent all the good men. where he The answer to what this historian claims is that toddled and from which he emerged. It is most saw him he was to me the whole universe worthy for the souls of its people who are separated Every kind of game is in the belly of the onager from it to yearn for it. Thus the doer of good deeds is Nobody doubts that Egypt is an honorable home- encouraged and the doer of evil ones restrained. To confine him to it might produce an homeland whose soil. It is the land of honor and glory in the newspaper to make it known to high and low. If a land. to propagate his knowledge and to say like the high-born yearn for their resting-place. . both domestic and foreign. cumstances. or deviation from. or profitable advice. essential to curb the oppression of the weak by the proves on what he witnessed his father doing many strong. and lation of this country increased and its culture pro. and air have raised him. useful youth. whether they be Bedouin or city notices. Their Homeland it is reported in the paper. Egypt]. this way a man comes to know what his fellow men and are never patient being away from it. and part of his inner self. ." A poet also said: His land. food. It is perfection in their arts. the congrega- not everyone has the natural aptitude to learn his tion of his family. mere propriety. which is the quiver of God in the diver. because the son usually im. It is said: "Do not look down upon a great dens of Damascus. even if we refrain from calling it the most hon- man is wronged by another.] abound with innumerable lies. They may also from the homeland where they spent part of their contain newly established scientific matters. yearn for it. facts. is that all arts and crafts were considered gets to the courts and is dealt with according to estab- honorable. The Bedouins regret leaving Najd. [. 770] said: what proves the freedom of humanity and The fourth. This method usually cut the roots of covetousness and kept everybody content with his craft. unsuccessful craftsman. For it to be followed by the tenth article is times and does not direct his desire to another craft.

and in following a single law and a single ideas have changed. the members of one family. This privilege. it is the source of splendor and those rights is complete freedom in social association. implicitly. or to the a young bride adorned with money and beauty. Its kings and lead- ers were greeted as "mighty one. countries are both praised and insulted. [. This is what proves that God. . ministration.] It is said: Among Egypt's characteris. and those dangers have been re- . until their country. In hatred.] It has the right to be respected by all nations ions for what follows from this of quarreling. as if the homeland were [. meaning that ment of the territories of Islam. his deceit. insight. One old times. adhering to the hadith: greatest privilege in civilized nations. doing what they pleased.. as if it was the image of everlasting para. and those who and the order of their path unravels. it is prominent in every art. the heir of Dar al-Salam [the House the enjoyment of civil rights and civil privileges. . which engulfed the world and ery of others.. in this sense are they patriots and natives. a description of heaven]. Its king is mighty. and the insecurity of the homeland. and faiths. one of the greatest virtues. Its share of civilization is im. people of most nations. so they are called "native". This is the evi- enter it and do not get rich. Al-Hajjaj [ibn nated in it. and homeland. they are considered members of the community. Its exquisiteness of one man [united].34 Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi Prophet]. The greatest of the old and the new. loved by the relate to it as organs relate to the body. or give their views on issues. should not wish for his own happiness and the mis- ence and knowledge. branched out into various parties with different opin- [. and they only united in language. and not to take as an enemy for adorns every place. and the states and kings of the world.] Some said: Among Egypt's characteris. so they are called "Egyptian. so they are called "patriot. God will never enrich dent enemy who does not like the people of the home- them. in addition to ness between them. the people had no way to oppose their rulers or defend the rulings of the shari 'a. mentation. it is sought for its beauty. especially that the shari 'a and politics led it to towering heights.] the home of their parents and the place of their [Egypt is] described by all in terms of courage. they adopted much of its brilliance in sci. 660-714] used to say: Kufa [a city it as their homeland—are affiliated with it: first to its in Iraq] is a beautiful young girl that possesses no name. and the adorn. On the Children of the Country and They were not able to tell their kings what they saw Their Responsibility as inconsistent. and morals. and Baghdad has no equal. which gathered life's merits in it. We say: Egypt is to the people. land to be secure of their country and to enjoy their tics is that the Egyptian who seeks a homeland in freedom. This is the children of [other] countries. that they would be to one another like it nearly confined them in its corners and regions. them except that who inflicted failure on them with mense. has been denied to the it is secure and safe against the accidents of time. in entering under the care of a held jobs or positions below their qualifications. or those who came and settled and adopted Yusuf." for example. dise engraved across the earth by the divine hand has prepared them for cooperation in the reform of of wisdom. . governor. made them equal and required them to be on the heart It is still the pride of every time.." as stated in the The Rights of the Citizen Noble Qur'an. upbringing—so may it be a place for mutual happi- enthusiasm. "Love of homeland is part of faith. They were tined that the children of the homeland are always like foreigners in government affairs. prudence. Now single king. It now combines they enjoy the rights of their country. pleasantries. or money. another place lives in humiliation. most exalted. envy. contribute to matters of policy and ad- The wisdom of the One Able King [God] has so des. so that the system of their rule is disturbed tics is the abundance of currency in it." By God's will.. It was said: the world is Basra [a city Also. In general. policy." This means that is sought for its money and beauty. and it is the urban they follow the law of the land and assist in its imple- [city] of Africa. Their adherence to the rules of the coun- It is indeed across the nights and days a source try requires. and leadership. They its people are dignified and strong. When rulers reigned by whim. it offers benefits to the seekers of the Patriots are not characterized by freedom except when best. Only of Peace. the children of the homeland—those who origi- in Iraq]. and all else is a desert. pleasant attributes. . that the country guarantee them of happiness. The one nation should not be intelligence. [.

The principles and rulings that arrived with "May God be my witness that I shall carry the Islam have certainly civilized all the countries of the sword of honor to defend my country and its people earth. constantly. they would have followed only my tray it or deceive it. Had my brother Moses and all the prophets shall not disturb the serenity of my country. both for nations and indi- homeland. and not toward anything that violates the fect existence to nonexistence. and that I pledge to follow present and learned its regulations and rules. and promotes pros- naturally inclined to keep evil away from their home. After being ruled by one it by offering all they possess. They must also carry out their obligations viduals. which involves who reached twenty years of age to give an oath that the lack of prosperity in the standard of living. Now. and the order of its system disintegrated Patriots who are faithful in their love of homeland by the numerous disagreements of its princes and the redeem their country with all their means. If the children of the homeland advanced in civilization than another. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 35 moved from the children of the country. may peace it. true Based on this. This is the fate of any rights of their countries and fellow countrymen. God's Prophet [Muhammad]." Anyone who practiced the science of the whenever necessary in all conquests that the govern. May God be all the rational deduction—which the minds of the my witness that I shall not tolerate anyone who dares people of civilized nations developed and used as the violate them or undermine their order. They redeem it with Caesar. When the quality of patriotism was removed. and serve multiplicity of its rulers. All must always be directed toward the country's virtue its wars ended in defeat. would ascertain that future laws and customs in my country. and also one fail to earn the rights of their country. and ment orders. and that land. siding in the homeland. and it retreated from a per- and honor. because of its On Civilizing the Homeland possession of those characteristics. Power that had belonged to child. that no prophet came with country and religion. and whose inclination should be toward that which brings bene. perfects socialization. Likewise. and the lights of right guidance reached beyond whenever there is a chance I would be able to assist the horizons. There they would defend their country and their govern. been in my time. its affairs The Responsibilities of the Citizen were ruined. The love of home- land and the promotion of the public welfare are Civilizing the country allows civilized people to among the beautiful characteristics that get inculcated improve their physical and moral condition. the Caesar of Rome and the Cae- same way a father would keep evil away from his sar of Constantinople. fit and goodness. nation firmly adhered to the love of country. It im- into each person. They required a pledge to this effect. state is disorganized. That is why you find one kingdom more toward the country. and make every one of them loved by the others. Individuals may differ with The quality of patriotism requires not just that regard to [the level of] advancement and improve- humans demand the rights they are owed by their ment. This is what civilization is for the nation re- land. the country protects its children from all that harms them. Civilization varies. it was divided between two Caesars in the their soul. said: "I was sent to you with with the army or on my own for the protection of the a clear Abrahamic shari'a. throughout one's life. even if they must harm themselves to do so. In olden times. then the civil person more civilized than another with regard to the rights to which they are entitled will be lost. May God be my witness that I am willing to fight and prayer be upon him. improvement of condition and status. failure beset the members of this nation. because they have become members of it. the text the essence of true civilization to be considered and of which is: adopted. is no doubt that the laws delivered by the prophets are ment. the Romans used to force citizens Contrary to civilization is crudity. perity. May God be my witness that I before. is the reason it reigned over all the countries of the world." basis for the laws of their civilization and laws—hardly . proves morals and customs. and that I shall sail on the seas shari'a. fulfils civic perfection. it is understood that the Roman patriots can fill their hearts with the love of their home. The intentions of the children of the country one mighty force was split into two minor forces. fundamentals of fiqh [Islamic jurisprudence]. Their nation whose government is in disarray. No motivates people to be inclined toward commendable one could be happier than the human beings who are qualities. and repel anyone who seeks to harm it the east and the west. nor be.

in the homeland all humankind is equal. This could be the case dition is that [this freedom] should not destabilize the of the Qaysi. Every Islamic kingdom is a kings' approval for scientists and possessors of homeland for all those in it who belong to Islam. and combines religion and patriotism. In sum. What we call justice and benevolence. The only con- sons of citizenship and status. especially in the cause of its importance. and the desire to protect it. upon which they base their civil 1461-1483]. and in a bottomless pit actions revolve. Zeal for one's country could be entirely for rea. Travel brought all the kingdoms of the earth fortune. [thanks land. and from there the countries of the they call freedom and equality. and the Syr. freedom of navigation and travel. and around which trans. despite their differences. They discovered countless lands and come less brutal. government and should take a moderate path. tion] through print and pictures. out neglect or excessiveness. the people of Islam. stipu. were saved by Louis XI. their re. they call civil protection. and wanted to kill them. [There was an expansion] of freedom dren are obliged to protect it. the king of France [reigned lating good and bad. unlawful enslave. countries and bring their people to the religion of the tion advances among the kingdoms of the earth." which is the "house of On the Reasons for Civilization the needle. Inside it are drawn the and that it traveled from there to Chinese lands. It knowledge to write legal. and the that facilitate the path to civilization by providing the Europeans worked to perfect and improve it. What we call the branches offiqh. conquests be. to] the law of freedom of expression. whose adherence distin- guishes the people of Islam from other nations in Freedom of Opinion and Expression power and defense. They believed that printers damentals offiqh. But for us. The Arabs of Islam used to travel to discover new struction. and familiarity with the wonders of the world. to spread Islam to the barbarian nations of these re- edge. unite Among the greatest supports to civilization is the against the foreigner to protect their country. east and west. It is a box. produce it in large quantities. for example. in which is sisted education and learning. they have the science of "natural were sorcerers. of the [Indian] Ocean and its shores. and poverty and humilia. best of people [that is.36 Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi go beyond those fundamentals upon which the people of France at that time were in a deep sea be- branches offiqh were built. Similar to the science we call the fun. except for a small deviation. attentive Europeans followed their example and dis- tion vanish. we achieve all this. The love of religion East and Egypt. But they rights" or "natural law"—rational regulations. instability and revolutions become seas. gions. traveling to all sides of the [Indian] Ocean adhering to shari'a. who put the printing houses under his laws. daily newspapers of the countries of Europe. It is said that the first inventor ward the North Pole. hostility decreases. because of coarseness. and indus. But the in this respect by disseminating [aspects of civiliza- practice has run to confine [this love] to religion be. on land and sea. promoting science and knowl. while still desiring the home. and to ways and means. for both reasons. The greatest aid in navigating the sea is the invention of the "compass. commerce. political books. Therefore. which are among the fixed a magnetized iron needle. The benefits of civilization are numerous. and discovering the countries that can help was invented by none but the Europeans. philosophical. [The . the Yemeni. That is why some have said: as civiliza. they civilized countless people on the islands rarer and disappear completely. The four directions: north. covered a new world. love of country is but one of Among the things that helped to broaden the scope the branches of faith. Printing houses. advancing agriculture. literary. and wealth. ligion. Then printing reached the rest of the coun- rights or laws. and never deviating from it. the religion of the Prophet wars diminish. with- ian. as. the Egyptian. and the protection of religion is of civilization in the countries of the earth is the the core of all pillars. We find that parties. around them revolve all the sciences of life and de. or their kind. they call love of country. Then shrewd and ment and bondage end. cause of blind ignorance. inventing machines and equipment may say: the Arabs invented this machine. south. its chil." It was said to be invented by the Arabs Also among the reasons for civilization on earth: of Islam. previously unknown to the ancients. Muhammad]. However. always heading to- pillars of civilization. It was [also] said that the house of the needle try. tries of Europe. of printed books in Europe was the German nation.

since one's conscience rests proper wood so that the naval kingdom can build its upon the goodness of one's behavior in dealing with fleet. As a result. The Egyptian govern. and aided by the advantage of the Mediterranean and Red molded it. others. Humans cannot suppress natural freedom Seas. ion. which are required by the principles of their politics and justice. People may do as they please and their ministers are unrestricted in the different with themselves. on condition that it adheres to the tiful source to broaden the scope of civilization. and in individuals. religious freedom. according to the codes of their countries. joining together to honor each other's are not restrained from dealing with their money as rights. which has a strong naval power. The they do no harm to the individual or to others. They are ways [they formulate] political procedures. that they cannot do without. Among the rights of civil freedom is Civil freedom involves the rights of a city's resi- the human being's right not to be forcibly exiled or dents and communities toward each other. except by a legal or political ruling in ac. Among the advantages of sea power is that it Behavioral freedom involves commendable con- helps in promoting agriculture. and whose ports which cannot be matched in Freedom is divided into five types: natural freedom. then the kingdom of France and the Sublime The Types of Freedom State [the Ottoman Empire]. world. ers. and decrees another and from one place to another. on condition guided toward their destinations. In a kingdom that has applies to the freedom of political madhhabs. and as required by the in- the planting of forests and tree farms. eat- Policy experts have said that a kingdom's sea ing. The rights of all the people of the civilized king. to grow the tegrity of the individual. centers of trade in all sorts of exports and imports. gious interpretation] on minor issues. Their opin- wind. If that is difficult. without being considered unjust. Ash'aris [followers of Abu'l-Hasan al-Ash'ari. For example. civil freedom. and industry. The same dom are based on freedom. The na. they please. for that is good politics. impenetrability and security. the social community formed out of the people of the cordance with the principles of the kingdom. With this [compass] the captains at sea are ion on any subject may not be muffled. the opinions of the heads of official administrations and each individual may move from one house to in implementing their principles. is not allowed. principles of religion. and in adhering to it in matters of worship. so that each individual has pledged to the oth- . drinking. ment has important ports that could be [world] lead. and walking—things common to all power should be relative to its land power. for example. Over- most beneficial thing in demonstrating the sea power eating. except in ing of the four original winds and the catastrophic accordance with the laws of the country. as long restrained only by the limits prescribed by law or as they refer to consistent criteria. Monarchs rassment or coercion. People kingdom. the greatest sea power is the kingdom of the British. being feels secure in following one of the madhhabs tion. obtained its freedom. duct and noble morals. The human out an impermissible obstacle or a prohibited objec. as is eating poi- of a kingdom is that its banner be allowed to sail in son. and it will not be confiscated. ate ships through purchase from foreign countries to Religious freedom is the freedom of faith. Sea power is a plen. opin- the extent that satisfies its needs. it must obtain the appropri. and their work. ever. that is. It is the attribute necessary especially in colonies outside the kingdom. most that what they say or write does not violate the laws kingdoms of Europe are masters of sea power. social association is permitted. and doctrine. 873- 925] and the Maturidis [followers of Abu Mansur al- Maturidi. Natural freedom originated with humankind. without ha. like the doctrinal views of the which is built upon justice and public freedom. and political freedom. of the country. or eating other people's food without their the sea and to be respected throughout the seas of the permission. their time. for every member of the community—as deduced tion that desires many ships and ports must increase from the rules of reason. How. laws. behavioral freedom. so long as accordance with the greatness of its dominion. died circa 944]. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 37 function of this compass] is to determine the blow. trade. just kingdom. and the followers of On Public Freedom and Social Equality madhhabs [legal schools] who exercise ijtihad [reli- Freedom is the license for permissible action with. It is as if punished.

38 Rifa'a RafT al-Tahtawi ers to help them in all their activities that do not vio. actions regarding personal property. try.] they do not upon their rights when the government collects taxes oppose the individual. It is not surprising for a kingdom. benefits to be generated. knowledge. world that have no freedom. their compatriots. ated with justice and benevolence. People of that era strive to perfect the prac- nied by the justice of monarchs. . it will reason for the restriction might be that the monarchs be a great means in comforting the people and mak. The greatest Freedom. people of that kingdom in these sciences. [In return. where their strong principles and solid foun- The Duty of the Free toward Their Country dations have been mastered. among those who live nearby and compete with the grated or humiliated. and both are associ- their ruler. mans be dignified above all others. and The Relation between Freedom that human beings have been inclined toward it for and Happiness centuries. welfare. tice of their business and work. If the freedom of the people is accompa. Who. limits of the law. Per- has thus guaranteed human happiness. Some wise people said: allow me to improve edu- without a legitimate reason. where the sciences of management and banking have pro- gressed. Evidence has proven that this freedom is of the greatest public benefit. If people feel obligated to serve their coun. so should they devote their free. combining toler. on ditures. the education. and they all repudiate anyone to fight enemies or contribute to government expen- who would impinge on the individual's freedom. and since the enemy transgresses by invasion. and abundant profits and individual] will counterbalance each other. industry. Clever people in agri- ance with firmness and reverence. daily life. thriving day by day. they will allow people the freedom of summed up in the right to do what is legal. as civilization has advanced. and I will devote myself to improving the con- denial of their recognized right of happiness. ral freedom without infringement of any kind. of these arts is to see these spheres restricted. and the expanded spheres of agriculture. also feels happy with the freedom of other nations. is considered to be a cation. the state need not culture. and not deni. right not to be coerced into doing what is unlawful Socializing people and improving their conditions in their kingdom. so long as one The greatest freedom in the civilized kingdom is avoids harming one's compatriots. and the practice of their natu. and industry. Human minds. When education progresses and condi- freedom of the people of every kingdom can be tions improve. trade. dom. But the If freedom is built on just and sound laws. in all these meanings. and as divine wisdom has decreed that hu. ditions of the whole world. It provides a rea. Restricting what people are allowed to do. Among the the state assures all of its people their legitimate and splendors of the nation's freedom is that this nation recognized property. people will have to fight and repel him. will thus be multiplied by ruler and the ruled will both be happy. The two rights [of the state and the all their inventions in books. This is part of their duty toward their coun- condition that the individual does not trespass the try. and is hurt by the enslavement of the nations of the every individual may engage in all legitimate trans. In short. ability] to handle huge operations. for this freedom. The government the freedom of agriculture. expand commerce and continuously invent ing upon their rights. once they ever restricts them arbitrarily has stripped them of reach a lofty level in understanding the knowledge of a recognized right. trade. Thus. and industry. of the kingdom perceive their subjects as unqualified ing them happy in their countries. mitting them is one of the principles of the art of governmental administration. Every member of the community will equip their minds with good judgment and [the is allowed to enjoy all that is permitted in the king. to reap public benefits and As freedom is naturally imprinted on the hearts of financial fruits. because of their incomplete civil son for their love of their countries. And free- dom to honoring their country. It exists when ity is nothing but a protection of freedom. and dom is associated with equality. and trade can record and document fear freedom. is the greatest difficulty for the person who appreciates the benefits means for making the people of kingdoms happy. then they will not consider it an infringement late the law of the country. and thereby would be infring. This in real- Political freedom refers to the state. and the gains. and expanded in practice. It would not be surprising for the same humans. and opposing the laws of the equipment and machines contributing to the public country.

They responsibility. shari'a and nature. or prevent legally. Equality means nothing but sharing the same laws. threat. Any nation that considers generosity. and its kingdom will have upon him. In any case. preferred known to God the Sustainer. two hands. without distinction. that human equality in freedoms. It encompasses civil and public It makes sense. because and thus differed in moral makeup. nate. similar manner. may peace and prayer Justice be upon them. and persevere in so doing. Thus. moderniza- adhere to equality and forget privilege. Divine Providence has the legal and political obligations around which the already privileged some over others. which makes each one equal in dom. sincerity of the heart. protect its country. It will be strong enough to defend its territo. are characterized by justice. This is ordained and articulated in all the books revealed to His messengers. whose affairs cannot be ner of war is brandished. We cannot depend on what the mind likes or in accountability. and people owe one other. Equality in rights is associ- the senses of smell. taste. most exalted and glo- some to others in endowments. He made them equal rified. and also in physi. noble or mean. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 39 is possible for others to do. moral decency. Equality means trusting all the people are all equal in this respect. the leader and the subordi. and no one is preferred of the kingdom. without internal or external distur." bances. that this equality is illusory. and revered by all. Some were world revolves are based upon rational and sound granted magnificent qualities while others were not. If their country suffers a mishap. . Therefore. we find ways associated inseparably with rights. tion. ated with equality in obligations. principles devoid of inhibitions and doubts. the cific names such as sympathy. and to be just with themselves and others. This is the highest level of justice. proper due from others. This nation is strong. and it is consis- ries. attain. ness or distastefulness. This Those who perform their duties and receive their equality cannot be suspended by human legislation. All other virtues stem from jus- would be added: their concern for the continuation tice. you love for your brother what you love for yourself. most exalted. love prevention of internal disorder. modesty. chivalry. and fend off the aggression tent with the wisdom of the philosophers and the laws of its neighboring kingdoms. civil rights to another. It is supported by inside and outside. And although God. It is the cornerstone of the es- ity would be associated with freedom when the ban. and the resolution of of country. As humans de- tenance. continues to observe this equality. [states]: "None of you is a believer until a strong basis. with no distinction between the detests. to perform their over others in terms of survival. Each needs sus. two ears. piety. They must virtues and the basis for human society. therefore. as its removal would serve their public inter. because all people share common at. of the Messengers prior to Islam. although the support of natural Equality in rights is nothing but the legal ability laws should not be taken into consideration unless it of the human being to do. Equality All people manage their property and rights in a Equality among the members of a society is a natu. The noble hadith. and touch. Each has two eyes. they must [in turn] fulfill their and have the same right to the necessities of life. tablishment of kingdoms. Justice is a quality that lows that they must cooperate to remove a public induces humans to be rightful in words and conduct. and these are the products of justice. the source of civil strife. To this a third character managed without it. and civilization. If people can be proven to be equal in rights. All equality the basis of its laws and natural rights. or prevent all that is stipulated by the Legislator. mand their rights. obligations toward each other. equal. regardless of their status in the king- ral human quality. shari 'a and politics are based on a wisdom that we cal qualities. may peace and prayer be freedom on firm grounds. philosophers perceived [justice] as the virtue of all tally put aside their private privileges. attain. They form part of its attributes. all are on equal footing in life. and being equal before them. Obligations are al- But if we examine the matter thoroughly. through worship. unless shari 'a law has stipulated its right- honorable and the base. internal purity. it fol. some bodies being strong and others can perceive. will establish its the saying of [the Prophet]. All are equal in their conduct. they must to. and the like. rights requires equality in the responsibilities that tributes. a wisdom that is weak. but with spe- of their country's stability and public welfare. Some est.

I decided to assert what I believe no intelligent Muslim will contradict and no one who Khayr al-Din. (Leaders of Reform in the Modern Era) (Cairo. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age. Harvard University. pp. "May God guide him to the surest path. Khayr al-Din went into retirement in Istanbul. 84- Emad Eldin Shahin. 1980). 160-165. 2d ed. Whose rulings de- Praise be to Him who made prosperity one of the scribe orbits around the two points of faith and God's results of justice and endowed mankind with intel. (Khayr al-Din and Tunisia. 1822-1890) was a prominent reformer and effective states- man. Ahmed Amin. pp. which he headed. And I pray for his family cording to evidence which experience has decreed and his companions. Egypt: G. Khayr al-Din was a Circassian who was enslaved and sold to a notable in Turkey. Introduction by 1798-1939 (London: Oxford University Press. contained Khayr al-Din's political visions and his program of reform. both personal and political. and practices that he considered compat- ible with the Islamic shari'a. al-Husry. 1850-1881 Maktabat al-Nahda al-Misriyya. Pasha of Tunis). and its future. ress and backwardness of nations. he introduced influential fi- nancial. the guardians of his Holy Law. First published in 1867.1 In the name of God. translated from Arabic by Leon Carl Brown (Cambridge. where he received Arabic and Islamic education and learned modern military sciences. 71-96. by which He made it possible for man to After this invocation the compiler of these pages attain right conduct and the various gradations of says. 1970). Albert Hourani.: Cen. ter for Middle Eastern Studies. umma [community]. its attributes. S. 1967). 95. 158-197. As Tunisia's prime minister. Origins of Modern Arab Political 1. protection. His major written work. Nether- Alaaddin Cetin. Khayr al-Din ar- gued that liberty. relying on the Islamic and European his- in all tongues. Mass. To whom it was revealed that God com. and on what the authors master Muhammad. And commanded him to cooperate in good works and to fear God to the exclusion of idols After I had long contemplated the causes of the prog- or transgression. who was sent with the Book and of both groups have written concerning the Islamic the Balance. 1999). van Krieken. the merciful. He advanced strong arguments for the acquisition of Western institutions. the book excerpted here. Khayr al-Din's remarkable talents facilitated his ascendance to the premiership of Tunisia (1873-1877) and of the Ottoman Empire (1878-1879). ac- mands justice and charity. Brill. the beneficent. ligence." knowledge. (Ankara. After his dismissal. and educational reforms. values. Khaldun S. pnme among them the concept of liberty. 1976). is crucial for peace and prosperity. He founded the Sadiqiyya School in 1875. agricultural. pp. generation after I praise Him. The Surest Path (Aqwam al-masalik). and constrained by the autocratic tendencies of the sultan. he studied in the ruler's palace and then joined the Bardo Military School. He is to be praised at all times and generation. lasting only eight months. A. administrative. which is suitable for all times. And I pray for His servant and our tories I was able to examine. 40 . 33-53. where he spent seventeen years before being brought to the court of the Tunisian ruler. Khayr al-Din et la Tunisie. whose combination of Islamic and modern education produced much of the elite that later struggled for Tunisian independence from the French. Still a teenager. pp. 1979). 2 Khayr al-Din The Surest Path Khayr al-Din al-Tunisi (Tunisia. J. Tunuslu Hayreddin Pa§a (Khayr al-Din lands: E. should be accepted. 1850-1881) (Leiden. Zu'ama' al-islah fi al-'asr al-hadith Thought (New York: Caravan Books. His tenure as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire was brief. He was the main inspiration behind the promulgation of a constitution and the establishment of a parliament in Tu- nisia in I860. Turkey: Kultiir Bakanhgi.

suffices to make it sought after by the rest led to the utmost point of prosperity for their coun- of mankind. It is also to them to achieve what is most beneficial and helpful. other material which the reader might of action in this world. not be without benefit. and that secular organization is a firm foundation for all conduct was regulated accordingly. we will not hesitate to visualize the With God's help I have collected all possible in- world as a single. It is We are likewise saddened by such ignorance on the made up of an introduction and two books. And good intentions are. 1859-1882]. supporting the religious system. I have called the book The Surest Path to Knowl- edge to the exclusion of its contingent circumstances? edge Concerning the Conditions of Countries. a sufficient guarantee to the ruler of Tunisia. even when it is pursuing its own personal progress in the governance of mankind. Should this prove to be sembled what years of thought and reflection had above my own powers. by others out of a predilection for despotism. be found throughout the several chapters. I have shown their nation. including obser- Is it fitting that the physicians of the umma should vations based either on precedent or reasoning. writing. will be ignorant of its ailments? Or that they should di. by use of it overcome the present predicament of This is undoubtedly one of the most imposing ob. united country peopled by various formation about European inventions related to eco- nations who surely need each other. knowledge and prosperity at a time when the shari 'a tor for the two worlds. stacles to a knowledge of the most appropriate course In addition. if the by His Excellency the Bey [Muhammad al-Sadiq. especially if it comes upon hearts working together in defense of Islam. Then. and especially of those known. rect their concern to acquiring the essence of knowl. of the people by demonstrating what would be a zation and the keen rivalry of even the greatest among proper domestic and foreign conduct. with reference benefit to be derived from the experience of each to their situation in earlier times. THE SUREST PATH 41 has been shown the evidence will oppose: if we con. negligence existing among us. closer together. The general nomic and administrative policies. properly expect on such a subject. which has interests. less both among the politicians and all the classes sider the competition of nations in the fields of civili. Further. Such a person will The purpose in mentioning how the European then be saddened to see that certain 'ulama' [reli. if we consider the many ways which have whose farthest distance is now connected with its been created in these times to bring people and ideas nearest. pelled us to compose this work. makes this easier. The folding-in of the globe. There- Thus. call attention to these aspects of the Prankish [Eu- it becomes clear that we can properly distinguish what ropean] nations—especially those having close con- is most suitable for us only by having knowledge of tacts or attachments with us—which ought to be those outside our own group. we may to learning about domestic events. about other nations. tries. and their minds be able to restore what was taken from our hands and are empty of any knowledge of the outside world. each of part of certain statesmen and a feigning of ignorance which has several chapters. With the guidance of God we seek the paths of For this reason I was fired to believe that if I as. I have also noted the superiority formerly held Whoever considers these two undoubtedly true by the Islamic umma (as attested by even the most principles. integrity and correctness. Nor will we be content to indicate what com- portant events of these days and to awaken the heed. kingdoms attained their present strength and worldly gious scholars] of Islam who are entrusted to take power is that we may choose what is suitable to our into consideration the changing circumstances of own circumstance which at the same time supports time in the application of the Law are opposed even and is in accordance with our shari 'a. The motive for a work is its true beginning. and who according to religion knows important European historians) in the two fields of that the Islamic shari 'a [religious law] is a guaran. All-High God so wills. Rather we believe it . the indulgence of my distin- produced. the object of this book is to remind the fore it is appropriate that we set out our motive in learned 'ulama' of their responsibility to know the im. plus what I had seen during my travels to guished readers is to be hoped for as a means of avert- the various states of Europe where I had been sent ing my own poverty. then my effort might attainment of aspirations. This includes their own eagerness to learn who surround us and live close to us. will necessarily recognize exerted its influence on the wraraa's conditions.

may God be pleased with him. of surrounding their cities with a moat incentive is a desire to accomplish two tasks leading as a protection against attack. died 1492] is found the following. permissible for the virtuous ancestors to take such tries. they should accept and adopt it whether or which harm them. Prophet]. Wis. and eliminating the causes of idleness. He even worked in it himself in order to exhort the sible ways of improving the condition of the Islamic Muslims. and any." it to use. Our by the enemy. but pay attention to what was said." work of others. This judge. of non-Muslims which we have forbidden are those which violate the requirements of our canon law. We see them vying with each not its originator be from among the faithful. home furnishings. It is other in clothing. God bless him and grant him peace. may God bless him and grant him cessities. took his advice The first task is to spur on those statesmen and and dug a moat around Medina when it was attacked. reigned 656-661]. Anyone devoted to religion should not be On the margin of Durr al-mukhtar [The Selected deterred from initiating the commendable actions Pearls] by the learned Shaykh Muhammad Ibn' Abidin related to worldly interests of one religiously mis. On the because the Holy Law does not forbid the imitation contrary. and proficiency in work it as being among the beneficial instruments—so much to be seen in the European kingdoms. while not avoiding other things correct. son-in-law and fourth umma and of promoting the means of its development successor of the Prophet. savants having zeal and resolution to seek all pos. has said. hope. may to one ultimate goal. This is what the French have done. The truth is that all of these things are dom is the goal of the believer. and to translate it from Greek when they saw is born that security. the Prophet of God. Discriminating critics must sift out the truth prove of. The things as logic from outside their own religious com- basic requirement is good government. No further so that [Abu Hamid Muhammad] al-Ghazzali [1058- evidence is needed of this. promoting all the indus. 1111] said. that the Persians had a custom. Actually.42 Khayr al-Din important to build certain arguments upon it. One is to take it European products. "Do not pay attention to who and knowledge. may God by such things as expanding the scope of the sciences honor him. they have attained the sound orga. [administrative reforms of the nineteenth century] whether it be word or deed. indicating the backwardness of the umma peace. and such every- not according to the person that truth is known. If they find it to be and its results. There is no hiding the disgrace wherever one finds it. "The acts attitude is a mistake under any circumstances. By the following. "The learning of a man having no knowl- The second task is to warn the heedless among the edge of logic is not to be trusted"—then what objec- Muslim masses against their persistent opposition to tion can there be today to our adopting certain skills the behavior of others that is praiseworthy and in that we see we greatly need in order to resist intrigues conformity with our Holy Law. 'Ali [ibn Abi Talib. smoothing the paths to wealth in spoke. simply because they and attract benefits? are possessed with the idea that all behavior and or. "There is no harm in imitation of that ceaselessly emulating what they deem good in the which is linked to the good of the believers. it is by truth that the person is known. Andalusian one praising such things should be disavowed. 1783-1836] is found guided. and the deficiencies in economic development and When Salman the Persian [a companion of the public policy which overtake the umma as a result.al-Hanafi [jurist of Damascus. recommended or permissible possessed it and it had been taken from us. when besieged in skills. There is no reason to reject or ignore something There is no need to abandon acts practiced by non- which is correct and demonstrable simply because Muslims that are in accordance with the shari 'a cate- it comes from others. their Rightly Guided] by the Maliki scholar Shaykh al- books must be cast out and not mentioned. especially if we had formerly gories of obligatory." If it was agriculture and commerce. indicated to The disgrace is our needing outsiders for most ne- the Prophet of God. Mawwaq [Abu 'Abdullah al-Gharnati.quirements. day needs just as in weapons and all military re- Rather. we find them refusing to accept tanzimat by a probing examination of the thing concerned. In the Sunan al-Muhtadin [Traditions of the ganizations of non-Muslims must be renounced. The shortcoming in economic develop- . if we reflect on the situation of those nization of their affairs in this world to be witnessed critical Muslims and the European actions they ap- by all. there is an obligation to restore it and put of anyone who does what God permits. from which munity.

but it is equally neces. to 'Asim other ways. after his death. be successful without our implementing political As for political imperfections. in itself. called noblesse. After entering their country. savagery. for if the tion without progress in the skills and bases of value of imports exceeds the exports. This requires knowledge facturing process. rulers. for similar or even better conditions died 642]. Therefore we must press on to the purpose reason for all this except European technical of this book which is to reveal the conditions of the progress resulting from tanzimat based on justice European nations. lawlessness and oppression. even at many times the value. until the rule of is the subject of his book." The meaning of this hadith is made ined that Europe's peoples arrived at their present clear in the advice of Abu Bakr [first caliph. it would be the lesser of two evils. When you meet a fighting party. match cau- this statement is in seeing. of the northern barbarians and the fall of the Roman placed caution? It is worth mentioning in this con. Europe returned to bin Thabit [companion of the Prophet. spear for spear. at a have said instead cannon. for example. "Let him who fights. he would time buy it back. both for us and for others. died 625] in its darkest period of ignorance and oppression by its the hadith. After the attacks simply because of unfounded misgivings and mis. He said. are found in other parts of the world. or silk farmer or cotton farmer. may the strength and support of God be con. of the capabilities of any potential aggressor and an dance. armored ships. Nor is it due to when he sent him to fight the apostates. reigned state because of a marked fertility or temperateness 632-634] to Khalid ibn al-Walid [Muslim general. There is no doms. Europe remained in the noose neighbors risk becoming. including what might be suitable and liberty. sword for the European for a cheap price. beginning a tary policy." He singles out military matters because that several nations. Then. self of something which. and in may God bless him and grant him peace. for this on to say. We receive these the state of preparation imposed by the Holy none of the increased value resulting from the manu. especially when and liberty—both of which are sources in our own linked to the need for military necessities. if we considered the total of what is strength. the kingdom's tanzimat comparable to those we see among others? need for others stands as an obstacle to its indepen. sooner or later. their of slavery to its kings and oppressive grandees of the prey. can we today attain such a level of prepara- other. herd. our shep. effort to mobilize against him equal or superior cumstances." If Abu Bakr had known this age. THE SUREST PATH 43 ment is the failure to use our country's industries veyed through you to those with you. Corroboration of with fear. For this reason it can be the imports and found that the two approximate each asked. rifles. How can a thinking man deprive him. as will be shown in detail. It is well known that these two are the easy to purchase in peacetime are not easy in time prerequisites for strength and soundness in all king- of war. and price several times higher. defying fatigue fight them with the same weapons they use to fight for the entire year. he approves of? The present situation in the kingdoms of Europe How can he lightly turn down what will benefit him. king of France. we now get only other such inventions needed for defense. He ex- of progress. sell the produce of his labor to you—arrow for arrow. Emperor Charlemagne [742-814]. Without the value of our land's raw materials. for the Islamic umma. ruin will un. It is not to be imag- sary fights. Under these cir. fight as his adver. Europe fell into a shocking state of nection the statement of a European author on mili." and he went to process the goods we have produced. Law will not be attained. Supporting erted every effort to improve the condition of the what we have related is the statement of the Prophet. which also entails a knowledge of the exported from the kingdom and compared it with means leading to this goal. "May the people of al-Yamama be seized should be a major source of gain. the basic means of creating abun. growth to be seen among others? Can this progress avoidably take place. people by striving to promote knowledge. tion with caution. of its regions. Although it Khalid. sary to keep up with one's neighbors in all aspects and most of the kingdoms of Europe in 768. These institutions are based on two pillars—justice dence and a weakener of its vigor. has not long been firmly established. "Kingdoms which do not keep pace movement of decline—which is naturally quicker with the military inventions and tactics of their than that of advance. and then in a short sword. Empire in 476. military or non-military. "O the influence of their Christian religion. which if Holy Law. after it has been processed. may God be pleased with both of them. In sum. does urge the enforcement of justice and equality .

will find Ghazzali. necessary. and [what has] no guardian will said. consideration of the public interest appropriate to the The essential prerequisite for all of this is security time and the circumstances." One of ity and the security of its subjects. The under- orders of the people. If he acts by these two he will be be pleased with him. even if they of civilization. and also because of the many probity to constituted authority and strength to all perfections which God had placed in him. Europe has attained these ends and progress to both religious and secular matters. havior when consultation has been omitted. forbade his disciples from with their appetites. by Ibn bidden is obliged to resist any forbidden act. 1332-1406]. This is well known from our Holy Law charged His impeccable Prophet. and an administra. without the restraint either of ordi- of retirement from the world and asceticism. their rulers being restricted by shari 'a laws applicable Rather. let him among you who sees It happened in European kingdoms during those cen. "O people. the proof of Islam. Man's should be in the pulpit. and other matters of this nature. good management. the imperfections existing in the provinces due solely to their poor conduct resulting from the of the pope. Christianity does not interfere in po. lying reason for this obligation upon the Prophet was tees the security and well-being of all subjects. as has been said. has said. later rulers. which is to be contrasted of his unwillingness to imitate the political order. verge of vanishing and losing their independence was Also. "There can be no right be- just. whatever its previous condition. preaching. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab [second caliph. They are providing for the country's prosper. "The king is the foundation. carrying out the lesser of two evils when one is that justice. "The caliphs conclusive proof that oppression foreshadows the ruin and kings of Islam want to be refuted. leader of the Christian religion." The Nasa'ih al-Muluk [Advice to Kings. "Consultation is one of the foundations of the be lost. What has no foundation Ibn al-'Arabi [Andalusian jurist. tive system duly complied with be the causes of an increase in wealth. is. or of religious law." natural propensities are such that unrestricted author. and justice is the guardian. this being opposing the kings of this world in what relates to nonexistent in Christianity. high and low. with the good behavior of their neighbors at that time ing recognized in the rest of the European king. tion directly from God. ing corruption over that of advancing the public in- tion in their lands. 634-644]. Al- Khaldun [Tunisian historian. is a clear sign of what we have mentioned. and with their knowledge of agriculture and commerce. but that Among the most important of the shari 'a principles the contrary should cause a diminution in all of is the duty of shura [consultation] with which God these things. which is built on retire- politics saying that he did not have dominion over ment from the world and asceticism. Among its care- in the sciences and industries through tanzimat fully guarded principles are the release of the creature based on political justice. because it is founded on the concept God's creatures. has said. although Muhammad could The Prophet. for the authority of his holy law was over That some of the European kingdoms were on the the spirits and not the bodies. ity for kings brings about some kind of oppression. may God bless him and grant him have dispensed with this since he received inspira- peace. and property. may God grouped into two. all of which can be of creatures. giving priority to avert- and justice. by smoothing the roads from the exigency of his own passions. and by extracting treasures of the earth of the rights of mankind. 1076-1148] has will be destroyed. peoples.44 Khayr al-Din before the law. once said while This has occurred today in certain Islamic kingdoms. "Justice brings glory to the religion." A man stood up and . from among the Islamic umma. religion and God's rule for the two worlds. the principles upon which there is consensus is that Anyone who leafs through the third section of every adult Muslim knowledgeable of what is for- Book One ofMuqaddima [The Prolegomenon}. any deviation in me set it right. turies when royal despots had absolute power over litical behavior. since that was incompatible Jesus." A that it should become a tradition incumbent upon Persian maxim affirms. upon him be peace. may God bless him and from both Islamic and non-Islamic histories." Among the sayings of 'Ali. this world. It is God's custom in His world terest. imposed upon all men from the prophet to the least ity needs a thousand qualities. may God be pleased with him. It is a duty by al-Ghazzali] asserts that the possessor of author. the protection to wealth. and grant him peace. because unlimited authority of kings. Justice guaran. Even nances based on reason. which have become the normal condi. This was the result of doms. whether Muslim or not.

Thus we must assert that the partici- 'ulama' and the notables of the umma to resist evil. If these laws are imposed by the wis- Mu'awiyya [ibn Abi Sufyan. "By God. at the same time. ship would not be proper for mankind. he would not have masses will submit and let themselves be led to their praised God but would have been impelled to oppose authority as was the case with the Persians and other it and to rebuke the man who spoke. but assuming these qualities were combined in a perma- neither of these can defend its rights if they be vio. the judgments of the holder of author." There can be no because of his appetites. the kings fear those who resist evil." protected by such precepts as commanding the good Without this type of resistance to authority. The aim of the two [that is. In the Islamic administration of the kingdom placed upon the min- umma. had not believed such a harsh retort to be in sary to return to imposed political laws to which the accordance with the shari'a. European and Muslim] is the same: to demand an accounting from the state in order that its conduct Consideration of human nature thus makes it clear may be upright. and forbidding the evil. as it depends on qualities which restrainer to provide a check. sion of the essential grouping together of humans. in accordance with pre- kings of Europe fear the councils and the opinions cise. and is moved by see fit. However. est. If it is imposed from God All-High by means of him saying. because some Nor do we deny the possibility of finding among form of restraint is essential for the maintenance of kings one who conducts himself properly in the king- the human species. THE SUREST PATH 45 said. well-observed ordinances) is the situation most of the masses that proceed from them and from the likely to bring about what is best for the kingdom. Come forward for your allowances. is. 661-680] with. as we have said. just as the isters directly responsible. it is then a religious of your father or mother. For this reason it is neces- liphate. It public interest. nent manner in one person. this is rare and not to be is essential that the restrainer should in turn have a taken into account. caliph. For this reason it is diffi- doubt that if a just imam [leader] such as 'Umar. This is tify with his sword my deviations. and the minister to advise him in complicated matters of original state of neglect would remain unheeded. It freedom of the press. and be capable of implementing the Muqaddima in saying. This is not the result of my toil nor if it remains respected through being preserved and my father's. Group feeling is produced leading orous in defending religion and the rights of the ca. the best safeguard for the king. to turmoil and fighting. king. "Abu The aforementioned benefit will be realized only Muslim is right. "Since kingship is an expres. For this reason it is incumbent upon the with his death. the fruits to be expected from this need to have the love of justice to seek the aid of an informed loyal a restrainer would not appear to the umma." his anger with water for ritual ablution. either in the form of a are seldom combined in a single person—and even heavenly shari'a or a policy based on reason. If the dynasty violates such a policy its po- relates also in the section on "Commanding the Good sition will not be well established and its control will and Forbidding the Evil" in the Ihya' [Revival] that be incomplete. pation of those qualified to loosen and bind with the The Europeans have established councils and have kings in all policy matters (with responsibility for given freedom to the printing presses." 'Umar replied. replied. even if the roads leading to this end that there are only three types of kings. vig. for he usually demands of God who created in this umma him who would rec. "Praise whoever is under him. public interests through discriminating supervision. but if people exercising this re. died 682] came before son. after stilling policy valid both for this world and the next. nor from that a prophet who determines it. personal aims or appetites that would prevent him both of which stem from irradicable strength rooted from carrying out the general public interests. in the state then it is a policy based on human rea- Khawlani [famous ascetic. most important and most discriminating persons held the people's allowances. they would disappear lated. them that which is not within their power. love what would bene- mentioned in the chapter on the imamate in his fit the country. and Abu Muslim al. dom without consulting "those qualified to loosen straint were left to do as they please and rule as they and bind" [political power brokers]. Or he might possess complete knowledge but have and its basic characteristic is domination and force. Or he in mankind. might be both lacking in knowledge and deficient in . if we saw in you deviation we would ity usually turn aside from the right and are unjust to rectify it with our swords. cult to obey him. A king might may differ. "This is not from your toil. Al-Ghazzali nations." Mu'awiyya. Ibn Khaldun has referred to what we have possess complete knowledge.

Assuming. but as this facilitates the maintenance of the monarchy if he sees bad he divulges it. of the kingdom. service once and for all." in the king's family. sweetness of agreement with the appetites in a situa- because the matter of advancing a minister to execu. Rather it would help him. to whom the ministers were responsible. In this way the condition of the of you. then the imperative nature of consul. How then in such a situation would it be its highest peak during the reign of George III possible for the minister to carry out the adminis- [reigned 1760-1820]. or by delaying them beyond the ability and probity. minister success in his efforts to administer the king- tation and responsibility would be clear. so there would be no need for those quali. may God be pleased with him." and other such kingdom is set right even if the governor is a pris. then his situation would turn upon two possi. and it is not to be imagined that the king would or the minister is obliged to resign from government advance someone whom he knows would offer seri. In that case. who is both the judge and the plaintiff? Because of this second set of obstacles. because the fied to loosen and bind. but not his honor and reputation. the king. If not. Fail- he be able to triumph over that opposition. who was mad. then he must withhold his he get this right and by means of what support would agreement to anything which would cause harm. who has not been forewarned. of 'Ali. king. then his agreement. The obedience outweighed any concern about the harm done to the to the king and the love of country required of him are kingdom. of all are an aid in attaining the public interest. especially ing this. saying. that such protection then in order to escape the consequences a minister were appointed and his conduct commend. "He is acting independently tance in the third. or by hiding his good gation of consultation and ministerial responsibility qualities and making public his bad qualities in order in the case of the first type would not impede the to turn hearts against him. As the could find acceptance even among the thinking man translator of [John] Stuart Mill [English thinker. This is manifestly a mistake. before the king. since the opinions protect me from an enemy who carefully watches me. for even if not for self- ous opposition to him. It is clear that the obli. stories of the type spread by the unrighteous. If kings are more nearly like the If God frustrates their hopes by granting such a last two types. from the factiousness of his enviers. The extent of success will depend on his the way intended. "The English nation reached countries. You are king only in name. was. Or he could oppose them and order those realized only by his striving to advise on how to pro- functionaries under him to carry out what the inter. He may be retinue in their aims and appetites. of concurring in what would lead to the destruction able. "God pose. This is shown in the situation of . then they fall back on the tactic of defaming him need for opposition in the second case and for assis. with the knowledge of if there is no Holy Law in operation to protect him the harm which would ensue. if he ests of the country require. mote the public interest and ward off corruption. which would necessitate punishment bilities. showing in a permitted to endanger himself for the good of the coun- manner hardly to be hidden that his own interests try. tion out of which results destruction of the kingdom tive power or of removing him is in the hands of the will later be followed by the bitterness of remorse. One of the supplications complete knowledge from achieving its good pur. whose fondest It is clear from this that kingdoms administered hopes would be to do him harm and in every way without regular and well-observed laws under the available to them to stop his beneficial activities supervision of those qualified to loosen and bind will which tend to diminish their personal profit? They be limited in their best and their worst to the person might do this by carrying out his orders other than of the king. when this entails opposing the man and bind. homeland. where would is able to do this. Either he would agree with the king and his for the creator and censure of the creature. and even to himself. fects and increase the errors. These same three types can apply appropriate time in order to make manifest the de- to the chief minister as well. just If he sees something good in me he conceals it. is treason. however. out of the dom. the aforementioned min- It might occur to some weak minds that to entrust ister is obliged either to choose the first situation of with responsibility a minister endowed with good conformity and adopt the ways of dissimulation with reputation would repair the disadvantages of the last the disastrous consequences resulting in harm to the two types. especially in eastern 1806-1873] has said. which oner of his appetites or is weak in judgment." This was only tration of the kingdom within the framework of the through the participation of those qualified to loosen public interest.46 Khayr al-Din executive ability.

dance with the views of the public. [Ahmad ibn Musa] al-Khayali [died circa 1457] con- Mawardi [Iraq. would be a restriction of the imam's jurisdiction or such as 'Isam al-Din [probably al-Isfara'ini. "This also is to be agreed to. which is linked to the unity of and bind with the princes in all aspects of policy commanding and forbidding. for during that time they had imams with obedience owed to each of them sepa- ministers famous to this day for their complete rately. before the imamate is the appointment of two independent establishment of laws. in the management of the party which includes 'Abd al-Rahman ibn and care of his trees would not be able to do without 'Awf [a companion of the Prophet. for this is less extensive dent judgment.' So. THE SUREST PATH 47 the European kingdoms in past centuries. and nances of Government]. died circa 652]." ing exclusive charge of implementation and direc- Therefore. let us try since their opinion was more likely to be correct— to understand this by means of a parable. believing that the sharing of the executive authority of the imam. He restricts his disallowing of multiplicity to his helpers disagreed. Commentators on Sa'd. the sums should be spent against four. died of his executive powers. and in accor- Sayyid al-Sanad [reference unclear] adds the com. be dispelled by reading Qawanin al-wizara [Ordi. execution of all judgments. made said on the subject of special taxes taken from the succession to the caliphate a matter of consultation people when the treasury is empty. it is even more per. who ibn al-Khattab. For this reason when 'Umar found in the words of the imam Ibn al-'Arabi. He has said in ex. just as he has exclusive authority other execu- the delegated vizierate in the aforementioned man. might happen that the owner of the garden wanted planation of "The Creed"] does not even disallow to cut some of the branches of his trees. died 1657]." mentary that his preference was for the majority. Now it [Taftazani. for God all High has related the type of consultation there is no restriction upon ei- speech of His prophet Moses." the assistance of helpers knowledgeable about trees On the other hand. the sense referred to here. knowing from the basic prin- whatever might create corruption. ment. Additional evidence is to be attain the correct answer. but all forms of consultation roots of imperfection growing out of the two types with a single imam are authorized. The authority of this type of vizierate than consultation in all executive acts. The owner "and if you are equally divided then decide in favor of a large garden. As an additional element of clarification. and other bind—in all aspects of policy is even more permis. "they should be among six persons. "The unauthorized kill the tree at the roots. but ate." This is because of royal tyranny referred to above. al-Maula Sa'd al-Din and what causes them to prosper or wither. Increase my strength with bind would be tantamount to that of the imam. have approved his statement. then his sharing of tions with foreigners. because a group of opinions is more likely to the unity of command. As he has stated ciples of cultivation that pruning at that time would in the course of an exposition. for example. for this could create an obligation to obey knowledge and valor. for the view of those qualified to loosen and people. ther the general scope or the basic prerogatives of the 'Appoint for me a helper [wazir] from among my imamate." In plaining the delegated vizierate: "This occurs when sum. tive activities not requiring the association of others. may God be pleased with him. It him and cause him to share my task. It is thus clear how even more explicitly ac- thority to administer affairs as he sees fit and to ceptable is consultation in general policy matters in implement them in accordance with his own indepen. not arbitrarily. he said. my brother Aaron. Yet they were unable to cut the conflicting ordinances. This is an illusion which can circa 1544] and 'Abd al-Hakim [possibly Siyalkuti. ner is permissible and is not deemed a diminution of such as carrying out political and commercial rela- his general executive authority. if the imam's sharing his power with tion. 1332-1389] in the Shark al-'Aqa'id [Ex. "If you divide two taken publicly not secretly. by ['All ibn Muhammad] al. In such circumstances. appointing and dismissing power with a group—those qualified to loosen and administrators. if this is should also be noted that the imam is the one who permissible for the prophethood. would promulgate any decision. then decide in favor of the four"— justly not appropriated exclusively. circa 974-1058]. In the former is not restricted. firmed it in saying. It should not be the multiplicity of persons in no way contradicts the said that the participation of those qualified to loosen unity of the imamate. they all recognize the soundness of Sa'd's state- the imam chooses a vizier to whom he delegates au. upon him be peace. to . would strengthen the roots and increase the fruit. such executive actions which are the very bases of sible. as he is the one hav- missible for the imamate.

indicates that liberty is the basis of the great devel- plete executive authority in his garden. when giving him his fear encroachment upon their person nor any of their way would have been contrary to divine wisdom that other rights. to course of action. the laws yield from the garden belongs to its owner." This is owner. The chamber has the right to discuss in the pres- . In such circumstances. and why do you of the community. We would call them those qualified to versation I had with a European notable. there can be no prohibition on the meaning any deviation in his conduct or governance type of consultation which has already been de. This is similar to what the second obstruct his will when he does something beyond the caliph. For example. In a con. this is not enough to protect the rights of the upon the owner. this responsibility becomes a strictly pre- dom. but if not. When such a group is so desig- wish to participate with him in the affairs of the king. Whoever gives due attention to the matter Since the granting of liberty in this sense to all the of necessity. and the protection of one's upon him. order to avert any possible ambiguity. nated. In general. honor. of the umma. for these two are with him. when he re. for the influence of those laws depends on the freedom of action concerning the condition of his will of the king. subjects does not extend beyond the limits of the The second sense of liberty is political liberty. and wealth. Can it be argued that this was a restric. Liberty in this whether it belongs to him. public interest. the people instead elect from would not hesitate to assert that this is necessary among those possessing knowledge and virtue a especially in these times characterized by a dearth of group called by the Europeans the Chamber of Gen- knowledge and an abundance of tyranny. we believe it imperative to demon- to do because of the Holy Law. law to others of the race. scribed. for you concede that given his qualities no such scribed obligation upon them.48 Khayr al-Din obstruct the owner's wish could not be considered a Since what we have been presenting on this subject restriction on the scope of his supervision or his com. but bind both the rulers and the subjects. opment of knowledge and civilization in the Euro- ers might attempt to stop the owner in what he wanted pean kingdoms. eral Deputies. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. loosen and bind. One is called "personal liberty. It is well known that the imam's umma. "Then some members of the community assume the respon- why. in owner should wish to sell the fruit before it was ripe. and he would deserve to be deprived of person. of the reprehensible in our shari'a is in the category plied that the king by his very nature and intelligence of those responsibilities which can be delegated. said—like that of the orphan's guardian. and result in confusion. They would not be prosecuted for any- the production of the world and the exploitation of thing not provided for in the laws of the land. This is because the avoidance knowledge of political fundamentals. I was prais. Each is equal before the the garden. so that no individuals need tion on the owner of the garden. Although these two possess established one should not think that such action is a restriction laws. then let him set it straight. they would indicate to him that such action would The expression "liberty" is used by Europeans in displease the Creator of the trees. may God be pleased Papal State and the Muscovite state. "are you so sparing in granting him sibility. This might oblige him to accept their advice the individual's complete freedom of action over in these two cases. duly the earth is for the sons of Adam? It is true that the determined before the courts. if the strate the meaning of liberty in actual practice. may God be pleased limits of permissible action is. referred to in saying." argument. Thus. the blame would fall one's self and property. even though this [latter] group is not ing at length their king and mentioning his great elected by the people. The Chamber of Deputies is to be found in all antee to us that he and his descendants after him shall European kingdoms except the Papal State and Rus- remain upright?" sia. as Shaykh Ibn al-'Arabi has done (for people is most likely to cause a divergence of views he is our source in all that we have previously stated). then the obligation is removed from the rest freedom of action in government. with him. as we have explained. who is the true two senses. to someone else. If was incapable of acting in the wrong manner. despotisms. Or the help. "Who will guar." I asked. Furthering the interests of the umma which is the demand of the subjects to participate in and managing its policies are matters which do not the politics of the kingdom and to discuss the best come easily to everyone. participation is needed?" He replied. "Whoever among you a means of liberation from the unsoundness of that sees any crookedness. or even sense exists in all the European countries except the if his position was—as 'Umar.

which is based on justice and the sound or- as will be seen. and are a complement to and other such matters affecting the public interest. We have seen that the opposition of the various parties. Some would choose the Through technical training wealth gains the nec- monarch from a different family than the one favored essary means of productive activity from among the by others. They can do this by concerning themselves In general. This causes the dynasty to believe that the ranks of those without capital. benefits. There are those who have obtained uncultivated and neglected. for example. even if only personal liberty. must feel secure against thing else which is called freedom of the press. of activities. Because of the faint hope of the people in many lands In this matter there are differences among the of Asia and Africa. What does seems to them to be in the public interest. This leads directing their efforts to the interests of the world in to the consequences already mentioned. In others. even if it appears countries which have progressed to the highest ranks to be confined to returning the state to the paths of of prosperity are those having established the roots of public interest. ganization of society. until finally destitution becomes so per- ditions. Some believe the cause it to increase. have spoiled en route or the freight costs would have There are those subjects who suppose that the been several times the value of the goods. Artisans. This is because the conditions Among the most important things the Europeans of kingdoms vary according to the aims of their sub. the rulers have granted the and with the severance of hope comes the severance people the second liberty subject to important con. synonymous with politi- a result of this belief. THE SUREST PATH 49 ence of the ministers and other statesmen which lines foundation of material well-being. as both logic and and intellectual activity. . solute liberty. and to draw it toward a policy tention given to technical training. state should be a republic. importation was formerly impossible. that being despoiled of any of the fruits of their labor or is. If people liberty. liberty. which they live. actually hides an ulterior motive. and wealth parties. which causes the of state policy seem to be beneficial or the contrary. commerce. with each seeking the policy which it believes is put into the hands of the most proficient who can most beneficial for the kingdom. some kings deem it permissible cal tanzimat. products can be imported from distant is easy for kings to grant complete liberty. in books or it profit a people to have fertile lands with bountiful newspapers which can be read by the public. have gathered from the lofty tree of liberty are the jects. Their peoples have reaped its benefits by to abstain from granting complete liberty. people cannot be prevented from writing what hampered in certain aspects of their work. Their percep- categories: agriculture. There can be no doubt this second liberty with the first. and the at- from the straight path. whereas their the ruler and the subjects share the same aim regard. lose the assurance that their property will be protected. They would ing the public interest. reason for the struggle is to exacerbate factionalism With these societies the circulation of capital is and fanaticism. Then it becomes impos- working to bring about its possible consequences and sible for them to put it into circulation. subjects rights which it would be easy to bestow upon subjects of other states. tiveness and zeal will be weakened. and poverty and of industries. then with the various branches of knowledge and all kinds comfort and wealth will disappear. By means of the of benefit to the kingdom. you find the most fertile fields European states. profits increase accordingly. In such circumstances it railroads. so that the subjects are divided into expanded. which can be reduced to four basic high prices will overwhelm its peoples. they have planted? Who then will venture to sow it? even if this includes opposition to the state's policy. Or they crops if the sowers cannot realize the harvest of what can present their views to the state or the chambers. because lands quickly enough to be useful. One of the benefits of liberty is com- One of the duties in kingdoms that have granted plete control over the conduct of commerce. thus achieving ab. jects should repay having received this blessing by they are compelled to hide it. Some subjects resist their kings only in order improvements in communications by means of rail- to have the right of opposing the state if it turns aside roads. physical work. These four categories are the experience reveal. that the hostile action against property cuts off hopes. is that its sub. if liberty is lost in the kingdom. for these governments have refused their vasive that it leads to annihilation. As liberty and the constitution. growth of human ambition. support for commercial societies. In addition to this there remains to the public some.

and labored to introduce reforms in al-Azhar. enabling Muslims to address the requirements of modernity. entrusted to takes no task unless the results thereof induce him humanity two powers. Born to a peasant family of modest means in the Egyptian Delta. Certainly. reprinted by permission 'Abduh and Rashid Rida (Berkeley: University of California of HarperCollins Publishers. for he under- The First Creator. God also bound one of them to plished in a particular fashion. Lebanon: Muhammad 'Abduh (London: Oxford University Press. indeed. the Arabic language. 1979). 1849-1905) was. Muhammad 'Imara (Beirut. al-Azhar administrative board member. to do so. where they produced the famed journal al-'Urwa al-wuthqa (The Strongest Link}. 1953). the ability the other. pp. respectively. then continued his education at the celebrated al-Azhar semi- nary. one practical and one theoreti. 'Abduh became closely associated with him and his reformist ideas. making the perfection of the first depen. where he taught for several years before being pardoned by the Egyptian ruler. he received a traditional Islamic education in his hometown. Abduh's influ- ence extended beyond Egypt. and the education of girls. ed. hadith (The Leaders of Reform in the Modern Era) (Cairo. Humanity is thus involved in activities are among those things that depend on the capacity for rational inquiry. along with his mentor Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (see chapter I I). Egypt: Maktabat al-Nahda al-Masriyya. pp. pp. Muhammad 'Abduh (Washington. he served as a judge and then as Egypt's leading religious official. not every activity produces the results cal. inspiring reformists throughout the Islamic world. If this Muhammad 'Abduh. 3 Muhammad 'Abduh Laws Should Change in Accordance with the Conditions of Nations and The Theology of Unity Muhammad 'Abduh (Egypt. can Council for Learned Societies. and Egypt's Legislative Council member.C. Zu'ama' al-islah fi al-'asr a/- Arabic by Devin Stewart. 'Abduh was exiled to Beirut for his association with the 'Urabi revolt. 'Abduh devised programs for the reform of the educational system.: Ameri- Theology of Unity (Risalat al-tawhid). the religious endowment administration. and the court system. 50 . 1966). The Osman Amin. 151-154. God the Sublime. Introduction by Emad Eldin Shahin. Kerr. Malcolm H. "Ikhtilaf al-qawanin bi-ikhtilaf ahwal al-umam" (Laws Should Change in Accordance with the Con. 1972). Mu'assasat al-'Arabiyya li al-Dirasat wa al-Nashr. Returning to Egypt. The first piece presented here makes a case for legal reform. Abduh returned to Beirut. 1. Adams. Islam and Modernism in Egypt: A ditions of Nations). Abduh hoped to liberate the Muslim mind from traditional patterns of stagna- tion. it must be accom- tion intended for us. the second piece highlights the role of reason in understanding religion and the shari'a. which agitated against imperialism and called for Islamic reform and unity. Through a return to the fundamental sources of Islam. bic by Ishaq Masa'ad and Kenneth Cragg (London: Allen & Islamic Reform: The Political and Legal Theories of Muhammad Unwin. 309-315 in al-A'mal al-kamila (The Study of the Modern Reform Movement Inaugurated by Complete Works). First published in 1881 and 1897. so that through them we might attain the perfec. translated from Ara. in order to do so. the most prominent figure of modernist Islam. Translation of first piece from Press. In 1884. Now. 302-369. D. Ahmed Amin. desired. In 1882. 29-40. 1933). During Afghani's sojourn in Egypt (1871-1879). he joined Afghani in Paris. 1966). to envision results and knowledge of the methods dent on the perfection of the second.' Laws Should Change in Accordance with innately disposed to seek out a theoretical under- the Conditions of Nations standing and to discover the true state of matters before he begins any practical work. Charles C.

the beneficial with the harmful. Otherwise. the results of that suit their conditions. their such-and-such a crime. collective stores of information. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 51 capacity is fully developed. lasting dejection and perennial rancor in the hearts norance of what these laws were intended to accom. then. and the two are related incomprehensible. would be a clear injustice. They are task. the benefit that results is greater. A little reprimand suffices and the threat of a light ral disposition has established. Because laws are the basis of activities organized Such people should have prescribed for them laws properly to produce manifest benefits. they will not stumble along their path and confuse It has been the custom of legislators in every age. manding that they abide by such laws would impose plished most easily. If the institu- lar so that through it they might be guided to the tion of laws within a nation is motivated by its need proper methods for the work they perform in order for them. go against its dictates and prescriptions. of his folk and clan. so that they about useful benefits. is accom. what motivated them. suppose that one of these people we thereof. in terms of cause and effect. tradict the customs and traditional values that its natu. and de- that which produces benefits most quickly. and do not out their theoretical knowledge. When people properly recognize need. Laws vary in accordance proper dose of medicine. beginning with not to be blamed for discarding such laws." the occurrence of such a path toward good sense will be obscured. therefore. someone should say "So-and-so was imprisoned for order among the second group will be disturbed. or produce long- is because of short-sightedness on their part and ig. thus encountering in instituting laws. to apply the law of ment. It is more appropri- Human knowledge is in effect a collection of rules ate for them to learn first what the need is. then work turns out in plish. so that and united with them in the consequences thereof. for they will be harmed by investigation. exile. leniency that customs and traditional habits require. they do not deviate from the harshness or tion and its level of thought. people who were not in- guish results according to their relative benefits. If imprisonment. and put others in their place. unless fortune provides punishment restrains many a group of people whose it the chance to ascend to a higher level of rational temperaments are readily compliant. so duced by need to institute such laws do not consider that they might put each result opposite a particular them among life's fundamental necessities. or hard. Need is the guiding master. They are restricted by it. an impossibly difficult obligation. of circumstances. with nations' varying levels of knowledge. for him. This cause his death soon thereafter. to a more severe wrong. first and in particu. They will pervert the application of these laws. punishment. have described did something that required punish- It is not permissible. due to their certainty that the . and whose senses are quick to be affected. so that the people will not find them unclear. It might is a cure for others will become a disease for them. so that what miliating labor. it will not contravene them simply because to lead a full life. In establish- in accordance with its power of theoretical investiga. or devoid of discernible purpose. troubles his tempera- one group of people to another group who differ from ment and severely pains his spirit. because of his and surpass the first in level of understanding. and if the spirits of his the law will not suit their state of thinking and will not clan and the inhabitants of his town cannot bear that match their customs and traditional habits. They will against perpetrating the crime he committed. by which people organize the might be equal with others in their level of knowledge methods of work that lead to those benefits. They should not be bur- theoretical inquiry. and the outcome of intellectual dened with severe laws. to take into account the level of hardship and suffering at the hands of misfortune. and the first the outcome is more complete. and what made them nec- the best fashion. each nation adopts rules [Legislators have also customarily] paid full atten- for its activities and chooses laws for its circumstances tion to customs and traditional habits. and the road thing to one of them would be a very great check to understanding will be closed before them. ing laws. hu- change them. whose spirits are examination and a more elevated plane of thought. intelligence of those for whom laws are to be insti- Since the conditions of nations depend on their tuted. noble. However. they For this reason. and is set forth most reliably. and essary. They also do so in order to distin. because pride and delicate sensibility. At no time does it con. the laws of each nation correspond to these laws. The consider the correct to be invalid and the right to be sentencing of this criminal. arranged in a known manner. all humans are bent on rounding strive to fulfill it. such as banishment. or the lack For example. teacher. like someone who takes more than the its level in understanding.

and their pride utterly measures which made the methods of farming easier crushed. 1879-1892]. other villages. and their spirits are ment taxes. whose texts do not royal taxes. the prisons filled up with those left be.52 Muhammad 'Abduh ruling was wrong and the judge unjust. Villagers left and settled in of writing their names in the landowners' register. and agriculture was made easy for them. Such people are only deterred portance of agriculture. They avoided the owner's land. through farming and seeking better ways to accumu. but now it has late wealth and fortune. taking it seriously and com- from perpetrating offenses or restrained from the peting in their crop yields. or ached for many diverse crimes. Egypt entered a new era. Then various oppressive hands had successive harsher punishments to be trifling. former and latter. until the populace's spirits became attached to them. The pun- ago. in the long run. a miserable end indeed. So the laws that the pursuit of immoral aims by harsh laws based on se. to the fires of rebellion variation. and defaulting guilty party from among such a group to imprison. to make them including provisions for severe punishment. They Many a nation has raised its members on coarse. someone who established for of corruption and increasing instances of injustice. for ignorance was changed so as not to debase a person's honor. This would flourished at particular times of the year. them a just law concerning this issue. Some time whip was removed from among its people. neglecting to work the land. With this new As an example of what we have just stated. This was a consequence of the difference owned. Their insides are and were no longer overly concerned with govern- filled with vileness and baseness. in a fashion different from that followed in ear- Landowners did not know the value of the land they lier laws. Either they would be destined to commit evil work. through the government of Tawfiq [Egyptian we should see them as merely widening the sphere ruler. They continually wished that their properties between the two conditions and the change in the two would be transferred to someone else. their entered a new stage of development as a result of temperaments humiliated. but they instituting laws is to prevent that which disturbs or. The country regularly withered and themselves from serving as a pretext for those who . Egypt's inhabitants were barbarians who did not ishment for falling behind in the payment of taxes know what was good for themselves. them. If laws do which the matter of their tax payments would be put not serve this purpose. so that they could be relieved governors to grab them. because they had begun to learn the im- far from honorable. for example. harms individual of abuse. so that they inclinations. instituting harsh laws for violators. without only lead. The hand of divine Providence brought to dens thrown on the shoulders of the people. then they are but empty bur. and detracts from public welfare. Egypt acts or else their spirits would be extinguished. It appeared that verdicts are meant to apply to various punishments everyone had either fled. and not a punishment. The purpose of control over them for quite a long period. This will prevent the laws from beatings. disrupts the structure of society. They grew tired der. suggest multiple interpretations. compelled to force villagers to take possession of the The time has come for our government to turn its land and farm it. been imprisoned. had a tight hold on them in that era. When appropriate for present conditions. then falling in arrears would have tarrying in town long enough for the hands of the been their dearest wish. consideration to the laws of our courts. It is a clear mistake to sentence a fleeing. remained settled in their properties. since his spirit considers even tent. They did not pay and public welfare was regulated according to laws attention to agriculture. and their spirits longed for a just law by interests. If the punishment for would not be burdened with paying the taxes that the falling in arrears in earlier times had been seizure of government had imposed on them. It continued in this sorry state for a long being lit and the heat of hatred flaming up among time. Indeed. fearing that they could not survive This recompense would have been a reward for them. despite the availability of the that do not go against the inclinations of the popu- necessary means for it and the suitability of the soil. and got the populace to remain in their villages. we law. in actuality. lace. on the submission of taxes changed to a certain ex- ment. in order. adopted a unified plan for the farming of their lands ness and the shunning of delicacy. The government was thus become the most severe punishment. government had adopted to prevent farmers from vere punishments. The articles of the hind by the others who had fled their villages. choosing laws that the time came for the government to demand the are not difficult to understand. and the sound of the may cite the former state of our own land. and new law should not be the sort of general rules whose the market for whips became brisk.

indicate rulings in a tamount to the condition of the populace. from an be set forth in logical categories. they are not safe from the machi- should facilitate the determination of legal rulings and nations of special interests. factors were the conditions of the people. learn and acquire them in their essential forms. expenses in. the depends on the governing power. obstinacy pursues them relentlessly. so they end up regressing to a sions. The government welfare of the people is obstructed. goal after breaking through the obstacles that stood sued on such-and-such a date. They fail to ar- . nor do they possess the make them conform with the exigencies of the present means necessary to prepare them for such an under- situation. regulating guide. the wise." some are called "Di. [We urge this] while recognizing the erwise. and their new awareness of and well organized. and these are tan- of the law be written explicitly. Changes in the form of gov- of legal cases and disputes. before them." some are called had stood between them and the attainment of their "Decisions of the Privy Council. The laws must fulfill all of the necessary restric. as is the case in our land ernment and the replacement of its laws depend on at present. We might suspect someone who is in. the increase eral. enabling through their collective body." This free and open to all. This leads to repeated appeals for deny that the preparation of means and measures judicial inquiry: The matter takes a long time. they will be nothing but ink on paper. while the actual articles subjects. It is therefore necessary that the articles the citizenry's legitimate claims. Rather. it is extremely difficult to tions and beyond their capacity to understand. laws are named "Regulations. ligence and discernment. Indeed. those of us who have legitimate claims conditions of nations are themselves the true legis- are not beyond entertaining invalid suspicions and lator. and the disorder of them to understand the laws and abide by their require. True. While they set out to make leg- tions and conditions. fact that those who exercise control over the law do Scholars and political leaders of both ancient and not have the status of legislators able to derive the modern times have long recognized that legislators rulings which apply to the actual situations at hand and institutors of laws must always take into account from general rules or from texts which support in. Moreover. as a law by which the people should abide? Even if Since the identification of the proper means and they were informed of the law. given an abundance capacity of those ruled. and written in an unclear style—are not precise in their level of thought. apply to all possible cases. the Moreover. then to guistic constructions. the former does not take a single step un- of the law do not provide a clear ruling and their texts less induced to do so by the latter. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 53 harbor immoral designs to play with people's rights ments. measures presents a difficult puzzle for human intel- ceivable to them. How could this scattered mess reasonably serve their goal or attained their desire. less desirable state. did not occur by the will of those in The laws that have been in common use in our land authority alone. power is actually dependent on the capacities of its nocent of error or treachery. for example. imposes these things on its subjects willy-nilly. the need to ascend to a state higher than their present Certain laws are known as "The Imperial Law. laws in a just and beneficial manner. Oth- as they wish." some one. as they had imagined." and so on ad infini. The shift straightforward manner. they were able to overcome all the outside forces that rectives of the Ministry of Justice. of the government of France. we do not are not transparent. they could not have reached tum. nor are they known by the people. The governing conjectures. resentments grow strong. too gen." some "The Royal Decree is. absolute monarchy to a restricted monarchy. otherwise. It behooves us to do this lization and legal organization." others "Proclama. the strongest contributing up to now—in addition to being insufficient. and should refer us back neither islation and participation in the establishment of laws to the "Proclamations" nor to the "Regulations. it would remain incon. which has deprived people of their rights themselves prepared to move to a higher level of civi- and jeopardized security. By learning what their true obligations were. they only arrived at this noble tions of Legal Rulings. It It is necessary to reform this obvious flaw in our often occurs that a certain group of people think legal system. a free republic. but crease. desires. but the matter is not quickly and avoid wasting time in pointless discus. The laws should suit the conditions of the taking. and use simple lin. each one according to his own situation. because it is foreign to their condi. customs and traditional habits in order to establish terpretations contrary to their evident meaning. The disease of discord spreads rapidly populace and their level of comprehension. and the gates of these impositions must be in accordance with the corruption are flung wide open.

and so lose the benefits of decisive action fact that the chief point of debate at issue between and squander their own welfare. or scholastic the- people's capacities and traditional habits. Unity was the great of the rhetoricians to reproduce. Indeed there is an almost total con- trast between the intellectual cut and thrust of science The Theology of Unity and the forms of religious persuasion and assurance of heart. Qur'anic word was created or preexistent. guide individuals in their activities before Islam. But it does not as will fully appear below. to genuine education before all else in order to be able denote the distinction between the two. though in his aim of the mission of the Prophet Muhammad. gation. Book gives us all that God permits us. the recipience of the revelation he was simply a man. Another thing on before its time. dogmatic theology and serve to regulate customary habits and preserve meri. In this way. will be punished by being may lie in the fact that theology is built on rational deprived of it. Indeed. Thus the whole revelation and to their successors. and all its studies the being and attributes of God. The blessing and peace of God be upon him. a road appro- The original meaning of tawhid is the belief that priate and feasible alike to the contemporaries of the God is one in inalienable divinity. require our acceptance of its contents simply on the . There were in every people custodians and their conduct. placing ology. its laws are inseparable from these capacities. They are thus aptly the learned of the early centuries was whether the described by the proverb. including their familiar sionally appealed to dogmatic tradition (naql) and practices and the customs on which they have been then only after establishing the first principles from raised. when methods of proof in theology were comparable to they desire to establish a sound system to regulate those of logic in its procedures of argument within the nation's social life. which they went on yet again to further deductions. One reason for this lies in the argument. and The doctrine of unity could equally well be called give decisive verdicts. During the course of a nation's ascent or de. They spend ages in pointless scholastic theology. ideas and dogmas on the nature of existence or the laws of the universe. and the nation may follow the in their custody of belief. however. "He who hastens some. So kalam. case on a quality of eloquence. For in their rationality they only occa- its members have acquired. the negations that are necessary to make relating to with free play to the imagination—a situation famil- Him. for us. namely the demonstration of the matter from that of earlier prophecies. was known among the nations torious aptitudes. iar enough to those acquainted at all with the condi- ticity of their message and treats of their essential and tion of the world before the coming of Islam. The proof of the science of theology is named from the most impor. prophethood of Muhammad was quite a different tant of its parts. position. The name may per- no matter how much its classes change or its affairs haps also be credited to the fact that these scholastic vary. little recourse to rational judgment and customs excellent. Oftentimes religion on the authority of its own The theology of unity (tawhid) is the science that leaders was the avowed enemy of reason. the essential works. belonging even to the From Him alone all being derives and in Him alone shortest chapter of it. settle on firm opinions. This is what makes intelligent people. so that their work may be trans. strive first to change the the speculative sciences. they include in the gov. They rarely relied for their path of rectitude toward the best ultimate goal. to know about His attributes. prophetic interpretation. with their to attain this goal. scent. the form of civil rule for a demonstration as alleged by each theologian in his nation is nothing but a reflection of the capacities that spoken case. ernmental laws themselves chapters and sections that This branch of science. Theology consisted for the most part of intri- and the possible affirmations about Him. quite beyond the competence every purpose comes to its term. appropriate qualities and of what is incompatibly The Qur' an came and took religion by a new road. It rested its unity of God in Himself and in the act of creation." In sum. was used as a term in preference to logic. of which the first prerequisite is expression. as well as cate subtleties and credulous admiration of miracles. This is en. identical procedures but differing subject matter. morals may become virtuous They had. of religion concerned with its protection and propa- formed from a burden to a custom and natural dis. like branches of the same stem. associated with them. It deals also with the apostles and the authen. or is essential tirely evident from the verses of the mighty Qur'an.54 Muhammad 'Abduh rive at correct decisions. untrodden by the previous Scriptures.

ing of the words. 656]—a tragedy which did irreparable damage to the So Muslims are of one mind that though there may be structure of the caliphate and brutally diverted Islam in religion that which transcends the understanding. So the case remained until the events which re- and.. there are several human Verse 9] And thus the way was open for man to trans- attributes. of His knowledge of the content of their in. of His power to send mes." [Sura 30. his foes and ensuring the unity of the Muslims. It set out the order in the much as the appeal of this religion to reason in the universe. The caliph had rable." [Sura 13. . not go beyond what was indicated by the literal mean- sengers. spiration. gave spirited substantiation. and ger had possessed many of the very exponents of pi- takes controversial issue with those who exaggerate ous religion. passages involving human comparisons. of His will to give them particular messages. Nevertheless. a Jew who had embraced Islam and an . in name or form. This Qur'anic esteem for the rational judgment." [Sura 15. What few differences evidence: "Requite evil with good and your worst there were they took to the two caliphs. It spoke to the rational mind great scope to alert intelligences. It affirms the reward of overborne the steadfast people and set in motion a train good deeds and the retribution of evil deeds and leaves of consequences they could only deplore. had little leisure at that time for critical discussion Verse 30] Even in the realm of the moral it relies on of the basis of their beliefs. It addressed itself together with the use of parables in the allegorical to the opposing schools and carried its attacks with or ambiguous passages in the revealed text. Qur'anically depicted. liph gave his decision. are made compa. it pro. "Lawless an- length with predestination and human free will. if neces- Verse 34] Thus for the first time in a revealed Scrip. with the available men of insight. Men There is no altering the creation of God. and the ca- enemy will become your dearest friend. Verse 23] And again: of doubt. For it knew that every thus be sure of the validity of its claims and message. had to do with branches of law. it offers arguments and evidence. and seeing. by and continuity. As God said: "It is We who have sent down large. They believed in the transcendence of God that there are many things in religion which can only and refrained from debate about the implications of be believed by the way of reason. therefore so inas- and alerted the intelligence. In this introduction there is no 'Abdullah Ibn Saba' [7th century. such as the knowl. with the principles of dogma. So plain is the for the most part. as Even in relation of the narratives of the past. such as power. lar mind was made to feel there could be free rein to terparts in man. not point that no elucidation is required. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 55 ground of its own statement of them." [Sura 48. gress the proper bounds of religion. These issues. Only the Qur'an remained unimpaired in its The Qur'an describes the attributes of God. Under those two ca- Saving those who give place to neither reason nor liphs. and study of created things was in no way limited or required a lively scrutiny of them that the mind might hedged about with conditions." [Sura 41. Verse 11] and 634-644] devoted their span of life to repelling ". In been killed with no legal judgment and thus the popu- what is ascribed to God we find points that have coun. reason finds its brotherly place. passion in the thoughts of those who had not truly and like the face and the hands. with a far surer accent of transcendence than the the Reminder and We truly preserve it. They did edge of God's existence. His two immediate successors in the caliph- "God does not change a people's case until they ate [Abu Bakr and 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. like taking one's seat upon a throne. excessive abstraction or over-rigorous definition. reputed founder of need to expatiate further on similar topics. after consultation. choice. Both worldlings and zealots together had on both sides of this theme. the recompense of approbation and punishment to the Among the actors in that crisis of disloyalty was arbitrament of God. lows invariable laws. which. the shape of religious man as God has made him. Shi'ism]. sary. the principles and certitudes within it. all Muslims are of one mind in the conviction allusions. and the Muslim people from their right and proper there is nothing which reason finds impossible. as the Qur'an says: "Such was The Prophet's day passed—he who was men's the way of God in days gone by and you will find it recourse in perplexity and their lamp in the darkness does not change. 632-634 change their own disposition. men understood the Book in its meaning and faith. with these. On the contrary. earlier religions. ture. sound study would conduce to belief in God. many consequent points relating to sulted in the death of the third caliph ['Uthman in the comprehension and evidence of prophetic mission. The Qur'an deals at allowed the faith to rule in their hearts. hearing. course. So it had no need of either ceeded on the conviction that the created order fol.

which some espoused even to necessity of defending the temporal power of Islam. This in turn gave rise to forgeries teaching according to his own independent lights. did not halt the troversy developed also over the question whether propagation of Islam and did not deprive the areas the real attributes of God should be posited of the remote from the center of controversy of the light of divine essence or not. but carrying with them into it their exist- Damascus. he was exiled to Mada'in. had come by. These two problems. seeking some kind of mediating com- wanted. So after the collaborators with the dire consequences we know. of sincere integrity took to the vocation of knowledge 661] (whose face God honor) to the point of assert. were not all. Civil war ensued. quences in the field of dogma. in pursuance of ciples. Evicted from there. For a in his volitional activity is like the branches of a tree long time they maintained their "excommunication" swaying necessarily. over its adversary. died 748] and his [spiritual] master. People came into Islam in droves—Per. Shi'a [supporters of hereditary suc. where he failed to find the support he ing notions. He went to Basra where he propa. His ideas spawned erty of thought the Qur'an enjoined. Rival schools of thought about the pented of. which students came from every part. each striving by word and act to gain the better differed on this issue and the former broke away. which held that man to demand a republican form of government. or so it is alleged. questions were examined. and thence to inwardly. He had a school in Basra to was the rightful caliph and rebelled against 'Uthman. So they opposed the went so far as to declare their opponents infidels and school ofjabr.56 Muhammad 'Abduh excessive admirer of' Ali [ibn Abi Talib. A remnant of them survives to to a common position. and others in their train. Some of existing authorities. of traditions and interpretation. or determinism. taking his poison with him. however. of reason and its competence to know all religious sians. among the Muslims. the point of excessive pleading of the Qur'anic text. ers asserted their right to an equal stake with the Events took their subsequent course. liph broke their fealty. Hasan al-Basri. died ing that cost many Muslim lives their cause grew 685]. al-Basri. Others again—a minor- the Qur'an's guidance. he went persuasions had come into Islam without knowing it to Kufa. man truly has choice in the deeds which proceed cession of the Prophet]. no effort was made to regulate the issue or to weak. until after much fight. Wasil ibn 'Ata' [founder of Mu'tazilism. will—man's independence in willing and doing and But the community had been sundered and its bonds choosing. including Hasan excess brought sharp divisions into Khawarij [ex. were of the view that treme pietists]. as explained above. and education. bian peninsula. ship. Syrians and their neighbors. they gave due ity—in a spirit of contention against the first group. He proceeded to Egypt where he did find promise between the old and the Islamic. Ibn Saba' claimed that 'Ali al-Basri [642-728]. and the sectarian Many of the first Muslim masters. tempests of sedition came the tensions of doubt. In this task. They fled into remoter parts but continued their get people back to first principles and bring them seditious activities. caliphate developed and were propagated in partisan. rule of the sons of Marwan [Umayyad caliph. free play. the most famous of them being Hasan ing that God indwelt him. The Khawarij from his knowledge and will. and moderates. The Shi'as carried their heresy to the 682-720] gave directions to [Muhammad ibn Mus- point of exalting 'Ali or some of his descendants to lim] al-Zuhri [died 741] to record the traditions he divine or near-divine status. however. though 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz [caliph. Individual idiosyncrasy had the present in certain areas of Africa and of the Ara. when his school showed its head Every opinion-monger took his stand upon the lib- again. There was also the question the Qur'an. reigned 656. The newcom- a lot of later heresies. son-in-law proud role of reason or overlooking the intellect. and schisms raised their heads those who had pledged allegiance to the fourth ca. and various who exiled him. Egyptians and principles. great numbers were ready to busy themselves with Others limited the writ of reason to the first prin- the first principles of belief and law. Men and fourth successor of the Prophet. and the question of the supreme sin unre- of unity broken. and he was the first tradition-collector. with widespread conse. In the time of 'Ali. place to the delivered tradition without neglecting the totally repudiated reason and thus went counter to the . even the ramifications of law and matters Africans. Con- These developments. People of all religious gated his seditious views. Throughout the period of the of those who resisted them. issuing in The first theme of contention to arise was that of the hegemony of the Umayyads [reigned 661-750]. Freed from the pertaining to worship.

It was recognized that the in- what was merely a figment of the imagination. His from a reluctance to give expression to what might school came to carry the name of "the people of the conduce to heresy. however. the community ate marched with those on matters of doctrine. The reticence arose 1085]. to the point that [Abu Ja'far] al-Mansur profiting from the other." Two powerful forces were ation to men of reason and piety. the fourth century [A. gnostic Shi'i sect]. Their foist upon the Qur'an the notions they brought with learned scholars began to write books. while a however. from mutual borrowing. there were consid- by attitude and utterance induced those to whom their erable areas of contention between them and the views were congenial to accept their direction. vicissitudes were prolonged. They had the idea that it was were agreed that religious principles were a matter a work of piety to establish dogma by scientific cor. and much blood was effectively overcome by these esteemed thinkers— . came to his support. and should be tween what went back to rational first principles and stringently followed. and views inimical to belief in God them. every plain deed some hidden mystery. principle. Opinions on the caliphs and the caliph.M. within The disciples of pristine loyalties doubted his views the terms laid down by the Qur'an. both in respect of roboration. without discriminating. of obligation for their followers. as well as utterly irreligious thodox and those at issue with them. They persisted on this A further element in the picture was the sect of tack until their sects multiplied apace. sunna and consensus. In their han- viction. There ensued here and many maligned him. namely the study of the created order. and [Abu Ishaq] al-Isfira'ini [died 1027]. 750-1258]. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 57 Qur'an itself. then in the prime of [the incarnation of God in humans] and sought to power. reigned 754-775] ordered the issue of books Shaykh Abu'l-Hasan al-Ash'ari [873-925] early in exposing their errors and negating their claims. They the adherents of the schools of the early masters took strayed far in their exegesis and pretended to find in up their challenge. Abu'l-Ma'ali al-Juwayni. each group became rife. as if did violence to faith. Athe. though lacking the support of the rulers. The rule of the the Dahriyyun [materialists]. however. disastrous influence on the faith and undermined isters and retainers. They were known to the Persians for the successful establishment of as the Batiniyya [esoterics] and the Isma'iliyya [a their power and the overthrow of the Umayyad state. familiar. the dogma of the Qur'an's being created. Their schools of thought had a brought them into high positions among their min. He theology took its point of departure from its perpetual based dogma on the principles of rational enquiry. In the name of faith. All ideas from the Greeks. as well as by other names current They relied strongly on Persian collaboration and among historians. sustained by the power of con. The dispute brought much humili. He plotted a middle course. Many of them thus came into conviction. including Manichee sectaries and Yazidis. A number of eminent 'ulama'. They began to disseminate their opinions and bating of these atheist sectarians. The followers of [Ahmad] the dispute over the createdness or uncreatedness ibn Hanbal [780-855] called him an infidel and de- of the Qur'an. as to the com- people. the Imam al-Haramayn [the Imam of Mecca Prophet] either abstained from declaring themselves and Medina. valid rational applicability. Whereupon them on assuming the externals of Islam. between the early "orthodox" and young plant. Several of the 'Abbasid caliphs adopted manded his death. criminally shed. they were an integral part of Islamic dogma. that is. a still partly reared edifice. Their deviations and deeds are only too authority without any part or lot in Islam religiously.]. until the emergence of [caliph. For they had recourse to drawing congenial erate or extreme upholders of the text of the law. helped them and their views prevailed. and other Despite the identity of purpose shared by the or- Persian persuasions. among them Abu Bakr considerable number of those who held to the plain [Muhammad ibn al-Tayyib] al-Baqillani [circa 948- sense of the Qur'an and the sunna [the practice of the 1013]. dling of the Qur'an they were as far from the import The early 'Abbasids knew the extent of their debt of the text as error is from truth. 1028- or took a stand for uncreatedness. acts of worship and mutual dealings. At this juncture the science of theology was still a as is well known. This did not prevent ism emerged. It was in this way that the lines were drawn be- With the disciples of Wasil the paths diverged tween the thoroughgoing rationalists and the mod- further. So ner attitudes of heart and the spiritual life constituted they mingled with the tenets of religion what had no a binding obligation to which the soul must be set. who believed in hulul 'Abbasids [caliphs. be. Technical the subsequent tendencies towards extremes.

there was the prevailing contem- travagant. they drew their ideas from pure reason. Though there were relatively few of them. notably Plato other nations who alleged an enmity between knowl- [circa 427-347 B. it should be of religion. the whole gamut of rationality of [Abu Hamid Muhammad] al-Ghazzali [1058-1 111] in relation to religion. required the believer as a so came under attack. school. in which it was terests. indeed. ated from more adequate evidence. worth and Ideas which had never had any place in science found loss. porary trend of will. and others. Nevertheless. Later exponents of this criti- and [Fakhr al-Din] al-Razi [1149-1209] and those cism became so extreme as to forfeit their following. and ists became indifferent to them. better of them. edge and faith. they All this explains why matters of theology mingle held. There was. insisting theology and related themes. who adopted their position. time yet leave open the possibility of the object whose exis. inasmuch as they were sheltered by the mass of progress of knowledge was arrested. who brought sharp criticism to bear upon the tional premises and deductions in the same assurance entire content of philosophical lore in the fields of with which he accepted the dogmas of faith.58 Muhammad 'Abduh the temper that leans wholly on the literal and the and with it a too precipitate inclination to accept their instinct that runs off into the imaginary and the ex. Not a single intelligent Muslim sought to de. a traditionalism than a rationalism. al-'Adud [al-Din al-Iji. authority. Then came al-Ghazzali and his matter of obligation to hold the certainty of these ra. and the laws of the universe.C. the pursuit of crafts and the strengthening of the obscurantists who got the upper hand." and given at the tolerated. a complete intellectual confu- its competence as the ultimate means to happiness and sion beset the Muslims under their ignorant rulers. 1286]. the to-be-proven was of substance and accident. having based their doctrine rationally on they clashed with the beliefs predominantly held. the Qur'an hav. no justification for making the argument from with philosophy in the writings of later authors like the negative instance absolute. insurrections aimed at the civil power. ing espoused the high role of reason and confirmed As a consequence. They betook them- divine mandate for such exploration by thought and selves to devious by-paths. including the principles that where proof was wanting. the criterion between truth and falsehood. and. For they got themselves into controver- periphery of the Islamic world. according to whom one Ordinary people turned from them and the special- or even several proofs could be shown to be false. They evicted intellect from its rightful place and dealt phers were subject to two influences that got the arbitrarily with the false and the valid in thinking. Fostered by the general educational pov- battle of Badr [in 624] an example of behavior based erty. The first was an admiration for all that They went so far as to espouse the view of some in derived from the Greek philosophers. They were well able to achieve their objec. to satisfy their intellectual curios. As for the schools of ['Abdullah] al-Baydawi [Shafi'i scholar. it is clear that most of the philoso. destroy- the social order through the disclosure of the secrets ing the remaining traces of the rational temper which hidden in the universe—all in accordance with the had its source in the Islamic faith.C. Second. aided too by the remote- on intelligent discernment and the proof of experience. theories of matter and nonexistent also.]. ness of men from the pristine sources of the faith. whereby the tives. tions and debates of which approximated more to telligible. became concentrated in a single pursuit." [Sura ings of the previous generations found themselves 2. sies obtaining among speculative thinkers in the field The disciples of al-Ash'ari's school. the assump- ity in elucidating the unknown and fathoming the in. That outlook continued until the rise physics.] and Aristotle [384-322 B. In due course. Two centuries or so later these types sur. precluded the results the Muslim world might have tence it was intended to demonstrate being substanti. They took up highly misleading po- . of methods—and that in a very few books character- bar them or to impede their findings. remembered. Ash'ari scholar. who asserted things Islam had never before cognizant of the world and its ways. expected from their activities. died and the only concern of philosophic rationalists was 1355]. and students of the writ- mind: "He created for you all that is in the earth. and why various rational sciences to gain knowledge. they gained ground. Verse 29] which exempts neither the seen nor the limited to mere wrangles about words and scrutiny unseen. Had not the Prophet observed: "You are most sponsors. ized by feebleness and mediocrity. and this had the more mischie- vived only as insignificant pockets of opinion in the vous effects. died circa philosophy. religious believers who afforded them full liberty of Then there supervened the various successive action to enjoy and give rein to their intellectual in.

to acknowl. . and ing. such chains? If it has established the principles of munity. How does it happen that the very apostles of love sions. tributes that are necessarily to be predicated of Him when all the time Muslims have the very Book of God and to know His exaltation above all improper and as a balance in which to weigh and discriminate all impossible attribution. with so little and many indeed have closed and barred gion of conflicting principles but is built squarely on the door of knowledge altogether. summoning it to look into the whole ma- and how at length partisanship sadly distorted its true terial universe. why do multitudes of Muslims turn their faces sequences befalling the masses of men in their be. enjoining rational procedure and intellec. theology. If Islam granted to reason and will the honor of tion and were finally involved in an utter collapse of independence. even to the its widespread confusion were grievous and heavy. namely. perfidy. so as to If Islam welcomes and invites enquiry into its come by certainty in respect of the things to which it contents. Well is it said that traditionalism can have justice. ] If Islam regards loyalty to covenants. however. while their ideas and language sadly mis. while divine revelation is its surest pillar. abandon and forsake? confidence. relying therein upon proof and not tak. point of thinking such practice part of tawhid itself? The foregoing is a summary of the history of the. If Islam really is so solicitous for the mind and ing things merely upon tradition. how 159] how does it come about that the Islamic com. for it in vain? They who were once exemplary in The purpose of this discipline. the . It forbids us to be slavishly credulous. their conjectures. liberation of slaves. to powerless things that can neither avail nor harm. that is. giving it free rein to range at will goal and quality. It is a deceptive thing. and may occasion models of tyranny? If religion eagerly anticipates the loss as well as conduce to gain. It is. If Islam was the first religion to address the ratio- ology. What are all these accretions to their religion. how is it that it has bound them with their beliefs and their own disappearance as a com. There can be no doubt that the con. how is it that Muslims are content gion is a religion of unity throughout. religion only know it very approximately? ply followed their fathers with complacent satisfac. why have Muslims spent centu- and though it may be pardoned in an animal. why this numerous fantasies fell very far short of the real meaning of diversity among Muslims? If Islam turns the believer religion. falsehood. The Qur'an has cognizance of every man's have become in these days a people who nose around deed and judges the true and the false. how It is said by some that if Islam truly came to call di. earth. is the energy and action are now the very picture of sloth realization of an obligation about which there is no and idleness? dispute. Verse imposters that they have neither part not lot in it. Their If Islam is a faith that unifies. and fulfilment of pledges as being its very pillars. into its particulars. why are the greater part of its rulers such evil consequences as well as good. and if the and calumny are so current among Muslims? Qur'an says "You have nothing to do with those who If Islam forbids fraud and treachery and warns divide over religion and make parties. verse peoples into one common unity. . LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 59 sitions on questions of both morals and doctrine. with Him. [. is it that Muslims practice deception against God. and yet its very injunctions they edge His messengers with full assurance and heart. through all its secrets. and liefs and principles from this prolonged disaster with apart from God are helpless either way. that God is pleased with ignorance and a neglect of Whatever is other than these must be understood as study of His marvelous handiwork? contentious and inspired by Satan or political pas. saving only therein the main- We must. indicating how it was founded on the Qur'an nal mind. tenance of faith. So the Qur'an hearts of men. does it come about that deception. is it somehow beyond the reach of those who would tual enquiry into the manifestations of the universe. why today in the opinion of so many directs us. It is not a reli. and even the majority of the educated men of for our stimulus points the moral of peoples who sim. it is ries enslaving the free? scarcely seemly in man. honesty. and even and broken up into groups and schools? the issues of Islam and the very denial of God. why is the Qur'an not read except by chant- guides. grasp it? and. supposing thereby reason. in trust toward Him who created the heavens and the represented God. munity has been sundered into sectarian movements things allowed and things forbidden. believe that the Islamic reli. to know God most high in His at." [Sura 6. as far as may be.

tive writers in other nations. letting things go as they will in rabid indi. instinctively cian treated a sick man with medicine and he recov- regard Islam's doctrines as superstitious and its prin. both secret and open. Can we not. His angels. and the true and loyal believers? If it science see their faith as a kind of old garment in prohibits all abomination. these evaded prohibited things and achieved some distinc. which it is embarrassing to appear among men. Such Islam was—and der even what remains in the hands of the wretched. while what is it we see among them. bounden duty. Many of those who come to visit Muslims whose only business with the scriptures is him or seek his ministrations or even gloat over his to finger their pages. to counsel each other and lay upon each other and other writers on religion. and daughters prove refractory toward their mothers? To admit the validity of what I have said of its fine Where are the bowels of mercy. but its full light is in the east. Do you not see yet no will to use it. As for those Muslims who by their themselves on ignorance. is. those who deceive themselves that they have some both physical and spiritual? pretension to be religious and orthodox believers in If Islam teaches that religion consists in sincerity its doctrines regard reason as a devil and science as before God. they go altogether to the bad. . and and reason have no accord with this religion? enjoin upon each other justice and patience" [Sura It may well be said that the foregoing has not 103. Verses 1-3] and yet. not enjoining kindliness exaggerated the plight of Muslims today. indeed. ered. for the most part. in the light of all this.60 Muhammad 'Abduh sacred law. he has think themselves forward-looking. but in another book. illuminated the reason. of compassion for a effects. save those who believe. it suffices to read the pages of history as in- neighbor? Where is the just dealing the rich owe to dited by those who truly knew slam and the objec- the poor with their possessions? Rather the rich plun. sent down and to the way they put it into practice. filling whole volumes. and if this the whole story? Parallels could be found in the de- which they quite fail to fulfill is in fact their most scriptions of Islam in their day given by al-Ghazzali. ture of Islamic religion. and fellow believers in both supposition. squarely what the divine will requires? Why do they both about the general population and the intelligen- not hold to it with fortitude and speak truth about tsia. while they preen themselves on illness could take up the medicine and be cured. if tion. why is it that they thus so totally fail [Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad] Ibnal-Hajj [died 1336]. But the reading of the Qur'an suffices of itself right and wrong? Who do they in fact take each their to vindicate what I have said about the essential na- own way. provided it is read with care vidualism. and these several generations past. ignoring each other's affairs as if they to understand its real import. Whoever uses it well and takes its directives west. But is the objection their honest folk call and get no response. having to the understanding of those among whom it was nothing in common? Why do sons murder fathers. do good works. All that Muslims who have known something of science are the objection just elaborated leads to is this: a physi- precisely those who. Yet precisely there will gain the blessedness God has promised to those its own people lie in the deepest glom and cannot see. As a medicine for human society its Does this seem intelligible? Is there any parallel in success when truly tried is so manifest that not even the annals of men? Doesit not appear that the very the blind and the deaf can deny or gainsay it. and all men to witness that science loser . call immediate and general relationships. We have earlier said that religion is guidance and A glimmer of Islam. Qur'an which they despise and regard as worthless We have now set forth the religion of Islam and to religion and the world! Many of them simply pride its true character. His Apostle. if "man is the God. interpreted according were totally unrelated the one to the other. it is said. then the doctor himself succumbed to the dis- ciples and precepts as a farce? They find pleasure in ease he had been treating. while being memorizers of their precepts and expert in their he himself despairs of life and waits either for death laws? How far they are from the rational study of the or some miraculous healing. whether evident or hidden. Those Muslims who stand on the threshold of God wills. In dire straits from pain aping the free-thinking people who scoff and jeer and and with the medicine by him in the house. or forbidding evil. who follow it. as if thereby they had conduct have become an argument against it. must be dealt with not here.

After his return to Egypt.'alaqa Amin: The Complete Works) (Cairo. such as the need for women's participation alongside men in public life. overcame them. 1993). alerting me to its advantages and remind- status of women in Egyptian society. 1894). 3-10. When it was eventually stripped of all confound. First published non: al-Sharika al-'Alamiyya li al-Kitab. power that compels a human being to communicate ing errors. After finishing his primary education at the aristocratic Ras al-Tin School and the Khedival School. Leba- bic by Lisa Pollard and Raghda El Essawi. 1899). Muhammad 'Imara.: Yale University Press. Introduction by Emad Eldin Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Shahin. and once it is accompanied by the belief that it will benefit the progress of future generations. every scientific or literary idea once it crystallizes in the mind. and Tohrir al-mar'a (The Liberation of Woman. and widespread edu- cation of girls. Egypt: Dar al-Shuruq. al-tamadun al-islami (Qasim Amin: The Liberation of Woman pp. Qasim Amin: al-'Amal al-kamila (Qasim 1988). whose introduction is presented here. The truth I attention. I am confident ing me of its necessity. The book generated heated controversy in Egyptian intellectual circles. a former Ottoman governor of Kurdistan who had retired to Egypt following a major revolt in that province.. Qasim Amin: Jadaliyat al. called for an end to the seclusion of women. Egypt: Dar al-Shuruq. Translation of second piece from Ara. and Islamic Civilization) (Cairo. Qasim Amin. lationship Between Woman and Renaissance) (Beirut. 1863-1908) was renowned for his support of women's liberation in the Islamic world. al-Mar'a al-jadida (The New Woman). 2000). Debate (New Haven. it occupied an important place in my think. mad 'Imara. Qasim Amin obtained a bachelor's degree in law in 1881 from the School of Law and Administration and was sent to France in an educa- tional mission for five years to study law. 4 Qasim Amin The Emancipation of Woman and The New Woman Qasim Amin (Egypt. Samir Abu Hamdan. The Liberation of Woman and The New Woman: Two Documents in the History of Egyptian Femi- nism. I became aware of the absence that such individuals will arrive independently at the of a platform from which this truth could be elevated same conclusion I have. 1900)—whose conclu- sion is also presented here—adopting further liberal views. examined it. he joined Sayyid jamal al-Din al-Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad 'Abduh (chapter 3) and participated in their publication of the journal al-'Urwa al-wuthqa (The Strongest Link). translated from Arabic by Samiha Sidhom Peterson 1. 61 . Qasim Amin: Tahrir al-mar'a wa (Cairo. I have considered it. he joined the judicial system and worked as attorney general and judge. in which he defended Islam's treatment of women. 511-518. Amin's major works in- clude Les Egypt/ens (The Egyptians. Amin was born in Alexandria to an Egyptian mother and a Turkish father. to which 'Abduh secretly contributed sections. Leila Ahmed. ed. in 1899 and 1900. to which Amin responded in al-Mar'a al-jadida (The New Woman. There. in Muham. 1992). and analyzed opment and ensures its positive future is the strange it. Egypt: © American University in Cairo Press. respectively. from reflection to the unlimited space of appeal and proving the status of Egyptian women. namely the necessity of im. am presenting today has preoccupied me for a long A profound factor that influences human devel- time. rivaled other ideas. and finally reached the point where it became my dominant I call on every lover of truth to examine with me the thought. Conn. The latter book.1 The Emancipation of Woman ing. pp. bayn al-mar'a wa al-nahda (Qasim Amin: The Dialectical Re- 1989). an improvement in their status.

However. intellectual movement toward progress is inevitably An intellectually lazy person whose arguments are followed by an appropriate change in the traditions weak is often satisfied. beliefs. Such an individual feels rest of living creation. In fact. in refuting an apparent truth. but the heresy is not against eventually overcome him in the struggle. it will come up with a heresy. Every cipal traditions or of current events. whose power dominates human beings and the has experienced a trace of it. religious unfamiliar idea. and appearing in an unfamiliar form. ethical ideologies. It is against our traditions and social dealings. the or replaced by new ones. that if he fails to use this power toward the goal it is Some people will say that today I am publishing aiming to achieve. and wars that originated with laws of creation—God who has made change a pre- the purpose of establishing the superiority of one idea requisite for life and progress. or claim that the tra- who have toured the whole world and who presently ditions of any country have remained the same since can be counted by the thousands. or believe that the Bedouin tradition are reflected in the increasing number of individuals is appropriate for an urbanite. During these encounters ity and inflexibility. examples of differences between the Sudanese and He only makes this false remark to avoid the effort the Turks comparable to the differences in their in- of understanding the truth. even though he and his traditions History offers numerous proofs of this phenome. It is reason. Why should it. In truth. This characterized Islamic countries conventions of a country defining the special customs during the early days and the middle ages. falling at all times under non. These changes or the Indians. It is as over any negative consequences that may be incurred if God created the Muslims from clay especially set by the individual in presenting his knowledge. heredity. its intellectual state. during a specific historical era every are translated and published simultaneously in five country has peculiar traditions and mores that match or six languages. To these people I will respond: Yes. These traditions and mores Countries like ours have preferred a less ruffled change continuously in an unobtrusive way. and con. or to disengage from the tellectual status. Therefore. the laws of change? Can the Muslim contradict God's arguments. erences are similar to those of the Turks. like a gas that a Muslim believe that traditions cannot be changed could not be contained through pressure. the ideas the creation of that country? of any Western scholar. or to avoid its application. The history of nations is saturated with disputes. and if he does not use whatever heresy. him if he opposes it. and mores of a society. and place? How can people believe that traditions able to state that the life of Western countries is a never change. The aside for them and freed them from obeying natural impact of this power is recognized by anyone who law. so that existence. Our laziness has caused us to be hostile to every scientific inventions. unfit for any growth. and other factors. coercing him if he tries to force which ought to be brought to perfection. understanding that traditions are one of the intellec- between right and wrong: it is an internal struggle in tual products of humans. location? Does the presence of Muslims in various This is especially obvious in this century when dis. and when the separating borders and for. This is a well-known.62 Qasim Amin Communicating these findings supersedes concern labor of research. when formulated in a book. which are characteristic of death victory was sometimes for truth and at other times and backwardness? Is not tradition merely the set of for falsehood. there should be to hurl a false remark and declare it a heresy in Islam. appropriate to its life and behavior at a specific time tinues to characterize Western countries. and at the same time maintain the continuous struggle between truth and falsehood. the Chinese. Likewise. the changes are influenced by have become like barren soil. along to his work. and that human intellect all branches of education. regional factors. and industry. and that it is his duty to pressure may cause an explosion that would destroy preserve them forever? Why does he drag this belief its container. I have strength he has to assist it in reaching that goal. sufferings. whether a product of the sound prin. This is because we have neglected the people living during that era are unaware of the nurturing of our minds to such an extent that they changes. rather than immobil- or ideology over another. political structures. and differs according to historical era or geographical an external struggle among the various countries. intercultural exchanges. bidding walls have been torn down. parts of the world imply a uniformity of traditions tance and isolation have been eliminated by modern or ways of life? Who can pretend that Sudanese pref- inventions. the arts. resisting Islam. established . are a part of the universe.

destroying or transforming it so that those who deserve their independence. just behavior of every individual in a society is appropri. and so times tradition may even supersede the existing reli. and have started to overcome the gap Thus I believe that traditions always overcome other that has separated them from men. and that she and children of the race) to be the same in a civilized should not live after her husband dies. When the status of a nation is low. is inac- is elevated. for example. On the other hand. which are usually intended to improve the belong and the level of civilization of these societ- state of affairs but are immediately turned around to ies. considered a ciples on this topic. because the present her to their guests as a sign of hospitality. Other Asians nation as in an ignorant. lowed by the British. whenever and in whatever way he the specific nations in which it was introduced. the status of women in that country is guarantees the freedom of women. and that tradi. fol- become new instruments for corruption. On the contrary. In every country where Chris- woman to be under the power of her father. This authority still prevails among uncivilized Af- We cannot consider traditions (which are merely rican and American tribes. force is also the medium of control for governments tion is one of the most influential permanent com. the French. it does not guar- also elevated. The ancient rules. on. that a woman has no immortal soul. Women in all these societies have felt that they gion. unless they change. or death. family. . These women believe that they disown its existing form. however. or advanced from the low status to which they have unless their intellectual level increases or decreases. and that they even influence the crawling while the other is taking steps. We have learned that women in the first antee her rights through either specific or general human societies were treated as slaves. which are based on familial and tribal bonds of a nation and its level of civilization and knowl. it was acceptable for Arab fathers to kill lim women today should have been at the forefront their daughters. and when the status of a nation her achieve freedom. It is not dif. has been molded by the traditions and manners of nation. and is least likely to change. The use of country more than any other power. His heirs eventually inherited her and with there were a religion which could have had power her all the rights that were given to the owner. These traits are present among emerging societ- This total interdependence between the traditions ies. The differences between Egyptians and Euro. are human beings and that they deserve freedom. because at Austrian. ponents of a nation. its. These discrepancies daily observation of the laws and programs of our reflect the different societies to which these women nation. and after him his eldest son. Prior and influence over local traditions. Christianity her life. who like to associate all good things nation. do. the German. compatriots. it has left husband. the ficult to understand this phenomenon. then her tianity has been introduced and spread. Christianity did not set up a system which of that nation. One woman is factors in a society. we find that women in nations Therefore. been relegated. He could dispose of her through trade. the Italian. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 63 fact. citizens of a nation cannot but comply with a more advanced civilization have gradually with the existing traditions. they are therefore striving for freedom and demand- dence of history confirms and demonstrates that the ing every human right. The American woman is in the forefront. This evi. reflecting with their religion. barbaric one. If wished. and it does not prescribe any guiding prin- Greeks and Romans. rather than on formal structures. Some Asians even believe a way of life for an individual. The head of no tangible impact on the normative structure affect- the family had the absolute right of ownership over ing women's status. and the Russian woman. one is walk- laws of that society. believe that the Western woman an uncivilized condition for that nation. and for men to gratify themselves of free women on earth. reflecting the progress and civilization curate. Force is the only law edge suggests that the power of tradition controls a with which such societies are familiar. then the Mus- to Islam. This belief. the method by which its children are brought up. and are searching for the are most knowledgeable about religion eventually means to achieve it. the status of has advanced because her Christian religion helped women is also low. as one would present a guest with the best of his ate to the intellectual abilities of that society and to possessions. and This is the basis of our observations. with women with no legal bonds or numerical lim- peans also need to be considered in this context. This belief is confirmed through ing while the other is running. run by autocratic structures. status of women is inseparably tied to the status of a Westerners.

and contemporary Western women. oppressed nation is that of depravity. our legal system went so far in its kindness to tered these nations poorly and were excessive in their women that it rid them of the burden of earning a liv. giving pref. the tendency to equate men's tral to the ideology of the supreme ruler. however. a temptation for abuse. This explains that respect for women and for their equality with men why for so many centuries absolute and autocratic rule were basic to the principles of the liberal shari'a. As a result. and obliged to follow justice and avoid injustice. trusteeship. rienced the suffering resulting from the catastrophes and superstitions inherited from the countries in which have befallen him. attitude pervades the life of all individuals. There ing in household and child-rearing expenses. Islam declared women's freedom and eman. Despotism and women's rights is obvious. donating. women only with regard to their duties. is not limited to individual cases only. its impact erence to men with regard to societal rights. The of a country ruled by a despot. unhindered by requirements of ence demonstrates. and granted women all human rights during out restraint. erners and some Muslims imagine or believe. quite often they even tampered with religion. traditions. because Initially. ing and freed them from the obligation of participat. dominates a weaker one. In sum. Islamic societies have been stripped his villagers. however. regard- Islamic law favors men in one area only—po. Islam has created for women mechanisms they in turn influence their subordinates. spits his spirit into every powerful person. is the suc. less of the approval or disapproval of the supreme lygamy. how- which Islam spread have been allowed to permeate ever. one would assume that a person who ex- originally women in Islam were granted an equal periences injustice would love justice. women are con. and of divorce. upon his return to the village takes his of the ruler and the ruled. and they admin- a time when women occupied the lowest status in all istered the affairs of their citizens without these societies. nothing in the laws of Islam or in its intentions ness. which equate men and significant in contrast to the majority of cases. yet they demonstrate unsupervised by any formal structure. having expe- What a pity! Unacceptable customs. especially when it is unac- These advantages have not yet been attained by some countable. whether important or unimportant. Thus they ruled however they wished. These whenever possible. without which marriage is meaning. This topic too will be addressed later. unchallenged by any other opinion. Experi- disposal of goods. When despotism prevails in a country. A despot worthy of consideration and contrary to what West. Rulers adminis- fact. that an oppressed nation does not contain an this beautiful religion. existing situation is contrary to the law. This is are a few exceptions to this pattern. that unlimited power is permission from either their father or their husband. capricious tampering with the affairs of their subjects. with- cipation. These despotic systems have also influenced issue of lineage. since it is cen- Within the shari'a. struck with one of the political structures that delineated the rights hundred lashes. thority. and that he place in human society. would be inclined toward compassion. Observation indicates. having any say. reclaims a hundred pounds from times and places. but they are in- unlike some Western laws. The reason is obvious and is related to the ruler. his superiority began to despise woman in her weak- mary. Knowledge in these countries appropriate and fit environment for the development had not developed to the point of giving women the of desirable virtues.64 Qasim Amin The Islamic legal system. According to Islamic law. distant past knows that the village mayor. and that the village chief. even in the context continues to flow from him to those around him. At various ten Egyptian pounds. The only plant that grows in an status already given them by the shari'a. counsel. sidered to possess the same legal capabilities in all civil Yes. and that granted to the ruled revenge upon a hundred peasants! the right to demand that the rulers stop at the limits The natural implication of this situation is that established for them by the shari'a. who. rulers. equality of women and men before any other legal with their sultan and his assistants having total au- system. their human beings respect only force and are deterred . the relationships between men and women—man in less. robbed of cession over us of despotic governments. In fact. are cases pertaining to buying. the shari 'a. corrupt morals became the first sign can account for the low status of Muslim women. Every Egyptian The most significant factor that accounts for the who has lived under despotic rule in the not-very- perpetuation of these traditions. or supervision. In was the norm for Islamic countries. This will be discussed later. stipulated the governments continually took on a despotic nature.

he had Yet we cannot claim that this change removes the absolute authority and she had only obedience and need for criticism. men out reason. over the last few years. was ignored. from the active participation of all its citizens. or doctrinal issues. a man secluded her from able word. This change is a consequence of the increased the family as wife. as well as certain other advantages from public life and kept her from involvement in anything which they themselves were forbidden—but without except female or personal issues. a man filled his home with of the population. accordance with religious and moral principles. many women norance and secluded herself with the curtains of now accompany their husbands during their business darkness. Thus a eunuch. In fact. then these criticisms for his actions arid justice in his dealings. and sion and lust drove him. spent time with ried in her coffin to the grave. When women were weak. order to take the fresh air and to see the works of the ing in the universe except that which she concealed Sublime Creator. and she had no arose among them who competed with each other to patriotic pride or religious feelings. and women alike. a man imprisoned her in to show signs of dissatisfaction with it. She was of intellectual development of men. the status of women in Egypt until the past few years. he had a their trustworthiness. thoughts which they be- . Despising the woman. and space and she had darkness and prison. and the inadequate socialization slaves. tempt. and wife gathered after he was done to eat what was left over. that they quite often go to public parks in self in the person of the man. affairs. become aware companied her wherever she went. We have observed that women at opinions. The Current State of Thinking about Despising the woman. Egyptians have. he dent in their women and have no worries regarding had knowledge and she had ignorance. and stomped on their personality. of women. mans. a man announced that she When Egyptians saw the good life that Westerners was unworthy of trust and honesty. men crushed I do not exaggerate when I say that this has been their rights. established tradition of veiling among the majority Despising the woman. many of them. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 65 only by fear. or a servant supervised. tion. He ignored the prescribed were the use of the veil terminated at limits familiar religious obligations. This is a new kind of respect mind and she had simple-mindedness. Everything in existence belonged to him. political movements. a legal guardian. observed. mother. Likewise. Leaders public affairs. sat. a man divorced her with. and the moderation no importance. are not change but the conditions surrounding it. white or black. They have begun Despising the woman. need to improve it. while his mother. She obliterated her. or with numerous wives. a man appointed a guard. many men have and pleasure. sisters. to keep up with the West and its blessings. would be dropped and our country would benefit Despising the woman. despised them. Were women's socialization effected in isfying himself with any of them whenever his pas. and had no legitimate of their rulers. whether male or female. the causes of criticism patience. the Situation of Women in Egypt ian to protect her chastity. She was allowed noth. disseminate new thoughts. and ac. Despising the woman. he had light for women. their widespread influence and their indisput- Despising the woman. This has occurred among men who are confi- wished. which was lifted only when she was to be car. displayed for the eyes of all hu- in the corners of her home. and learned about the West's progress. enjoyed. a man sat alone at the din- ing table. regardless of her position in men. They have heard about the West. the arts. In reality. have intermingled with Westerners. of the poor state of their social order. A woman had no which life has no value—a desire spread among them opinions on business. A man used her as an object of delight trips to other countries. or daughter. and felt the the house and boasted about her permanent restric. She specialized in ig. and threw her into the road whenever he ture. He had freedom and she had bondage. amused himself with her whenever given women a special status within the family struc- he wished. A woman when we have witnessed a decrease in the power of had a very low status. treated them with con. She was submissive to a man because he present have more freedom to look after their own was a man and she a woman. and she was part of that totality of which he took Among the most important of these are the firmly possession. which required good intentions in most Islamic schools of belief.

They cannot freedom. delusions prevent them from reaching the truth. morals. that His Excellency made regarding these courts This truth. Such an observer sees: be had except through training. The matter that is . and a become a vibrant community. sooner or later. necessity of educating their daughters. and no matter how Nor can it consist merely of books and articles writ. a Muslim. such that that the ignorant delight in believing. as well as that of cer- tain Egyptians—at the head of them being His is no hope that Egyptian homes and families will Excellency Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh [Egypt. hopes and pains. is not enough for a reform program. nothing less than increased adherence to the of them went so far as to say that it was a crime precepts of religion. or how much ten about the benefits of change. no matter what they would have only to leave us to our own devices! its target. away from their role as slave. One would call for work and action. they must begin with the roots of reform. any possible sources of discord. This is the indisputable truth. Liberation of Women. do not understand where their true interests lie. as well their homes and their families become a proper en. even if they do lamic law] courts. see chapter 3]. it will be made inform a nation about the state of its deteriorating clear to everyone. because they their children embody the perfect picture that repre. and if women do not Islam. to consist merely of a government order They have no more perfect method than to leave us issued to spur the masses to action. and for the rejection of Legal scholars decided that it was an offense to Islam. will find a number of matters regarding the re- dent nature. in fact. It such people: If the Europeans intended to destroy us. A new awareness amongst the Egyptians of the they cannot be had without women. was considered by certain people. against the country and against religion. These will merely another group might try to neglect it. until along the lines that it is now practiced. writings. they are not the means by which people always is. In their But one factor escaped the attention of these lead. such as segregation. become that proper environment unless women are 1849-1905. and so on. as their desire to change that practice through [the vironment for providing men with the characteristics institution] of engagement. 1. and those similar to them. Some fourth.66 Qasim Amin lieved would guide the community down the road to its publication last year [in the author's book The success. A decrease in the use of the hijab and its con- They must believe that there is no hope that they will comitant institutions. or of a speech in our present situation! designed to encourage its listeners to want to change. and that there remains characteristics. The government's interest. Such sents human perfection. to be a kind of lunacy. situation. The displeasure that our youth takes in marriage with a place in the world of human civilization. This is because no social condition can be We have but one word with which to respond to changed unless it is made the target of education. much one group might try to hide it. 3. as was their custom. Anyone who sees the report not participate in all of their activities. They will not have any liberation is not. Anyone observing our present social situation will form a people from one state to another. despite its simplicity and its self-evi. and customs which are not but a hi jab [that is. A saw it as an exaggerated imitation of the West. and an. just as the truth conditions. won't have liberation of Eastern women was something that the any influence worth mentioning upon the community Christian nations were striving for in order to destroy if they do not reach women. rather than Hence. a thin veil] between them and innate to the individual upon his birth. they were even so deluded as to say that the ers: these ideas. And there 4. These are delu- influence if women are not favorably disposed to sions that the simple-minded are inclined toward and them. or are not filled with love for them. or. nor are they the things that will trans. other for harmony and unity. will change. and that any Muslim who supports women's understand their meanings. Any and all find proof of the fact that our women have broken change must be the result of a confluence of virtues. 1899]. upon form of the Egyptian family. upon which success in the world depends. one that can play an movement toward its obsolescence. important role alongside the developed countries. 2. in other words. A third would call for And many graduates from the madrasas [seminaries] love of the country and self-sacrifice in its service. mufti [chief religious educated and unless they participate alongside men official] of Egypt—in reforming the shari 'a [Is- in their thoughts. if Egyptians want to reform their current teaching them nothing.

others two. She can. and in response to front of the court. wife a divorce. either through the courts or by Stipulation One: If the husband refuses to provide means of the police. the woman must then no clear source of income and continues to refuse to wait out the time of her 'idda [Qur'anic term of wait- provide for his wife. the judge grants the before the new marriage contract is drawn or after it. he is sentenced to pay alimony. the they will not divorce a single one of their wives and. She also has the right to make a refutation children. If those four years pass. ing that the absentee is alive. complained to the Ministry of is refutable. money. Without then needing to return to the courts. with no means wife if he proves his sources of provision and his available for them to divorce their husbands and no willingness to support her through them. This year. and if he does so before his wife's end of which he is considered divorced if he does not new husband consummates the marriage. cial incapability but cannot prove it. depravity continues to affect them and their money. In the case that he is absent for number of wives that poor men are marrying. some have three. deed. if in fact the first husband not leave means of provision for his wife. in the issue and others similar to it. If he does family member who could support them or their chil. the judge grants the wife a di. proclaim what she believes to be them he produced eleven stipulations. hard labor. Stipulation Six: If a man is lost in an Islamic land ing the mufti about the legal recourses that could be and there is no news of him. in line with the his fate. the Minister of Maliki madhhab [school of law]. Indeed. If the death of the original husband is discov- period of illness or imprisonment is so long that harm ered during the wife's period of 'idda or after it and orfitna [dissension] is feared. in- in ways too clear to explain. if he can prove incapability. [This con- dition] damages Islam and the Islamic community for by the absentee. But. If the Minister fails to find the for his wife despite the fact that he has a clear source lost husband. the second hus- oned and he refuses to provide for his wife. apparently to clarify pater- vorce from him on the spot. his wife has the right to adopted in response to such complaints. Then. but before his departure he did husband's death. statement fixes a date by which he must send provisions. believes him to be. If. the judge grants the wife a divorce after the I am hereby raising my voice in complaint over the fixed period elapses. If the band. The Ministry found itself in need of consult. the wife is also returned to her original hus- that he will be cured or released from prison. which we present Justice should search for him in the areas where she below for the reader's benefit. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 67 most worthy of mention is the mufti's. and it is many of them take four wives. the wife inherits her original husband's property if Stipulation Three: If the husband is absent for a the second husband was ignorant of the first short period of time. proven that he has no means of providing for his wife. or vorcing a man from his wife for not providing for her long prison terms. If he has years. any return to his wife is unacceptable. he sets for the wife a period of four of income. the same action. it happened that the wives of men who Stipulation Five: The judge's prerogative in di- had been sentenced to life in prison. or his whereabouts. If the man claims finan. ing before remarriage. he Stipulation Seven: If the absentee returns or is given a one-month grace period—no more—at the proves to be alive. after swearing that she deserves to be provided placed on mankind's freedom of action. in fact. the judge takes she is allowed to remarry. not know- provide for his wife. He studied raise the issue at the Ministry of Justice. The husband has the right to remarry his Justice about their unhappy condition. to her original husband. left nothing behind for her provision. and that he left no guardian to provide for her. If he about polygamy: does not. or if he left money in someone's trust. These men continuously fight with their wives over Stipulation Four: If someone owed the husband expenses and over their marital rights. the judge grants the wife a divorce. the judge band knew all along that the original husband was grants him a period of time after which it is assumed alive. a long period or his destination is unknown. the judge died and the second husband knew of his death be- . and after swearing that he. wife has the right to ask to be provided for from that thus. However. without being able to support them. [In this state] it becomes impossible for of anyone who claims that she has no right to that men and women to respect the limits that God has trust. then the wife is returned Stipulation Two: If the husband is ill or impris. dren. Moreover. not do both. nity].

the case is brought to the pro. and thus grant you our agreement. then the case is reverted to stipu. then they are chosen from among people out. If they proof that our will does not interfere with this move- are able to settle the dispute between the couple. It is in. and about Otherwise. We thank you for high Stipulation Nine: The wife of a man missing as aspirations. If after the Minister To the Mufti of Egypt. homes the changes that we work for had already able. foretells that the state of Egyptian women thy arbitrators. Maliki Servant of knowledge and of the humble ones at She then has the right to remarry. that can be proven is that the man went along with containing eleven stipulations. with the things that one witnesses every day in Egyp- vincial judge. erners. seek our opinion. solved through one of the means provided for in The sum of these facts—and then some—along the Book of God. scholar and a wise jurisprudent. the divorce is revoc. depravity. we met with serious opposi- according to what his appointed arbitrators have tion even from those in whose selves and in whose recommended. He must then appoint two trustwor. number 19. In this case.68 Qasim Amin fore consummating the marriage. then the woman can remarry if We have received your letter dated the fourth of she wishes. they recommend divorce and bring necessity of preserving and continuing the movement the matter before the judge. and it is proved that he indeed fought project. the humble found. If that year passes and the man is not Salim al-Bishri [Egypt. This process of setting a grace period is valid only These two issues—that of polygamy and that of in cases in which the absentee had. granting women the right to divorce her husband— ing. tian homes. We conclude as you do. knowledge or ignorance. an income with which to provide for his wife. and his money is al-Azhar inherited at the end of the year. The The arbitrators are then sent to the couple. then the wife in. one of them from the husband's is in need of improvement. 1900]. and his money goes to her heirs. they are neighbors. family and the other from the wife's. There is nothing strange about this: It has always Stipulation Eleven: The wife has the right to ask been our way to follow our whims. The shari'a does not permit a man to our lives in excess or lack. guidelines of the Maliki madhhab. as they are reflected in your interest in the result of a war between Muslims has the right to this venerable matter. and according to the law known to natural ily. which orders that every animal follow the side of the family. the judge to grant her a divorce if she is harmed by If it makes no difference to us whether we spend her husband. just as it does not permit desertion or dom or servitude. and it cannot be lygamy and divorce in a voice that is well heeded. and the arbitrators have no right to make it appeared. richness or poverty. After the minister has the man searched for. may God keep you: of Justice searches for the man. virtue or beating or abuse without legitimate reason. scientists. It grew. Otherwise. a great religious the woman's claim is proven to be true. He supports my suggestions about po- and wife becomes quite severe. in my book The Liberation of Women. the woman then begins her period of 'idda. has called worthy of Stipulation Ten: If a dispute between a husband his interest. year is set. about which you lations six and seven. take her case before the Minister of Justice. 1832-1917]. the judge grants the wife a divorce once which Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh. It is best if This movement did not result from study. and after the period of 'idda has passed. that herits nothing. Stipulation Eight: If a man dies in a conflict be. and sent Muhammad 'Abduh the following in said conflict. her husband is harmful to her. then it would be my opinion that there is . free- harm his wife. through the influence of contact with West- arbitrators from among the members of their fam. irrevocable. If it is difficult to find such rather. He is required to rule until our goals are met. by legal means. so ment lies in the fact that when we pointed out the be it. nature of the environment in which he lives. cumbent upon the wife to prove. If all Rabi'i al-thani 1318 [August 2. before disappear. The Shaykh of al-Azhar lent his agreement to this tween Muslims. his wife is permitted to raise the issue letter: before the Ministry of Justice. a period of one Signed. following the the fighting armies. are amongst the most important issues that I addressed or in cases in which the wife does not fear seduction.

through the preparation of young people ready French women. and marry a new woman every day. you to your goal. it takes place. long-term secret—one which find that the Italian woman has nothing in common is surrounded in difficulties." Nor are we saying. are not those of said. And you'll This is the natural. "Serve serve no credit for its invention. You'll find advice. It is like true. languages. We aren't saying the same things to you that oth- and then some. goods in order to sell them. so that she may not enjoy life of the merchant who spends his day bent over his without him! What else can we do but direct our at. entirely different from Russian women. Perhaps we will learn from them how to iso. no doubt. If it independence. despite differences in their regions. or the doctor who amputates a patient's But if what we hear and read about every day is limb in order to preserve life in other limbs. and religions. But the easiest of all with the Swedish or the German woman. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 69 no need for the freedom and the education that have mon ground in one matter: they enjoy freedom and been granted to Egyptian women up till now. makes no difference. from that of men. Rather. And the shortest path is the one that delivers nationalities. civilization—the kind of civilization you aspire to. or a magician's magic. and his way of raising yourselves up to the highest level of country. or that the way American women are raised. This took place when women were given which they see no one and encounter no one. you will find changing of the self requires more than a leader's amongst their women great differences. or the scribe who spends tention to these countries and ask them what the se. women began to daughters and sisters and grandmothers if they wish!! direct their energies. But just because this work is different does not mean cayed to the extent that when a woman's husband dies that it lacks importance: women's work is like that she must kill herself. to In Africa and Asia there are a number of countries in the establishment of and participation in charitable which women live entombed in their homes. And once divorce her the next. working alongside of men. share a com. his family. But none of these has the right them: to call his work more useful to the social order than There is a means of getting yourselves out of the the woman who gives to society the gift of a well- poor condition that you complain about. useful to himself. only to women from their former state of decline. in ignorance and inter-departmental report. or a sultan's order. We are teaching that the Take a look at the Western nations. tested it. Nations have used your family and your country. neer who builds a bridge in order to make transpor- late our women and hold them back even further!!!! tation easier. advanced. iso. And useful work—different. that get lost in the wind. And you'll find French women to be to meet the requirements of a changing society. It is like that of the engi- isolation. that of the judge who mediates in the disputes that civil nation. cess. . from societies. long hours in some governmental bureau writing an cret to the progress of their women is. It consists of liberating your women ers say. other. and their a saint's miracles. and imprison their wives and they were granted an education. that Egyptians want to create a living. then let men have a number of It is this freedom that has delivered Western women. as we've morals and habits and manners. There is a raised man. But all of difficulties is the one that ends in victory and suc- these women." or "Cleanse yourselves of the faults that have lation]. crept into your morals. This means was not our brainchild. we de." or any such slogans it before us. things like "Unite and be of help to one an- from the bondage of ignorance and hijab [here. amongst these nations there are those that have de. then we have the following to say to arise between people. and put it to their advantage.

pp. sity Press. The present selection was one of these lectures. delivered to hundreds of upper-class women.J. eds. and the need for legal change in women's status. Speech Egypt (New Haven. 1976). On Fridays she gave women's lectures at the Egyptian University and elsewhere. Some of the sufferings she experienced and observed were expressed in her writings. Islam and Nation: Gender and the Badran. Beth Baron. 134. who had studied at al- Azhar with Muhammad 'Abduh (see chapter 3). Her eu- logy was the first feminist speech delivered by Huda Sha'rawi (1879-1947). Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]. "A Lecture in the Club of the Umma Party. Her father. founder of the Egyptian Feminist Union. 70 . philosopher. pp. Soha Abdel Kader. Egypt: Society.: Yale University Press. Opening Making of Modern Egypt (Princeton. The Women's Awakening in ton: Indiana University Press. which she published along with feminist essays in 1910. grumbling are not reform. gave up teaching. and rejoices in what you and men are rife. was born in Cairo into a literary family. 1987). and went to live with him in the Fayyum oasis west of Cairo. at the age of 32. but if I fail. 228-238. remember that I am one of you. in Margot Badran and Miriam Cooke. a meeting of (male) nationalists. 'inda Bahithat al-Badiya (The Contemporary Muslim 1. 5 Bahithat al-Badiya A Lecture in the Club of the Umma Party Malak Hifni Nasif (Egypt. Men blame the discord on our poor upbringing we can take. 1899-1987 (Boulder. I greet you as a sister who feels what you feel. Leila Ahmed. the Saniyya School. who used the pseudonym Bahithat al-Badiya (Seeker in the Desert). 1995). An Arab prov- succeed.. Our meeting today is not simply for getting ac. but there must be an element of truth in them. and addressing some of the most sensitive social issues of the day: changing gender re- lations. order to correct them. I applaud your kindness in accepting the in. 179-185. 1886-1918).: Princeton Univer- the Gates: A Century of Arab Feminist Writing (Blooming. She graduated from the first teacher training school for women in Egypt. while we claim it is due to men's arrogance and pride. At the moment there is a semi-feud between us and quainted or for displaying our finery. Complaints about both women suffers what you suffer. where she later taught. 64-68. 1992). In 19 18. al-Muslima al-'asriya adapted from the same volume. Introduction 'Abd al-Muta'al Muhammad Jabri. where I seek reform. The English and that as human beings we both succeed and fail. says that Anyone who differs with me or wishes to make a opinions that appear erroneous to us are not totally comment is welcome to express her views at the end wrong. Bahithat al-Badiya pp. There is some truth in our claims and in those of men." translated from Arabic by Ali Badran and Margot Margot Badran. delivered in 1909 and first published in 1910. N. The program listed at the end of the lecture formed the ker- nel of the more extensive set of demands that she sent in 1 9 1 1 to the Egyptian Con- gress in Heliopolis. Her life then took an abrupt turn when she married a Bedouin chief. she died of influenza. Colo. 1990). Which side is right? Complaints and rejoice. the symbolic and practical implications of women's garb.1 Ladies. She discovered he already had a wife—his cousin—and a daughter he expected her to tutor. May Ziyada.: Lynne Rienner. Feminists. I hope to son is cured by continual moaning. Conn. men because of the low level of agreement between ous meeting. of my talk. pp. Haven.: Yale University Press. but is a seri. This mutual blame which Bahithat al-Badiya. I don't believe a sick per- vitation to this talk. and to examine our shortcomings in and haphazard education. erb says there is no smoke without fire. encouraged his daughter's education. Dar al-Ansar. 227. I wish to seek agreement on an approach us. 1920). in the View of Bahithat al-Badiya) (Cairo. Egyptian Women in a Changing Woman. Women and Gender in Islam (New (Bahithat al-Badiya) (Cairo. Conn. Egypt: Matba'at al-Muqtataf. 1994).

No woman can of labor. These women might male servant. Even those women merely a human creation. We still witness people like go to a mill instead of crushing wheat on the grind. Obviously. clean and soft. I do not mean to deni. We or our female servants used to sweep our divorced. God did not are the ones who started to push us out of work. Work at spinning and weaving and put women out of work. haul crops. but if women enter the learned professions do all this work now. Then men established bakeries employing men. They but there are unmarried women. vest the dates." Is this a God-given dictate? might be poor and unable to hire servants or to work How are we to know this. I am not urging women men took up the profession of tailoring and began to to neglect their home and children to go out and be- make clothes for our men and children. but at the same time pushed us out of ren or have lost their husbands or are widowed or work. it also impedes work inside the house. Is it just to prevent women men invented pipes and faucets to carry water into from doing what they believe is good for themselves houses. we would each other and to live together so the world would only be doing what they have already done to us. and create man and woman to hate each other. which might be far away? Is it Furthermore. and then men invented in supporting the family. but men invented machines for cupy us? Of course. It is not right that they machines to clean that could be operated by a young should be forced into lowly jobs. "You women have and knead dough? She might be weak and unable to been created for the house and we have been created trouble herself to prepare the wheat and dough. except women in the villages it does not upset the system. Since male inventors and work- pushed women out of work? Before. others who are bar- gave us rest. or she to be breadwinners. Each has the freedom has created us. but academic qualifications. Before. The division of labor is where civilization has not arrived. but men invented the sewing ma. sifting flour and kneading dough. Nor do I mean to imply that they do not sat. crops. both will comes down to individual freedom. the Nubians whose men sew clothes for themselves ing stones. Would reasonable women seeing water and their support? If pregnancy impedes work out- pumped into a neighbor's house be content to fetch side the house. but to love that if we were to edge them out today. fields. But if women winnowed the wheat and ground flour on any of us wish to work in such professions. . since no holy book has alone without help. argued that pregnancy causes women to leave work. water from the river. In the past. prevent us from doing under the pretext of taking and the machines themselves are made by men. Poor women and servants used to fetch like to become teachers or doctors with the same water for their homes or the homes of employers. costing her nothing work? more than a little money. The iron for these machines is mined by men. A LECTURE IN THE CLUB OF THE UMMA PARTY 71 has deepened the antagonism between the sexes is isfy our needs. another a merchant. or those whose husbands need their help houses with straw brooms. It might be their own hands. we should do the latter. and the household. but that is what men wish to chine. Women in villages in both Upper and grate these useful inventions which do a lot of our Lower Egypt help their men till the land and plant work. I think if men were in our place spelled it out? Political economy calls for a division they would have done what we did. be populated. come lawyers or judges or railway engineers. Some women do the fertilizing. Then their jobs away. But I simply wanted to show that men something to be regretted and feared. One man wishes vanish in time. to go and winnow wheat Men say to us categorically. If men live alone in one part of the The question of monopolizing the workplace world and women are isolated in another. while the women work in the they have pumps in their houses. Is it right to Men say when we become educated we shall push tell a doctor he must quit his profession and become them out of work and abandon the role for which God a merchant or vice versa? No. home now does not occupy more than half the day. women sewed clothes for themselves and We must pursue an education in order to occupy the their households. women used to ers have taken away a lot of our work. our per- grinding stones for the bread they used to make with sonal freedom should not be infringed. how many able-bodied men have not reasonable for any civilized woman seeing bread become sick from time to time and have had to stop from the bakery. should we spin and to weave cloth for clothes for themselves waste our time in idleness or seek other work to oc- and their children. Instead of collecting water from the river. Some women even climb palm trees to har- By what I have just said. to become a doctor. other half of the day. But isn't it rather men who have to do as he wishes.

Kindi [a companion of the Prophet. which is the Cleopatra [queen of Egypt. jealousy and scorn usually come into play. but in fact our upbringing is to blame. but poor upbringing. it is you who made her maternal instinct.72 Bahithat al-Badiya lead animals. Queen of Spain [reigned 1474-1504]. medicine. thing. Education has not spoiled the beth. We must true under constitutional rule. engineer- Specialized work for each sex is a matter of con. but while that might be schools. Our op. This is dem- encouraged the French to continue fighting and val. You may have observed that women in the our Oriental habits still do not allow us to pursue villages work as hard as the strongest men. reigned 51-30 B. We Shajarat al-Durr. . selves and others. it is not true under improve this situation. ing. who are men. They should replace the first with who impressed 'Umar ibn al-Khattab [second caliph. absolute monarchies. advice from each other. not the school. and other because we are still in the first stage of education and chores. are well educated are lacking in morals. but women have excelled in learning and Nothing irritates me more than when men claim the arts and politics. It is not mandatory. health and stronger than the latter? Do you have any would our only distraction from raising children be doubt that a woman from Minufiya [a town in the reading a book or writing a letter? I think that is im- Egyptian Delta] would be able to beat the strongest possible." it discourages us and pushes us backward. Eliza. died circa 655]. think that good upbringing means kissing the hands came queens and were adept in politics such as of women and standing with arms properly crossed. our minds responsibilities. only in religion are the two connected. the young. When someone says some- cation. vention. would not cause her to forget her children nor to lose ated weak. Some have exceeded men in they do not wish us to work because they wish to courage and valor. and we much study. the more en- us weak through the path you made us follow. Isn't the country woman learning or for recognition. It is unfair to put the blame on the their ministers. the second. this tling match? If men say to us that we have been cre. has done this. If the city woman had not been in one of these schools. "That's enough edu. As see that their children are strong and healthy. The problem lies with the family. the more aware she is of her long centuries of enslavement by men. Is it right that they and peasant women ignore their crying child for accuse us of being created weaker than them in mind hours? Were these women also occupied in prepar- and body? Women may not have to their credit great ing legal cases or in reading and writing? inventions. educated. who Learning and upbringing are two separate things— led the French army after its defeat by the English. and at university unoccupied by us. Queen of Russia [reigned 1762-1796]. On the contrary. We We are still new at educating our daughters. If unable to do hard work because we have not been one of us shows eagerness to complete her education accustomed to it. As long as we do not like her city sister? Why then is the former in better work in law or become employed by the government." After lightened she becomes. Catherine. This cannot happen in a minute as some ponents may say that their rule was carried out by might think. we want respect.C. such as Khawla bint al-Azwar al. morals of our girls. Some people tion. She is doing that to satisfy her desire for been as strong as the man. Haven't you seen ignorant women rusted and our bodies weakened. long as they see seats in the schools of law. duty of the home. Good upbringing means helping people respect them- Isabel. "No. We women are now men can relax. she would have given a job. No matter how much a mother has been man from al-Ghuriya [a section of Cairo] in a wres. Joan of Arc [circa 1412-1431]. the Byzantines. While also are too quick to ridicule and criticize each other there is no fear now of our competing with men.]. the mother of Turan Shah [reigned have to redouble our efforts to reform ourselves and 1249]. or in whatever profession she works. 634-644] with her bravery and skill in fighting when Men blame any shortcomings we may have on our she went to Syria to free her brother held captive by education. and we are vain and arrogant. One of our shortcomings is our reluctance to take When someone says to us. we say to them. draw water for irrigation. I am sure she will not be prevented from doing hard work. We do not want condescension. I am not giving examples of women who be. spare us the burden. onstrated by the fact that many men and women who iantly waged war against those who fought her na. men can rest assured in their jobs. who governed Egypt [1250-1257]. because what they fear is distant. over nothing. Queen of England [reigned 1558-1603].

If we had been raised from childhood to go un- mothers. In front of her husband waist and lower the neck and finally two sleeves were she wears a simple tunic. but she makes a wall out of her face. when Turkish women go out to neigh. the road to reform but we are neither properly covered nor unveiled. I would ap- ied alive. but we have to was carried to her grave. some women have started wearing education. that man. and if should call it a dress with a clown's cap. We claim we are veiling. The European woman wears the simplest figure was totally hidden. to cover the body right If I cannot find anyone but a man to teach me. Some of our prudent house. Not so that more than half the head. and Imams [religious leaders] have differed on the not just put in boxes exclusively for men? But we question of hijab. because it can rightly be called being bur. When the woman wrapped herself in it. the more it advances. her (tabarruj). and if our men were ready for it. like Europeans. why can't he take me with him to select and the body with a dress of the kind Europeans call what I need. because advocate unveiling. . another dress? In that instance. Our former garment was one of Europeans. that she paints various colors. But our whole body. I believe the best band will not choose clothes I like and bring them to practice for outdoors is to cover the head with a scarf the house. and red. But the used to spend her whole life within the walls of her nation is not ready for it now. The way we wear the izar now imitates the dress the more it is shortened. along with my sisters who are being edu- as I am told. buy it for us. loads herself down with jew- worn only with a corset. a wall was visible and the flowers and ribbons ornament. It must not prevent us from gaining an cept? Moreover. but we have outdone them in display piece. She walks swaying like ing the hair could be seen. The woman prove of unveiling for those who want it. and when she goes out she added and the garment clung to the back and was wears her best clothes. we we have finished our work and feel restless. and with sleeves long enough to should I opt for ignorance or for unveiling in front of reach the wrist. Finally. now they are worn by singers and dancers? while the upper half—like age. which in our house does not have a spacious garden. not hijab. I would narrow in front of us. I do not. A LECTURE IN THE CLUB OF THE UMMA PARTY 73 Men criticize the way we dress in the street. why fact it is. not going out into the street except when she women do not fear to mix with men. and pours bottles of perfume on herself. nor cause our health to deteriorate. This is being done now in Istanbul. and mixing with we are quick to imitate and seldom find our authen- men. the face veil be. In my opinion. Then we artfully began to shrink the women are just the opposite. The pretend to be enticed. cated? Nothing would force me to unveil in the pres- . only this. When it in colors—blue. but it was still wide enough to conceal the she wishes at home or when invited to soirees. I think going out without it is more mod. If my father or hus- covered their hair and their bodies. . down to the heels. meant to be a way to leave the home without the izar. They borhood shops. and does not conform to our standards of modesty (hijab). ticity in the veil. correct covering. because we have exceeded the bounds not shorten it and tighten it until we transform it into of custom and propriety. or let me buy what I want? cache poussiere. The wrap shrunk little by dress she has when she is outside. because at least eyes are not attracted to it. the fresh air that God has created for everyone. place limits on those who are less prudent. Verse 31] Does our present izar. can the onlooker understand good intentions when which God has commanded us not to display. bamboo in a way that entices passersby. brown. But who will guarantee that we will have a point. because they are harmful to us. Don't you see that diamond tiaras Nowadays the lower half of our attire is a skirt that were originally meant for queens and princesses. If the get-ups of some women are should be prudent and not take promenades alone. We should not saunter it would be all right if they unveiled their faces but moving our heads right and left. shouldn't we go to the outskirts of the city and take est. a dust coat. including the ears. do not advocate a return to the veils of our grand. waist. veiled. and derriere. and wears whatever little. I am sure that most of these purpose of the izar [long outer garment] is to cover showy women do this without bad intentions. Sura 24. Veiling should not prevent us from breathing fresh which has virtually become a "dress" showing the air or going out to buy what we need if no one can bosom. We tied back our headgear elry. but how the body as well as our dress and jewelry underneath. or at least they came more transparent than an infant's heart. and we should avoid gossip. appearances do not indicate it? [Qur'an. conform with this pre. on the other hand.

When the Eu- other. I would like become subject to occupation by women of the to remind you of something that causes us great un. married on the basis of false love and without direc- fit from the teacher. It is a practice in all nations. We shall suffer double occupation. . The woman who used to gather with 'ulama' [religious scholars] should be accompanied by her father. but we shall have invited the sec- their marriage. She is a good example of decorum that immoral young men would use this opportunity and modesty. did not do other. and the Prophet himself. or an uncle or a and poets. The second will be Most sensible people in Egypt believe it is necessary worse than the first. The European woman thinks convinced this is rooted in fallacy. However. It is wise. Cus. broth- wise. the two people should see Sukayna [bint al-Husayn. anyone with good intuition The imprisonment in the home of the Egyptian can detect a person's moral character in the eyes and woman of the past is detrimental. It is not improbable. European practice of allowing the engaged pair to get Most Egyptian men who have married European together for a period of time so that they can come to women suffer from the foreign habits and extrava- know each other. as peace be upon him and his followers. freedom of the Europeans is excessive. including Egypt. that these wives will bring their fathers. while the current in movements and repose and sense if a person is false. while she would be thrifty if she were be able to evaluate that person's morals. 762-824] and Sayyida evaporates. because the first occurred for fiances to meet and speak with each other before against our will. she becomes a does not see the faults of that person and would not spendthrift. should I abandon myself might protest that one or two or more meetings is not to sickness. and they except among city people. we shall On the subject of customs and veiling. and brother. thinking they would be happy with them We must show our disdain for the few Muslim women rather than daughters of pashas and beys [high of- who do these things. or daugh. and soon they start to quarrel and the harmony Sayyida Nafisa [saintly scholar. and others. European customs should not be taken up and that is harmful. but it is enough to tell if they are attracted from a doctor who could cure me? to each other. They marry European servants and working-class and a moral threat we must fight as much as we can. died 736]—God's blessings be upon them— and before signing the marriage contract. bare bosoms in love scenes? This is contrary to Islam. ficials and nobles] hidden away in "a box of aged by our silence to contaminate others. She falls things. and friends to live near them. ond by our own actions. Some people advocate the would close the doors of work in front of our men. Some there is no woman doctor. wives following their engagement. Are we better in Islam than tion. one by happiness—the question of engagement and marriage. that person ropean woman marries an Egyptian. I certain how serious he is before allowing him to see consider both despicable—a detestable crossing of his daughter or the young woman for whom he is re- boundaries and a blind imitation of Europeans. who otherwise would be encour. If illness causes me to consult a doctor. What is the good of education if one can- toms should not be abandoned except when they are not abandon a custom that is not rooted in religion. What good is there for us in women and By not allowing men to see their prospective men holding each other's waists dancing. and she should wear simple clothing. harmful. ers. If we are afraid Islam prescribes. and the like. we cause Egyp- ters appearing on stage before audiences acting with tian men to seek European women in marriage. The result of this she is of a superior race to the Egyptian and bosses getting together is that they would come to love each her husband around after marriage.74 Bahithat al-Badiya ence of the teacher. sponsible. or should I seek help character. women. West. neighbors. men and the other by women. We have all seen family happi- by Egyptians except when they are appropriate and ness destroyed because of this old betrothal practice. her I have heard that some of our high officials are guardian should probe the behavior of the man to as- teaching their girls European dancing and acting. but I am opposed to this and am gance of their wives. In my view. I can remain veiled and still bene. but when someone loves another. great-granddaughter of the each other and speak together after their engagement Prophet. well. one should investigate by talking with acquain- between the two extremes and does not violate what tances. servants." If we do not solve this problem. to see young women without intending marriage. practical. which might be light but could become enough for the two persons to get to know each other's complicated through neglect. The two get married to a Westerner. chance. As for a person's past and other a better model than today's Turkish woman. I cannot find reckless. cousins.

lower-class children are respect for others should not make us overlook the greatly neglected by their parents. A LECTURE IN THE CLUB OF THE UMMA PARTY 75 If the man thinks the upper-class Egyptian wife devils. Public interest is above admira. or even school education for all. one can see that the work- Western woman marrying an Egyptian is disowned ing classes have better health and more energy and by her family. telligent than he is. and and lower classes are. The superior to our own. health care. no less our own civilization. Our education should also include home man- machinery that would do work rapidly. In many of our ways we follow the views of our ens the muscles and gives energy. they should also Is our condition satisfactory? If it is not. or books through which she can children and replace them with Western children. because immodest behavior on the street and prove to our hus- if he does he will endanger his own good product. but parents. education and profit themselves. while most men? I am the first to admire the activities of the of the children of the elite are sick or frail and prone Western woman. What work of most of us at home is lounging on cushions would be the result if this happens? If an Egyptian all day or going out to visit other women. to have authority over her? Can he respect a is deficient and lacking in what her Western sister woman who speaks only about the clothes of her has. they should bring Euro. how can a just man despise us? they find them more sophisticated than Egyptian As for the unjust man. Has she read in Egypt. sensible man respect a woman who believes in magic. If a We should get a sound education. would it be right that she would leave her books about health. and we do not allow them under civilization grows weak and vanishes. in good the husband becomes an example for other young health and have a strong constitution. Our beliefs and actions have been a great cause 1. and child care. The reasoning is the same. Our youth any condition to hurt our feelings or fail to respect claim that they bring European women home because us—if we do all this. he should buy music. They should bring better it in the eyes of men? Good upbringing and to their country that which will profit it and dispense sound education would elevate us in the eyes of men. and who cation for girls. The children of the middle also takes the place of one of our best women. how can we bring benefit to their compatriots. I would decree: do not do injustice to us nor trespass on our rights. Providing primary and secondary school edu- superstition. and compulsory preparatory allows women peddlers and washerwomen. If we fail to do something about not the detriment. When our young men go to Europe to in a man's mind that woman is weaker and less in- study modern sciences. pean students and workers to Egypt because they are We shall advance when we give up idleness. 2. How does wife travels to Europe and sees the children there with the woman who knows how to read occupy her lei- better complexions and more beautiful than children sure time? Only in reading novels. How can a [practice of the Prophet]. Work causes poi- good of the nation. As these men get an this. bands through good behavior and fulfilment of du- If we pursue everything Western we shall destroy ties that we are human beings with feelings. and a nation that has lost its human than they are. almost all of them. We have to find work to do at she admired in those other children? If the lowliest home. . it means we think our condition is satisfactory. despite the care lavished on them by their to respect those among them who deserve respect. rather than agement. shall we be content with her when she more intelligent children. Let them show us what they want. why doesn't the husband gently guide his wife? neighbor and the jewelry of her friend and the furni- Husband and wife should do their utmost to please ture of a bride? This is added to the notion imprinted each other. and her courage. At a first glance. it should be to the benefit. of Egypt. us not to accept marriage to him. not merely acquire national manufacturer of silk visits the factories of the trappings of a foreign language and rudiments of Europe and admires their efficiency. Teaching girls the Qur' an and the correct sunna of the lesser respect that men accord us. or profit herself and others? Being given over to idle- would she do her best to make them beautiful and ness or luxury has given us weak constitutions and make them resemble as much as possible that which pale complexions. with whatever is foreign. it would have been better for women. as much as possible. sons to be eliminated from the blood and strength- tion. men. and the blessing of the dead. If to follow their views. On the other hand. If we eliminate introduce the same European-made product. on condition that their views I had the right to legislate. By the same token. and I am the first to illness. We are ready Now I shall turn to the path we should follow.

subjects they wish without restriction. ing each other in the presence of the father or 4. cation so they can serve the women of Egypt. much as possible. . and childcare. health. Adopting the veil and outdoor dress of the Turk- 5. Setting a quota for females in medicine and edu. and other virtues. Making it incumbent upon our brothers. dispensing with foreign goods and people as tience. Allowing women to study any other advanced ish women of Istanbul. 10.76 Bahithat al-Badiya 3. 9. 8. Bringing up girls from infancy stressing pa. Instructing girls on the theory and practice of any woman and man to marry without first meet- home economics. work. first aid. honesty. Adhering to the shari'a [Islamic law] concern. male relative of the bride. Maintaining the best interests of the country and 6. to implement this program. the men ing betrothal and marriage. 7. and not permitting of Egypt.

" My colleague in its board 1348 [early 1930]. 226-231. March 1932. and virtuous women overlook and forgive any shortcoming. volume 32. Rida was greatly influenced by the reformist message of Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad 'Abduh (chapter 3). and modernity. number 3. A large audience of scholars. 770-777. He advocated return to the original sources of Islam and the re interpretation of the Qur'an to meet modern demands. Adams. volume 31. Translation (London: Oxford University Press. Rida believed in the compatibil- ity of Islam and reason. outstand. and Renewers. Born in Tripoli. 6 Muhammad Rashid Rida Renewal. the Beneficent. Al-Sayyid Rashid Rida wa ikha' mujaddidun" (Renewal. of directors. al-Manar (The Beacon}. Cairo. Muhammad 'Abduh (London: Oxford University Press. disseminating the ideas of Islamic reform throughout the Islamic world.: International Institute of Islamic Study of the Modern Reform Movement Inaugurated by Thought. from Arabic and introduction by Emad Eldin Shahin. "al-Tajdid wa al-tajaddud wa al. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age: 1798-1939 volume 32. Hourani. from late in his life. kindly mentioned its title to you. delivering it and attested to its moderation. Rida attended a school established by Shaykh Husayn al-Jisr (Lebanon. Doctor Mansur Fahmi [1886-1959]. 77 . al-Manar arba'ina sana (Rashid Rida and Forty Years of Fraternity) (The Beacon). was widely read and highly influential. The speech translated here. which reinforced his reformist and antimystical tendencies. 1993). Syria: Matba'at Ibn Zaydun. or The Beacon} delivered at the Royal Insti. Like Afghani and 'Abduh. who believed in the need to combine religious and modern education. He rejected the growing attempts to subordinate Islam to modernity and Westernization and in his later years tilted toward religious conservatism. I appeal to you to ing students of the high schools. pp. reflects Rida's vision of Islamic renewal and his con- cerns about the increased secularization of Muslim society. Rida's monthly periodical. July 1931. Renewing. Egypt. The Society of the Oriental League has entrusted me tute of Geography at the invitation of the Society of to deliver a lecture tonight on the issue of "Renewal. Emad Eldin Shahin. while studying also the works of Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali (1058-1 I I I ) and Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328). 1970). 1865-1935) was a prolific writer and one of the most important figures in Islamic modernism. Albert pp. Rida therefore acquired a fair knowledge of modern sciences and European languages. the Merciful This is a lecture the publisher of this periodical [al- Manar. Shakib Arslan. 1933). science. and he moved to Egypt in 1897 to join 'Abduh. and Renewers Muhammad Rashid Rida (Lebanon-Egypt. pp. 222-244. becoming one of'Abduh's closest disciples and his biog- rapher. which he published from 1898 to 1935.1 Part I In the Name of God. Yet Rida was critical of some of 'Abduh's disciples who took modernist ideas to secular and liberal conclusions. students of al-Azhar [University]. They were asked for their opinion after explained and examined. as well as some eminent European an introduction of the topic and what needs to be Orientalists. the Oriental League on a Ramadan night in the year Renewing. 1937). Va. and Renewers). Rashid Rida 1. (Damascus. Muhammad Rashid Rida. 1845-1909). has writers. Through Muslim Eyes: M. Islam and Modernism in Egypt: A and the West (Herndon. October 1931. Charles C. 49-60. number 1. pp. Renewing. I begin with attended it. number 10.

laxity and profligacy. in to imitation and ended with occupation and the loss a time in which heresy and unfettered promiscuity of independence. Verse 35] our . language. our blossoming civilization. and values. see chapter 11]—not the renewal shell of imitation. and great the modern and the old. in a time that is threatened by women's independently during the reign of Muhammad 'Ali revolution. and when they disobey. intellectual. interest. good traditions. They weakened their states ruption of education and socialization in them in. industrial." [Qur'an. everyone knows. then in its termination and eradication political. [Sura 14. Sura 17. and imitation of Western civilization. even zation. 1838-1897. wickedness". and so. like the shell of an almond or a of heresy and promiscuity. the disin. All these vices our public and private schools are in even greater are old. dress. and renewers have become widely spread necessary efforts. Our stroy a population. any perish but the ungodly?". we have worn out and depreciated. All of our historical origins. liberation of the Oriental woman. the concepts of renewal. vast sultanate. es- walnut that lies under the outer wooden layer. to do so. It is still qualified which you know even better. Verse 16] [This in this nation complain about both and propose one means:] We order them with obedience and virtue. as us in the paths of civic advancement has been re. tions is almost entirely negative. On the and renewers. and to achieve it with a worthy leader. What we have of the old and the modern is a activist. and eroded their independence. and its customs. [Sura 46. and We destroy the harm later. literary. If it had adhered to its initial plan. see chapter 3] to the fringes and have never been able to reproduce and Jamal al-Din [al-Afghani. and politi. they defied our order and pursued disobedience and We need an independent renewal like that of depravity. "We would never have de- become a dignified umma [Islamic community] and stroyed cities if their inhabitants were not given to a strong state. We need renewers of civili- empire. like Muhammad 'Ali the Great. reigned 1922- tional character and religious heritage. "Shall culture. while preserving our nation's religion. and renewers abandoned and forgotten. Nor [do we need] a a time that is strained by religious. and fulfill all our interests.78 Muhammad Rashid Rida ter of dress. We send Our command to (warn) complaint against defects in the religious institu. Therefore they deserved our statement. laws. throne today there is a king [Fu'ad. to exert the renewing. and we will explain the sentence against them is justified. have erupted. ily We shall annihilate these wicked people". and leadership of the Muslim umma. People of vision and understanding them utterly. one that combines true religion. in from the world geographic atlas. Iranian pan-Islamic it fully. which ended in the disintegration of its In a time that is afflicted by ideological. 1805-1849]. ing of the eastern part of Africa and the western part and origins. renewal like that of the Egyptian state. erally "naked arts"] and discouraging virtue under the If our al-Azhar and religious institutions are in pretext of freedom. [There is] Introductory Note on Our Need for no need for an imitative renewal like that of the Ot- Renewal in All Aspects toman state. and the bonds of kinship. which started cial chaos. and would have been charged with the In such a time. civilization. its people living a life of ease. and commercial wealth. The cor. All that it needs is to prepare. It would have restored the glory of Arab youths and teach them respect. tals of the ancient peoples. Verse 59] our statement. it is pousing depravity in the name of the liberal arts [lit- useless in itself and cannot preserve the core. and its national charac. as known to those who are familiar need of reform to renew our civilization. Anything that could preserve our na. as well as attacks on the nation's reli. then turned tegration of the family. the violation of marital vows. which I have described briefly. With this renewal we shall Verse 13] our statement. regain our with the history of Athens and Rome and other capi- independence. Egypt would have become a great sultanate consist- gion. the Great [ruler of Egypt. preferring their own lust over the public Japan to promote our economic. voked and corroded. not new. Communist. and Bolshevik upheavals. but reform after the other. [Sura 28. to seek this goal when the time is amongst us. In our attempts to acquire of knowledge and wisdom. "And when We de- cludes two dimensions: positive and negative. military. and promote 1936] who demonstrates the willingness to do so. Truly. need of reform to renew the guidance of religion. such as Muhammad the novel and borrow the modern we have only clung 'Abduh [Egyptian scholar. and values. we are in a dire need for renewal ripe. 1849-1905. "Ver- cal interests and develop our agricultural. the We need this glorious renewal. nothing remains stable to raise our of Asia. and language.

Muhammad 'Ali's folded turban. are the stron. They en- munities so long as the people are righteous. swimming. not for initi- ceeding with their reforms insofar as the umma is will. for truth has no sanctity for them. (I seek forgiveness from God because restor- was inconceivable before [the umma] became ready ing the nation's glory. 1919-1929] lost his throne and shed the blood is old. trying to turn them and women into nation's components and character. these heretic calls to destroy [the government's] re- ligion. with its conquests and civili- to rise up with him and acknowledge his stature. while preserving the pursuit of lust. true nature. re. guidance or group. [proof] of moral degradation and intellectual decay viving the sciences. speech. and reformist excellence in knowledge or wisdom. form well what God has created her for. developing its wealth. permit drinking and all types of sin. writing. seclu. to concede [to their claim] that the old is repulsive plishments. his wide preaching are useless once they have deviated from garment. opinion. AND RENEWERS 79 statement. and A horde of heretics in this great country are at shaving the beards of his statesmen! present attempting to assume this honorable title [of Jamal al-Din [al-Afghani] and Muhammad 'Abduh renewer]. sophistry. dom: freedom of religion. Some even say that she is fit for wars and fight- of Muhammad 'Ali. distinguish. not correct evi- women and men in dancing [halls]. No advice can be heard during the pursuit dents on his scientific missions [to Europe]. even if he con. politi. leading land and naval armies. praise the extremist Turks who have tossed Islam fulness that follow. and its product in . They also tempt her with The modernizing reforms of Muhammad ' Ali the positions in the government and attorneys' offices. and must be abandoned and despised just because it stan. destroying all the cornerstones of free- it her utmost concern in life to prepare herself to per. take and insolence in criticizing their opponents or crit- pride in the donning of the hat. Their praise of the ex- 2. and achieving glorious accom. They criticize woman. and the religious. RENEWAL. zation. dence. ance of religion. and Great have become known. His Majesty. and an zation whom they claim to be following. seated on the throne ing. and they theless. capable of following their footsteps and pro. and they sion. or in revealing unknown truths. Had it not organized and frugal head of the household. fleets." [Sura tice her to disobey and disregard him. virtue. audacity in mixing right with wrong. the garb of his officials and that of the stu. not for have [formed] a scientific. take off the apparel of virtue. is considered by them as reactionary. and the husband her jailer. and to enter the destroy them because of transgression on His part. home of whoever she likes without [her husband's] when they are righteous in their deeds. permission and approval. and traditions. to allow whom- 11. an affectionate and educating mother. began with an earlier generation. and social reform of' Abduh and Afghani are no dens of pregnancy and labor. But Amanullah Khan [ruler of Afghani. None. ter. allow the mixture of ics. urge her not to consider such impediments as the bur- cal. and to deride those who would preserve [the of his people in his attempts at imitative renewal by past] by calling them reactionary. values. breast-feeding and nurs- longer unknown. even if it is like a garden ment. The umma has seen the bril.) leadership of renewal and monopolized the title of All their wares in this marketplace are but chat- renewers. siders her as an angel in goodly pavilions. donning the [European] hat. to be a good and virtuous fied by the leaders of knowledge and modern civili- spouse. or restoring its liance of one of them in political leadership. "Your Lord would not surely destroy com. who makes behind them. religion. these pretenders would not have dared to voice palace. They engage in flagrant slander. marine and air nobility of Muhammad 'Ali's family. 1857. Verse 117] This means that He [God] will not ever she pleases to enter his home. dress. They urge the nation to abandon the guid. Sa'd Pasha Zaghlul [Egyptian nationalist leader. They call been for the excessiveness of the Egyptian govern- the household her prison. It is quite sufficient preclude them from engaging in modernization. rational. and travel. as well as the princes and the ing. Advice and requests. if the nation so soldiers blindly obedient to their leaders. adorning his wife. did not of moral chaos and whims.] gest basis for the military and civilizational renewal They also entice youths with heresy and praise the of the nation and the state.. RENEWING. ating practices useful to the umma in preserving its ing to respond to them. and work—[the very freedoms] that are glori- ing her over man: that is. cessiveness of the Turkish heretics is not novel.2 which glory. destructive individuals have assumed the despise those who call for that. It 1927]. None of them deserves this title. [..

the Turks have embarked influence of someone who declared unheard-of rights on all the earthly renewal that the heretics called for. which was once a province of this have been justified. practical reform in the name of renewal.3 Similarly. renewal of divisive strife. His heretical re. knowledge. notables5 renounced that lecture and the newspapers gious reformation and modernization. sultanate. Leaders military system. This blind imitation has made them disincline [people from re- 3. [This party. Had they called for except for a small. of political parties. Islam has neither prevented the evils of re. Had it been carried out by both sides. to judge by the support of the criticizing its rules and regulations. Mr. pity Islam They were imitators. casting doubt on the doctrines of religion. it would much blood was shed in the conflict between the free- have been accomplished in a short time. unanimously criticized such nonsense. [The Turks] have not the necessity of equality between men and women. in a newal. therefore. This could be worse than When similarly false renewers deceived Amanullah the divisions of ethnic and national extremisms and Khan. someone at the American University [in Cairo]. ora- abdicate his rule. they would dom of Egypt. 'Abd al-Rahman [Khan. for women at the University of Egypt. Mahmud 'Azmi [1889-1954]. which were the worst centuries for process. There was a dark sedition. explain later. the same way Europe has done with reli. a similar situation took place in Afghani- conditions. in debate at the University. an obstacle that must be removed just Europe. and civilization than the king. though this and elites are forced to call upon the government to process started in the last century during the reign of prevent members of this party from pronouncing evil.] because renewal was carried out by one Europeans. Now [Turks] want [Egypt] to follow [the Turkish state's] footsteps—its heresy and disavowal The Alleged Renewal of the Heretics of the guidance of religion—so that [Egypt] will not Constitutes a New Division of the Nation be able to replace [Turkey] in what it is now quali- fied to do. 'Ulama'. they clashed with and urge the fasting worshipers to defend the Qur'an. The false renewers here do not consider existing Recently. who him and his government. of being an insurmountable obstacle to the progress man sultanate. which it requires. that is. the imitators among the clerical scholars. Further. prayer speaker.80 Muhammad Rashid Rida this generation has been the extinction of the Otto. Nothing remained of it as dirt is removed from the road. in imitation of the heretics of Europe and its liber- newal ignited fires of revolution in his country against als. reigned 1880-1901]. and then affluence. . a to declare their hostility and resistance to it. Doctor Fakhri Faraj Mikhail al-Qibti.] and forcing his people to wear hats. during which side. Asia. nor [opposed] the posi. like Japan. less in number. and so on. This sort of strife occurred in Europe during the The clerical scholars neither opposed nor helped [the Middle Ages. and the authority of religion and church on the other. and the like. They which its enemies scorned and accused of transgres- should have combined religious renewal and earthly sions against women. and Africa. pursued an independent path of renewal. lecture which he published and distributed. in the mosque where I pray. after some of the renewal. assume the leadership of 400 mil. even in divorce and inheritance. This so-called renewal is almost becoming a real lion Muslims [around the world]. annulled it. whom we defeated ligion]. because they imitate the heretics of Eu- rope in their hostility to religious scholars. poor republic. undermining its audience and his own admission. is hostile to religion and despises the devout. His Highness 'Umar Pasha Tusun [1872-1944]. scholars. Afghanistan.4 I heard the Friday which preserved its religious and national character. and he tried to imitate the present Turkish state. The presence of a new party ap- they showered him with praise for unveiling women pears to complete the roster of divisions. and writers urge people to respond to this party. which it condemns. which was the greatest sultanate in of the umma. He was forced to flee and constitute the majority of the nation. found resistance from religious scholars. argued tive aspects. as I will dom of knowledge and government on the one hand. industry. no inclination for [building] schools. There has been no real renewal in tors. Egypt preceded the Turks in this earthly renewal. This took place precisely as a result of the negative Since the last century. accusing its 'ulama' [religious scholars] 5. and. claiming that science and philosophy have 4.

because of its newness. most glorified and exalted. . to selected creatures whose holy fore it escalates.. . ture and level of readiness. generating order in our world [The Lesser Collection] to its correctness. This is exactly what I seek with this souls He prepared to receive it. The Wisdom of the Collected the knowledgeable may understand in senses that the Hadith]. Even divine that of present-day Afghans. Every old creature was lection}. religion." Narrated by Abu Creator. with His grace. They operate [today] just as they operated truth and certitude. and religious renewal is neces. to its usefulness and utility. RENEWING. humans would be similar preferred.] they reached the stage of maturity and independence. and the tendency for discovery and the nature of things and their type.] times need both the old and the new. for the sake stage to another. provided that each is put in its place with no neglect The true statement on this topic is that humans at all or excess. folk proverb says: "Whoever does not have a past [Ahmad ibn al-Husayn] al-Bayhaqi [994-1066] in al- will not have a future. RENEWAL. [. 933-1014] in his Mustadrak [Supplement].] Renewing is a law of social association. which is based on the revelation of the wise dition before it spreads. "No change will ism that its followers accrue. However. in accordance with instinct of independence. and it leads us [to conclude] that both the new lecture. or their reluctance in up- thou find in God's way (of dealing): No turning off holding it and following its rules in managing the in- wilt thou find in God's way (of dealing). ] This is the meaning of renewal and What I stated in the introduction to a previous renewing. [companion of the Prophet. may be appropri. [.] A Types of Renewal and Their Necessity rational person may prefer the new for a reason related Social. terests of humans and the laws of society and Sura 35. Among the cre. Ra- advanced than bee hives and ant hills. and every new one will become old. . until it was completed by Islam when of dear Egypt and the entire Orient. thing outside it. . new and old are relative. clarifying its existence. died 889] in his Sunan [Hadith Col- ated.] the Seal Part 2 of the Prophets. on coeducational schools. either in itself or for some- sary for human societies. I see the condition of Egypt as dif. The renewal and change and transformation in the phase of our of religion means renewing its guidance. They enable societies to patriotism. Da'ud [al-Sijistani.. the narrators of hadith [ac- counts of the Prophet] tell us that [Muhammad. In each there is good and ill." This is a wise proverb that Ma'rifa [al-sunan. tional and independent people do not shun the old and turn to the new unless there is a reason making it pref- erable..] civilization. except by children to flocks of birds. ." [Qur'an. benefit and harm. God. Despite this completion. said. and others from the hadith of Abu Hurayra common people cannot approach. died 678]. [ . "God sends to this nation at the beginning of every century All of creation is new. [. [. . to prevent this conflict be. It is counterweighed by the The True and Decisive Statement on preservation of the old. [Jalal al-Din] al- Renewal and renewing of the universe are among Suyuti [1445-1505] referred in his al-Jami' al-saghir the divine general laws.. . which is opposite of imitation. in accordance with their na. We must repel this se. peace be upon them all. . The absolute original is the someone who renews its religion. has advanced along with lecture. in accordance with the rule of logic. such as the economy. progress through the stages of civilization and ascend ferent from that of Europe during these centuries and on the paths of science and knowledge. [. civic. I see it as the greatest task that I can perform the nature of human societies in their progress from one before the Society of the Oriental League. There is New and Old no contradiction or opposition between them. renewal is part of nature and habit. their dwellings would not be more and those women and men who are at their level. Some people by na- Part of renewal in human action is achieved by the ture tilt more to one or the other. and the old have their place. Verse 43]. Rarely is the new invention. Without them. political. Each has its place. and it is a matter of igno- ate to state here as a summary: rance to prefer one over the other in absolute terms. [Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah] al-Hakim [al- once new. appropriateness. . As a Naysaburi. AND RENEWERS 81 stan. and nationalism. refuting the innovations and extrem- for our parents and grandparents.

marriage. They formed several associations features were assimilated into other peoples. [. newal.82 Muhammad Rashid Rida Spartans. The for- to investigate means of prevention. [.] [a later caliph. Commander of the Faith." The Arab descendants of Ma'add are like the 1858-1920." They never denied its existence. Our ancestors preceded the foreigners in tak. even rules of inheri- home. all the rest of God's regulations regarding the per- ing pride in their legislature and other matters in the sonal status code. I then mention a statement of the wise man of what he said in the letter: "follow your grandfather of the Orient [Afghani] about them. second caliph. 634. and other components and lims in this country. in which the British differ from the laws of all it is French. see chapter 23]. political. 661-680]. of the sharl 'a in such and such cases of the penal tions deduced through ijtihad [interpretation] by our code and finances. for. so Preferring all that is national. most exalted." nation of the religious scholars and its negative im- Similarly. He wrote a form. . Arabized and Islamized. commerce. not I need to begin with a brief introduction on the stag- to learn from them how they rule. . "It is French. and harsh life Ottoman religious official] Musa Kazim [Turkey. . have advanced. inheritance. either new or old. not the Germans. An example is what happened vorce.. Ma'add ibn 'Adnan [patriarch of the northern Arab [The first scholar] is the Shaykh al-Islam [chief tribes] in his toughness. muftis [religious officials] between the two types of 644]. The heretical false renewers try to medication I usually carry during travel and keep back convince us to abandon all that.. They do not fear anyone In clarifying the need for religious and earthly re- who is simple in attire and appearance. Part 3 ful. Those who abandoned these ucts in their country.]! include [.. not just the rules of inheritance. has reached such an extent that characteristics of the nation. the Their Religion peoples of the West. and literary life in their character. When 'Umar arrived in Syria wearing his patched garment and riding his camel. and Islam's perspective and encouragement. the people of Syria are accustomed to seeing their rulers in splendid clothes.] The answer I received was.] statements by two Turks. . Part of heresy. over that which belongs heretics and Copts have spoken at podiums and to others. [Other] nations assimilated into them and were came appalled by the spread of cheap German prod. [. "We came to teach them how we rule. ['Umar's] instructed his governors in pact on rulers and seekers of political and social re- foreign provinces to observe Arab garb. is a long as they obeyed these instructions and maintained cornerstone of economic. I inquired in some eigners imitated our ancestors in this respect. tute that medication with a German one.. They prefer their own The contempt of the false renewers for us.. allowing the eldest son to acquire the gave as the reason [for its unavailability] that it was entire inherited estate of his parents. They preserve the regulations of the old schools urging us to abandon our religion and our British judges and their legal decisions more than we entire shari'a. while the rest of made by the French. perseverance. particularly the British. There is no difference for these renewing between 'Umar [ibn al-Khattab. and that we remained silent and leading scholars on the basis of our laws and prin. we must abandon ciples. who be. style. especially their language and religion. laws." 'Umar re. his siblings receive nothing. Mu'awiyya observed: "O. tance. but only other nations. Therefore. a better one for that purpose. faithful to their kind and devoted to their nation. I would have preferred it. sponded. let alone the regula. [. They maintain the regulations that we believe to have been argue that the government has abandoned the rules revealed by God. I had to substi. Had an Egyptian or Arab medication The Contempt of the Heretics and Copts for existed. accepted its judgment. and Mu'awiyya regulations. may God be pleased with him. letter to his governor in Persia. God bless his soul. and di- early years of Islam. all vibrant nations. the Muslims in Urging Them to Abandon With this kind of nationalism and patriotism. 'Utba ibn Farqad. particu- pharmacies in Berlin and Munich about a French larly the British.. In .] The Arabs were able to preserve their Preferring the National to the Foreign national character in the provinces they conquered. the Mus- industries. [the first] by one of the most enlightened scholars of bidding [Muslims] to wear the dress of the Persians Islam and [the second] by an outspoken proponent and ordering them to preserve their Arab customs.

. I guarantee you that I can deduce from the al-Da'wa wa al-irshad to [Ottoman] Prime Minister vast Islamic shari 'a all the rulings that the sultanate Huseyin Hilmi Pasha [1855-1922]. a practical resistance that the government feared [to "If you agree not to commit yourselves to Hanafi make reforms]? When I presented the project of doctrine. . [. because it is impossible for us to progress gelize for your religion (Islam). the emperor of Japan [Mutsuhito Meiji. and to [Colonel charged with the issuance of official fatwas for the Mehmed] Sadik Bey [§ehrekustii. needs and that address the conditions of the present he told me: "This is a great project and necessary to time. Its implementation depends on the accep- is possible. concerns the fol- the Ottoman state. me in Istanbul with the project of al-Da 'wa wa al. "I oppose the religion of the shaykhs gious freedom we have." [General] Mahmud § evket Pasha fatwas—is that they do not issue fatwas in accor. [He also planned] to establish a unified how can they be accused of blocking civic progress. 1869-1932. He informed is in our interest and the interests of our people to me that "if you succeed in this effort and establish get acquainted. and there are similar ones by because he was persecuted and not allowed to enter him regarding the Muslim 'ulama'. to power in the Ottoman Empire in 1908]. The 'ulama' of Egypt Yemen. Among the things convince the Central Committee of the CUP. I see that you do not do the of Fatih and Sulaymaniyya [historic mosques in same.] Islam and the minister of education. He is one of the founders of the lowing incident: Committee of Union and Progress [CUP. But the an implicit moral link between you and us. I would like you to send us preachers to evan- Istanbul]. which came During the time [Jamal al-Din] was at Istanbul. who view us as one and the same." The understanding of Rashid [Rida] Efendi and Shaykh sultan was interested in this letter and ordered the Muhammad 'Abduh of the religion of Islam helps formation of a committee of his advisors in Yildiz progress and benefits the state. reigned This man. It included the Shaykh al- to wish to serve Islam under your auspices." [. and so on. and it that Rida established in Egypt in 1912]. I will I learned about them. do my utmost to persuade them to use their influence Islam—who is restricted by them in the issuance of on this matter. What contains rules that contradict established statements is their status in Egypt?" of Hanafi doctrine. I will volunteer to teach there and to promote cooperation vis-a-vis the Western states deliver my health and science lessons in accordance and peoples." I responded. who can serve as while we follow the ideas of those people. evangelizing their religion because of the reli- He explained. The statement of al-Sayyid Jamal al-Din [al-Afghani]. which I refer to here. I suggested to him. or Rational Interpretation] that he used to publish in Egypt before the [re. he was explaining The 'ulama' of Istanbul had a great influence on to me his plan for the reform of the government of the nation and the government. see chapter 21]. reigned 1876-1909] seeking his friendship and say- irshad [Propagation and Guidance. RENEWING. while you oppose religion?" try. to establish friendly relations. commercial court to specialize in reviewing the cases and where is this progress? When did they put up such related to foreigners and Jews. the Western people send missionaries to our coun- "How is that possible. [Ottoman prime minister. God bless his soul. also told me of the influence of the Turkish re- Ahkam-i 'Adliye [Compendium of Legal Statutes. all of which conforms to shari'a. and about the Shaykh al.. but what can we do with the official tance of the 'ulama' and the approval of the Commit- scholars of fatwas [religious rulings]?" tee of Union and Progress. . editor [al-Afghani] on the Turkish Scholars of a magazine [ictihad. I will speak to the Shaykh He means that the Islamic clerical scholars al-Islam to convince the scholars. the two minis- . helped 1867-1912] sent a letter to Sultan Abdiilhamid [II. an elite school ing that "each one of us is an Oriental king." He responded. promulgation of the Ottoman] Constitution [in 1908]. "I realize that this the state.] [The second scholar] is Doctor 'Abdullah Bey The Statement of Sayyid jomal al-Din Cevdet [Turkey. AND RENEWERS 83 his home in a suburb of Istanbul. who publicly declares heresy. 1858-1913]. and an Islamic college. I see with your approach in religious reform. I would be the first Palace for consultation. and then said: "The scholars in my 1876]. He formulated all its laws in accordance with do not enjoy the slightest share of such an influence— the shari'a. ligious scholars. God bless his dance with the rules of the [Ottoman] Mecelle-i soul. because it country (Iraq) do not have such an influence. RENEWAL. 1860-1940] to state would oppose [such reforms].

according cord. along with an ers). and the condition of the people. and the spread of hadith of Anas [ibn Malik. lated in the books offiqh [jurisprudence]. prior to disunity and dis. may peace be upon him. from Islam. it is in even more need of renewal in earthly Yildiz Palace and the discussion started. They met with the sultan at vation." Narrated by Muslim from the according to scientific methods. servant of the Prophet.. I have mentioned the hadith on religious renewal: on which depend the defense of the country and the "God sends to this nation at the beginning of every protection of the umma from aggression. "You are more knowledgeable about styles. may peace be upon him. Islamic teachings in the world. directed his gaze at him and asked his opinion. as stipu- from the schools of Istanbul to be sent to Japan. which God has perfected. writing. your earthly affairs. in vocabulary. died 875] from the hadith of manner. tion of the principles of useful sciences and arts and the establishment of schools. mention to him that his suggestion of the one who followed this (evil practice). these scholars turn even Muslims away this type of renewal in the statement of the Prophet. follow. and hos- pitals. orphanages. place. "He who introduced some vincing the Japanese to adopt Islam? [My] opinion good practice in Islam and was followed (by people).84 Muhammad Rashid Rida ters officially concerned with this issue. ligion. circa 612-709] and 'A'isha [bint Abi Bakr.] industry. The shari'a has left this to the experience of the vival of the Arabic language. but without Jarir ibn 'Abdullah [companion of the Prophet. in time. wife of . The sultan There are two kinds of this renewal in this regard. such as agriculture. and the issue of harmless practices. died implementing the suggestion of special education 640]. Sayyid If the nation needs renewal in maintaining its re- Jamal al-Din al-Afghani. He One relates to the public interest and our need for said what may be summarized as follows: "Your legislation. he would be assured of reward like the one who fol- vide them with a special education that qualifies lowed it. in it was in the beginning. and governments. ing the doctrine or the scholar whose knowledge they The second type [of renewal in earthly affairs] trust. prohibiting inno- spects. Some of the means for this renewal include the re. and say that you theirs being diminished in any respect. groups." The sultan adopted this view. century someone who renews its religion. without their rewards being diminished in them to fulfill this duty in the present age. said and speech. Its interests differ in accordance to changes Shaykh al-Islam and the minister of education sug. for His Majesty to send tice in Islam that was subsequently followed (by oth- a courteous letter to the emperor. Some the Two Renewals are particular to government. people. without has received the highest approval. How could they be charged with con. and all human legislation in the presence of a [self- tify those who engage in taqlid [imitation]. The shari'a prohibits ijtihad revealed text's meaning is] self-evident. Among these general practices are the founda- for Islamic evangelists. They approve the legislation on the return to the simplicity and guidance of religion as basis of consultation and the exercise of reason. the writing of books in easy modern in this regard. except where [the to recognized criteria. revelation or the practice of the Prophet. most qualified in all re. to reunify the Muslims issues that are not stipulated as self-evident in God's around their commonality. nation into factions and mutually hostile groups. The gested the formation of a delegation of scholars shari 'a has taken all that into consideration. Everyone is equally [responsible] for this re- A Conclusion on the Objective behind newal: individuals. The objective of this hadith focuses on the loosen and bind]. is to develop a cadre of intelligent persons and pro. Sayyid Jamal al-Din remained silent. . to justify individual ijtihad. such as military affairs. the spread of education and socialization. evident] text. trade. And he who introduced some evil prac- suffice for the time being. and to jus. The Lawgiver [God] has recommended Majesty." The The legislation connected with this renewal is words of this text are [directly] related to our topic. It might any respect. he would be required to bear the burden like that appropriate gift. The Prophet. entrusted in Islam to those in charge and to the group We have explained its meaning at the outset of the known as ahl al-hal wa al-'aqd [the people who lecture. without a divisive extremism that turns the relates to matters of livelihood. The affairs. [." Narrated by will look into its implementation in a satisfactory Muslim [ibn al-Hajjaj. and others.

RENEWING. tion of the financially needy by collecting usurious In conclusion. RENEWAL. administrative. All and to follow truth and justice. financial. land. AND RENEWERS 85 the Prophet. and mili. you are restrictions are to avoid inflicting or generating harm more knowledgeable about. principle according to which "Necessity permits the arts. naval. to observe the [jurisprudential] the umma and the state hold dear. The only and whatever relates to your earthly affairs. and industries. and air installations. does not restrict the umma in pursuing them. legitimate renewal includes all that interest from them). may God be pleased these are considered a collective duty in Islam. He commented on its meaning: "Whatever entire umma sins when it neglects them. exploiting the condi- [ibn Hanbal. and the with her." Narrated by Ahmad and transgression (for example. 780-855]. The shari 'a concerns the affairs of your religion is referred to me. circa 614-678]. impermissible. such as the sciences. . tary systems." to assess the extent of this necessity.

Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. from Oman during the 1700s. not in things like working or studying except in an emergency. and religions. Ahmed I. In the 1880s and 1890s. 45-48. 1890-1947) was the scion of a long line of religious scholars from the large Mazrui clan. which had immigrated to Mombasa. We also have wanted to follow them in their ex- ther this nor that. we artisanry as they do. And the foundation by which We have imitated them in their habits. pp. Farsy. and to find direction for a future he felt was being lost. [how- lost its way and [took to] imitating that of the spar. Trans. I say [we should follow them reason intelligent people in every tribe customarily only] in their good customs. ed. toms to those of others who do not get along with us and dance. like their pastimes. Arab colonial power in Kenya and Mombasa was replaced by British rule. 201-202. we should do so] only in ways that are good and which do not violate our religion. 1830-1970 1955). music. 7 Shaykh al-Amin bin 'All al-Mazrui Advice Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali Mazrui (Kenya. I say this because every day we see ourselves its which are not like those of other people. These are not the sorts of things do so] only for the good. Pouwels. is the specific construction he gave to the singular historical character of Swahili Islamic society. Horn and Crescent: Cultural 71 in Fran9ois Constantin. ever] in [other] things of ours. 1989). an existence which was nei. their love of coun- cause they fear becoming like the blackbird which try. Kenya. pp. Salim. 86 . Al-Amin sought to explain what appeared to him to be a topsy- turvy world. This is mimicking whites. 59- 1. as well as the localized dilemmas in which it found itself during Mazrui's lifetime. Pouwels. lation from Swahili and introduction by Randall L. 6-8. and not only in ways that are good because of dissimilarities people have in their cities. ways of [conducting] meetings. orientate (The Paths of Islam in East Africa) (Paris: Editions 800-1900 (Cambridge. He appears to have read the teachings and writings of contemporary authors such as Muhammad Abduh (chap- ter 3) and Rashid Rida (chapter 6). not become a sparrow. England: Cambridge University Karthala. 1987). [it seems] people know their way is their nationality. ertions. and which do not contradict our religion.. 97-124. their hold fast to these roots and habits and customs be. The Shaft'i Ulama of East Africa. and then [if we do so. 120-122. whose identity was lost to him yet who could to mimic them. What we have observed of their exertions has We must take care that we do not change our cus. "Sheikh al Amin bin Ali al Thanks to Professor Thomas Hinnebusch for his valuable help Mazrui: un reformiste modeme au Kenya" (Shaykh al-Amin with this translation. First published in 1931-1932. All people of the world have their customs and hab. however. from we have only seized upon [things like] drinking wine which they derive their habits and customs. To address these issues. their solidarity. Les votes de I 'Islam en Afrique Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast. and other things like these. Kenya: East African Muslim Welfare Society. What is especially interesting about al-Amin. Randall L. Nothing has survived of those journals except for twenty-seven essays that he later collected into a little booklet. 1987).1 How Do We Imitate the Europeans? to their ways. Mazrui wrote two short-lived newspapers in Arabic and Swahili in the early 1930s. we have left all Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui. golf. pp. it does not benefit us row. from which these excerpts are taken. nations. Shaykh Abdallah Salih (Mombasa. (Madison. For this and dressing as they do. and [if we choose to change we have taken to: to the contrary. He was very aware of the nature of this debate as it was being discussed outside East Africa. Uwongozi (Advice) Press. bin 'Ali al-Mazrui: A Modern Reformist in Kenya). been in their entertainment like football. ca.

the new skills and ideas cites all the time in his daily and nighttime prayers. and rearing their they have two daily newspapers. and other modern forms of employment.2 They are the ones see ways of following the whites' example? It seems who do mechanical and railway work: they are the we have become like flies. and his father Swahili and other Muslims found themselves to be minori- ties in their own city. which he re- ployment and mastered English.] takes him and he goes and pushes him into the fire 3. Mombasa has 75. poor in everything. It brings this twaddle as something that makes them civilized. and We have tried to imitate the Europeans in how we among these are many Muslims who are the most expect our women to act to the point that we expect humiliated of all peoples. Are these ones [now] to be where there are not Muslims. agriculture. building only in sores. We don't consider them to be poor in wealth. they are the ones who make an good scent. thousands of people from the up- country crowded into the city seeking work and the excite- Qur'an. the Praise the Lord! Is it only in bad things that we Taita. them to be like theirs. we have never regarded wretched little one of ours which is so little. [These ethnic groups were neighbors of the coastal and—God forbid!—leaves at a barely mature age. or days reduce them to a contemptuous and humiliat- other things! ing condition that accomplishes nothing for them Poor people of Mombasa! These days we cannot except to debase their religion. munity—who number only a few people—and [yet] ing them comfortable and neat. dissension in Mombasa concerns the Banyan com- pean women have in fixing up their houses and mak. . me great sorrow that Goans have their own school. single [Muslim] newspaper except this work and crafts and cooking. And [even this] he is hardly able to read ment of the new possibilities that the new order seemed to properly. And in the whole of Kenya there manners. and the ability they have in [doing] handy exists not one. even that of the represent. Swahili. It has gotten so that people think there is no need for knowledge of These quarrels in which Muslims are involved these [practical affairs like] business. even learning salutations like "good morning" or "thank you. and with good customs and Muslims have none. The So he finishes at the Qur'an school. ["Fot-fot yes" in the original. When the British made Mombasa the principal port hardly knowing anything except how to read the city of their Kenyan colony. and made happy by a stench. For example." which are how you greet or thank some- one in their language. and [something] to make our while we have not one school in all our communi- women go around in circles. and We have tried to follow the whites' ideas about charge us with the vigor to follow it."3 vent it. O Prophet! Show us the truth. as if the European language Advice for Today's Muslims itself is all the knowledge we need. ADVICE 87 meaningful forms of employment to the Chaga. Fatiha [opening verses of the Qur'an]. work. Show us what knowledge. It is a stinking mess. and the Kamba.] misfortune [for him]. These casual employees themselves of all that is base. One source of great women do] or wear frocks. They are poor in learning. I am unable to identify pit of the missionary school where there is great this reference. One hardly sees a city anywhere even more than our own. searching effort to learn the work of lighting and craftsmanship for filth.000 people. ties [Swahili towns of East Africa] except these Qur'an schools which a seven-year-old child enters 2. They learned quickly about the new forms of em." all [of them] speak the language of the whites worst] enemies. I implore you.—Trans. while Mombasa children in a healthy way.—Trans. to the lowest order [of society]. Or the knowledge Euro. nor know its meaning. the Kikuyu. which requires [of [even] see the difference between [genuine] knowl. Muslims these days are of the Europeans who work as coolies and cooks and in [such] a state of division that they are their [own "boys. them] their best and [demands that they] cleanse edge and [mere] language. needed to land jobs in light industry and transport. and arm us with the strength to pre- [merely] a twisting of the tongue when we say "yes. rather as fools who belong whom there are great differences. [the form of which] we have taken to be is worthless. poor even in fearing the people who proper women if they don't cut their hair [as white lead them. they are the ones who do radio like scavenger beetles becoming offended only by a and electrical work. and Muslims among taken to be scholars? No. or telephone workers.

of brotherhood by His word. nor between one year. part in a certain matter. lifts them into the ex. one defends only its own interests and causes harm Every day we complain that our education is de.000 shillings in just Swahili. They were in We always want the government to treat us the four groups: 'Amr ibn al-'Asi [died 663] and his army. [all] having a madrasas? I say the money is not lacking. encourage all Muslims to be one family. we will collect 36. This will [ward off] dis. mighty to help us to fulfill it.4 our community for consideration. since all Muslims want very much to This is my plan and I place it before the eyes of be respected. all the people require is a plan. the reason for "Jama 'a" in the Arabic language means something lifting them up. No doubt all of these shared one goal. [and] then they should are a family which encourages people who live in a resolve to do this with their whole hearts. So why cannot we hospitable [that is. twenty shillings more than the Poll Tax they pay.88 Shaykh al-Amin bin 'All al-Mazrui Our advice to today's Muslims is to [encourage same as the Indians. for example. otherwise gen- alted ranks. saves their religiosity. [The meaning is unclear: either that the Qur'an pro- vides evidence of the great things Mazrui desires for Mus- army. school. but I say this must be and hood is in the fundamental objective of achieving that we can do what is necessary to improve our unity. tribe and tribe. and teaches them excellent manners and erous] people donate three shillings annually so our great strength of character. and many among them are Mus. nor is there any other means except through education that combines [matters of] Religion and the World. so then there will their community. This will be sufficient to build the madrasas European and Javanese. eliciting lims. But where is the money to build these which makes [many] people into one. reigned 632-634]. God forbid. nor between the damned and that we need and to teach our children everything they the devout. it enjoins every Muslim to be a brother to another. and This madrasa itself [provides] a stratagem for protect. by open. Thus we. Even clining and that it is total nonsense to expect the though their intention is to be united. I ask God Al- This respect cannot be realized except. number around 12. as God Almighty showed in the Qur'an. as And [it is the purpose of] the Muslim community to I have already stated. We believe that Muslims number about half." And the essence of this brother- will cause them anxieties. and Shurahbil ibn Hasana [circa 570-639] lims. Abu 'Ubayda [ibn al-Jarra circa 581-639] and his army. the abolition of different factions where every resolve. they cling to government to improve it. and his army. they do not see like you that [there is anything wrong ing children from the temptations of the mission in] teaching their children knowledge of the world. need to know to benefit them in this world and in the God Almighty has arranged all Muslims in a form Hereafter. with money! Do we think that great education will Look at the armies of Islam which set out to con- happen without a little application and with a lot of quer the cities of Iran in the time of our lord Abu complaining? Bakr [first caliph. each favoring only themselves. ing the way needed to accomplish this. children can learn about religion and worldly mat- grace and will encourage them to desire better things ters too? of themselves. Countrymen.] but their enmity was well known. not in [creating] divisions between be no problem that the money will be available. which stated that "Mus- People suffering misfortune will say that this [plan] lims are brothers. [Yet] have we thought even for them to] build their madrasas [seminaries] to teach a day of wanting to do as they do in giving as they their children what is in the shari 'a [religious law] and do to educate their children? Indians each donate what they need to know about life in this world as well. we are stingy their differences. Rather. and harmony from their religion and avoiding harm.000. afterward particular city to participate in the reconciliation of they ought to make a great effort. that is Arabs and Swahili. nor between master and servant.—Trans. or that the Qur'an provides the wisdom by which Mus. first. Confrontation saps people's strength. The people of Mombasa number about 75. Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan [died 683] and his 4. nor between Arab and Kikuyu. The Community of Islam This is the true way of advancing Muslims to a condition of pride and sublimation. Because of this . lims can achieve great things. So if we require every person among us to donate three not to [create] differences between Indian and shillings a year. to others. nor between religion and religion.000.

thus saving Cardamom Fever. for example. ADVICE 89 estrangement they were unable to defeat the Irani. ers. the whole is seized by Wild hold fast to our Islamic comradeship. And when. 5. just as the Prophet said. it will dis- brought all four armies together.] .—Trans. Do we think we should distance ourselves from the A function of the Community of Islam is [to see] bigotry of people when they were in the kind of that all Muslims are like the connecting parts of a ignorance [that existed] before the Prophet came. like the parts of our Lord. the whole thing: and follow what the Prophet told us? Should we not and if one [part] is sick.5 Furthermore. If the ans until Khalid ibn Walid [died 642] went and Community of Islam becomes this way. These [examples] show that tearing from rescuing a neighbor from a fearful danger in at each other does not strengthen people even though order that they might be like each other in vigor? they intend to be harmonized. not many days passed does it appear to be when a person stops himself without victory. does a had its armies under its own commanders. stopping them from bringing harm to oth- the enemy. But when rich person do harm when he tries to help his com- they joined together under the command of General panion to be a rich man like him? Also. the community] in respect to every other part. [Matungu fever is a very painful sickness that is com- mon in East Africa. what is desirable each other? A Muslim is the brother of a fellow is that it be like this between Muslims. body. It will permit them Allies in the Great War [World War I] were afraid to help their brothers so they might bring about the of defeating their enemies so long as each country desired harmony. how bad [Ferdinand] Foche [of France]. which is when they defeated bonds. creating one army courage some from organizing their own [exclusive] under his command. we have seen [how] the armies of the brother in religion owes another. and leaving [them] only [with] the duty a Likewise. each part [of Muslim.

1987). who espoused communism and secular nationalism. Martin's Press. Abdurahman was elected to the Cape Town City Council and the Cape Provincial Council. As a leader of the non-Europeans in South Africa he was The Aim of Democracy second to none. City Council. Abdurahman's reformism was already losing favor with younger militants. Queen Street. It was the aim of democracy that every man in this cratic Institutions in South Africa. Democracy can be de- ing at the Muslim Institute. H. Maskew Miller Longman. 90 . and established a medical practice on his return to Cape Town in 1895. by contrast. then there was the individual that found hap- also occupied an important position on the Capetown piness in pursuing his vocation. perhaps because many of the South Asians and Africans whom he rep- resented were not Muslim." member of the Coloured Fact Finding Commission. Apartheid: A Study of Political Movements among the 58. However. different conceptions of happiness. As to what was meant by democracy. 1935. 1990. helping to found the African People's Organisation and serving as its president from 1905 until his death in 1940. running on a platform of unity among nonwhite peoples and a demand for equal civil and political rights with whites. who chose as his subject "Demo. 'Coloured' Politics (New York: St. 1987). 198-204. M[ember of] Provincial] "Democracy. He acted as leader to the South Afri- can Indian deputation that went to India in 1929. Despite the imposition of suf- frage restrictions on nonwhites. Mogamed Tasleem Ajam. said the chairman. under the scribed as something in one's mind. Be- South Africa. The Rise and Decline of Kronos: Journal of Cape History. drunk. Making Race: The Politics and Economics of Coloured People of South Africa. Coloured Identity in South Africa (Cape Town. and most interesting as well as a most difficult subject. provided a man did not seek happiness in such a man- "Dr. E. Van der Ross. Durban. South Africa: South Africa: Tafelberg. Abdurahman. 33^40. Abdurahman. said that the doctor needed no introduction drunkard regarded it as the height of happiness to get and described him as the father of non-Europeans. Abdurahman's speeches rarely referred to Islam." said the learned speaker. "Dr Abdullah Abdurahman. pp. Abdurahman on Democracy. 1986). p." pp. Ian Golden. Mr. R. in front of a Muslim audience—as in the speech described here. By the time of this speech. 1880-1985 (Cape Town. July 19. 8 Abdullah Abdurahman Democratic Institutions in South Africa Abdullah Abdurahman (South Africa. the religious man spent his time in prayers so Most of them were aware. 1. who arrived in Durban last week as a which arises from ideas and wishes of the people. 4. 1870-1940) was the pre-eminent political leader of South Asians in South Africa in the first half of the twentieth century. A. no two people was accorded a public welcome last Sunday morn. pp. There were introducing the speaker. The highest aim auspices of the Young Muslim Debating Society." Indian Views." said that it was a world should have equal right to pursue happiness. "is an ideal C[ouncil]. In of any human being was to be happy. Abdurahman soon entered politics. Gavin Lewis.1 Dr. that the that his soul may be saved and he found happiness doctor was a member of the Provincial Council and there. Abdurahman's pater- nal grandfather was a former slave who founded a successful business in Cape Town. Dr. would give the same answer. Aburahman. given to the Young Muslim Debating Society in Durban—he allowed him- self passing references that linked his faith with his political beliefs. For instance. the Ismail. went to Scotland to study medicine. in the mid-1930s. E. volume 17. the chairman. Introduction by Charles tween the Wire and the Wall: A History of South African Kurzman. 48. his father studied theology at al-Azhar in Cairo.

equal before God and man. has any more intelligence than any one of us. there should is that the white man inherits certain rights immedi- be nothing preventing him from doing so. and no restric- tions are placed on him. and custom and tradition mold his be placed in his way. If God made no distinc. It will be years before the democratic ideals are im- try. the latter inherit the restrictions and pov- are all equal. DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA 91 ner as to disturb or injure others. The Prophet of Islam had said that reasoning comes out of a mold where the character is molded lighted the torch to heaven. hundred years ago. but this did not already a number of Europeans who have realized imply that we were not equal. and that is what we have here following his trade or vocation. but he should be prevented. If he did so he who are in a minority. is judged by something for which he is not responsible. and as tion. And until we are regarded as equal in this coun. The Native is now aspiring for something is also true that there was such a thing as custom and higher. meant that we were all equal. From its birth. Islam. erty of their parents. pressed upon the Europeans of South Africa. Man. so. There must be a pur. that the system is wrong and unjust. In a democratic institution a man is free. The privileged classes cannot continue to oppress the different classes for- While it is true that man is born free in this world. ideas that pass through his mind. and the vast majority of un- would find himself in a lunatic asylum. Immediately [as] you begin to given to man was skill." said the doctor. There are different races and different colours. "Democracy had nothing to do with the vote or the franchise. If there was a democratic institution in South Africa. can be compared with the system which prevailed tially. a child's character is molded becoming greater. Democracy privileged classes known as the non-Europeans. and is of a different colour. here. The privileged classes or the Europeans. no obstacles should by its parents. white labour or the civilized labour policy. ideas for him. you are departing from the world to prevent a man from exercising his skill by ideals of democracy. God has given us the power of rea. which must be developed to its fullest ex. If we study the history of the world. however. for him. The vote was merely an instrument to put your ideals into We can divide the population of South Africa into operation. and this leads us to While the former inherit all the privileges of free our religion. The tradition we have in South Africa self by playing music in his own home. If a lover of music enjoyed him. Not because he went out in the street disturbing others with his music. As the oppressed classes consoli- . we had no right to do gard himself superior than those of a different colour. it was 400 years B. and the pressure of the privileged classes is tradition. Our Present System can declaration of rights that every man was born free. We have the pose of God in creating the difference.C. he is The Vote and the Franchise differentiated against. we find long as we have different groups we shall have no that there were no democratic institutions until a few democratic institutions. It is impressed upon the white child to re- tion between man and man. you cannot treat a class of people differen. it ever. They had then a democratic institu- also true that he had made us different. there is no such thing as a democratic institu. This was something that The Two Groups you can use to put your ideas into practice. pean in this country to be a democrat. A man. Custom and Tradition this would not be the case. Because he belongs to a different race. The greatest gift that God had because of his birth. but only for the privileged classes. It required skill to follow a treat a man in a privileged manner irrespective of his trade or profession and it was the greatest sin in the intelligence or character. because he tent. in South Africa. It was stated in the Ameri. Though God had made us all equal. cannot follow all the two groups. but if he ately [as] he comes into this world. We must not expect the Euro- soning. which reserves skilled labour for the privileged classes. If you admit this doctrine of everyone being The system of government in South Africa today equal. which also teaches us that we citizenship. There were tion.

We have seen that the group system At the conclusion of the speech questions were leads to destruction. which was carried. Mr. and the Indian. their demands. . we can gain much. but come it must. the Coloured. By consolidating the Native. Afbdulla] I[smail] Kajee [1896-1947] thanked The fear of physical force is driving the Boer and the doctor for the very interesting lecture and said that the Briton into one people. concluded compel the Europeans to accede to at least some of the doctor. Badat proposed a vote democratic institution in a day or a week. Why should we not con. Mr. he agreed that there should be cooperation between solidate our forces? We cannot achieve our ideal of the different groups. they will not see it in our time.92 Abdullah Abdurahman date themselves and show a united front. invited and satisfactorily answered by the speaker. We may of thanks. S. M.

The powerful among you This is the text of Abu Bakr's speech: are weak [in my eyes] until I take away from them O People. Ibn Badis was born in Constantine. Obey me as long as I observe God in your affairs. min (Shaykh 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis: Pioneer of Reform and khutba al-Siddiq (Allah ta'ali 'anhu)" (The Principles of Gov. "Usul al-wilayat fi al-islam. you owe me no obedience. 1978). am not better than any one of you. Esposito. In addition. volume 13. Algeria. 161- Emad Eldin Shahin. Tunisia: Dar al-Raya Pioneer of the Islamic Movement in Contemporary Algeria) li al-Nashr. Tajriba fi al-islah: Ibn Badis haraka al-islamiyya fi al-jaza'ir al-mu'asira (Ibn Badis: (A Case in Reform: Ibn Badis) (Tunis. Emad Eldin May God Be Pleased with Him). which he held responsible for the repression and injustice of Muslim societies. January 1938. where he was exposed to the reformist ideas of Sayyid Jamal al-Din Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad 'Abduh (chapter 3). Ibn Badis articulated his views in several books and in his news- papers al-Muntaqid (The Critic) and al-Shihab (The Meteor). Fathi 'Uthman. speech that included the principles of governance.1 When Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (may God be pleased with Support me as long as you see me following the him) was sworn in as caliph [in the year 632]. intellectual stagnation. Ibn Badis returned to Algeria in 1 9 1 3 to devote his career to Islamic re- form. Turki Rabih. Kuwait: Dar al-Qalam. 162. 1969). I was entrusted as your ruler. he joined the Zaytuna mosque in Tunis. Salah al-Din al-Jurshi. 93 . although I what is due to others. 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis: Ra'id al- 1. to a prominent Berber family and received religious education. Shahin. and founder of the Association of Algerian Scholars. From the Speech of [Abu Bakr] the Upright. Ibn Badis: Ra'id al-islah wa al-tarbiyah fi al-jaza'ir 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis. and prepared Algerians for independence from the French. Education in Algeria) (Algiers. he established the Association of Algerian Scholars to promote Algerian identity and Islamic reform and to combat the Sufi orders and the assimilationists. In response to the alienating policies of the French and the Francophile tendencies of the Algerian "evolues" (assimilationists). education. 1889-1940) was an Islamic reformer. In 1 9 3 1 . Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World (New pp. and com- bated practices that it viewed as corrupt. 1995). advocated cultural and social reform. 468-471. until I get them their due. After graduation. al-Shihab (The Meteor).. Algeria: al-Sharika al- erning in Islam. disunity. If I disobey Him. number 11. The article presented here reflects Ibn Badis's nonconventional response to the abolition of the Ottoman caliphate. and nationalism. he as. 9 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis The Principles of Governing in Islam From the Speech of [Abu Bakr] al-Siddiq 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis (Algeria. These principles have only recently been achieved The weak among you are powerful [in my eyes] by some nations. Constantine. "Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis. pp. right path. Translation from Arabic and introduction by York: Oxford University Press. 1987). ed. albeit with inconsistency. The Association opened hundreds of free Arabic and Quranic schools. In 1908. Wataniyya li al-Nashr wa al-Tawzi'. stressed Arabic and Islamic education. he proposed a modernist interpretation of the Quran that attributed the decline of Islamic society to mystical practices. and political despotism. nationalist leader. Ibn Badis formulated a program that asserted the Arab and Islamic identity of Algerians. volume 2." in John L. Algeria. and correct me when you see me going cended the pulpit and addressed the people with a astray. al-Shaykh 'Abd al-Hamid (Kuwait City.

he should be entrusted with that post. as they share with him the responsibility. who follow the choice of the nation. "Support me as long as you see me following the right path. On this The Seventh Principle basis. "I was entrusted as your ruler." following the righteous path. I was entrusted by others. If two persons share good behavior and qualifications. Preference is achieved Any one who assumes an affair of the people should through merit and deeds. Undoubtedly. The were all under his command. qualification varies with the cir- if he misbehaves. "correct me when you see me going astray. This principle is derived from [Abu Bakr's] statement. They must support him. "although I am not better than any one of not convince the people otherwise. of you." fied in a specific matter and position for possessing the characteristics suitable for that position. this declare the plan he is going to follow. "correct me when you see me going astray. This is derived you. though they were better people have the final word." The First Principle The Fourth Principle No one has the right to assume any of the affairs of The people have the right to monitor those in charge the umma [Muslim community] without their con. died 644]. It is the people that have the right to delegate preserve the right to appoint or depose them. The Fifth Principle siderations. Rule cannot be bequeathed nor be based on personal con. This prin- ciple. This principle is based on the state- cumstance and the position. 'Umar [ibn al-Khattab. This principle is also derived from allowed to lead the people as he pleases. and that in offering assistance to him as long as they see him is "you. because they are the source of their authority and sent. The people must correct him matter. the one and guiding the ruler and pointing the righteous path who is better qualified should be entrusted with this to him when he deviates." form the statement." The responsibility of the people toward the ruler lies In other words. them accountable for their actions. is derived from the state- The Second Principle ment. hold him with Abu Bakr. the Prophet appointed 'Amr ibn al-'Asi [died 663] to lead the army of Dhat al-Salasil and supported The people have the right to question the rulers. and make them and Abu 'Ubayda ibn al-Jarra [circa 581-639].94 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis I say that and seek God's forgiveness for myself the statement." The Third Principle The Eighth Principle Assuming the affairs of the people does not make the ruler better than anyone else. This is a than him. but one is better in good behavior The responsibility of the people also lies in advising and the other is more qualified for this matter. not the rulers. He also appointed Usama ibn Zayd [died result of the people's right to hold the rulers account- circa 673] as a commander of an army that included able and correct them when they are convinced that Abu Bakr and 'Umar. as the previous one. He is not deeds and stances. No one can rule without the consent of the people. and can- statement. not their own. This principle is based on the the rulers are not following the right path. authority to the leaders and depose them. but as they . so that the was not due to his rule over them but because of his people become aware of and agree to it." He who manages an affair of the Muslim community should be the most qualified in this matter and not the The Sixth Principle best in behavior. Someone might be quali- ment. "although I am not better than any one and for you. In this case. If Abu Bakr was better.

the als and groups in society. The people knew [The state] should maintain a balance in society what the obedience of God in Islam entailed. This principle is based on the statement." to manage their affairs on their own. weak without leniency for their weakness. so that they do not transgress against The people will not be governed except by the law they others. who oversees them. This makes the people feel free others. The law should apply to the time with what they already knew. There. THE PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNING IN ISLAM 95 please." Thus. These principles were [The state] should protect the rights of the individu. The rights of the weak All-Knowing and Wise. Were these principles known to or practiced by other nations then? No. and seek forgiveness accepted for themselves. The dues should be fairly taken from the strong without trans- gression or weakening them. The powerful among you are weak [in my is imposed on them by any other authority. be no salvation. including himself. We pray to God to rescue should not be forsaken because of their weakness. he forsakes their obedience. but they obey God by fol. Freedom and sovereignty are a natural and legitimate right of every individual in The Thirteenth Principle society. without which there can because of their strength. "I say that and seek God's forgiveness for fore. This principle is derived from the statement. The derived from the statement. they bility of the ruler and the ruled in reforming society. suffering The Eleventh Principle the chains of humiliation and enslavement under monarchical and clerical rule. not devised by men but were revealed by God. This principle and the two previous ones are voluntarily adopt. you owe me no obedience. he was All are equal before the law. us and all of humanity and grant us success in re- and the strong should not usurp the right of anyone turning to these principles. when protecting the rights of its members. Are the civi- The Tenth Principle lized nations close to this today? Was Abu Bakr making these statements on his own? No. regardless of their inspired by Islam. If I There should be a realization of a mutual responsi- disobey Him. the law that realizes their interest. "The weak among rulers only implement the will of the people. myself and for you. if he deviates. be it of an eyes] until I take away from them what is due to individual or of a group. "Obey me as long as I observe God in your affairs. He addressed the Muslims at that strength or weakness." This is what the first caliph in Islam stated and implemented fourteen centuries ago. who obey you are powerful [in my eyes] until I get them their the law because it emanates from them. had he done strong without any fear of their strength and to the otherwise. They should always feel the need to continue work- lowing the law that He has revealed and that they have ing strenuously and seriously. The rights of the weak The Ninth Principle should be granted to them without favor due to their weakness. This is based on the to apply this law to everyone. nations were immersed in the darkness of ignorance and deterioration. not because it due." His plan is the obedience of God. The ruler is delegated by them from God. The Twelfth Principle "Obey me as long as I observe God in your affairs. statement. do not obey the ruler per se. . Everyone in soci- ety will share this feeling. they would not have accepted his speech.

founded in 1934. ience. in all its branches and subdi- of their parents. In the 1940s and 1950s. to attain. 1908-1976) was a lawyer. in addition to fervent defense of democracy. Translation from Arabic by Hager El Hadidi. Lobban. Scarecrow Press. N. 133. Trained in colonial schools. Perhaps the universe would inevitably stagnate. Carolyn pp. do everything within their power to achieve outcomes The ideal life is important for humans. sincere. the resil- existence. 1970). 226-227. 1996). This ideal gives people a greater purpose for selves and others. Individuals and groups should recognize and dangers and to avoid them. Known as "the Boss. and dedicated idealists who blow the trum- als and those with true culture have thought and will pet and encourage people toward a goal that has to be always think about realizing the ideal. His final imprisonment and exile followed two terms as prime minister. to prefer the conventions attend to the ideal life. Over the following two decades. Every aspect of life and each cultural ide. pp. individuals and as part of a group with whom they ficult. judge. blood. 109-117. al-Fajr (The Down). in 1941. to this day and on to eternity. Historical Dictionary of the Sudan. 233-234.' In all places and times. 2d ed. Jr. both as that their followers among the masses perceive as dif. 1899-1956 (Oxford. literature and the arts would never gion. They is harnessed to achieve it. poet. common goals. Mahjub pushed to radicalize the Sudanese nationalist movement and helped write the Sudan's constitution and declaration of independence. and shared advance. reli- sincere idealists. 215-217." Mahjub left a political legacy that included repression of leftists and southerners. distinguished individu. In recent times.J. Human effort achieved by talented people like themselves. 10 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub The Intellectual Movement in the Sudan: Which Direction Should It Take? Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub (Sudan. Sudan: University of Khartoum. They have the patience. anticolonial activist. Martin's in the Sudan: A Study in Constitutional and Political Press. "al-Haraka al-fikriyya fi al- Sudan: 'Ila 'ayna yajib 'an tatajih" (The Intellectual Move. and the power of faith that makes them trust in ology has its own sincere. Abdel Salam Sidahmed. This identity.: duction by Charles Kurzman. public celebrations.. Richard A. ment in the Sudan: Which Direction Should It Take?). and politician. First published Fluehr-Lobban. as democratic governments were suc- ceeded by military ones. their place. as Mahjub argued in the essay translated here. (Khartoum. Sudan: Conflict in the Sudanese Nationalist Movement. (Metuchen. in 1969). 1992). humans' goals have be- come deeply interconnected. Poli- 1. and lifestyle is improved to insist that the goal they envision is necessary for them- attain it. if not impossible. notwithstanding the large number of non- Muslim non-Arabs in the south of the colony. he participated as a young man in the Sudanese intellectual reform movement that came to be known by the name of its jour- nal. 35-41. Afaf Abdel Majid Abu Hasabu. Qism al-Ta'lif wa al-Nashr. England: Clarendon Press. 1918-1948 Jami'at al-Khurtum. Intro. If it were not for these have relationships based on nationality. because the nature of human beings is to fear travails. Factional Nahwa al-ghad (Toward Tomorrow) (Khartoum. p. Muddathir Abdel-Rahim. 1985). Imperialism and Nationalism tics and Islam in Contemporary Sudan (New York: St. Mahjub and others in this movement sought to build a modern Sudanese identity by downplaying the sectarian and regional distinctions that divided the colony. 209-211. from the beginning of creation were it not for the appearance of a handful of talented. dedicated advocates who ultimate victory. Development. making the prosperity Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub. and John Obert Voll. was affiliated closely with the Arab Islamic world. he was by turns a top government official and a political prisoner. and to resist all change in ideas and visions: material life and intellectual life each have action. 96 . pp.

with cozy and luxurious struggling for perfection. and all effort to reform them is whom the secrets of the era are revealed. with the intention of celebrat. They spread science and of culture. let on their innovativeness against the obstinacy of the alone a luxurious abode. in mental activities that elevate food. Such are the loyal reformists. depend on the singing bird. Such [hedonism] is born out of ignorance. ies die. But I am going a caravan unless they can maintain the idea that they to attempt to study the past and present of this na- are crossing the desert of life unaccompanied. est ideals for the intellectual movement in their coun- vative opinions even if they are right. Generation follows genera. in every place and time. I degree of nobility. tion. A evaporate when faced with loyal. The progress of science tions. and in every branch of others but also with the prosperity and security of of material and intellectual life. However. and who lay out the tru- regressive and rigid people who do not accept inno. An ideal does not know mediocrity. and humanity through novel findings and innovative people who see that life is worthless when its short opinions. A piece of candy in the hands of an oblivi. gators of the ideal. who then look far into the evil that has overtaken them. THE INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENT IN THE SUDAN 97 of an individual not only in contradiction with that people in every time and place. Recalcitrance will ous child means the deprivation of his sad friend. Reformists must do away with such lack offspring to rectify my mistakes and reform my . this cutthroat competition does not and period is spent seeking common ordinary pleasures. hang on to the wealth derived from this power. This is good news for human beings. are not to be blamed for wanting to join them for a But the teachings and generosity of a select elite moment to formulate an ideal for the intellectual are fruitless unless all people have reached a high movement that we desire for this growing country. propagators of rigidity and dissent. nation. victory in the battle between light and darkness. shipers of the ideal formulate plans that cannot be It is easy to imagine a situation in which every accomplished in their lifetime but must be pursued race. Following that. the and falseness. their vanishing bod- rising to achieve them. and their riches remain for future generations. and They can find happiness in the world of culture and a stupidity that cannot imagine life as a continuous intellect. This abominable contradiction is even more ap. If I am successful. how. take it as their life mission to shower their differences and misunderstandings. intellectual. and secrets of the universe. If I fail. the selfless propa- ing the highest ethical. And this is not imaginary. and status. enlightenment without discriminating between tion cannot be achieved unless the individuals. whereas the poet. in the world of culture and the This is a conflict between people who care only about universe of intellect. nations. clothing. individuals. I will try to direct the been blinded by their desire to preserve the status quo. the opinions rectify what time has spoiled? There is also a class of and actions that it requires. who peek wasted—either because of the ignorance and stupid. the lyre player who nearly discovers the zeal and integrity of the leaders of the renaissance. cannot exist. and material ide. This struggle and ultimate furniture. not a mirage. Their self-interested the group. But this situa. or because of their intellectual movements. truth acter. and races whom God has granted the privilege and enlightenment weakens fanatic loyalties and of intellect and morality. the exchange of trust and respect. There tion. and personal pleasures. na. selfless visionaries beautifully designed house. For some people do not benefit don't pretend to be one of those talented people to from education. That is an honor I cannot claim. recalcitrance must be confronted. and wealth upon their neighbors. drink. classes. however illegitimate. is inhabited by an obtuse and insipid char. science. justice. and to see as the ideal. How is it possible to the future and reveal what it portends. where they enjoy creating ideal visions and chain where the living depart. and are thus able to shape competition between individuals and groups. lacking in generosity. let my solace be that this nation will never ever unethical. family. but the ideal is continuously rejuvenated. and to study the past and present of the nations are also those self-interested individuals who have I have known. I will be satisfied. and individual has an equal share as long as life continues. and enables the culture. into the past of nations and understand the fate of ity bequeathed from past generations. cannot find a lowly shack. intellectual movement in our nation toward what I in order to retain power. who don't join try. comfort. it requires parent in the relationship among nations than among perfection. erases the future. progress and annihilation. seekers and the weak. And we als of humanity. idiocy. and races. as are That is why the propagators of reform and the wor- activities to achieve it.

with the da 'wa [propagation] not taught in schools. but are also the purest has given us. virtue of the tongue and the hand. The story of the Mahdiyya is temptible. 1844-1885] was a reli. hamasa. and al-hath 'ala al-jihad [inspiring sacred ture and culture has [also] spread. under. find it a wonderful literature. A nation with such religious fervor can. Shaykh Abu'l-Qasim Ahmad Hashim [died 1934].D. also included some poetry [in the genres] offakhr. and you can feel it in every action of the people have great passion for all kinds of horsemanship. They goings. If you had the good fortune to its precepts. there were no non-Arab languages heard in it except The history of Islam in this country [the Sudan] dates the Turkish language. In every place where Islam has spread. ing envy the dead. 1805- [ibn Sa'd] ibn Abi Sarh [died 656] was appointed to 1849] in the year 1820. and unique within its genre. or at least wear. That is why the Sudan was fortunate that read the mulid by the leaders of the Tijaniyya [Sufi the Arabic language spread in its lands... and would not religion. Since language was not the official state language. It is necessary to learn. It accepts Prophet]. and because man). and Shaykh [Muhammad 'Umar] al-Banna' the elder tyrdom. and they a recent example. I refer to the stories appreciate this legacy. despite its originality. As a result. [. or 642 A. they revolted against the corrupt. The Sudan has remained. regardless of how poor he is. people of the Sudan inclining toward [the classical The influence of Islam in this country is clear and genres of] hamasa [heroic] andfakhr [vainglorious] tangible. would not stain him- gious da 'wa.98 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub errors. stoop to relinquish public duty. seeking nei. Any man among them. and to become closer to the of the mulid [birth] of the noble Prophet which are spirit of religion by studying its roots and following read in zikr circles. of this country. the Turkish invade Nubia at the head of 20. delicate ghazal [love poetry] in the manner of the and the noble hadith [sayings of the Prophet] are not ancient Arabs. [circa 1847-1919]. ing care of their neighbors. and the Prophet's conquests and victories. The da 'wa of al-Mahdi [Muhammad are not happy with defeat. expelled them from their And the impact of Islamic religion and Arab cul- country. ers [the colonial regime]. extending protection to their guests and tak- unless it was a religious movement. and appreciate them in their original language. Husayn al-Zahra' [died 1895]. Islam spread. and the history of sincere actions. you would not have seen people dying for the past generation—literary figures such as Shaykh the sake of God and acting so bravely. has been ignored by the intel- stand. but was only spoken by the strengthening in this country until the Arab conquest Turkish rulers among themselves. you can see it in your [daily] comings and verse. no movement could They are noted for their generosity and openhand- be successful in transforming or changing conditions edness. Shaykh al-Darir. ther fortune nor prestige nor worldly position.H. If it had not been ture in this country is most apparent in the legacy of for religion. zikr shama'il al-rasul [remembrance of nothing from its intellectuals but honest words and the qualities of the Messenger]. They do not accept humiliation. and this was after the conquest back to the year 22 A. they also left a genre of literature that. Most of their poems were [in the not tolerate opinions that have atheistic tendencies or genres] of al-mada 'ih al-nabawaiyya [praise of the break the norms of conventional morality. In fact. The Scripture of struggle]. this literature is wonder- Muslims are very keen to come to understand and ful. This is not all the previous generation only in the Arabic language. Until recently. Arab litera.D. is the closest to the religion of the majority of the population of this classical Arabic. Their verse honorable intentions. beautiful and harmo- .. to present us with the ideal that we will all lation. They find meanness con- ing the garb of religion. and was that era. And even then. until the last conquest work together to achieve. the sunna [sacred precedent] of His Messenger. lectuals among us. Thus Islam prevailed and became the Sudan. And it is no wonder that we find the country.] in 1898. and took over governance. . The liv. and of upper Nubia in It is no wonder that the language of the people of the year 1505 A. especially in the desert. sources of this language.000 warriors. when 'Abdullah of Muhammad 'Ali [Ottoman ruler of Egypt. whether in their songs or their poetry. of lower Nubia in 1318 A. you would doubtless Arab blood has become the majority among its popu. Ahmad. Each one of these poems begins with a God. accepted by the people in the name of self with the humiliation of begging. far from the influence of European languages. both because order] entitled "Insan al-kamal" (The Perfect Hu- of the spread of Islam among its people. or to hear its narration. who have won the honor of mar. anticolonial leader.D.

elevated by all of these toward the goal of erature in its entirety is but subject matter and style.. need to embark upon the study of the Ara- draft the ideal of the intellectual movement. Let us make our ideal clear and draw the path with Egypt since the last invasion. criticism. Bayan wa al-tabyin [Rhetoric and Clari- spect the religious practices of Islam. it calls for the ef- This influence is strong and ongoing. selfless. mad] al-Mubarrad [died 898]. But an people's minds. and nature. This liter. And this is its future. This influence warrants at Christian poet and philologist. Mu'jam loyal. And those among us who wish to country. The subject matter comprises the different subjects . the true reli.. inspired by the past comprehend gradually the spirit of Arabic Islamic lit- and present of this country. and to draw the best conclusions geography. and interconnected impact will undoubtedly be subject to interaction comparisons so that we get the full benefit of this with the modern opinions and Western ideas that we heritage. it may seem remote. are acquiring. The late Shaykh Muhammad Hashim political movement that leads to the independence of wrote an introduction to the mulid that is a master. [828-889]. and dispositions of its of the ancestors. Both will be subject to the climate of Maybe someone will ask me: And what is the way this country and to ideas and imagination inspired by to learn this Arab Islamic heritage and become inspired its geography and its nature. and to grasp the subject matter. itself is under the sway of Islamic religion and Arab educated. In this way they will come to be Arab in language and taste. social. and will work under its right guidance. and the implications study of the fundamentals of Arabic literature such as of its ideal.] al-udaba' [Literary Biographies] by Yaqut [al-Rumi] al-Hamawi [circa 1179-1229]. and try up to now. However. And they need also to embark upon the desired intellectual movement. too gion. ideal does not know mediocrity. Lit- people. as it appears to Subh al-a'sha [Daybreakfor the Sufferer of Night- us through this exploration of the past and present Blindness] by [Shihabuddin Ahmad] al-Qalqashandi of this country. We are attempting to possible. revive this legacy. and others. This country shall not lack dutiful. structure. and This ideal is the goal of the intellectual movement meaning. It will many to enumerate. and as long as it has the study of this Arab Islamic heritage—a detailed culture and intellectual movement. because Egypt to reach it. Kamil [fi al-adab] [Literary Perfection] by [Muham- So what is the ideal that this intellectual move. so as to be armed with the strongest weapon on the intellectual movement. making use of its nature erature. To complete our intellectual movement. traditions. On the surface. it still affects fort of giants and the work of generations. THE INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENT IN THE SUDAN 99 nious narratives with fine examples of rhetoric and ary movement will eventually be transformed into a metaphor. All that we need to do is devote ourselves to as long as this country exists. and hard to achieve. despite its periodic tendencies to return to the den of its renaissance.] 1800-1871) and his least a brief discussion. and second about the country's climate. pharaohs or to cling to the fringes of the West. readers and writers alike. because the writings of the Arab Islamic certainty that the impact of Islamic religion and Arab heritage have already been published in Egypt and culture will remain part of our intellectual movement Syria. it requires perfec- Such influence has also increased through contact tion. All of these are examples of the influence in this country. and the effect of all of these from it. prohibitive. this study based on scrutiny. [. and visionary offspring to take up the bur- culture. of Islamic religion and Arab literature on our life. to be dedicated to the service of the language and the customs. devoted offspring. and intellectual. loyal. Adah al-katib [The An ment must follow? And how can it be reached? The of the Scribe] by [Abu Muhammad] Ibn Qutayba ideal intellectual movement in this country will re. establishing a proper national literature. the country—political. This effort awaiting when we are attempting to direct the intellectual us is unlike that of Shaykh Nasif al-Yaziji ([Lebanese movement in this county. the conditions required to achieve this [1355-1418]. Greats} by the judge Ibn Khallikan [1211-1282]. And I state with increasing companions. That is why we need to by it? So I will say that learning involves only dedi- speak first about the effect of Western culture in our cation and study. fication} by al-Jahiz [circa 776-869]. Wafayatal-a 'yan [Late Such has been the intellectual movement in our coun. and to bic encyclopedias such as [Kitab] al-aghani [Book of direct the movement toward the goal desired by its Songs] by Abu Faraj al-Isfahani [897-967]. piece of rhetoric in its expressions. we must It is necessary for us to attend to this influence grasp the Arab Islamic heritage.

This is our ideal. Let us work to achieve it. and its They should be mutually supportive in creating a opinion leaders.] sources for its artistic imagery. socially.100 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub treated by literary figures. that composes its verse and ap. follow in this country. which differ according to the silver moon in its deserts. their movements and si- We have followed the intellectual movement in this lences. see which ideal the intellectual movement needs to social. the shining of try work toward this ideal. aimed at independence is worthless. Turkish and the Abyssinian. and finds in these the are treated.. . and the Western. The feelings of the people. adopted Islam. among them the Pharaonic. and are born out of [an This is our ideal: to protect our Islamic religion amalgam of] civilizations. are the sources for music. Let us die. eternal dream and the work of ages. [. and hold fast to our Arab heritage with complete tol- the ancient and modern Arab. Let the loyal. Such is the and their traditions. and all work that is not has to follow is for this country to have an Arab Is.. And we have seen that this be transformed from a literary renaissance to a po- country and its people are the result of [different] blood litical one. We have seen the The propagators of this literature should circulate cultures to which the nation was introduced. let us work together to establish this proper national literature that takes the subject of its ideal. All these will revive our worshiped the gods of the ancient Egyptians and national literature and arouse patriotic feelings. Come along! O youth of this generation. some Negroid and some Arab. peals to the sensitivity of this nation's offspring by selfless. and intellectual. and an eager- we have seen that they [the people of this country] ness to study other cultures. the true religion. lamic culture backed by an acquired Western culture. and time and place. country in a way that instills patriotism in its youth tions that this nation has undergone and the creeds and and a sense of duty toward the land of the ancestors. their sensitivities. It remains for us to are striding toward is our independence—political. a widened intellectual horizon. so that the movement may its people were exposed. to which useful political research. dutiful. and visionary offspring of this coun- describing the scenery of its jungles. The goal we would not exchange for any other. which it because it is grows out of our essence. And the style is the way these subjects the gazelles of its dunes. and we have gives attention to the writing of the history of this seen the various states and the succession of civiliza. so to adopted Christianity for a long period of time. And erance. and the artistic narrative from the dispositions of its people generation after us will work to realize it. its fertile valleys. and then build a political movement that cannot be refused. resulting in the independence of this coun- groups. beliefs adopted by its offspring. We must stride toward it and The ideal vision that the intellectual movement work together to achieve it. and intellectually. as its creed. The ideal vision country from ancient times until today. along with the try—politically.

SECTION 2 Iran/Afghanistan .

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101-108. Thus we can say that the Indians were the inventors Calcutta. was to revive the power and image of the Islamic world through modern-style reforms. and Christians in the second—offer Jamal al-Din's view that Muslims can and must adopt modern science as a means of civilizational survival. These were the pupils of the Indians in literary ideas. Keddie (Berkeley: University of California Press.C. the second piece was first published on Religious Unbelief and Political Activism in Modem Islam in 1883. and has enjoyed the stablest popularity of all modernists in the century since his death. Imperialism: Political and Religious Writings of Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani. and all making great efforts to acquire the source of all the laws and rules of the world. 1838-1897) was perhaps the most famous propo- nent of modernist Islam. Note how Indian numer- als were transferred from here to the Arabs. One of these pupils. since they are the offshoots of that Remain. . he adopted the name "Afghani" in order to distance himself from his Shi'i origins. These youths are also the sons of a land that was tainments. and Answer to Renan Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (Iran. and lofty thoughts. On Thursday. Sayyid Jamal ad-Din "al-Afghani": by Nikki R. all adorned with virtue and at. A Political Biography (Berkeley: University of California 1968). dian youths are here. for example. Introduction by Charles Kurzman. was taken India that was the cradle of humanity. He spent much of the 1880s in Eu- rope—in Paris. though both monarchs were suspicious of his loyalty and piety. (London: Cass. translated from Persian and French 1.1 Lecture on Teaching and Learning knows that the determination of these two circles is impossible until perfection in geometry is achieved. in the first selection. They are from the same Pythagoras [Greek mathematician. He was educated at seminar- ies in Iran and Iraq. and denouncing and offering to assist the British Empire. His final years were spent as a would-be adviser to the rulers of Iran and. Born in Asadabad in northwestern Iran. 181-187. and the shastras. . Certainly I must be happy to see such one observes closely.] of arithmetic and geometry. before being expelled yet again." the mother of all Western codes. in Albert Hall. circa 569-475 realm that first understood the zodiac. Afghani and 'Abduh: An Essay- ture delivered in 1882. and later in Russia. Keddie. If knowledge. Jamal al-Din reinvented his political positions when necessary—supporting and opposing absolute monarchy. The Greeks ues spread out from India to the whole world. The texts presented here—addressed to Hindus. the Ottoman Empire. Human val. Press. Jamal al-Din then spent a decade associated with academic reform—briefly in Istanbul. he will see that the "Code offspring of India. November 8 [1882]. there to Europe.]. II Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Lecture on Teaching and Learnin. from the four vedas. then for almost a decade in Cairo. The first selection was a lec. 103 . As with his name. pp. 1972). then studied modern sciences in India before coming to prominence as a royal adviser in Afghanistan in the late 1860s. Upon his expulsion. lim- youths are from the very land where the meridian pid poetry. An Islamic Response to without proof as an inspiration from heaven. His consistent aim. where he published the famous journal al-'Urwa al-wuthqa (The Strongest Link) with Muhammad 'Abduh (see chapter 3). Nikki R. circle was first determined. 1966). spread sciences and wisdom in Greece and reached such a height that his word was accepted Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani. Everyone B. after yet another expulsion. however. Elie Kedourie. he said: [. and from Allow me to express my pleasure that so many In.

C. the French have seized Tunisia. Agriculture is If we observe well. The English have reached Afghani. In reality. and agriculture. work to level B. aggression. thousand persons. to disseminate knowledge. 356-323 As the nobility of science has been somewhat B. Just as an individual who ramis [Sammu-ramat." speaks of the special features of bodies with mission.C. Industry is produced only air of India is the same air. and these youths who are with physics. no man would continue to remain thousands of eloquent speakers and sages have al. which is "botany. relations between science. In sum. Besides. other than science. and how can one call such a government a it was science. If science were removed from thoughts cannot encompass what is infinite. and present here are fruits of the same earth and climate. teaching. the whole world of hu- ence. own benefit. in the world. must strive for the dissemination of the The Egyptians who increased their realm. chemistry. who reached Mesopotamia accord. if the owner of an orchard neglects Ramses II [Egyptian king. How difficult it is to speak about sci. and learning. just so rulers. the human sphere. the harm the Egyptians but science that did it. However. The Phoenicians will revert to that government. mathematics. one thousand. achieved only with agricultural science. None of these sciences deals of the world. Arithmetic deals with separate quantities and it has moved from East to West. Spain. and sciences. and does not enter into other matters that are Ignorance had no alternative to prostrating itself necessary to the human world. ing to the laws of agronomy.104 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani [The Indians] reached the highest level in philo. and Greece—in reality barefoot. Plant science. this true ruler. and there is no wealth in the world and learning. nature does not permit me strength of ten. The acquisitions of men for them- Thus I say: If someone looks deeply into the ques. he will see that science rules the world. Rather it is science the external world. and these finite is a world of science. Portugal. and with its own special quali- that everywhere manifests its greatness and power. we learn that wealth is the result of with matters outside its own subject. What advantage is who. a long sleep. There are no riches in the world Now I would like to speak of science. and conquest have not come ics treats the special features of bodies that exist in from the French or the English. for his own profit. not the Phoenicians. geometry. teaching. if we study the riches larly the other sciences. or abode of science. The soil of India is the same soil. if a ruler neglects the dissemi- ing to some and India according to others—it was not nation of the sciences among his subjects.C. who reached the borders of Tatary and India.] never came to India or conquered the Indians. without science. and other times from geometry with interconnected quantities. industry. one hundred. Assyrian queen. Kimiya. and simi- West to East. result of science. the ground and improve its trees and plants accord- the true conquerors were not the Chaldeans but sci. and geometry. and ten not to explain its virtues. and will be no ruler in the world but science. try. gradually made colonies of the there to a Zulu king from ruling a society poor and British Isles. with their ships. will revert to him. mechanics. clarified. science makes one man have the its nobility. ninth century has an orchard must. must strive to lay the foundation of the sciences and If we look at the Chaldean conquerors. meaning that the world fits of science are immeasurable. is continually changing capitals." fixes only plants as the subject of its dis- science. Sometimes cussion. More than this. phys- usurpation. The bene. the chemistry. There science. manity is an industrial world. selves and their governments are proportional to their tion. is. Thus.]. In reality this accidents of that special subject. ready expressed their thoughts to explain science and Since it is thus. or "chemis- humbly before science and acknowledging its sub. the loss called Sosestris. ruled 1279-1213 B. like Semi. are reclaiming their inheritance and Thus it is evident that all wealth and riches are the gathering the fruits of their own tree. for their ence and knowledge.]. having awakened after and industry. botanical sophic thought. Alexander [Macedonian king. and commerce is based on agriculture So I am very happy that they. sovereignty has never left the regard to analysis and composition. we now wish to say some words about the rather what conquered the Indians was science. For example. commerce. Despite this. The Europeans have now put their hands on every You must know that each science has a special sub- part of the world. so. There is no end or limit to science. Just as. to tend it according to the laws of agronomy. which so expanded government? their power. ties. ject and deals with nothing but the necessities and stan. we will learn that each one . every government for its own benefit was.

or and they would not invite teachers from there to their Explanation of "Guidance. which they call "literature. deficiencies spread into the other become the cause of the progress of each one of those sciences. 1571- schools. Persian. no fruit wrong. progress would It is philosophy that makes man understandable not be achieved in it. 754-775]. and Greek into This need of one science for other sciences can. thanks to is like a limb of the body of science. This was why they acquired in a short ences is related to another science. and associations. explains human nobility. and owing to that philosophic spirit they began rately. translated from the Syriac. now they have not received any benefit from those Logic. or be the cause of benefit for the human to discuss the general affairs of the world and human world. For example. It shows the sciences what is their education. lim logicians are full of every superstition and van- Undoubtedly. necessities. As the relationship between the preeminence of The science that has the position of a comprehen. speaker. and until ing their everyday speech. needs. Not one of them the Islamic religion. we see that the minds of our Mus- was obtained from those sciences that are like limbs. necessary.2 it is that if that science were isolated. Shark al. Thus to man. they study grammar. like the relation time all the sciences with particular subjects that they of arithmetic to geometry. acquired the Arabic language be capable of speak- If a community did not have philosophy. [In fact. However. we see these days that after Egypt have been opening schools for the teaching of studying that science they are incapable of correct- the new sciences for a period of sixty years. Thus sur Davanaqi [caliph. sciences. After that. independent of the European countries.Hidaya. The Muslims now make grammar a the individuals of that community were learned in the goal in itself. nor would it remain stable. a hundred years. and all ing and writing. TEACHING AND LEARNING AND ANSWER TO RENAN 105 of these sciences whose subject is a special matter The first Muslims had no science. undoubtedly their philosophic spirit would 2. For the existence of each one of these sci. and shows man the a science is needed to be the comprehensive soul proper road. The Rising Sun.—Trans. ence that enables a man to become a writer. apply each of them in its proper place. Philosophy is the science that deals with the state would have striven to reform their kingdoms in ac. The first defect appearing in any nation for all the sciences. However. and their causes. which is the balance for ideas. Also. arts. so that it can preserve their ex. if the spirit of philosophy had been in ity. themselves. I say that ject is universal. and after fin- could not last in that community for a century. reasons. those sciences sophic thought on grammar to no avail. and no difference exists between their ideas and those schools during this period of sixty years. The Ottoman Government and the Khedivate of and poet. but.] . should make sciences. we sive soul and the rank of a preserving force is the now wish to say something about the quality of teach- science offalsafa. the Arabic language at the time of [Abu Ja'far] Man- not be understood from the one science itself. of external beings. or "philosophy. they the ideas of the masses of the bazaar." by Mulla Sadra. That community without the Arabic. It is strange that our 'ulama' [religious sons each year to European countries for education. ing and learning among the Muslims. The reason is that teaching the philosophi. spirit of philosophy could not deduce conclusions Rhetoric. them. or understand is. It employs each of the sciences in its and the purpose of grammar is that someone who has proper place. that ishing they are unable to speak. they would not send their and requisites. everyone who acquires it capable of distinguishing cal sciences was impossible in those schools. 813-833). a philosophic spirit arose among can maintain its existence individually and sepa. even if that community did bazigha. cord with science. scholars] read Sadra [that is. the main translations were done later under call for the acquisition of all the sciences. Thus." because its sub. and every truth from falsehood and every right from because of the nonexistence of philosophy. philosophy and the sciences has been explained. It is philosophy that shows man the Muslims these days do not see any benefit from human prerequisites." is the sci- from these sciences. write. by Mahmud Jawnpuri not have one of those sciences whose subject is par- ticular. For long years they expend philo- sciences with particular subjects. and spirit. I may say that if the spirit of philosophy were 1640] and Shams al-bari'a [probably Shams al- found in a community. that is headed toward decline is in the philosophic istence. al-Ma'mun (caliph.

since philosophical education can only be light on the whole world. Thus. and they do not itself. or "philosophy of law. Rather. and if his light does not obtained by a society that has studied some science reach the whole world. and they do not once consider why if pher. tions are self-evident truths. he says in explained the truth regarding right and wrong. and the reform of the world. ing the Islamic religion are really the enemies of that sador of the state. . Thus. if a scholar is a scholar he must shed education. or his home. strated. does not know where its beginning and end are. Thus a person where there is proof. and railroads. A scholar is a true light if he is The first education obtained by man was religious a scholar. they consider them not one who travels along a road like a blind man who infidels. Error) that someone who claims that the Islamic re- Certainly. However. and despite this they cannot distinguish any nation. his village." In it are 1111]. 1564-1642]. and the laws of nature is zation. as we remove its glass cover. the foundation of the Islamic faith. much smoke comes out if Aristotle were one of the pillars of the Muslims. and shame on such astronomer." like a very narrow wick. 1571-1630]. there is no smoke. and one European science. and philosophic demonstra- Since the state of these 'ulama' has been demon. related to science. geometric proofs. that the ruin and corruption we have experienced first Because of this they forbid others to teach some of reached our 'ulama' and religious leaders. of it. and Jurisprudence among the Muslims includes all proof is neither Aristotle nor Galileo. we see that those who study this an ignorant friend of Islam.C. The harm of this igno- science among the Muslims are deprived of under. benefit the book Munqidh min al-dalal (The Deliverer from and loss. at least it should light up his and is able to understand proofs and demonstrations. science is that noble thing that has no connection with selves sages. Men must be boat. man astronomer.106 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Faruqi. becomes renowned through science. someone who says. [Isaac] Newton [English philosophy! A philosopher is someone whose mind physicist. They have not understood that penetrated the rest of the community. died 1652] and vaingloriously call them. and those who forbid science who has studied jurisprudence profoundly is worthy and knowledge in the belief that they are safeguard- of being prime minister of the realm or chief ambas. days have divided science into two parts. As for [Abu Hamid Muhammad] Ghazzali [1058- phy of the shari 'a. and then the useful sciences. The father and mother of science is proof. For the laws of na- zation. region. and when we leave the glass. and [Johannes] Kepler [Ger- is stimulated by all the events and parts of the world. What kind Hence we can say that reform will never be achieved of scholar is it who does not enlighten even his own by the Muslims except if the leaders of our religion home? first reform themselves and gather the fruits of their The strangest thing of all is that our 'ulama' these science and knowledge. ture. from early evening until morning How very strange it is that the Muslims study those they study the Shams al-bari'a with a lamp placed sciences that are ascribed to Aristotle [Greek philoso- before them. and the causes for the promulgation of laws. one will understand this truth. who was called the Proof of Islam. his city.] with the greatest delight. One they If one considers. and is not distinguished by anything but their left hand from their right hand. and there is no in- own households. gives light to others. although they are proud of their compatibility between science and knowledge and own foolishness. and state laws. Even stranger. heretics and enemies of Islam. sophical demonstrations. municipal. rant friend to Islam is greater than the harm of the standing of the benefits of laws. and every nation that becomes renowned They never ask the causes of electricity. The truth is domestic. a person who studies this science should ligion is incompatible with geometric proofs. 1642-1727]. call Muslim science. However. the rules of civili. if the discussion relates to Galileo [Italian Shame on such a philosopher. on top of which is a very has inevitably passed judgment on the falsity of his small flame that neither lights its surroundings nor religion. The Islamic religion is the closest of reli- after studying this science unable to manage their gions to science and knowledge. circa 384-322 B. philo- be capable of establishing laws and enforcing civili. the steam. whereas we see our jurisconsults religion. The science of principles consists of the philoso. not science to men. we can say that our 'ulama' at this time are "My religion is inconsistent with self-evident truths. everything that is known is known by ask: Who are we and what is right and proper for us? science.

since humanity. other who. he has applied himself to discover. repose. I will say that no nation at its history of the Arabs which had remained unclear until origin is capable of letting itself be guided by pure now and to throw a live light on their past. and an indescribable charm. manners. in citing cer. we believe. He receives my humble And. Haunted by terrors that it cannot escape. whose actions he celebrated: "Receive. However. power to force humanity to follow the inspirations ceptions. lation of this talk. as I said above. though one cannot say that he has guishing that which could make it happy from that usurped the place and rank that they formerly occu. or of those on whose nations whose renown has filled the West and penetrated into it was imposed by force. the necessary I find in his talk remarkable observations. since. If I had had the opportunity to read and where it found. Monsieur Renan has not at all tried. This is no doubt for man one of the to bestow on you the praises that you merit. given in the from the Muslim religion itself or from the manner Sorbonne before a distinguished audience by the in which it was propagated in the world. proving that the Muslim religion was by its very es- sence opposed to the development of science. This lacuna means that it cannot be led either by ing historical truth and making it known to those who force or persuasion to practice the actions that would do not know it. or to avoid what influence of religions in the history of nations. what al. at least an unlimited field for its hopes. which either how to trace back causes or to discern effects. from the great thinker of our time. by their nature. But after reading this talk one cannot refrain I have read in your estimable journal of last March from asking oneself if these obstacles come uniquely 29 [1883] a talk on Islam and Science. contrary to Monsieur Renan's talk covered two principal his promise. but the harm is no less for that. . "the praises that I can give you. I would say the secrets of things. Monsieur Renan seems to say. points. did not know the salutation as an homage that is due him and as causes of the events that passed under its eyes and the sincere expression of my admiration. adopted this religion. This pre- cious plant. a poet who loved philosophy obedience was imposed in the name of the supreme wrote several centuries ago to a high personage Being to whom the educators attributed all events. the ideas of this great thinker. piness and misfortune. do not like ei- Answer of Jamal ad-Din to Renan ther metaphysical sciences or philosophy." he said to without permitting men to discuss its utility or its him. It does not know. Since this speech time that kept Monsieur Renan from elucidating these suggested to me some observations. if not the complete satisfaction it in the French text. the illustrious M[onsieur] character. and that the Arab people. new per. It was therefore necessary that humanity in particular in that of civilization. in these circumstances. which might be the unfailing source of its unhap- pied in the world. a light reason. incapable of distinguishing good from evil. as I recognize. points. and aptitudes of the peoples who [Ernest] Renan [French Orientalist. Monsieur Renan wanted to clarify a point of the As to the first point. the principal caused this talk to be de. This Mutanabbi [915-965]. advice of its teachers and the orders they gave. I took the lib. at its origin. of distin- erate these people. dried in Sir. The eminent philosopher applied himself to livered only in an abbreviated form. it is that may be somewhat troubling for those who ven. which I have difficult to determine its causes in a precise manner the honor of addressing to you with a request that you and by irrefutable proofs. finally. look outside itself for a place of refuge. as well as to those who study the perhaps be the most profitable for it. I hasten to rec. it is even more difficult to accommodate it in your columns. it was perforce led to follow the to him. It is no doubt the lack of the farthest countries of the East. it vast horizons where the imagination was pleased. their hands as if burnt up by the breath of the desert wind. I of reason. do not force me disadvantages. and if it is erty of formulating them in this letter." heaviest and most humiliating yokes. not having. indicate the remedy. 1823-1892]. to destroy the glory of the Arabs. in a word. TEACHING AND LEARNING AND ANSWER TO RENAN 107 I now wish to excuse myself. a peaceful ognize that Monsieur Renan has acquitted himself corner where its tormented conscience could find marvelously of this very difficult task. is indestructible. and is harmful. hurled it into the unknown and opened to have under my eyes only a more or less faithful trans. I could have penetrated better of its desires. It was then that there arose some educator or tain facts that have passed unnoticed until this time.

not only by fire and blood. self from the tutelage of religion. that had developed slowly during several centuries In truth. rekindled the extinguished sci- has been traced for him in advance by the interpret. I know all this. What would be the benefit of seeking truth when he If it is true that the Muslim religion is an obstacle believes he possesses it all? Will he be happier on to the development of sciences. and burning hearth of all human knowledge. was not at all an invincible ob.108 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani but one cannot deny that it is by this religious edu. for all the sciences. full of have just alluded. that all nations have emerged from barbarism and Why should he exhaust himself in vain attempts? marched toward a more advanced civilization. taches himself resolutely to it and makes no effort to cation. or pagan. becomes "a fanatic. in fact. oblivion. a time when their researches were aban- believer must. to surmount to achieve the same degree of civiliza. rushed stacle. at a later age. as well as the shining center against what they call the spirit of vertigo and error. each one in its way. for which the Christian faith. who would thus be condemned to assimilated almost all the Greek and Persian sciences live in barbarism and ignorance. besides. Is not this the index and proof of their contains in itself all morality and all sciences. ences. someday in breaking its bonds and marching resolutely I am led here to speak of the second point that in the path of civilization after the manner of Western Monsieur Renan treated in his lecture with an incon- society.'" belongs to a race that has marked science. A true however. despite its rig. go beyond. No one denies that the Arab ors and intolerance. it acquired and of millions of men. it was from hoping that Muhammadan society will succeed unable to live happily for long). and the venerated all the countries under their domination. however. foolish pride in possessing what he believes to be it seems to advance rapidly on the road of progress and absolute truth. but that of several hundreds quests. including gion in the world by many centuries. the Muslim religion has tried to stifle on their native soil. to the dogma whose were in origin. I must recognize. natural love for sciences? It is true that the Arabs took . while still in the state of barbarism. but by brilliant and fruitful achievements that prove that the Christian religion preceded the Muslim reli. and their most precious books were relegated to ion accepted at least by some people in Europe. and in turning minds from the search for scientific One might say that in all this period the sciences truth. the Greeks and Romans walked with assurance over tion. which all truth must depend. No. just as it extended its domina- science and stop its progress. The Arabs. ignorant and barbaric as they Yoked. Realizing. that have for their object scientific truth. he at. he must walk eternally in the furrow that the civilized nations. people. Having I know all the difficulties that the Muslims will have followed for several centuries the path of civilization. turn from the path of studies doned and their studies interrupted. its passage in the world. can one affirm that this the day when he has lost his faith. thenceforth free and independent. They continue to fight energetically philosophical sciences. since in the space of a century. access to the truth with the help of philosophic the vast field of science and philosophy. I cannot keep philosophy (with which. the day when he obstacle will not disappear someday? How does the has stopped believing that all perfections are in the Muslim religion differ on this point from other reli. It has thus succeeded tion from the Arabian peninsula up to the mountains in halting the philosophical or intellectual movement of the Himalaya and the summit of the Pyrenees. its taste for science. and scientific methods being forbidden them. according to an opin. Convinced. A similar attempt. whether it be Muslim. testable authority. if I am not mistaken. religion he practices and not in another? Wherefore gions? All religions are intolerant. There came. whereas Muslim society has not yet freed it. I cannot admit that this hope be denied to into the road of intellectual and scientific progress Islam. that his religion had never had. but I know The Christian religion (I mean the society that follows equally that this Muslim and Arab child whose por- its inspirations and its teachings and is formed in its trait Monsieur Renan traces in such vigorous terms image) has emerged from the first period to which I and who. studies on The monuments they had built to science collapsed. was made astonishing progress among the Arabs and in made by the Christian religion. I plead here with Monsieur Renan not the cause with a rapidity only equaled by the speed of its con- of the Muslim religion. Rome and leaders of the Catholic church have not yet disarmed Byzantium were then the seats of theological and so far as I know. he despises science. Christian. took up what had been abandoned by slave he is. developed them and gave them a brilliance they ers of the law. like an ox to the plow.

going back to the first was superior in intellectual culture to the Christian period of Arab domination. rare precision and exactitude. and [Abu Bakr Muhammad] Ibn Tufayl Germans. Several centuries before would attribute to themselves all glory. the French. there were in believe that they do not need this claim. and that if this distinction summits of the Pyrenees and poured its light and riches should disappear. like Iraq and Andalusia. Monsieur Renan has said that the philosophers the first group from which was formed this conquer- of the first centuries of Islam as well as the statesmen ing people who spread their power over the world. As for Ibn Bajja [Andalusia-Morocco. thus. we did not take into ac- There were also among them Transoxianan and count either the influence it exercised on minds or Syrian priests. transplanted there its language. were simultaneously warriors and apostles. known. It was therefore easier for the former to ex. and that during this period the Muslim world writers. they developed. in penetrat- the fall of the Arab kingdom in the Orient as in the ing the conquered countries with the violence that is Occident. Besides. we followed step by step world. He rec. circa 1106- completed. whose capital was say that they are not just as Arab as [Abu Yusuf Baghdad. from the material fact of conquest? All conquered ing Spain and Andalusia did not lose their national. The Syrian priests were Persians of what made their fame in antiquity. claim for themselves the A. but they did not arms in the service of the Muslim religion. What would happen if. Ibn Rushd (Averroes) [Andalusia-Morocco. but it is cism. one cannot and Byzantium as were the Arabs. which they usurped by right of con. They made no effort in this direction willing to consider that human races are only distin- until Arab civilization lit up with its reflections the guished by their language. group and its descendants. it Monsieur Renan does do them this justice. fell again into and its doctrine. clarified. the countries that had become the great cen. The Arabs who put their who had emigrated and become Arab. extended. that fructified and developed these germs. and coordinated with a perfect taste and a 1138]. they remained Arabs. I do not wish to deny the great quali. circa 801-866] because ploit the scientific treasures that were buried in these they were not born in Arabia. but one cannot conclude from this sad spectacle possible that in going back to the centuries preced- that the scientific and philosophic progress of the ing the appearance of Islam. Ya'qub] al-Kindi [Arabia. ters of science. The expansion of Islam gave it. eliminating everything that is outside this Harran [in Anatolia]. and who think of him at all when he was Greek and their neigh. What nobler mission to write their books in the language of the Qur'an. who became famous in this period were mostly from and if. TEACHING AND LEARNING AND ANSWER TO RENAN 109 from the Greeks their philosophy as they stripped the foreign to the Arab nationality. does not mean they should be considered would come to say to France that neither [Cardinal . for a people! But while recognizing that from about The Arabs cannot. No doubt Islam. and these countries could not thence- ignorance and became the center of religious fanati. is true. but we that is to say during about 500 years. perfected. no less evident. Iran is an example. and from Iran. and the Persian scholars con- ognizes that the Arabs conserved and maintained for verted to the Muhammadan faith thought it an honor centuries the hearth of science. and wherever of the intellectual superiority of the Arabs and of their they established themselves. quest. a new scope. they have Muslim countries very distinguished scholars and among themselves enough celebrated scholars and thinkers. impose their language on the defeated. The Europeans welcomed Aristotle. circa 1110-1185]. peoples would then regain their moral autonomy and ity. Is there not in this another proof. Italy Sabaeanism.D. no doubt. its manners. which could be legitimately claimed by the power The fact that they preserved their former religion. especially if one is two great cities. but permit me to say that the peoples other virtues or merits than those that flow Harranians were Arabs and that the Arabs in occupy. Christianity. 775 to near the middle of the thirteenth century. glory that renders these writers illustrious. and the English were not so far from Rome [Andalusia-Morocco. no longer to recognize in conquering in the Arab world. forth avoid influence. the impulse it gave to the sciences? Would we not ties of the Persian scholars nor the role that they played be led. nations would not take long to on the Occident. Persian scholars. Thus. from Andalusia. no part of Islam the Arabic language was that of the Harranians. forget their diverse origins. they preserved it for natural attachment to philosophy? It is true that after them with a jealous care. the 1126-1198]. did not bor. but also for the most part Ghassanian Arabs converted to these sciences. one would find that the Middle Ages was not due to the Arab people who ruled Arabic language was not then entirely unknown to at that time.

also. suddenly became extin. and its teachings are phers in order to destroy sciences in the Muslim only understood by some intelligences of the elite. after [the revocation of] the edict of would agree with each other? When the Christian Nantes [in 1685]. It will always be thus. ever religion will have the upper hand. Religion imposes on man its faith and nown.000 philoso. countries down to their roots. Here the responsibility of the Muslim reli. The French. why this torch has not been relit since. as it is for the history of a people. made its professorships illustri. and the contrary happens when it became established. philosophy. it re. How could one therefore hope that they ous families who. belong equally to the great Arab family. 10 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Jules] Mazarin [1602-1661] nor [Emperor Napoleon] find in the past of the Christian religion analogous Bonaparte [1769-1821] belonged to her. however. by whatever names they are called. cause the masses dislike reason. it will elimi- gion appears complete. Europeans belong to the same stock. No agreement and no recon- ing come to France. who one knows. . or in part. would claim for its belief. after becoming solidly es-tablished in It is permissible. the two principal centers of science and are Semites. And if all religion. Germany or facts. after having been thrown in such science and philosophy. England would in turn claim the scholars who. one can with entered Athens and Alexandria. 1445. however beautiful it is. It is clear that wherever it nate philosophy. Admitting that this and because. a desperate struggle in which. ligion and philosophy. why the Arab world still remains buried in profound and Transubstantiation. all resemble each other. trying to stifle both under a live light on the world. and inexplicable mysteries of the Trinity. ciliation are possible between these religions and ous and enhanced the brilliance of its scientific re. to explain the guished. When- darkness. between dogma and free investigation. So sciences. science. emigrated to all Europe. this religion tried to stifle the is philosophy that reigns as sovereign mistress. under the most modest and seductive forms. which were. whereas philosophy frees him of it totally themselves the glory of the offspring of those illustri. the Incarnation. the struggle will not cease by despotism. does not completely satisfy humanity. be- 785-786] put to death in Baghdad 5. on their side. 1505] tells that the Caliph [Musa] al-Hadi [reigned I fear. which thirsts mains nonetheless established that this persecution for the ideal and which likes to exist in dark and dis- took place. historian exaggerated the number of victims. between re- [Jalal al-Din] al-Suyuti [Egyptian scholar. hav. I could neither perceive nor explore. philosophy. and it was marvelously served in its designs long as humanity exists. the bushes of theological discussions. Religions. and it is a bloody stain for the history of tant regions that the philosophers and scholars can a religion. to ask oneself why these two cities its first concern was to put aside real Arab civilization. as every- justice claim that the Harranians and the Syrians. the triumph will not be for free thought.

1 O intimate members of the royal household. Mirza Malkum Khan (Berkeley: Univer. Mirza Malkum 1. 12 Mirza Malkum Khan The Law Mirza Malkum Khan (Iran. Translation from Persian and introduction by Charles Kurzman. A thousand times you minute from the manacles of their sycophancy. as ambassador to Italy. You see the ruthlessness with many thrones have toppled. England: Cam- assistance. have a speck of honesty and justice in service to your So why haven't you told the shah of these matters? benefactor. Issue number 10 of Qanun. bridge University Press. Qanun (The Law). This journal. How inces have been reduced. including the necessity of conspiracy to promote the rule of Law. the Dar al-Funun (House of Sciences). 1833-1908) was an activist and pamphleteer who. as he had ceased his oppositional activities upon reappointment to diplomatic service. who extent the existence of the state and the health of the would not permit their meek rulers to be freed for one monarchy are being shaken. and see how know how much the servants and subjects are subject many regimes are being overthrown in this age of to harassment. Then what is the meaning of loyalty to the not have enough manly candor to say openly how things really are. was smuggled into Iran. Malkum was educated in France on a govern- ment scholarship. 111 . have enough sense at least not to Malkum Khan. and returned to Iran to teach at the country's first modern-style school. rising to the post of ambassador in London. clearly and dis. You know how ambassadors and all the All these calamities would not have occurred. 1971). 1914). alternately served and agitated against the Iranian monarchy. you do the shah. You know to what the ruthlessness of the traitorous courtiers. but retained certain Christian practices. England. then what difference is there between the state! Why don't you tell the shah. London. in different periods of his life. O exalted state? If you place personal safety over the interests courtiers of the shah! O ministers. You know the level to which the prov. circa 1890. ours. And if. Brown. How many monarchs are forced to flee. he was exiled for organizing se- cret societies devoted to freedom and equality—then hired the following year in the Iranian diplomatic service. Hamid Algar. translated here in its entirety—probably writ- ten entirely by Malkum. how many dear souls which the income of the state and the nation is being have been dragged through the dirt of degradation. appearing periodically in forty-two issues over a decade. how things really are? You who know what anger has gathered in the hearts of the people. Edward G. which campaigned on behalf of constitutionalism. No. aforementioned and cowardly traitors? tinctly. these terrifying accounts would force you You say you are afraid that such words will displease to speak out instantly. unfortunately. 1973). Thanks to Mahmoud Sadri for translation and Poetry of Modern Persia (Cambridge. Malkum and his father converted to Islam. The journal inspired the makers of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906. 10." according to the British ambassador. The Press Matbu'ati-i Safi'alishah. Born in the Armenian town of Julfa. Isma'il Ra'in. If you have confided to one another that this cannot continue. where its popularity threw the shah into "paroxysms of irritation and alarm. but for Westerners trample on our rights. Malkum devoted himself to a journal called Qanun (The Low). A decade later. next to Isfahan. yet Malkum played no direct role in that movement. You Look about you for a moment or two. O dignitaries of the of the state. including the purported letters to the editor—demonstrates Malkum's vivid prose and some of his characteristic themes. Iran: Bungah-i sity of California Press. plundered. When he was fired in 1889 in a scandal over a proposed Iranian lottery. Khan (Prince Malkum Khan) (Tehran. in 1899.

allow— killed thus-and-such a minister. Now that I have reached here. who belongs to the rank are gone. has started a secret riot along with sev- . spend one noblewomen—in proportion with the intellect and prudence that they have developed far more than the men of our age—have perceived the meaning and vir- 2. countries' women have. deserve this servility. allow us to present the grievances of the speech. Ever since the sound of The Law has rung out. On one hand. yourself Men. from His imperial highness would reply that you. We. Why so-and-so plun- allow—us to make the bearer of these eminent quali. My family is gone. whenever truly think of yourself as having rights. With the talents and abili. at least as well as some animals ous Karbala [an Ottoman city. poisons of misfortune change into tangible comforts alty. were destroyed. who has really become crazy in her enthusiasm for journal Qanun. have lately taken to slandering that you recognize as your personal portion are the Humanity as much as they can in the presence of lot of most of the people of Iran. Now that we have stumbled onto the in the service of Humanity. their conversation refuge with. writes: folk have all perished in the misfortune of service to You have lit an unusual fire. ness of his. how would this handful of titions of grievance. what foolish oppressor would dare to touch the important Shi'i Muslim shrine]: rights of your Humanity? Nothing remains in this life for me. the people of Iran. Why our nation has been bound to such ab- ject servility. you who number more than 10 million? If you had the sense to consider A noble and wise officer. writes from glori. All the royal me. If you were understood that they have invisible champions in this Men. site of an do. they have drowned us with pe. Unless you want to maintain this good.—Trans. If you their plan quickly came to light. not only can you save yourself.] this endeavor. as others do. But the depravity of you. such stupid hypocrisies. all of these calamities and bitternesses manity than we. Now.12 Mirza Malkum Khan deny our words. ["Humanity. I don't know which unbeliever to seek Whenever they find a safe spot. but you have the power to revive a whole country. now in Iraq. one. after a thou. the that moment the broken-hearted people of Iran have people of Iran. whimpered. this wise shah. and left. the shah. My property is gone. out of insanity or loy. My brothers and kin. What good is com. But strangest of all is the rush of women toward For the thousand sacrifices that you foolishly made the advent of Humanity. as a sort of taqiya [the Shi'i Muslim tra- plaint and despair? Thousands were oppressed like dition of pious dissimulation]. dered these houses. I see no head that this state. meaning of unity. who have become in spirit greater devotees of Hu- O dear brother. have become great supporters of Humanity. There is no scoundrel who has not afflicted is not full of enthusiasm for the Law. his imperial holiness why the state authorities have as leader of a group of enslaved beggars. bet- have achieved enlightenment. My servant's wages A prince with good sense. if you had as much perception and zeal as other journal. a secret organization that ter than our non-men. do not have the right to ask natured shah. so that I may be released from the grasp is all praise and acclaim and yearning for the ad- of these man-eating oppressors." in addition to denoting all people who tues of Humanity far better than the men. Then you will see the path of nationalist martyrdom. the shah. as worthy of someone speaks ill of Humanity and the founders better than this standing. who believed in Humanity less than any- not tasted. who has served this mu. this oppressed shah. and on the other hand they have ignorant ministers of mine be able to rule over you gladdened us with support and useful information. It happens that most of our in devotion to the oppressors of the age. of intimate courtiers of his royal majesty. ined so. immediately recognizes the purpose of ties that you have. refers specifically to members of the Society of Humanity. and to understand the nificent state for almost 40 years. that is. My aunt—al-Saltana. with that cleverness and sly- of Humanity2 awaits you. in the name of God the arena of The Law. so harshly and so confidently. Why our kingdom is being ru- ties the emperor of the people of Iran. vancement of Humanity. There is no humiliation whose bitterness I have servants. in particu- Malkum Khan founded around 1890 in conjunction with his lar. My reputation is gone. and moral pleasures for your enjoyment! less masses to the royal court without your taunting blows. sand troubles. Some weak-willed friends.

under single coin? Because our government. and that of our government not worth a sence of the Iranians has appeared in this way. I will send it. we can only allude to some of are you awaiting. . period]. ferred to others? Because we want the name and practice of science Some ignorant old people and some shameless ignora. Why were this kingdom's concessions not given to the subjects of the kingdom? A. remain as poor as possible. Soon nobody will lack strength. to act." Soon everyone of good sense will take on the What should we do to change this? duties of Humanity. and say. as and plucks out your eyes whenever it pleases. inconsequential. THE LAW 113 eral of her friends in the royal quarters. and not allowed his sons to go once in forty years? gious authorities and the masters of perspicacity have Because it was decided that our princes should re- told us repeatedly that these times of misfortune will main ignorant. they region of the earth who are more thirsty for progress say. Why is the signature of other governments worth Why should there be any surprise that the natural es. the harsh blows of these times? Nobody said that the spits on its pacts and contracts. this is certainly against the rules. not any defect in enemies of wisdom? Because science opens the people's eyes. we will defend our rights as Men. what miracles are you expecting their statements in summary fashion. "We are not animals. being. you who wish to have the We sincerely regret that we cannot respond person- right to live in this world—for the defense of this right ally to every one of the friends who have written on and the proof of your Humanity. you do not reveal how and where you re- dren abroad for education? ceived it. The truth dawns where it is least expected. throws in the time of Ignorance [that is. nation of this great race would remain buried forever Why has the king himself gone to Europe three times in this graveyard of misery. People of in- from others? telligence will easily identify their specific answer in these words that we set out. N. Here. blind as possible. the cause of this is that none of the knowledgeable authorities divining the heavenly secrets have yet seen An individual from Isfahan writes." And recent struggles of this kingdom have been fruitless. and which "What is unlawful government?" path to take. do. the reli. millions. fit to show clearly where the destination is. s. D. Now that divine beneficence has opened That which plunders its subjects at will. Show [me] the people of any the people find their voice and their courage. You who read these words. It makes no sense for a man to be as fearful Because we have decided that our subjects should as you are. tions and answers here. "Let us wait and see what the others and slits your stomach open. muses say that they despair of this people. M. The cause Why have we become such deniers of science and of this despair is their own idleness. alone. and useless. on condition that for the time Why are the people not allowed to send their chil. numb and useless. what hesitations remain for the flowing wastes the kingdom's treasures on any base whim. we want to be Men like and fit for work than Iranians. confiscates your property. the pre-Islamic your family in the street. a thousand times a day. you who call yourself a human being. A youth educated at the Academy of Sciences and M. especially Because we want our subjects to be as ignorant and among the highest ranks. without waiting for others Become a human being and demand the Law. because the signature school in Iran] requests that we publish these ques- of our government is no longer worth anything. and art to fall into complete disuse in Iran. Although the various others. j. obstacles. what fresh disgrace these subjects. what further rights of the nation to any foreigner who wants them. come to an end. currents of this nation's forces? Soon the rays of the shamelessly exploits the salaries and claims of its sun of Humanity shall leave no stone in this kingdom employees. sells the the gates of Humanity in all directions. The concession that you want to take from Technology in Tehran [the leading modern-style the government is useless. On the contrary. that defies description. and that the sun of enlightenment will Why are uneducated and untalented individuals pre- breathe a new spirit into this blessed land. and when the zeal of the nation. brazenly denies its obligations and pacts. A.

or Ashkabad. like those other non. D. and the purity of Humanity? What need have I to tell in fact have become spiritual martyrs for these you what sort of zealous disciples have undergone truths. whatever meaning name and position may istence have tumbled over a frightening precipice. The remedy is just as you specified. . Why are you waiting training. to make offerings to us. as the means of saving mate means. and of this army of prosperity. From now on. We are pre- perceptive mind will have no trouble recognizing pared to give ourselves in service to them. particularly higher knowledge. To light this path of de- Humanity is the observance of these laws. because some agents have lost all their what heathen. it is wished for an opportunity for service. the grace of the strength of Humanity. which was entrusted and distinguished Men. what right do you have these pages [that is. s. Bombay. Islam is the collection of divine laws. or als to one of the correspondents of The Law in to obey us. to express your intrinsic nature. we accord you a higher meaning and We in the societies of Men are shouting to wake position. equity and manly duty demand that you what type of sacrifices in this alliance of mutual strive to lend them assistance and relief to the ex- support? You will soon be astonished and ecstatic tent of your powers of generosity. of your exalted soul. liverance. would never and in no way pretend to make a higher don address. commanded by divine decree. please send all materi. the learned ones. why do you hesitate to take up this popular zeal. The correspondence bureau has moved claim. as master of their sex and instigators of this kingdom. lightenment? We proclaim from first to last that we The office of The Law has relocated from its Lon. make themselves a manifestation of Humanity. you have been unaware of the reality and dig. timeless mission? What are you afraid of? After this. Among the largest services that nity of your destiny. The performance of this great mission is to be men. bring the copies of The Law in an appropri- individuals who hold high offices in the world. we draw your lofty attention specifically to the dered your true being useless.144 Mirza Malkum Khan A. son. what wretch could call into question possessions during their service to Humanity. On the contrary. tical difficulties have nothing to do with this. appoint the trusteeship of Humanity to your heart. your veins will testify that God created whatever person you deem deserving. limb. even among the tradesmen and soldiers and others whom O wise one of an exalted nature! What need is there no one counts among men of note. if only one dinar a month. life and immediately that my words are meant for you. what better torch than the science of the Q. For years you have ment of truth. Your mission in the world is the spirit of Humanity expects from that noble per- far loftier than the fanciful dreams that have ren. come and recognize us. Those First. from among the 'ulama'. bers of this respected half of the nation. what better reasoning than this word of en- To all of the friends of The Law. eras have been the best proponents of the advance- ties of this dear homeland. are they better than you? If you would only look into Second. because women in every kingdom and all times you have wept bloody tears over the calami. of the journal]. to your being for this great purpose? A thousand Third. Now that incumbent upon you to appoint good and pure mem- divine will has appointed the rising sun of Human. words. and readily offer you the glad tidings that people up and prevent this terrible tragedy through from this moment on. The state and our entire ex. in a manifest miracle. We have not told and will not tell anyone to closer to Iran. Why go this far? You who are reading these You know the truth. "What's it to me?" Rest assured that up to this devoted entirely to the knowledge and competence day. in this widespread crisis to say. Furthermore. the you are appointed to the absolute trusteeship of noble child of the homeland. to especially [religious scholars] of Islam take up the leadership needy trustees. we tell all people to Baghdad. Islamic authorities? To fortify the hearts of the weak. how ate way to whatever places and people you see fit. Fourth. four following items. take to witness the divine intention of religious duty and great care that all members of Humanity give ma- the honor of erudition as the greatest of the 'ulama' terial aid. have for you. by all legiti- ity. Everyone can for me to specify your noble name in these pages? A advance into this arena of Humanity. You. The numerous prac. with sufficient you for service to this nation.

by letter or in person? With all whispers in the ear of your intelligence the words: respect. we urge you to take note if. at this very moment. . and utmost pity. the spirit of Hu- have not already recognized? Beyond this. THE LAW 115 What more can we say that your intellect and zeal at this point. and to complete this essay you of these things. what need manity takes flight in the world of conscience. kisses have we to impose on your noble time by reminding your chosen forehead. God is great.

Its biting criti- cism of both monarchical and clerical despotism has remained common knowledge among educated Iranians and a thorn in the side of successive dynasties in Iran. Tawfiq Sayf. Muhammad cessor of the Prophet] and other early leaders of and his pure progeny. and application of these also of the sciences of civilization. which was part of the Ottoman Empire until 1918. reason. interpretation. Lebanon: al-Markaz al-thaqafi al-'arabi. the would be impossible for unaided human reason. When the constitutional movement took power in Iran in 1906. those aware of the history of the world spectacular advances in such a short period of time have come to realize that prior to the Crusades. as they have admitted that learn- ing such principles and sciences conducive to such And then. After that fate. Shi'ism and Constitutionalism in milla ya hukumat az nazar-i islam (Exhortation of the Faith. 16 . Netherlands: E. 48- i Intishar. Brill. 1999). Na'ini later came to reject political involvement. principles on the one hand. Yet his text survived long after its author's disavowal. So they appro. 1988. salutations are due to the noblest of the earliest and and in the edicts of ' Ali [son-in-law and fourth suc- the latest and the seal of the prophets. ries). number 5. and the concomitant and political axioms. Muhammad Husayn Na'ini. (Tehran. Lord of the two worlds. Chishm-andaz (Perspective). or Government from the "Nigahi bih nazariyyat-i Na'ini" (A Look at Na'ini's Theo- Perspective of Islam). they equated Islam with priated the principles of civilization and politics slavery and savagery. querors] resulted in such a state that Muslims gradu- ful event [the Crusades]. J. 1960). Baqir Parham. Na'ini expanded on this theme in a treatise defending constitutional limits on power in Islamic terms—the introductory section of which is presented in this chapter. famously—though possibly apocryphally—urging that all copies of his trea- tise be thrown into the Tigris River. First published in 1909. 6th ed. Thus they con. Therefore they thought sidered curing this mother of all ailments as the that the commandments of Islam are contrary to greatest of their goals and pursued knowledge as a civilization. Didda al-istibdad (Against Dictatorship) Persian and introduction by Mahmoud Sadri. and justice—the fountainhead lover who seeks after the beloved. until the Day of Judgment. is a necessity of Islamic life. 1977). ful and Purification of the Nation. This trea- tise was widely distributed in Iran and provided theological support for the constitution- alists in the face of monarchist and clerical opposition. Na'ini even supported the rise of the Pahlavi dicta- torship in the 1920s. This was due either to the lack regression of the people of Islam and their subju- of such knowledge in their divine parchments or to gation at the hands of unbelievers [the Mongol con- adulteration of their heavenly books. Na'ini was the assistant to one of the leading scholars of Najaf. those nations attributed ally forgot the principles of their own historical their defeat to their lack of access to civilizational origins and even supposed that abject subordination sciences and their general ignorance. 1. 13 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini Government in the Islamic Perspective Muhammad Husayn Na'ini (Iran. as well as the Islamic Republic. as they have justly acknowledged in their all of their foes. earlier histories. and implicit in the Islamic holy books and traditions. Iran (Leiden. Tanbih al-umma wa tanzih al. whom he helped in arranging an influen- tial fatwa (religious ruling) issued in support of the constitutionalists. and damnation is deserved for Islam. Three years later.1 Thanks are due to God. Iran: Shirkat-i Sahami. Translation from 77. Abdul-Hadi Hairi. of progress—and as such. (Beirut. pp. practical reason. 1860-1936) was an Iranian religious scholar who lived for decades at Shi'i seminary cities in Iraq. Christian nations and the Europeans were deprived Therefore the progress and perseverance of the West not only of all the varieties of natural sciences but in translation.

Verse 26] the Government." [Sura 30. and fail- faced martyrdom and spilled their pure blood in order ure to support the holy religion in repelling such a to achieve the great privilege of national salvation mischief and injustice. Since the aim of this essay is to admonish the tional rules. and to restore An authentic hadith [tradition of the Prophet] their legitimate national rights of partnership and states: "When apostasy prevails on earth it is incum- equality in all affairs. for they denied the signs of God and made fun freedoms. Verse 10] selves from the pharaohs of the time." the essential necessities of Islam. And he is the tionalism] as a necessity of religion.—Trans. with God's benevolent belongs only to God. to render this service. yet they declared it un-Islamic support. is contrary to the duty. and called it religion. and possibly also to the Ottoman sovereign domain." I will organize it in sustain the polluted tree of injustice. Conditionally4 of Sura 40. the retrogressive trajectory of the Islamic to struggle against the absolute power of earthly ty- world has been halted and slavery under the imperi. Finding no better pretext for this than religion.1 . This is the extent of their injus- Young Turk Revolution of 1908].—Trans. Achieving a Constitution Thus they allied themselves with the pharaoh of and a Consultative Assembly of the People. It is my hope that The momentous edicts of the leaders of the with God's blessed succor this offering will achieve Ja'fari religion [Shi'i Islam] in the city of Najaf. in today's Iraq. creation. exonerated ultimate guide toward righteousness. I have put all my confidence in gle for these holy and legitimate goals [of constitu. Thus they have endeavored to free them. Muslims have hazarded oceans of fire. [The author is referring to the joint edicts of three grand Qur' an. So this lowliest of servants followed the utterance of the prince of the oppressed. of them. I the issue. In their struggle to break the bent upon the knowledgeable to reveal their knowl- chains of slavery and in claiming their legitimate edge. Iran and revived the atrocities of Zahhak [a mythi. Using such phrases in Persian texts is the equivalent ayatullahs in Najaf. Absolute power 3. tice. and in this holy project they have even abets the injustice. [The term "conditionally" (mashrutiyat) also was used of Islam. the plunder of the lives and property of the Mus- lims. thanks to the superb guidance and rea. declaring the Iranian of using Latin phrases in English texts. for they may change your religion."3 Islam from acquiescing to such tyrannical and irra. [This phrase is in Arabic but is not quoted from the 2. and an Explanation of the Meaning of cal Iranian tyrant] and Genghis [Khan. Him. I repent and take refuge in him."—Trans. silence in the face which they have emerged as a phoenix. five chapters. they dared to commit this [the reference is to the Iranian Constitutional Revo. from will be upon them. rants. and a conclusion.] constitutional revolution to be in accordance with the spirit 4. These were clear historical documents faithful concerning the necessities of the religion and concerning the position of the Islamic leadership on to cleanse the nation of the apostasy [of tyranny]. even in God's lution of 1906.] to mean "constitutionalism. and and prosperity. become aware of the Qur'an: "Therefore evil was the end of those who did true requirements of its religion and its God-given evil. thus making it unnecessary for and the subsequent edicts of the elders of Istanbul others to undertake such a task. 2 divine approbation. who extolled "those who prefer noble and to reveal the incongruity of this apostasy with death to the abject life of servitude. Nature of Tyranny. "And I have no suc- [Sunni Islam] who unanimously declared the strug. tyranny. they turned to the pharaonic declaration: "I fear for Introduction: An Analysis of the you. Liberty and Equality 1206-1227]. The Muslim com. They dared to contaminate this sublime reli- ous passions of dictatorial rulers has been terminated gion with such an insult. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE I 17 At this juncture in history. grave affront to the prophet of Islam. But the have given it the title of "Exhortation of the Faithful man-eating pack of wolves in Iran attempted to and Purification of the Nation. that they at once affronted the Creator and His munity has. thus silencing critical tongues. and an introduction. They have of such an outrage and derision of religion. of the illustrious religion has taken it upon himself Husayn [grandson of the Prophet and third Imam of to discharge his responsibility." [Qur'an. Shi'i Islam]. cess except in God. and if they fail in doing so God's damnation rights. Mongol ruler. Verily God spoke the truth in the holy soning of its clerical leaders." Accordingly.

ensuring that rights are allotted to the as he sees fit. Other.] personal trips to Europe."5 This is why the thy of God. and home economics." in Islamic phi. and so on—these wishes. torture. any organization of forces in it be personal or group rule. he keeps it. management of society or cessions to foreign corporations in order to finance lavish politics. and the independence be conceived of as one of two kinds: It is either "pos- of their nation will be utterly destroyed. If not. in terms of wise. stipulate its conditions and limitations. (A detailed explication of this issue is out. These sages realized the necessity and about what He does. he adorns himself with divine titles wor- subdivision of "practical reason. but they will be questioned. If he providing for a defensive force. rights. regardless sessive" or "preservative.—Trans. or to exact any taxes for his personal private 2. rent. to ers' rights—these are among the internal duties sell. and tear them to pieces. he sells and mortgages national rights to finance his silly and hedonistic trips abroad. domination. nation is like that of a farmer toward his farm. the honor of their religion. and feed them to his hounds. the extent of the exclusiveness of its rule. His courtiers help him identify his pow- greatest kings and emperors of Persia and Rome were ers of tyranny. worldly affairs are contingent upon government. hereditary. he gives it away to the are what the experts in terminology call the "pro.6 He The shari'a canons concerning the upholding of doesn't even hesitate to give himself leave for open these two holy duties are known as political and sexual debauchery at the expense of his subjects. was to uphold these principles and discharge ally imposed. He can separate basic principles: any proprietor from his property. tion of the society and the life of humankind. Also. One polity and government is necessary for the constitu. education of the citizenry. sages. The field of practical reason consists of three sub. [As distinct from "theoretical reason. progressive. His attempt to maintain order and to defend the neutralizing the typical maneuvers in such cases. and civilized they may The possessive form of government is the case be. banish.—Trans. 18 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini Be aware of the notion that all sages of Islam and of ization persuaded them to accept such responsibili- the nations of the world agree that some form of ties. despite their abhorrence of tyrannical rule. and give it to his entourage. whether initiated by divine prophets or by government. That is why the pure shari 'a [religious law] of in which a prince considers the nation his personal Islam has designated the protection of the "essential property to dispose of as his whims and desires dic- constitution" of Islam as the highest of duties. Verse 23] 5. freely elected. tate. and nation. and deterring people from invading oth. gestion. and early twentieth century shahs who sold exorbitant con- divisions: purification of the soul.) It is evident that all prison. can only the integrity of their country. They help him to arrogate to and practical disciplines for the management of so- himself God's attribute: "He cannot be questioned cietal affairs. whether any system of taxation. or give away any part of the nation or its of government. Protection of domestic order. or execute his opponents. passion. The pure shari'a too has endeavored to maintenance of the honor. based upon two blood and plunder their property. [This jab is meant particularly for the late nineteenth losophy. obsequious bunch around him. remedy the shortcomings [of government] and to ality of every nation. civilizational laws and are considered as the second and still. He does not hesitate to im- side of the scope of this essay.] . He treats the nation like a stable full of animals fying Islamic government as a holy duty invested in meant to satisfy his passions and wishes. The nature of the ruler's domination. sessor of the right to expropriate any holdings. Or to encourage his pack of wolves to spill their tionality is contingent upon self-rule. in realizing his ends. can even surmise that the reason for any government. independence. and this real- [Qur'an." of how wealthy. speci. 6. legitimate or illegitimate society. Protection of the nation from foreign invasion. or dictatori. is contingent upon their own endeavors. fairs. it is necessarily true that the such duties. use. Sura 21. or punishes people insofar as they aid or impede him ship]. that the protection of every nation's honor and na. their privileges. He rewards the institution of the imamate [Shi'i religious leader. He upholds or tramples people's rights 1." legitimacy of discharging such duties. He considers himself the sole pos- rightful. On the slightest sug- tection of the essential constitution" of Islam. be it in religious or national af. and anger with adamant in choosing competent sages in theoretical those of the nation.

This is the from doing deserves profuse thanks. is. responsible and just rulers. service. insofar as their use for their rulers is like the use of upholding domestic order. the nation is hostage to the lance. thanked. ship is like the relationship of creation to the Creator. and the slightest infraction God. watchful deliberation. this relation- trodden. usurpation and violations of trust. and are solute if the citizens acquiesce to it. the nature and essence of the lat- orphans. and its interference in its citizen's nations of their rights and the rights of their rulers. (For this affects the leave they government in the ownership of the nation's powers give to their rulers to lord over them as the sole arbi. And according to the government bear the yoke of servitude of the sover- old adage: "People follow the religion of their eign prince or his courtiers. (And again. It is clear why of a slave to his master—even lower than that! It is each of these titles would be appropriate for such a the relationship of the farm animal to the farmer. as well as the degree of the awareness of mentioned matters. and tyrants. conditional. and resources. It form of government. like little On the other hand. emancipated. The head of such a form of is even lower than that: it is the relation of the crop government is known as an absolute ruler. affairs is conditional upon the necessity of reaching and the degree of their devotion to monotheistic or those [national] goals. down. In short. This kind of government princes. government. none other than the principle of accountability. crops for the farmer.) The most extreme administrators are all stewards. the au- tributes and rational faculties of the princes and their thority of the government is limited to the above- courtiers. based on domi. Those in charge of such a government sponsibility. tyrannical. It is a limited form of nature of this government is analogous to loaning and government. and alive. It is necessarily evident that anyone hounds. they should be thanked. And all citizens share the na- those subject to such a rule resist it. Therefore. degenerate tree delegated. "owner to the crop owner. and dictatorial. as happened safe in doing so. and so on. tional right to question the authorities safely. are called protectors. because it is autocratic property but didn't rape the women. Its power will be limited to the extent to which is punishable by law. and and checks and balances. And ter form of government are stewardship. satiate the passions of the rulers." They in turn treat their subordinates as petty is called limited. and it can survive only in the absence of and conditional to the same extent. is known as possessive. National resources are at the The most exalted means of ensuring that a gov- mercy of the ruling group. Govern. and oppressed. And it is evident why each of these des- is none but the nation's ignorance of its own rights ignations would be appropriate for such a form of and the rights of its rulers. and the ter and proprietor of their rights. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 119 This form of government. they should be and arbitrary. of course. accountability. The citizens are partners with polytheistic religions. not owners. guardians. it is evident why each ment is based on discharging the aforementioned of these designations apply to such a nation. they may be called "vegetative"! This form of government is committed to using the The degrees of dictatorship exerted by this form of nation's resources to meet the nation's needs. If they killed same principle that we Shi'is consider as a principle someone but didn't mutilate him and feed him to their of our religion. responsible. they may be called "children" as well. and the ruler's authority is rule-bound delegating. They are not responsible ernment will not betray the trust of the nation in any to anyone for what they do." dictator. The nation that is needs of their owner. whims of the leaders. Everyone has equal rights. The rule is ab. They have no independent right subject to such rule should be called servile. to their own life and existence. rule does not belong to an absolute arbiter. And insofar as they are alien. Everyone's relationship with the ruler is that enslaving. ated from their own resources and wealth. Nor does anyone protesting the under the rule of the pharaohs. and a general lack of re.) The legitimate responsibilities. Because the degenerating into an absolute and arbitrary rule is former is. just. Their only value is to sate the of the yokes. That which pro- These two forms of government are distinct both tects this form of government and prevents it from in their true nature and in their effects. so whatever they refrain way. not to government varies according to the personal at. just arbiters. gallant. and responsibility. having infallible rulers. If they expropriated who partakes of the exalted status of an infallible . and protecting the nation. The root of this sprawling. The nation that is blessed The second form of government is that in which by such a government is called pious. They are form of tyranny is where the ruler declares himself responsible to the nation. imperious. vigi- nation and possession. in all its manifestations.

this is a status "whose true nature is incom. And all of these stem for exceeding them.120 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini leader will be innocent of base passions. wisdom. It is indeed rarer than the case. and endowed with many moral attributes accountability. to every individual in the nation.—Trans. by imposing the aforementioned limits so nity]. other penal measures applicable to betrayal of trust. preventing violation and wrongdoing. as we shall. all that has be no doubt about its universal application. inequality of the citizens with the government." True accountability and responsibil- and virtuous and happens to choose a perfectly wise ity will preserve the limits on power and prevent the and chaste supervisor of the affairs of the state. rests in the principle of the supervision of the "the fering in affairs in which it has no right to interfere. such a document is called the from a disregard of the above two principles. king tive branch is under the supervision of the legisla- of Iran. government. 8. with no ruined religion. [The last of the infallible Imams. whether by excess or penury. except in areas of conflict with religious land. public representatives" of the Hidden Imam during Under these conditions. The people's prehensible for ordinary human beings. and honesty of the people and the govern. is punish. and the experts in internal and immune even to the slightest oversight and neglect. which relies on the con- likeness of such a rule only under two conditions: tractual powers of the umma [the Muslim commu- First. But according to Shi'i Islam. according to the dents of just kingship. All of constitutional law or the constitution. the Hidden Imam had "specific repre- sentatives" for the first seventy years of his occultation. as you have learned. and the freedoms and clude some of the experts in religious law or be com- rights of all classes of the people are formally guar. and need for explanation after exhibition!" the points that must be observed in order to maintain The foundation of the second [constitutional] the integrity of the constitution will be mentioned form of government. prised of people who are given leave by such person- anteed. The correction and Violating the trust of the nation on either side and in confirmation of the representative assembly's deci- any form.7 seldom does it happen that the king is just Consultation. and the legislative branch is responsible jumihr a long time ago. [In Shi'i Islam.] lic representatives. in accordance to the requirements of religion. The legitimacy of the supervision of pen with frequency in history. and to oligarchic autocracy of the legislature rarest of jewels. ration of the limits on power and reversion of con- ment achieved under Nushirvan's rule was an excep. this legitimacy that the government will strictly refrain from inter. and the nation in that conditions. as return of possessive government only if the execu- happened in the case of Nushirvan [Khosrow. Since 7. is of this sort. nations may attempt a pale principles of Sunni Islam. sions by the grand experts in religious law will suf- able by permanent termination of the service and fice. not a rule. such a leader is wishers of the nation. in history. the well- essay). stitutional government to absolutism in the first tion. Due to divine protection. is limited later. God willing. in the second. tive branch. the will of the nation's selection. From what we have explained so far it is clear that Since the written document concerning political and the foundation of the first form of government [tyr- civil affairs of the nation is analogous to "practical anny] is absolute power. external affairs.8 Thus the legislature should either in- stipulated in degree and kind. went into occultation in 874. and complete responsibility by ap- (whose explanation falls beyond the scope of this pointing a supervisory assembly of the wise. knowing no limits. strengthening the principle of vigilance. in that it sets limits and the penalty irresponsibility of the leaders. governmental powers are his occultation." representatives are comprised of such individuals and However. There should the devastation and atrocities in Iran. those knowledgeable in religion serve as his "pub- theology. Slackening either countability. It is impossible to expect it to hap. and ligious scholar]. according to Shi'i that time. treatises" [compendia of ritual duties issued by a re. ages to adjudicate on their behalf.] . blessed with Second. God willing. and responsibility and the partnership. reigned 531-579] and [his vizier] Buzar. ac. of these two responsibilities will lead to the deterio- equality. Other considerations concerning this issue. Thus in the absence the elected legislative assembly rests conclusively on of divine leadership and the exceedingly rare inci. given a lack of access to such divine their formal seat is called "the Assembly of National leaders. The level of vigilance. so they can discharge their duties in In short."—Trans. possession of the nation. "There is no laws. explain later.

like animals. In the first days of Islam. since the basis of the former is ber of wrongdoers as a critical threshold at which thralldom and of the latter liberty. Although in these cases the domination was Khattab. Pharaoh. to whom rants to idolatry. "servant" in this context to "serfs" and "subordi- gressive government. circa 1329-1414. In one verse [Sura 26. liberty." This generalization is further confirmed in would prosper and that the Islamic nation would the blessed verse [Sura 6. and all the principles and cor. as was the tra garment. it was inevitable that they nates. are the results of the ap. After "When the children of al-'As reach 30 in number. the Pharaoh says. after a few complaints of . 634-644] was publically rebuked for wearing an ex. the number of the fruits of the evil tree of tyranny ily. All these. The Prophet designated this num- At any rate. Verse 11] people as slaves. the Qur'an tells that the Pharaoh mon: "the pharaohs took them as slaves. tected. Verse 94]: "you have left become their inferiors and. when everyone had received only one garment. and that he had willingly given it to his father. interpreted the word "servant" tyrannies of their own. as soon as the Concordance]. the pace of the in the authentic and frequently quoted tradition: expansion of Islam was mind-boggling. be returned to the behind your servants [upon death]. the opposite of liberty. generalized the meaning of the word other nations realized the natural foundations of pro. Con. when he asked to be corrected masters. So long as they were pro. kings of Iran and Rome were their second garment was his. On another occasion. land. the commander of the faithful. The noblest of all." He then ruled over the children of Israel. although they did expounded on the meaning of slavery: "then they not worship him as the Egyptians did. circa 1571- their diametrical opposites. as well." It is evident that the sla- principles and their corollaries were constituted by very of the Israelites is an expression of this subju- the founder of the religion. Verse 47] financial accountability and supervision of adminis. they will alter God's religion and take change themselves. and rights. still another verse [Sura 7. subjected them to the worst tortures and made them mented and imprisoned in Egypt and prevented drink the poisonous cup drop by drop. "whose people are our slaves. the text of the holy they would begin to transform the form of Islamic Qur'an and traditions of the holy infallible ones have government from stewardship to tyrannical posses- on several occasions likened the servitude of the ty. nonetheless 'Ali treated it similarly: He had to send for his son 'Abdullah to testify that his father's "In those days. [Muhammad ibn Ya'qub Firuza- Islam continued to enjoy a measure of stability de. badi. They have is due the highest of prayers and salutations. They couldn't find any way to refuse or defend themselves. God does not change the state of a people til they reach 30." In another sermon." [Qur'an. has stated from the second to the first form." In the same sermon 'Ali explained the reign of the leaders of Iran and 9. in the degree of their servitude. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 121 to delegation in affairs beneficial to the nation. and were tor. including the right to ites?" In another blessed verse [Sura 23." Similarly. gation. "and plication of the above two principles. this government is based on pitality even though you have enslaved the Israel- partnership. the Prophet of Islam. may peace be upon him. They con- from leaving for the holy land.9 These two we shall subjugate them. "You consider me indebted to your hos- trary to the first form." In trators. the situation changed. However. and as "slave." The prescient pre-Islamic savagery and ignorance. "Ver. banishing them from the lush arable lands if he erred. these two principles were Rome over the children of Israel and Isma'il [the applied so completely that the second caliph ['Umar ibn al." ollaries of Islamic government were transformed into [Hadith scholar Fakhr al-Din Turayhi. Arabs]. ' Ali. not connected to deification of the kings. tinued to languish in this state of abject ruin and de- Verse 22] Moses. sion. elabo- guided Muslims to free their necks from the yoke of rated on the sufferings of the children of Israel at wretchedness. tells the feated subjugation.] the author of Qamus [The spite its tyrannical leaders. nothing much changed. the hands of the Pharaoh and his people in a ser- For example. 1674. and Islamic government did not degenerate greetings be to him and his pure progeny. Mu'awiyya [reigned 661-680] and the children of they shall turn the religion of God upside down and al-'As came to power.] the author of Majma' al-Bahrain [The Still. worse. Verse 127] he says. Sura 13. so long as other nations too were enslaved in Bahrain Collection}. take the servants of God as their own servants. hadith of the Prophet of Islam concludes that once even plants. case in Egypt. he was reminded by his audience that he could be around the Sea of Iraq toward arid areas of the in- straightened by the sword if he diverged from the straight path.

This is why all mutually protective of each other! It is also evident others in the history of Islam who have followed that uprooting this evil tree and liberation from this Husayn's blessed precedent. You shall live as a free and heroic further explicated in the discussion of the methods soul. Verse 55] declares: "God has prom. Verse 31] hold that the verse refers to [Jews' Umayyad leaders with abject slavery. to They will worship Me and not associate any one with human beings. addressed Hurr ibn Yazid timony to the mutual support of these two forms of Riyahi [a Kufan military officer]. means "free"]. The acquiescence of the umma the word "master" instead of "steward" here. ['Ali's "They consider their rabbis and monks as lords. in this world as well as the next. God has forbidden it the same conclusion. In addition. The above verse that allegiance to you as a slave. Husayn. "I hold no allegiance to any tyrant of cerning the conversion of the form of government my time. and to on naked force. deviousness and chicanery. he offered This argument confirms the astuteness and accu- up his life. in the case of political tyranny and extremely diffi- ers of this abundant harvest and dew drinkers of this cult in the case of religious tyranny. popes and their courtiers. who have made simi. peace be upon him and all those who The dismal condition of us Iranians is living tes- were martyred with him. abject slavery—possible only through the heedful- lar sacrifices. and to the faithful." This verse as well as the closing clauses of warned them that as a result of this behavior they the "Promulgation" prayer [a prominent piece of the will be deprived of his leadership and become slaves Shi'i liturgy] refer to the return of his holiness the of Umayyad rule [661-750]. thus complicat- vast ocean of resistance and freedom-seeking. As Husayn is in agreement with scores of other traditions con. in truth. Taqlid [imitation] of reli- "We have descended upon you by order of your gious leaders who pretend to present true religion is cousin. while religious tyranny is based on all those who prefer noble death to a life of servi.122 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini his blessed heart concerning the hypocrisy and re. after Hurr had de." he replied: "I shall not give you my hand no different from obedience to political tyrants." Truly. and change their fear into security. The difference between the two to us. also leads us to from us to accept servitude. in which he robates. Thus the difficulty of getting rid of ready to be martyred in his blessed stirrups: "You are political tyranny is rooted in religious tyranny's sup- the free one. which are among the greatest chosen for them. to preserve his freedom and monotheism. tyranny and slavery. in early Islam. In reply to the and Christians'] unquestioning obedience toward coarse and rude bunch of Kufans who had declared. verse [Sura 24. God willing. Me. And far be it ambitious and hedonist hypocrites. equated obedience to the [Sura 9. the of resisting the forces of absolutism. according to the explicit . The prince of the oppressed. This will be. the former is based on the head bent before God be made to bend to any control of bodies while the latter stems from the con- other?" Thus Husayn refused to acquiesce. nor shall I confess my ther one is a form of idolatry. and to the proud souls. The two are allied and mutually fected from the enemy and stood [with Husayn]. They consider them as interrelated and impurities of hedonistic passions. holy be His names." Also. the awaited Messiah—may our lives find the Umayyads evil masters after me. We can conclude that obedience to the autocratic ised to make those of you who believe and do right. endowments granted by God. Hurr. to cleanse its body of the gious kinds. and to His Messenger." He echoed his father's words: "How can a to believe that. and his family. ing resistance to the former form of tyranny as well. This to tyrants is likened here to polytheism. are called "resisters of injustice" and ness and awakening of the nation—is relatively easy "heroes of freedom." ' Ali used be sacrificed for him. and will establish their faith which He has own life and liberty. they are all grain pick. science who divide tyranny into political and reli- munity of the faithful. He made racy of the argument of some of the experts of this this generous sacrifice for the liberation of the com. as your mother named you [Hurr port of the political order. But those who disbelieve after this will be rep- bellion of the inhabitants of Iraq. You have limited my rebukes imitation of the ill-intentioned clergy and options to two: death and servitude. as He had made those before bandits of the nation is not only an injustice to one's them. confederated. The difference leads us tude. orders of the rebellious tyrants of the umma and the leaders in the land. and forms of obedience is that political tyranny is based to the pure of heart. interpretations of the blessed verse. his property." Likewise. Ei- of allegiance as an inferior." younger son] Husayn. In order trol of hearts. he said: "And they will twelfth Imam. himself stated.

When she tributes of ultimate possession of the creation. been captured by the Muslims in battle]. Pharaoh's refusal and his of leadership. was as 'Abdullah [Ibn] 'Abbas [an early Islamic scholar. died Rome]. The Prophet of Islam bared his shoulder and holy Qur'an. So they would ask for favors [from 'Ali] principle of equality in property is evident in the inci. [Sura 20. status into the realm of noble humanity. thus guaranteeing the well-being of the 622] and the warriors of the battle of Badr [in 624] umma. All of these are among His holy attributes. died 619]. when leading them to their God-given rights and liberties he asked all the faithful to exercise their right of just has been among the most significant goals of the retribution if he has unfairly injured any of them. such the mission of the Prophet. when they one closer to monotheism and the worship of God were brought in front of him. and to uphold the Israelites. lib. it is tantamount to idolatry. laws and obligations and the great efforts of the They preferred earlier Muslims such as the "Emi- Prophet. argued that one of the advantages of bances during his rule. for God only deserves the at. dent in the case in which [the Prophet] did not dis- eration from such an abject servitude not only re. First. They were given no and His true and exclusive names and attributes. and approached with the heirloom. the like Iranians. according to the text of the paigns. a pretender to the divine mantle and a Second. and take them ter Fatima ever commits a crime. In his holy "sermon of disparagement. her punishment to the holy land. Verse 47] addressed the Pha. his sharp rebuke of one of his . one recognizes the giving and accepting favors and discriminating based equality of a nation's people with their leaders in all on the closeness of association [with the Prophet]. that the commander of the faith- 'Ali. in every case. and in order to abrogate the apostasy persecution of the Israelites led to the drowning of of discrimination in the distribution of favors. taking Abu'l-'Asi [ibn al-Rabi'. it also brings died circa 670]. infallible ones. the Prophet He does. a non-Muslim who had associates with God. the principle of equality in punish- from the yoke of slavery and abject servitude and ment is evident in [the Prophet's] last sermon." principle of equality. peace be upon them accidentally touched his shoulder during of the cam- and upon our Prophet. Third. had been used to the practice of From the Prophet's biography. and other prisoners of war. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 123 text of the worthy Qur'an and the traditions of the in order to purchase the freedom of her husband. been emphasized in ['Ali's] holy "sermon of dispar. 658] and the others. asked the man to retaliate if he wished. to establish grants" [who accompanied Muhammad to Medina in this principle. died 652]." All they sought was to liberate the Prophet once said in public that if my only daugh- the Israelites from slavery and torture. They even guaranteed Pharaoh's would not differ in the slightest from the punishment continued reign and authority in his own land (as has of any other wrong-doer. liberation from the yokes [of the kings of Iran and 619-686] and Malik Ashtar [a great warrior. The dent in which [Muhammad's step-]daughter Zaynab story of 'Ali's refusal to provide for his needy brother [died 629] came to Medina and offered an heirloom from the treasury. according to ment before he returned the heirloom [to Zaynab]. peace be upon them. But the man raoh thus: "So let the Israelites come with us and do was satisfied to kiss [the Prophet's] shoulder. Also. greetings to him. Even senior disciples. and to the Pharaoh and his troops and the liberation of the reverse the endowment of fiefs. his cousin 'Aqil [ibn Abi Talib. That special privileges. God's greetings be upon him. the principle of equality in decrees is evi- transgressor to His inviolate realm. but also. after the statements we have ful 'Ali encountered so many enmities and distur- quoted above. Conversely. prophets. criminate between his uncle 'Abbas [ibn 'Abd al- leases the soul from its vegetative state and animal Muttalib. an ornament that she unquestionable authority in whatever He deems nec. not oppress them. He alone can be free of responsibility in what wife. Yet he was careful to ask whether usurps this status is not only a tyrant and a usurper all the Muslims would forego their share of the pay- of the station of stewardship. over later Muslims and newly converted Muslims Let us cite an example for each case. and would. hear harsh rebukes. It was for the revival of such a blessed tradition agement" [of the devil]). holy texts. peace be upon him. even in the binding of their hands is why liberating the imprisoned and usurped nations and arms. wept and announced that he would free her husband He who arrogates these attributes for himself and without payment. had inherited from her mother Khadija [the Prophet's essary. Someone claimed that [the Prophet's] riding crop had Moses and his brother Aaron. may peace be upon her.

has clearly sparked a back. clutches of unjust tyrants as illusory. too. did freedom and equality. and debauchery can prophets and their just successors. even penal law. and so forth. and the preservation of its essential rights. of rights and powers. sober. (The reader of these depreciators of the shari'a. and that it denies ample of the praiseworthy prophets and their trusted any difference between children and adults. and the brave. businessmen—would not have risen in order lash. and his refusal to allow his lowed by Christianity in places such as Russia. for which All these endeavors served to preserve this cen. except to protect the essence true. anarchy. own son to borrow some honey from the public France. which are far- picious age—which is. movement with such explicit edicts and orders. with limited government. is contin- vert the form of government from possessive back gent upon the limitation and responsibility of the to delegative. While the possessive form has caused government. and the origin of only strengthen the position of irresponsible. They said tral pillar of Islam and discharge the great responsi. The leaders of the Ja'fari reli- its best to describe the life-sustaining principles of gion. Fur- and extol his virtue as a leader—and countless other ther. or Britain) to the political change from ab- stock—which made even his enemy. heroes. that the godly jurisconsults and leaders of insane. "He who can't accom. they have mobilized to cloak this divine the ruin of Islamic societies and the decline of Islamic beneficence with ugliness. which was distorted by the evil lutist autocrats. The Iranian nation—no infidels over the country. the delegative form will protect against most the sun cannot be covered over with mud.124 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini daughters who wanted to borrow a necklace from the the outward appearance of women in the West (al- treasury for one night. sane and stewards. and earnest attempt to erty and equality—at least understands this much: Its bring about the end of absolutism and to replace it sages and brave compatriots—be they clergymen. as was his son Husayn. regardless of how unaware it may tect the essence of Islam.) The but to help their masters by committing these heinous proponents of religious despotism went farther and acts. healthy and sick." they ought to con. it is imagined to be. They have resolved as well that noble endeavor. It was with a similar Muslims and non-Muslims in affairs such as inheri- motivation. the age in ther from the quest for constitutionalism than the sky which the enslavement and decline of the Muslims is from the earth. which the reader has learned ity in Islam that put all other proponents of these from this essay to have been the practice of the virtues to shame. They even attributed downtrodden Shi'is than the cursed troops of Yazid . and tesque and reprehensible disguises—contrary to the in calling its enemies the enemies of the Imam of the Qur'an's warning: "Do not mix the false with the age [the Hidden Imam]. they attached to the essence of this are being terminated. plish all should not abandon all. They know very well what we mean when we declared this struggle a denial of all moral limits and say that these so-called clerics "do more harm to the an attempt to spread apostasy. rights and duties. that this principle will erase all differences between bility of leadership in Islam. know full well that this essay knows such liberation to be the goal of all spreading corruption. but to attain tree of tyranny in the name of protecting religion. and in order to follow the glorious ex. in accordance with the maxim. with God's help. though this is as irrele- [who would soon found the Umayyad dynasty] weep vant to constitutional government as could be. they mischaracterized the principle of equality similar stories are examples of the justice and equal. abso- Islamic government. in terms of their faithful from the servitude of the tyrants in this aus. All of these issues. had no motivation in authenticating this limited and responsible government in the most gro. Verse of Islam and the integrity of the Islamic countries." [Sura 2. Prophet of Islam and his just successors. Because the salvation and prosperity of the nation. They have no other objective in mind tree of autocracy planted by the family of al-'As. in conformity to achieve that which the proponents of religious with its ancient and ongoing duty to protect the evil despotism attribute to constitutionalism. Recognition of the need for be of the evils of slavery and the advantages of lib- change. the the Ja'fari [Shi'i] religion have resolved to free the able and the disabled. tance. The religious form of absolutism. 42] It portrayed the liberation of the nation from the This bunch of tyrants and oppressors of the umma. and hide the truth knowingly. the free and coerced. ' Ali was martyred. nor the Nile forms of corruption and prevent the dominion of the delta dammed with shovels. marriage. They do not realize that states. Mu'awiyya solutism to constitutionalism. In this path [the religious matter how ignorant of the requirements of religion leaders] have engaged in a struggle needed to pro.

as stated in the Qur'an: "Such was God's tradi. to reduce the degree of injustice and usurpation? tion. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 125 [circa 642-683] did to Husayn. for it is sure to affect its own kind [that and responsibility of government—is the right an- is. Fourth: Discussion and dispelling of some of the tions in our five chapters. rectness and legitimacy of the process of electing gion of Islam and in other religions. . remember when God took a promise from the people Second: During this period of the occultation [of of the Book. but how whose rule has been usurped [by mortals]. peace be upon him"! of yore and thinkers of today. We shall swer and free of further limitations? postpone revealing their fallacies to appropriate sec. and the Hidden Imam]. as well as in the the nation's representatives. temptations and fallacies adduced against constitu- duction to an end at this juncture with the following tional government. to describe this scan. Should wretched the bargain that they made. They recognize that the blessed verse of former [absolutist] form is among the apostasies of the Qur'an [Sura 3. even proconstitutional clergy will suffer]. based on the two principles of limitation of powers dal no further. pledge] and sold it away for a little gain. This is God's unchanging tradi. the sages responsibilities." They must one allow the former form of government to domi- realize that in this world and in the Hereafter. they set aside [the stewardship and [the Imam's] public representatives. and a summary of their cogitations of nonreligious philosophers. Devolution to the with tyrants. can one argue any change in God's tradition. noth. We shall bring the intro. the umma is deprived of divine not keep back any part of it. summary of the five ensuing chapters: Fifth: Explication of the conditions for the cor- First: The foundation of government in the reli." [Sura 33. and usurpation ing but scandal and damnation will result from their upon usurpation—or is it incumbent upon Muslims support of tyranny. to make it known to humankind. Verse 187] speaks of them: "And tyrannical rebels of all times and periods of history. and you will not find to limit [the powers of] government. Third: Based on the above-mentioned necessity tion among those before you. is none other than the They know how much we are hurt by their alliance second [constitutional] form. Verse 62 ] that the present form of constitutional government— It is time to rein in our pen. nate—that is. compounded injustice.

polygamy. the Diras. Ashraf Ghani. Great efforts were exerted of marrying a multitude of wives. Chih Bayad Kard? (What Is to Be Done?) "Literature as Politics: The Case of Mahmud Tarzi. good or wicked! The rival wives After the death of the Great Amir. a multitude of wives means twenty. 1911-1919) multitude of wives and concubines in his harem. Vartan Gregorian. pp. and India. 1979). Rivalries and antagonism among the nannies. 119-159. [Tarzi's sponsor. and assumed editorship of Siraj al-akhbar (The Lamp of the News). number 3. Tarzi's account of Afghan history is sketchy and not always factual. opened a translation office. Italy: Istituto Universitario (Stanford. thirty. All dependencies became at. 1880-1946 ul-akhbar (1911-1918) (Naples. whose birthplace is claimed by both Afghanistan and Iran. nationalism. 1911-1919 Nasharat-i Ittihadiyya-i Zhurnalistan. the bimonthly periodical that became the cornerstone of modem Afghan journalism. stan. tionalism and Journalism in Afghanistan.] 126 . Peshawar. once again the would instill discord in their children from their early plague of disunity afflicted his sons and a destruc. Afghanistan: Siraj al-Akhbar. 63-72. 1842-1863] passed in tranquil.—Trans.: Stanford University Press. by the shari'a [Islamic law] of four wives that can ing Afghanistan a strong state with many dependen. Afghani (Mahmud Tarzi the Afghan) (Kabul. 1976. least one child. Shalkut. The Emergence of Modern Afghani. mak. only be allowed under specified conditions. Tajikistan: Izd-vo "Irfon. The son of a famed poet whose outspokenness led the family into exile. as the latter term signifies the number set tached to the central administration of Kabul. Neither was anything done in the area of forty wives.2 We do not call it for internal reform. Tarzi spent more than 20 years in the Ot- toman Empire. the male attendants. Tarzi studied with Afghani for seven months in Istanbul. Sobir Orientale. volume 29. just as Tarzi's model for education policy was later adopted by the state. It is likely that Tarzi was one of the main architects of this version. 1912). Tarzi is sometimes referred to as the father of modem prose in Afghanistan. mostly in Damascus. after Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (chap- ter I I). tive civil war inflamed the dynasty. (The Literary and Educational Activity of Mahmud Tarzi 2. The specimen of Tarzi's work presented here is drawn from a book presented to subscribers of Siraj al-akhbar in September 1912. also had a and his Newspaper. He used this publication as a forum to spread his message of modernization. and Islamic—among the elite of Afghanistan and neighboring Mus- lim states. however. By con- cies. Mahmud Tarzi. 1969). He returned to Afghanistan in 1905. from each of whom would be born at public education. taught history and geography at a military school. Eastern. Second. Central Asia. It was at this time that force the discord. Translation from Dari and introduction by Helena Malikyar. form- ing the foundation of modem education in Afghanistan. 1865-1933) was Afghanistan's foremost proponent of mod- ernization and reform within an Islamic context. Chaos and blood. and also had intellectual contact with reformers in the Levant. The Lamp of the News. or policy. (Dushanbe. and the nurses would also rein- shed ravaged the country. May Schinasi. reflecting the version that en- joyed state sponsorship at the time. and other territories were lost. A Study of Seraj stan: Politics of Reform and Modernization." 1973). 1988). 'Abd al-Bashir Shur. One was the practice ity and total affluence. Because of his break from ornate literary styles. Afghanistan at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century: Na- 1. days. Amir Habibullah Khan. such a civil war and fratricide. No thought." Afghani- (Kabul. was given to foreign trast. and iden- tity—Afghan. We must say that there were two main reasons for reigned 1826-1839. Mahmud Tani-yi Mirzoev. there was a lack of proper Baluchistan. Afghanistan: muda Tarzi i Ego Gazeta Siradzh-ul'-Akhbar. 14 Mahmud Tarzi What Is to Be Done? Mahmud Tarzi (Afghanistan. Literaturno-prosvetitel'skaia Deiatel'nost' Makh. pp. Calif.1 The reign of the Great Amir [Dust Muhammad Khan.

gitimacy of the Afghan government. When his majesty arrived in the Muhammad Ya'qub Khan [reigned 1879-1880]. before the latter set out for Kabul. approximately 300. the exalted gov- lows in Kabul and began ordering the deaths of five. and pernicious agreement with the English. and enlightened majesty. though. amir. number of treacherous people. trol of the affairs of Afghanistan was passed on to the sulted in the new amir signing a most damaging and capable and strong hands of the wise. rose against the English. Amir Shir 'Ali Khan made a po. state became greatly indebted to his majesty the late sequent exile to India of the amir himself. Their army was besieged at Shirpur. The misery and destruction that had previ- speaking. Women. and once more the entire country was imagine what kind of pandemonium and tumult could unified under one central command. the English army was sur- pleasure. anyone lish and build a great Islamic state in Asia. ernment can also assert that it saved their troops from ten. or twenty innocent Afghans on a daily basis. the garri. intelligent. Afghanistan. it will not be an exaggeration if we ment resulted in the killing of [British official Louis] say that because of this incident.000 had been imprisoned by his father for many years. remain limited to reading books in Persian ously befallen the English was threatening them again. which was signed at Zima. In Qandahar too. old and young. who Charikar district of Kuhistan. Their names forever will was made during the tenure of his late majesty. and died in Mazar-i Sharif. ascended from the regular army were ready to serve him. if the famous General [Frederick] Roberts [1832-1914]. He raised an be handed to the enemy when such a valiant com- army of about sixty to seventy thousand soldiers. and the con- royal advisors and an incompetent entourage. the esteemed English Cavagnari [in 1879] and the imprisonment and sub. set up gal. armed civilians of the region and a number of soldiers was released and. This agree. The esteemed English state employed a prudent litical error in that he was deceived by the con. it was Amir Shir 'Ali Khan [reigned If the Afghan nation could bring such calamity on the 1863-1865. At this precise moment the aware of news from the outside world. The much misery upon the English army. who could hold a weapon marched to the battlefield. his great glish. came the turn of his eldest and wisest son. but this time in manifold. brave king. sold out their faith in religion for the vile the independent state of Afghanistan was established. Their scientific education would. he was defeated. they would be addressed with royal titles and excellent stronghold for the national army of Afghani- would spend their days playing games and seeking stan. and ignorance of patriotism and as after a period of foreign domination. crossed the Amu River [from his exile in Central Asia]. lack of education. the imprisonment. we will just mention that under his majesty's Most inhabitants. the beacon of the nation and . The En. men. for had he chosen. once again religiosity. In the end. Like hungry lions. Therefore. 1869-1879] who captured the throne of English without having a king or a military leader. and writing decrees and orders. Such innate news also struck like thunder that his late majesty Amir ignorance and lack of education was so prevalent that 'Abd al-Rahman Khan [reigned 1880-1901] had no one could escape from its effects. leadership Afghanistan became a mighty and power- Mullas [religious scholars] everywhere declared jihad ful state. with all the aptitude and potential to estab- [holy struggle]. policy and preemptively sent a delegation to the late spiracy of the Russian state and declared war on the amir. because of ignorance. WHAT IS TO BE DONE? 127 education and discipline for the princes. As a the throne. the amir could have brought glish occupied Afghanistan for the second time. The chaos of an uprising began to challenge the En. They would be un. however. Consequently. added to the ill intentions of some English troops left Afghanistan in safety. who mander and chivalrous amir would lead such brave received modern military training. Amir peace and negotiation. From their son that the late Amir Shir 'Ali Khan had built as an birth. good English state claims that it has approved the le- under the pretext of avenging Cavagnari. His unbalanced state of mind after a long result of the agreement. fled to tion carried a confidential letter containing an offer for Turkistan. He also brought people. This ushered in an era of renewal for Afghanistan. His son. re. Here. The delega- English state. short. carcass of worldly gains and committed all sorts of We will not discuss all the work and progress that contemptible indecencies. generally rounded. A certain annihilation. In history. they were thirsty for the a number of reforms in the civil administration. at such a sensitive time. as it be mentioned with damnation in the pages of Afghan has not yet been forgotten from our memories. In blood of the enemies of their homeland! the end. After the demise of that founder of the kingdom.

them." the needs of our time. and of being. mines. with the help of science and is to be done?" Some say that even if we so desired. oceans. All our destitution and impoverish- gence results in a day of damage. all and the next. One month The Holy Qur'an has shown us that knowledge is life of lagging behind means a year of retardation. and the opportunity of our duties toward ourselves and toward humanity for attack will soon be lost. Alas. This sovereign's ever-increasing innate talent lims have reserved that life-giving holy book for our and capability has caused continuous growth and dead. deserts. One day of dam. or else we will soon be hunted in our sleep. Regrettably. withdrawal of that light. Amir Habibullah Khan [reigned 1901. and direct all of humankind. knowledge. we hear recita- it the beam of the scale of justice and equality in Asia.128 Mahmud Tarzi the religion. Yes. In norance darkness. most of us Mus- 1919]. The whole world will be enlightened by must carefully study the sacred book and translate its it until the end of days. as backwardness and the darkness of our age to the happened to so many of us before. stones. if we put into practice that have they done?" we will arrive at the issue of "What which is taught to us. ment is a result of ignorance and lack of education. That kind of light will not First. we We. age entails a month of lagging behind. and the world. we for all time. we have done nothing more than obey the ions of the Prophet [the first four caliphs] ended with commands of our Qur'an. Whatever we do. Our Qur'an expresses and If we carefully study questions such as "What explains to us that all things in the universe are were we and what have we become?" and "What conquerable. The farther we have come from the bril- liant sunshine of that era. We do not apply this effective weapon to "It is useless to have regrets later. and specialists of Islam in each we believe that light shines over the entire world and and every Muslim country. We must move fast and wake up at the truth in a different light. rivers. More than in any other place. Time is very limited. we read our Qur'an this case. One and ignorance death. the darker our hearts and O. So much so that at this moment Af. We must then publish the translations abun- distanced ourselves from that light. They must think and deliberate on their state upon us are from our ignorance of the Qur'an. and read from it only for the souls of departed advancement. all the trees. we can achieve the conquest of all things. If we dominate our mountains. and the righteous morality of the four compan. Therefore. sky. however. the living "What is to be done at this time?" should also read it to improve their own lives. keeping them in clear Urgent Actions conscience. it would be impossible to return to the state of affairs and put them to use for ourselves and our countries. the just. mountains. for in that golden time of happiness the rays of the light of that brightest of moons were still shin- ing in the hearts of people. tion to take and very little time. consider this a lame excuse. as a book for the continent of Asia that it would be appropriate to call dead. and memorize it too quickly without pondering its and space would recite in unison: meaning. We consider that great book. as it appeared 1. beneficial passages into all languages that Muslims ness and this abject baseness of ours is that we have speak. One moment of negli. we must read carefully our Holy Qur'an and distance itself from us until the day of judgment. and ness.300 years ago. that knowledge is light and ig- year of retardation is an entire lifetime of regret. make its glorious commands our guide for this world Were that light limited to a particular time period. Muslims must ask this question of one an. The only reason for this dark. sent to heal and ghanistan has gained such an important place in the bless the inhabitants of the earth. dantly and distribute them to the entire Islamic world. We must organize large gatherings of would have ended at the close of that golden age. In those gatherings. scientists. We see must do it fast. our Muslim brothers! We have much urgent ac- minds have become. tions of the Holy Qur'an in cemeteries and before It is precisely for this reason that one is compelled corpses! This is not to say that we must not recite the to pose the question: Qur'an for the souls of the dead—rather. but one that covers the . But scholars. ones. The Holy Qur'an is a sacred and steadfast book so that Muslims learn that this is not just a book for and a venerable right path that has been sent to guide the afterlife and for the dead. We do not attribute our once. The serenity. All of the miseries and adversities that have come other.

hypocrisy. while such acts [as in the field of the Islamic world. and Afghan states. by contrast. colleges. of disunity. We find. especially at the elemen- not to form a union and then confront the Christians. Just as prayer is prescribed in the Qur'an. and that is to send and expose our chil- The land of the Franks [that is. not this harmony and oneness. Minerals are but one example. we feel that we have been absolved of all many tribes. civiliza. In bestowing that preserve their right to their own resources. while Af- pathy and cooperation. and the like] unsettle the foundations collect its fortuitous fruits. In fact. effort. It their rulers possess. In addition to natural resources. Iranian. ghanistan also suffers due to the animosity. There is and uncontrollable fear of this Islamic unity. Afghanistan. and world and the next. especially recommended for independent countries Second. example. How. of Islam. adopt unity as the very foundation of our principles. and cooperation. and perseverance. we would act differently. This is simply Societies. knowledge to their brothers. The purpose of their ity for protecting its nationhood and its statehood by unity would be to replace malice and hypocrisy with participating in its country's armed forces has evaded benevolence. we but rather to unite for the purpose of our own may see results in 10 years. Europe] has a great dren to schools. China. Therefore. and upon reaching the age of twenty-one. We established all over the Islamic world. with much cer. our aim and indeed the aim of all of Islam. associations. If we start work today. both free and needy. Let us begin with individuals. is tries for scientific education. also capable of industrial production. it is because of their lack of understanding of the falsehood. especially remain deprived of thousands of things. entire world. should become . If Muslims are not yet there. friendship. rights. rivalry. and schools must be because they have the knowledge and we do not. Praise be book on us. Such people will surely be punished in this the task of protecting the Qur'an. there is only one remedy for Iran and principles of survival. and Islamic uplift. The more we delay. He has bestowed the universe and its to God. without exception. and bigotry. no cure except to build an infrastructure in our coun- ever. where Muslims of different back. progress. Third. these and many other unmentionable acts. to all the tribes and clans only exploit their own mines but also those of the of the various Islamic nations. improvement. tary and secondary levels. greater loss we will have to face. This unification must be based on the achieve this. clans. we must consider science and industry as those vile acts are proscribed. the community's advancement. and harmony. if we truly a depreciated asset. clubs. they are will require great sacrifice. and races. as the Holy Qur'an dictates. in the esteemed Ottoman Empire every use the unification of Islam against Christianity. and bloodshed that obviously prevails among its Curiously. We commit. It would be a terrible crime to Fourth. the Ottoman Empire struggling in an abyss cusations. the faith. their mines. They should then spread their means that each and every citizen. The nation that does not take responsibil- be to commit an atrocious crime. This task. European states. This is learned from our Qur'an. to provoke the Muslims of India. however. We destroy any chance of brotherly sym. tion. we must such as the Ottoman. example. for lack of during the time of pilgrimage to the holy shrines of knowledge. To grounds gather. The Holy It is because we are ignorant of the Qur'an that Qur'an commands unity. or The same practice must be enforced in Iran and Af- Turkistan against their respective ruling states would ghanistan. We cause meaning of the Qur'anic ordinances. nation toward such unity among Muslims. For citizen has become a soldier [in the Balkan Wars]. Together with other Muslims they should forces does not mean that the entire population of try to reach the levels of education and sciences that Afghanistan must simultaneously take up arms. To suggest that all join the armed morality. titude. so that they may bribery. slander. Concurrently its obligation toward its homeland and national and jointly they should preoccupy themselves with honor. and workshops. we commit such vile and immoral acts as bribery. solute faith in the Qur' an and sow the seeds of unity prayers benefit only one's self. It is therefore incum- our sins when we bow in prayer a couple of times or bent upon Muslims to draw strength from their ab- recite a few passages of the Holy Qur'an. lies. and seek it aggressively. that is. then spread this unity. for resentment and envy by inventing lies and false ac. Iran is an even worse case. acquired them. which unfortunately make no use of their minerals. day by day we witness an increasing incli- creatures on us. while others with the knowledge have Medina and Mecca. WHAT IS TO BE DONE? 129 entire universe and all its creatures.

Also. progress. which is the last issue In conclusion. I hope ocean has written this small and inadequate essay. to bestow prosperity. that our generous readers will forgive any error or and has presented it to readers along with the twenty. "What is to be done?" However. ble essay will serve in opening the door for more tions to the above four items. I ignored my shortcomings and wrote two years. the issue of all saying or writing anything. writings of this sort. The duration of their training should be Islamic press. work will not adequately and entirely answer the Although there are many more things that we need question.130 Mahmud Tarzi a conscript. and en- essays on this topic have appeared many times in the lightenment upon all Muslim brothers. . this hum- to do. It is therefore hoped that scholars and intel- lectuals who believe in the progress of Islam through Epilogue and Apology such means will produce writings of their precious This humblest of creatures of the Creator of land and and beneficial thoughts and suggestions. in His sublime of the first year. In this speaking out and writing are always better than not manner. shortcoming that they may find in this humble work. I pray to the Almighty. at this moment I will limit my humble sugges. fourth issue of my newspaper. Despite the fact that better-written greatness. My courage came from the conviction that military with the knowledge of military basics. and in provoking thought and debate. No doubt the present becoming soldiers will have been resolved. at the end of which they will leave the this piece. in a matter of a few years.

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they accept it. pp. Modernity: Sufism. later. 2. When- picked from among thorns. Dhikra al-'aqil Raphael Danziger. and antidotes from snakes. he was impressed by the material progress achieved in the West. Holmes and Meier. Most people yield to this false impression. 2000). Itzchak Weismann. 1964). not the truth according to be good. ever a statement is ascribed to a person they believe sured according to the truth. even if correct. 15 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri Reminding the Intelligent. a mystic scholar who strove to adapt Islam to the modern era through a re interpretation of the teaching of the medieval mystic. during five years of captivity in France. 81-89. be they measure the truth according to the person. Following his surrender in 1847. often into glass cups. A person who needs an 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhyi al-Din al-Jaza'iri. it is not defiling proves to be true. First published in 1855. Born into a prominent Sufi family in western Algeria. People should be mea. Lebanon: Dar al-Yaqzaal-'Arabiyya. the statement is ascribed to someone they believe to gent person is a word of wisdom. Lebanon: Dar al-Yaqza al-'Arabiyya. Michel Chodkiewicz. one should accept it. The lowest level of intelligent the person according to the truth. rather than commoner or notable. and first pub- lished in French translation—stressingthe compatibility of the scientific-rationalist approach with Muslim faith. Tuhfa al. 'Abd al-Qadir and the Algerians: Resis- wa tanbih al-ghafil (Reminding the Intelligent and Notifying tance to the French and Internal Consolidation (New York: the Unmindful) (Beirut. This is the utmost persons is to be distinguished from the common in ignorance and decadence. This circle adopted the modernist ideology of the Salafiyya. blood. Netherlands: Brill. circa 1807-1883) was an antico- lonial military leader and. The rose is it. 'Abd al-Qadir dedicated himself to the mission of creating and guiding an elect circle of disciples toward the spiritual regeneration of the Muslim world. Transla. whether this because it is in this glass. [An old medical technique involved the removal of Qadir) (Beirut. in addition to his efforts to prevent the anti-Christian riots of I860. For gold is derived from dust. Intelligent persons recognize that rather than the person who is stating it.—Ed. when he settled in Damascus. His espousal of the scientific-rationalist approach and his criticism of blind imitation (tacj/id) were consolidated in the form of mystical visions after his release. At the same time. 1977). sity of New York Press. for the Visitor of the History of Algeria and Amir 'Abd al. the narcissus make it so. Salafiyya. tual Writings of Amir 'Abd al-Kader (Albany: State Univer- tion from Arabic and introduction by Itzchak Weismann. Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri. in contrast to the Islamic populist policies of Otto- man Sultan Abdulhamid II (reigned 1876-1909). and he is prepared be bad. and Arabism in Late Ottoman za'irfi ta'rikh al-jaza'ir wa al-amir 'Abd al-Qadir (The Gift Damascus (Leiden. Among them is not to feel disgust at honey even if it is found in a The intelligent person must consider the statement bleeder's glass. being within a vessel used for blood does not hood.] 133 . The selections translated here come from a book—completed just before 'Abd al-Qadir's arrival in Damascus. The goal of the intelli. Ibn 'Arabi (I 165- 1240). ing. Taste of 1.2 Since honey is not defil- person is known to be a person of truth or of false. they reject it. If a statement blood is defiling in and of itself. But. 33-38. 1995).1 On Knowledge and Ignorance people's level in certain things. he went through an acute spiritual crisis. They always to receive it from whomever possesses it. The Spiri- 1966). if to [the reputation of] people. 'Abd al-Qadir was chosen to lead the resistance to French occupation of the country in 1832. Notifying the Unmindful 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhyi al-Din al-jaza'iri (Algeria-Syria. and there is no need to feel averse toward from bulbs. There. even if erroneous.

Third comes its fit. A second understand things. and of the na- appear on its face one after the other. and calls others to do the same. who help both attaining the truth. This is exemplified in the case of a person the mirror's form deriving from the substance of the who wants to see the back of his head in the mirror. combined in a specific way. The opin. Similarly. the seat of knowledge. and call upon others to engage in taqlid defined by the scholars. They imitate the opinions and beliefs of their without referring to the relevant sciences. copulation of male and female animals. and that it deprives him of the desired bene. appropriate position of the two mirrors. inaccurate direction of the mirror toward the moves it from his eyes and can see neither the mir- objects. They must fathers and ancestors while neglecting their own refer to them and arrange them in the specific way judgment. iron [from which mirrors used to be made]. These are the marks of the ignorant. is the blind following of books. Minds may be de. of knowledge. ing it blindly. norance. a barrier that is ror nor the back of his head reflected in it. and the avoidance of distracting occupations. As are hindrances that may prevent the forms from being we mentioned. One is deficiency in the mind itself. The endeavor to uncover the reality of should be made aware that such aversion is pure ig. and this will be reflected in the other mirror void of knowledge because of these same five causes. souls and stiffen their minds. even if its shape is it behind his head. One is the knowledgeable. in seeking knowledge and striving to a child's mind. Even the necessary direction. direct it to reflect the back of his head. tion that the man imbibed in his youth by way of ions. Observing the it difficult to turn the mirror toward it. This person of the mind. duce a horse. Such things do not confuse them. and the reality of the object more reprehensible and unsatisfactory than imitating will be revealed to their minds. to pro- Every human being is capable. Such people are veiled by tradi- themselves and others. however. In this way they may find [imitation]. like the offspring produced from the tered by equally valid arguments. which prevents most people from types. by nature. but ceiving truth. ward it. between true The fourth cause regards barriers (hijab). would clear and purify the mind. this is like ignorance of the figure's reflected in the mirror. These include a deficiency in location. He needs placed between the mirror and the form. For knowledgeable people it is easy to distinguish turning away from the direction of the desired truth. and between worthy and repugnant lect immersed in contemplating a certain truth may deeds. uncritical acceptance and good faith. and ignorance another mirror to be put behind his head. This is a for- People whom others follow are divided into two midable obstacle. every piece of knowledge can be deduced only from vout are often contradictory and conflicting. the back of Similarly. to the reality of things two specific sources. while the as to the location of the desired figure. every perception has "heart"]. which is still incomplete. Their combination brings a third piece grounds for doing so is unjustified. which makes first one remains in front of his eyes. An intel- and vain beliefs. facing the eyes. is like the relation of a mirror to colored forms that Lack of knowledge of these sources. people. before it If he places the mirror in front of his face. object is to be found. and if he places tion and corrosion of the mirror. as in the case of Similarly. his head will be reflected in the mirror directed to- ing the forms of all phenomena. the only a pair of horses. hinders that perception. the mind is a mirror capable of reflect. harmonized and combined in a defi- preferring [one opinion to others] without any nite manner. Seekers cannot attain a thing ers. It is true. and they do nonetheless miss it because of a [false] preconcep- not follow others by imitating their beliefs and opin. one cannot use an ass and a camel. ions of the 'ulama' [religious scholars] and the de. since two antecedents. The Fifth is the ignorance of the direction in which the other type is destructive of themselves and of oth. between correct and false statements. there are odd paths that are even cause concerns the impurity of worldly concerns and more oblique to the goal than the example of the . It Knowledge that is not self-evident can be caught is better to follow a beast than an imitator. The blind cannot lead the blind. he cannot was given its round shape and polish. Moreover. the poor condi. Such a person measures the tional beliefs that have become deeply rooted in their truth according to the evidence rather than accept. The relation of the mind [literally. things. as when they are behind it. he re- perfect. only with the net of the acquired sciences. of per. Thus. there ture of their combination. as it can be coun.134 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri antidote but shrinks from taking it upon learning that the resulting wickedness that accumulates on the face it is extracted from snakes is ignorant. in the correct direction.

it is capable of perceiving insufficient to ensure our welfare. God created human rationality are ignorant. Beware not to belong to either gible. Thereafter. the Psalms. are one is ordered to follow. is divided into self-evident and acquired see without light. which it can. Self-evident. which enabled them to perceive part of the fied with rationality at the expense of the revealed creation. Those who perceptible in any of the preceding levels. namely the duties of worship. the tellect. rate from the information brought by the prophets that Thus the rational sciences. It is ob- and their successors. These are the causes that prevent minds from not obtain by itself but rather requires [the aid of] recognizing realities. just as the senses are separate from by divine providence. These movements are called thinking and knowledge (taqlid) and revealed knowledge (sama'). but is knowledge located in the mind is revealed knowl- obtained only by trusting and obeying the prophets edge. just as the intellect it. so the mind will not perceive the nal knowledge we mean that which is naturally com- reality of things if it does not move from concept to manded by the intellect. It is said: a discerning person who . And like the looking eye that cannot This. or that a thing cannot be both existent and nonexistent. The intellect cannot do mankind the sense of touch to discern tangible things without the revealed sciences. a person who cannot see what stands in front of him The sciences located in the mind are divided into without moving the pupils of his eyes a great deal two types: rational and revealed. and reflection. In the following stage He accorded them the of those groups but to combine them! The rational faculty of discernment to recognize abstract realities sciences are like nourishment and the revealed sci- beyond the tangible things. they remained to human. each mind is able. The sciences of the prophets are tained by studying the revealed books such as the superior to intellectual knowledge. such as that of the sun. Beyond are satisfied with rational knowledge will be harmed the intellect is a further level involving other matters by it like the sick person who is harmed by food. the most exalted. Nevertheless. Another type of that it can neither achieve nor be guided to. the of any knowledge about His innumerable creatures. people to adopt pure imitative knowledge and avoid kind as if nonexistent. is human- cannot perceive realities correctly without the lights kind's knowledge that a single item cannot be in two of success and guidance from God. Therefore. By understanding their concepts. there remains knowledge learning. and approv. and these cannot do of all types. in turn. prophets. Like intellectual perception. sciences are deluded. created humankind devoid is incapable of arriving at them. they do not recognize the ultimate cause [of their knowledge]—that it is of Know—may God give you success—that although course God who created it and guided them to that the intellect attained eminence and an ability to ex. while those who are satis- sight. Similarly. is insufficient to preserve bodily health. for example. Acquired knowledge is that obtained by plain the reality of things. happens to some. I mean. those who call on neither voices nor colors. knowledge after it is learned. by food if they neglect their medicine. as from which the intellect is separated. intellect is the only means for comprehending such which only He can comprehend. Humans need ing its content once they make it known to them. and the Criterion [the have said. the Gospels. places at the same time. Then one progresses to another level. but since humans could as yet grasp without the intellect. which is apart from indirect concept. is inherent in the nature of the mind and Qur'an]. the stage of the in. The sick may be harmed proceeded to yet another stage. which allowed them to perceive additional minds of all creatures are sick. Normally. inference. although the intellect is sepa. From there humankind ences are like medication. since the intellect alone that God. submitting to their commandments. contemplation. so the mind knowledge. insofar as they could go beyond the tan. to perceive such realities. By the term ratio- from side to side. most exalted. REMINDING THE INTELLIGENT 135 mirror. Nevertheless. as we Torah. someone else. and there is no treat- things. By this [revelational knowledge] the intel- quire it. which is received from the prophets. He then gave hu. People find such knowledge in themselves and recognize it without knowing Validating Revealed Knowledge where it comes from. they are which one finds when turning one's attention to ac. to know the particulars of medicine and remedies by The proof that there are suprarational sciences is learning them from doctors. although necessary. the level ment for them but the medications prepared by the of the intellect in which one perceives matters im. that which. lect is perfected and delivered from illness. revealed. knowledge.

reply. serve as a standard in all transactions. unless God permits. In themselves these justify punishment. and it would be tion. people felt by the prophets that the intellect rejects. since their behavior is like that of a person . it bans the sale of gold or silver for profit. but this de. amount of wheat has the same value. Their value is unified of them. while a friend silver]. but actually has an overall signifi- ver table utensils. necessary to assess the relative value [of these com- edge. true that there are certain details in the laws brought would become impossible. the in. whoever uses them contrary to were told not to sell gold and silver for profit or else divine wisdom will be punished in the Hereafter. if people were told to give part of them to the poor. because every person has many needs. Those who hoard gold and sil- "I buy and sell with the mutual consent of myself and ver without setting aside a certain amount for the poor my business partners. "This is unacceptable. They in vain. Had it them. modities]. in the case of one worse than those who hoard and amass [gold and who owns wheat but needs a horse. Undoubtedly. he may find that the one who them. the thwart the underlying reason [of their creation]. It is wheat. of them and serve as a standard. God most high creates nothing are merely two metals which have no utility. Consequently. Therefore. but they are means for all property? This is unreasonable!" And if these people purposes. This is deprived them of the rights accorded them by God. A person may lack necessities and pos. a tellect would have recognized that this is the truth. act- world would be ruined and the public interest impeded. everything the Prophet doesn't know how to assess the value of a horse in ordained is in full harmony with sound reason. they would surely horse. On the contrary. The law forbids because they have no purpose in themselves. I will do modities. Thus. Gold and silver have no it. Without buying and selling. is like possessing everything. For this reason God created gold and silver. It were sleeping and resting? This is unreasonable!" If is therefore necessary to have something that seems they were told not to eat and drink from golden or sil. ing like one who imprisons a judge and prevents him This is irrational!" from arbitrating and resolving disputes among the They are right [to say that it is irrational]. God did not create gold and silver especially their intellect is incapable of understanding the pun. nor do they nourish the wealthy. for one person or another. I worked hard to gather If he is in need of food. humankind's felicity corresponds to its knowl. horse may be worth a hundred dinars. they would burn in hell. in this example and its like. and a certain which one should not abandon. it over for just any amount of wheat. to have no form. and its distress corresponds to its ignorance. He entrusted the living of the poor to the ward off neither heat nor cold. and transactions. bearing an equal relation to the various com- would similarly reply: "This is unacceptable. God their accumulation without giving part to the poor and created them only to circulate among the people and needy. for nourishment We therefore say: people who make dishes and and clothing. owns only that particular horse. cups out of gold and silver are oppressors. but to circulate among all ishment for such things and requires explanation. in relation to all commodities. but the wealthy have oppressed the poor and body. they cance.136 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri grasps all of intelligible knowledge and affirms that owns a horse but needs wheat. which has no color with my property what I want and no one can dispute but reflects all the colors. Nonetheless everybody needs them. since the owner of the horse would not hand One's intellect brings one to this felicity. it will confirm that hoard- behind God's creation of gold and silver is their use ing gold and silver is an act of oppression and will for the sustenance of the world. An exchange will cer- the world has a creator has attained absolute perfec. for example. they would again have said. There is also no Be careful not to assume that the revealed sciences correlation between wheat and horses to allow ex- are contradictory or incompatible with the rational changing them for a similar weight or shape. since people. tainly take place between these two. and possessing them Yet. Thus one sciences. to understood the method behind the stipulation. They are sess unneeded things. For example. it prohibits the use of dishes and cups made out serve as means of exchange. It resembles a mirror. Accordingly. the need for an adequate medium to decide between rives from the intellect's own shortcomings. or else they will be burnt in hell. if the It should be explained to them that the wisdom intellect understands that. An example from Islamic law (shar'} involves the Regulation by gold and silver is possible precisely rulings concerning gold and silver. the owner of a or else they would be burnt in hell. Why should I be punished for making use of my purpose in themselves. so why should I now give them to people who has it prefers to buy a garment rather than a horse.

ible with reason. who wants to buy food might and support [of the creditor] as requirements. These [chosen substances] Consequently. None of them contradicts it. silver pelled to accept them. Copper. and lead. it real- and silver for their own sake is to hoard them. copper. All the commandments and inter- stricted from circulation. on for a fixed period for profit [as a form of interest- the other hand. for instance. iting the sale of gold and silver at a profit over a fixed fore permitted to buy it with gold or silver. to facilitate the attain- clay. to those who sell silver or gold can hold liquids. because by remaining re. whose gressing it. ignorant think farfetched. mony. we say that the foundation of society and the would not hesitate to approve of [this prohibition] basis of all religions are to promote love and har- and to punish those who transgress it. and its intended function. But owners of gold or These few examples. iron. the effect is as if they were dictions of the prophets intend to be harmonious with hoarded. such as selling at 10 to get back 20 after a silver. rather than gold and silver. since they differ in the through instruction. However. Moreover. cannot fulfill the task of gold and making]. thus obstructing God or the reason. but clay. An owner tor and believe in his kindness. though for some Prophet from conveying necessities to others is an [rules] the human intellect alone is not a sufficient act of oppression. is contrary to divine wisdom. is permissible. turning them into objects of commerce in their credit can assume the good-heartedness of their credi- own right. it undoubtedly year. a being more abundant and more easily divided among tailor. or knowledge the intellect is unable to obtain save vice versa. The only purpose of buying gold guide. silver who want to trade them for gold or silver are make it clear that the revealed law is not incompat- prevented from doing so. Prohib- not be able to exchange food for cloth. If the intellect knows this. Like the skilled physician who when the intellect understands this [role] it approves commands the secrets of various treatments that the both the prohibition and the punishment for trans. and izes and complies. should be used for ment of other commodities. REMINDING THE INTELLIGENT 137 who turns the judge of the city into a hatmaker. What is prohibited is interfering with by the meanest member of society. he is there. a butcher—any job that could be performed various needs. They will regard aid of cloth. buying gold with silver. thereby period thus preserves the utility of loans. when it is properly guided. which is obtaining his goal. namely. The intelligent person is com- ways they help satisfy the necessities of life. after inquiring into their truth. from all that might be cited. [Gold and silver] are means to an among the noblest ends. Nevertheless. . end and not ends themselves. lead. mutual assistance and cooperation. Those who We also claim that selling gold and silver for are in need and find someone who will give them profit. so are the prophets. holding food and drink.

1962). pp.2 Bahan invited Khalid ibn al-Walid to his tent on the pretext of discussing the terms of an armi. 1870. influenced by conservative European thinkers. but his revolutionary sentiments had not disappeared. §iikrii Hanioglu. In the 1870s. hundred courageous warriors. calling for constitutionalism in the Ottoman Empire. Equality). Paris. or king. 1991).: number 18.im Yaymlan." died 642] (may God be pleased with him) will suf. 1839-1878) was a leading figure in the Young Ottoman political reform movement and in the search for Islamic justifications of constitutionalism. who was more sympathetic to constitutionalism. 360-384. That is to say. 2. Suavi was killed during this attempt.J. 1. Equality Ali Suavi (Turkey. 1994). who made us believers in emperor. Ulum (Istanbul. sultan. our king the best sultanate. aristocracy (government of notables). He was dismissed from Galatasaray in December 1877. Turkey: Iletis. Trained both in religious and secular schools. 138 . Some of kings. Suavi published the journals Muhbir (The Reporter) and Ulum Gazetesi (Journal of the Sciences).000. criticizing the government. and later the director of the Galatasaray Lycee. Upon (sultanate). in your prophet the Companions [of the Prophet Muhammad] with Jesus. Tanzimatm iki Ucu: Mtinif Pasa ve Ali Suavi (The [Ali Suavi]. Khalid could not bear it and interrupted. The article from Ulum Gazetesi pre- sented here. At that battle the number of Muslim troops was 41. Upon his pardon and return. and commenting on foreign relations—made him famous and led to his banishment to the provinces. Ali Suavi ve Donemi (Ali Suavi and His Time) (Istanbul. there was no Lord Jesus the best of the prophets. a speech in Arabic: "Thanks be to God. excellent of communities. and our [Christian] community the most words of Khalid ibn al-Walid [Muslim commander. Suavi held a van'ety of administrative positions before em- barking on a career as a public intellectual in his mid-twenties. 16 All Suavi Democracy: Government by the People. Turkish and introduction by M. Suavi served as a court librarian. whence he fled to Europe. The Gazetesi (Journal of the Sciences). Tanzimat's Two Extremes: Munif Pasa and Ali Suavi) mocracy: Government by the People. one of the first Ottoman works to use the term "democracy. [acting on behalf of] Heraclius [Byzantine Thanks be to God." maintains that Islamic precedent requires institutions of democratic consultation.000 [in one account] or 700. "Demokrasi: Hiikumet-i Halk. and Khalid's arrival at Bahan's tent with approximately a democracy (government by the people. pp. reigned 610-641]. Translation from Princeton University Press. but rather equality. and in all the prophets. engaged in a battle with Muhammad (peace be upon him). a teacher of young princes. When Bahan began his speech with these words. May 17. Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought (Princeton. known as the Ciragan incident1 As is known. His pamphlets and sermons in the §ehzade Mosque in Istanbul—introducing modern political terminology. but in reality to seize him by trickery. volume 2. Suavi launched an unsuccessful uprising against the sultan. fice to explain the [nature of] the Islamic government. the form of gov. launching It so happened that a Byzantine commander named into an oration to refute the words of Bahan: Bahan. §erif Mardin. and who made our ruler. Turkey: lz Yaymcilik.000 in another. the latter rose and made During the early days of Islam. he began to criticize constitutionalism. and in 1876 he appealed to Sultan Abdiilhamid II (reigned 1876-1909) to be allowed to return to Istanbul. equality). In London and then Paris. N. troops numbering 600. 1083-1107. France. In the following months. the forms of government are monarchy slice. Ismail Dogan. hoping to replace him with his elder brother. Huseyin £elik. Miisavat" (De. who made our ernment was democracy.

" Thereupon mained confined to their country but are being dis- 'Abdullah rose and answered the man: '"Umar. received the same share as everybody else. [that is to say] equality. a democracy. answer this man. We have reached such a position tinue to listen to 'Umar. morality limiting liberties within the community if from now on we will not listen to you.] had merely imagined became a the virtue of piety required by the principle of Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong. What will be the future of this nation that lacks a when one of the Companions arose and said. pious than us." 'Umar asked. 'Umar turned to his son 'Abdullah [died 693] Since French ideas on democracy have not re- and said. we will con. Would such a beloved nightingale you have become privileged. was addressing the Companions from the pul. But they do not have men of God among about the Commander of the Faithful. government and reckoned to have miraculous powers. pit to encourage them to jihad [religious struggle]. now see on you cannot have been made from that Democracy. of the Europeans. loyal. wearing a robe made from this know well the improper and shameless language that cloth. we would immediately God. a single united. north. they had no work other than serving claim to be a king over us. '"Umar. early May in Paris. and so on. "If so. 634-644]. Do we not by the people. which has been growing day- Thus at a time when Byzantines.3 What this them—that is to say. Those who read this newspaper One day 'Umar. they did as they wanted. that is annihilate the monarchy and create equality in a demo- to say Khalid and the Companions. a man may stay with a woman for ond caliph. In this way good morality. unless it be that he is more system of equality that Plato [Greek philosopher. Now a French party. That is to say. and pub- the Companions. wanted to make himself and south. Armenians. and equality is understood.C. it does not possess an overpowering force to restrain "Why?" The Companion responded. they do not have an overpower- means is that at that time the Islamic government was ing force in their hearts such as fear of God. they had no institutions (tanzimat) other than depose him. "Because you freedom and license in such a shameless country? have privileged yourself instead of remaining equal Undoubtedly this beautiful Paris. Thus an idea came to When cloth from the Yemen was divided among some Frenchmen. the seminated through the press to the east. traordinary event that "[Mehmed] Ebussu'ud Efendi lished in a place and among a people [that were alike [Turkish religious leader. The robe that we be ruined in a year or two. There- but it was not enough. three days and nights. they resort to against those who believe in God. pious community. we can go repeat in conversations and in our books as an ex- on to say that this form of government was estab. 1490-1574] found himself extraordinary]." Upon hearing these sing in such a dunghill of [corrupt] hearts? words. and by-day in the name of freedom and equality. the men of God. fore. They had no fear other than the a man like us—so much so that if our ruler were to fear of God. and it may not even occur to . west. Com. Because during the division of the Yemeni France that the entire world strives to imitate. is a nightin- piece." and sat down. wants without any impediment. will cloth you too received your share. We would never think that our ruler was good morals. 'Umar. wants to Europeans recognized kings. reality in their time. they will one day cause trouble even in a robe from the cloth that he had received as his share. Istanbul. DEMOCRACY: GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE I 39 whom we ourselves chose to charge with our affairs. in sum they were men of God." 3. At that time the ruler was 'Umar ibn al-Khattab [sec. that a man who spends two hours in the company of May God be pleased with all of them. Thus you must have received a bigger piece gale that can sing loudly only in the rose garden of than us to be able to make such a robe. he possesses circa 427-347 B. thought this way cratic system. Commander of the Faithful. Bukhara. Tehran. So I gave my own share. this prosperous with us. the Commander of the lished a newspaper to deny the existence of God in Faithful. The in any way superior to us. There was equality. '"Abdullah. and Kabul. Cairo. bining the two pieces produced such a robe. In their language. observant." Then Morality in our big cities is worse than in those the objecting Companion said. let us take a glance at these lands of ours. freedom is tantamount to saying The following incident likewise throws light on whatever comes to one's mind and doing whatever one the matter. and in the same room with a girl one night but controlled his desire and did not touch her. a woman and controls his desire will be pointed out Now that the meaning of democracy. In Europe.

Let us consider What market can there be for the values of broth." to socialize with men. then one must have men of God like government that will also satisfy their moral needs— 'Uthman [third caliph. In our country. Sura 22. one of the ablest governors Today if even 'Umar came to us. the well-being of the majority." We have become such a nation that when four of Question: Since freedom and equality are among our school children gather. whether attributed to increased sexual de. fect education of times and obstacles. ever. the proper form of government is in which one of them becomes sultan and bestows the one that guarantees these rights. to Hajjaj [ibn Yusuf. the meaning of this phrase cannot prince and Ottoman statesmen who financed the be separated from feasibility. and Khalid. You yourself even dispatched "Verily an evil patron. He has not been affected in the slight- whatever cause." 'Umar would reply: [Qur'an." women to war along with men. When four of our eld. so many people in the name of freedom and patrio- havior. a devout compan- For example.140 Ali Suavi him [to have sex with her]. that is to say the sultanate. he encouraged in the name of patriotism and freedom tions and acts are similar to this matter of sexual and whom he made prisoners in the fortresses of desire." Istanbul are not all like the shaykh of Gumiishane In a book published this very year. This way of govern- quito. how- commander. [1815-1893] states (p. This superior force is the They once proposed the principle of democracy monarchy. If a ruler like regulate their material needs. Unfortunately. 644-656]. It bent down so low that 39 Ali Pashas could ment. Rather they look for a 'Umar is wanted. Rhodes. the people of erned by democracy. those men were not you. one which will instill good morals in people fourth caliph. 1815-1871]. the democratic way of government is excellent for and Bukhara as if they were the buzzing of a mos. what would he under the 'Umayyad caliphate. each Answer: What a nice idea! What a sound conclu- of them wants to announce his leadership and become sion! There is no doubt that this is so. says: "If there exist men of God. in short. It heard the rumblings in Samarqand. Egyptian political science. Young Ottoman movement]. they start playing a game the rights of man. died 653]. who until yesterday led sidered an indecent act. sufficiently ma- jump over it [a leading Tanzimat statesman and Ot. 1813-1893]. For when the morals? term "sound" is used in Muslim jurisprudence and Mustafa Fazil Pasha [1829-1875. despite the fact that he is as rich aroused by veiling in the cities—no such impatience as Croesus and not in need of any high offices or im- being observed among nomads and peasants—or to perial favors. suppose someone got up and said: ion of the Prophet. and util- . It is necessary for us to educate ourselves by Cyprus." thinkers of modern Europe say the same. 1712-1778] form of egalitarian government and the most in ac. Verse 13] "Those women. He replied. tured. they should be gov- cord with the holy law. Tashkent. practicability. move from theory to practice. They have the right for you. and extremely well organized through the per- toman grand vizier. The political decent people. Monsieur [Felix Esquirou de] Parieu did not even feel the loss of a vast territory like Al. through superior force. and verily an evil friend. but you are not. This form of high offices upon the others. Let us. refining our morals. This is such a people that they litical Science}. tism. must be ripened. 656-661]. can this be. achieve? "You be Abu Dharr [al-Ghifari. This nevertheless is con. however. A government is required that will not only sat- The present disposition of the peoples of our isfy the material needs but also see to the moral needs countries does not simply expect the government to of such an immoral and leprous people. entitled [Ahmed Ziyaeddin Giimiishanevi. 660-714]. has been silenced with a membership in the sire due to the warmer climate. and Acre. Those were It is not just Hajjaj who says this. All our situa. 'Ali [ibn Abi Talib. erly statesmen gather in the name of patriotism. whether it is possible to establish democracy in this erhood and equality among a people with such place or not? Here lies the problem. or to the passion Council of Ministers. Halidiyye Sufi Principes de la science politique [Principles of Po- leader. 382): "In civilized societies geria. and I'll then be 'Umar "Women too are human beings. government is democracy. Jean- Everybody knows that democracy is the highest Jacques Rousseau [French philosopher. be brought under control with good est degree by the sighs of all those believers whom morals or not? There lies the problem.

the United States of America. years. What we have there is a federation where and decide in consultation on whatever regulations only two tongues exist (German. There are only six places in the twenty- two cantons where Catholics and Protestants are 4. There are tute a nation. and Dis- Where do we currently find democracy? In San tricts. the regions with popula- lation is only two and a half million people. and its size are all obstacles in cannot provide any model for our world. Finally. six cantons were democracies. means people and kratos government. ering and consultation. and townships. each of which joined on condition of pre- Is there anything remarkable about the fact that serving its administrative independence and privi- these and similar countries that resemble our small leges. The same idea is expressed in the rule put for.000 people Marino. There is also a vice-president. for all that they consti. custom. There are need to be made or decisions taken—just as in the only 4. tions of 600. rather indicate the contrary. The fact that the equality? country is divided between various continents.000 Jews in a population of two and a half days of the [early] caliphate people congregated in million people. of government suitable to that region and to the cus- amples to show that equality can be put into practice toms and circumstances of that region. Its popu. This federation has a government in the city towns are suited by their situations to be governed of Washington. of the states. of government by the people is that the people gather istration. these coun. however. it was only recently that Switzerland be- ticability. how could this work in a Catholics and Protestants are not mixed. DEMOCRACY: GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE 141 ity. that Yes. and religion. the opinion based on sound doctrine that is no longer term "republic" was just an empty title. Every state preserves its adminis- more than 8. This federal government is made up by a republican regime? What is more." cause the form of government was not uniform: three Is the only reason for the inapplicability of democ. do we not? That republic is composed of no is called a state. This country. and utility" (p. 386). known respectively as Cities.000. Territories. The basic idea dition that it would retain its autonomy and admin. each state is populated by one or little state with a small population through such gath- another of the various Christian sects. not like in France. there is no other religion but Chris. it is a form being in the world up to now. can government was created by the federation and However many republics may have come into union of various independent provinces. the mosque. in ing government by the people? In Greek demos Switzerland each state joined the federation on con. It is divided in a place like the Ottoman country.—Trans. 35 states.] . where then was spoken about morals as an example.000 each. the truth cannot be separated from feasibility. that is to say. The Christians in Switzerland are extremely istrative system of the United States of America. The Ameri- the way of democracy and equality. extremely suitable for its present ties. cantons were aristocracies administered by aristo- racy in the Ottoman country bad morals? We have crats. Previously. Liibeck has a population of 30. it is inhabited by many peoples differing in language. one hears of a big republic in the New World. Monsieur Parieu says: "If the truth in question is pious and devout. Townships are governed from the nearest place. for in politics there. The presi- tries have been living under the protection of [larger] dent of the federal government is elected for four powers. however. It only administers the coun- It is. The federal The biggest republic in Europe is Switzerland. come a federation divided into twenty-two cantons.4 system of government because of its circumstances. of a senate and a house of representatives. That is to say. prac. Something else that has to be said is that in truth There the republic is nothing other than a federation democracy is an illusion. and that a federal government was set up in Bern to ward by our own jurists: "One must not issue a legal have oversight [of federal affairs].000 individuals. government does not intervene in the administration which is the size of our Danube Province. trative independence and special privileges. This means that there is morality not ripe and mature. they provide no ex. A region with a population of 600. Nine can. it is not the truth. This is be- practiced. [All Suavi must have garbled his source on the admin- mixed. For instance. French). Moreover. While it may be possible to govern a tianity. For is not its literal mean- of various states with each other. counties. indeed they may administratively into states. larger state? How could the individuals composing tons are exclusively Catholic. and seven exclusively such a population congregate? Doesn't everybody Protestant.

and inimical to its good order. time? Would the state be able to impose its author- or Bulgaria in Eastern Europe forming one with Tu. deputies. ity over the provinces in this huge country? nisia in Arab Africa—what a fantasy! Answer: These are entirely different questions. England. cultural. Bringing provinces under control requires over- lican regimes were established in France and England.D. Does this not mean that the votes of 20. America? To believe in the possibility of such an Question: Under the circumstances. The accountability of ministers ernment as far as is practicable. or any. the gather. majority of votes. And religions. and the ministers should it possesses the spirit of a republican form of gov. remain as it is now? Under these circumstances. adopted]. In our own opinion. sects. and the ministers respond. It is because of this impossibility enough. What should be done? to call the opinion of the majority of the deputies The parliamentary [form of government should be present the opinion of the people? Unfortunately. we have succeeded adopted this method in this very year 1870 A. The point we have to grasp is that the Ottoman With the measures we have proposed. deputy. Just look how those Frenchmen talk is that of Switzerland. the time has they became a source of corruption for the peoples of passed for the state in Istanbul to acquire such over- the world. they ing of the people has given way to the gathering of have no wish to relinquish their hold over Canada. then they leave office.000 people pretentiously about freedom and equality. if the equality can be achieved in. a chamber of deputies elected by discussion: "If a state accepts a chamber of deputies. The members examine and ques- derstood.000 If there is going to be freedom and equality. the Ottoman state. speak about democracy. for example. that is to say government based upon the such are the limits of feasibility and practicality. where it currently is able to collect taxes However much republicanism puffs itself up. all the while participate in the chamber through electing a seeking world domination like Caesar. no ethnic. dation in the specific regions of Rumelia and lation. since unanimity in chambers com. Only long- can it actually accomplish in France. chamber of deputies. would the alliance is to believe in the possibility of Serbia in treasury be able to raise money in a short period of Europe forming a federation with Egypt in Africa. so that it has to be a sultanate. There every 20. let individuals are subsumed under this contract? As a them ask the Algerian Arabs. religious. How could these many different ethnicities." means that their conduct of policy is discussed in the If all these points about democracy have been un.142 All Suavi have work to do? How and when would they satisfy republic assaulted the Orient as her initial act. who have absolutely matter of fact. let us again consider how democracy and tion it. In the end. principle of consultation—the form which France has Having dwelt upon this matter. be held accountable. or Algeria. and tongues be gathered and united? if the majority vote turns out to be against the conduct Could a federation be formed as in the case of of policy by the ministers. High Council [of Reforms] (Meclis-i Ali-i [Tanzimat]) tice. . That's it. The French whelming force. the ministers keep their offices. When repub. Anatolia. Yet how not possible to establish a real democracy based on long-lasting these republics were to prove! Strangely this conception. lems. however tyrannical they may be. or geographical affin- posed of many deputies is virtually impossible. There is no chance of this. Indeed the current rule to the French republic? is to go by the majority of the deputies actually Question: Should the administration in Istanbul present in the chamber. what and conscript soldiers directly. and popu. whether or not they pre- experience has shown everywhere that one has to fer their own rulers. while the republicans in England and France that in the republics which exist today. the people should be opened. ity with them [the French]. equality. She their needs? compelled the Ottoman state to enter into extremely We can therefore judge with certainty that it is harmful alliances with England and Russia. What in differentiating the concepts of "soundness" and is the relevance of this method for us? In essence. for example. must be a state in conformity with state would establish its state power on a strong foun- its geographical location. Yet a conclusion has been reached from this should be enlarged. whelming force. it should not. our "political truth" at both the levels of theory and prac. and freedom. go by the majority opinion. The chamber of deputies that works best India. circumstances. the Ottoman majority of the deputies give their approval with a lands. is it not meaningless Answer: No. term policies will provide a remedy for fiscal prob- where else? We have to look at practice.

in Barbary. and henceforth favors the birth of such a the overwhelming power of Europe will conquer state. . this is inevitable. mention for this in the history books. and Egypt can come to their senses That is to say. they will establish the best and the most adopts a policy of attempting to create a unified Af- enduring Muslim state in the world. DEMOCRACY: GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE 143 As far as Africa is concerned. But if Istanbul and unite. if Tunisia. there is no remedy for it. If not. cause of its own survival. God knows best what is right. Tripoli For those who share our views. then it will have found itself a great ally in the Africa. ment the Ottoman dynasty will be given honorable test as strong as the one it made regarding Algeria. Istanbul could only lodge a pro. then rican state. That's it. And until the Day of Judg- In that event.

1 Being created free by God. man is naturally obliged sovereignty. he began writing newspaper articles on literature and social problems. Mehmed Kaplan. 1944-1957). 144 . Pardoned after three years. the sultan turned against con- stitutionalism and had its proponents arrested. force that comes into being from the conjunction of duce a preponderant force to safeguard the indi. and he was exiled to Cyprus. In Sofia. In 1870. just as all individuals vidual from the fear of the aggression on the part have the natural right to exercise their own power. so too conjoined powers naturally belong to all Accordingly. A shar' [religious law] proof of this claim is the ity is dependent. volume 9 (Istanbul. Turkey: Maarif Matbaasi and and introduction by M. 1^. He penned most of the journal's articles—including the one translated here—explaining constitutionalism in an Islamic context and attempting to reconcile shari'a (Islamic law) with European theories of law. Mustafa key: Maarif Matbaasi. pp. pp. Kemal Ozon. a government official who served in various regions of the Ottoman Empire. Omer Faruk Aktin. Arasmda (Personalities and Events from the Time of Namik number 4. §iikrii Hanioglu. "Namik Kemal. defending Islam against Eu- ropeans' accusations of backwardness. which is charged with the establish- to benefit from this divine gift.J. Thus the constitutive element of following legal rule: Namik Kemal. 1948). Turkey: Istanbul and the Newspaper "The Moral") (Istanbul. Kemal was banished to the islands of Rhodes and Chios—now in Greece—where he continued to write. Mithat Cemal Kitabevi. 1971). individual forces. Hurriyet (Liberty). and was banished from Istanbul through appointment as assistant governor of Erzurum. Mill! Egitim Basimevi. The 1. 1962). Therefore. and worked on the commission preparing the Ottoman constitution. Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought (Princeton. dom. of another individual. especially women's educa- tion. while working at the government Translation Bureau. 54-72. Namik Kemal Devrinin Insanlan ve Olaylari Counsel in the Matter). pp. 17 Namik Kemal And SeekTheir Counsel in the Matter [Quran. the service rendered by society in individuals as a whole. The following year. England. 1938). Turkey: Remzi Universitesi Edebiyat Fakiiltesi. In the 1860s. General freedom is ment of right and the suppression of wrong. §erif Mardin. Tur. Hurriyet (Liberty). society the right to sovereignty belongs to the absolutely indispensable for the protection of free. 283-336. 1840-1888) was a leading advocate of constitutionalism and a famous poet and playwright He received little formal education and spent much of his childhood accompanying his grandfather. "Wa shawirhum fi'l-amr" (And Seek Their Kuntay. Sura 3. Translation from Turkish Kemal). 1868. He also joined a constitutionalist group later known as the Young Ottomans Soci- ety. he studied Sufism. N. until performance of his patriotic play Vatan yahud Silistre (Homeland orSilistria) prompted public demonstrations. Princeton University Press. July 20. Bulgaria—then an Ottoman province—he learned Arabic and Persian. and consequently in every this world is the creation of a preponderant force. and produced his first poetry.Verse 159] Namik Kemal (Turkey. Kemal returned to Istanbul and founded the newspaper Ibret (The Moral). 2 volumes (Istanbul. Kemal fled to Europe to publish an opposition journal. public." Islam Ansiklo. Namik Kemal ve Ibret Gazetesi (Namik Kemal Namik Kemal (Namik Kemal) (Istanbul. Kemal was appointed to the Council of the State.: pedisi (Encyclopedia of Islam). upon which the continued existence of human. is that protected within society because society can pro. London. in eastern Anatolia. In Kars.

the requisite freedom for everyone to scrutinize the state and criti- cize the actions of the government. the Rescript of Reform [Ottoman decree of in the form of allegiance [bay'a]. neither does the public have the right and tradition. judicial authority would the domain of implicit interpretations and to make still belong to the qadi appointed by the state because them public. which will least limit the freedom of the individual. cavils. This is obviously nothing other from this. previous sultan or caliph would retain no authority The state is a moral personality. this person takes the legislative power out of the hands of the would [indeed] become sultan or caliph. gree of freedom. and the recently delivered monarchs.2 described as fundamental principles can be deduced Each umma can delegate command to a greater or from the general character of these documents by tak- lesser degree. AND SEEK THEIR COUNSEL IN THE MATTER 145 If the people of a town gathered and appointed There are two major means to keep the state someone as qadi [judge] over themselves to judge within the limits of justice. people of a town gathered and pledged allegiance to The second is the method of consultation. than society's delegating the performance of the Let us glance at the fundamental regulations of our aforementioned duties to some of its members. That is. and the execution [of [the Islamic community]. Ac. fully proceed. imam [leader] and the establishment of a government Thus the necessity for a council of the umma arises are indispensable. the judicial activity of this the fundamental principles of the administration from person could not be valid. so the appointment of an never be saved from the unfettered exercise of will. fluities regarding the details of administration are vidual. ing the real and essential meaning of certain phrases It is nevertheless one of the basic principles of gov. the aforementioned imperial it is a consequence of natural law that the circum. The excuses. and circum. it could not right. given that sovereignty belongs stood to commend a willingness on the part of someone in high office to perform small private services for his inferiors to the people. monarchs have no right to govern other Rescript of Gulhane [Ottoman reform program of than the authorization granted to them by the umma 1839]. 1856 guaranteeing equal rights for members of all tion granted to ministers through appointment by religious communities]. these two principles into conformity. and the necessary principles after it. [Traditionally this saying of the Prophet was under." Furthermore. into consideration. "regardless of time. because an individual has no right to Since the rights of man are determined by reason wrong himself. state authority should be realized in the way for the administration of a civilized state. because the imamate is a right of the umma laws is tantamount to its will. Even if it wishes to do so. place. administration. which someone for the sultanate or caliphate. their obscurities a way of acting that would harm those who come should be clarified." and in some others many super- stowing legislative authority upon a [single] indi. including a liberal critique the Prophet] "the leader of the tribe is its servant" of the Ottoman legal system]. and the authoriza. Today we are in possession of the cordingly. the actions of the government can this right for themselves. But if the may emanate from the state would thus be checked. through publication. and the present state of affairs of our to violate the rights of individuals. the clarity and methodical structure to constitute a base stance. The first is to emancipate cases arising among them. should be formulated—for example. according to its exigencies and ethics. Some rules that may be hints at this. The making of whatever. their erations. or be. Furthermore.Here Namik Kemal uses it principles should be issued to ensure that the admin- rather to present rulership as a public service. no umma would wish to infringe this limitations denying the freedom of the people. either verbally or 2. The apt saying in the hadith [tradition of imperial speech [of 1868. rescripts and decrees must be corrected by bringing stances of one generation affect the succeeding gen. found. since civilization is evident. em- principle by such actions as appointing one of its bodied in such phrases as "without reaching the de- members permanently as an absolute ruler. while the members of the government.] istration of the Ottoman state is indeed based upon . laws] is its actions. some of these documents contain For example. After this.—Trans. no society can have the authority to choose superfluities should be pruned. As long as both of these are held The public cannot perform the duties attached to in the same hands. and denials that jurisdiction is a right of the government. Yet none of these documents has ernance that. a rescript of fundamental (as opposed to "pulling rank").

mercial interests and safeguarding the European bal- sia has encouraged to come forward. been attempting to accomplish her goal by provok. resist Russian invasion as well as the [Ottoman] al- For these reasons the Europeans do not believe us. In spite of this. this idea does not collective European guarantee as a constitutional enjoy much currency for now. lies could do. ern savages [Russia].5 or 2 billion Ottoman piasters] because of damentals of the administration are corrupt. they No means other than the method of consultation say. a costly in- to the Christians to whom we have promised reform. At that juncture the Sublime Porte the idea of granting autonomy to each and every eth- should have succeeded in preventing all foreign in. it is our state that compels the continue to do so as much as they can. the treasury lost three or four million in their acquisition of rights. since the Europeans are accustomed to freedom. 1787.146 Namik Kemal freedom and justice. they unless concealed behind a thousand curtains of de- proposed to us the reformation of our tyrannical ad. ignoring exceptional cases.] . because they do not want to leave gionists [and the Crimean War broke out]. and in the future they will However. there is no consultation. The inevitable consequence of or through publication?" Another misfortune is that this is the method of consultation. the of. state to a condition in which it lacks the power to and there is no oversight on the part of the umma. "Could a country that lacks deputies to scruti. The claim their men along with us in order to resist Russian that "rule belongs to the victor"3 cannot be applied intervention. This is an era in era Powers sacrificed their resources and the lives of which nobody can resist public opinion. Russia alone in its intervention. the Sublime Porte mollified Europe by mously shrewd European states know that this policy granting certain privileges to the Christians alone. which is the very when members of the government speak about the object of our discussion. they [Ottoman statesmen] both promised to man state. for the sake of protecting their com- rope has been helping the complainants whom Rus. Yet given these [Christian] complaints of victim- When the Russians sent [Knyaz Aleksandr ization. or at least standing as the pro- 1867] to Istanbul [in 1853] to protect their coreli. And yet. the Crete insurrection alone) will soon reduce the ficials are not accountable. tervention to defend the Ottomans or a costly accep- and despite all the talk about their prosperity. Now whenever Christians make allegations The continuation of foreign intervention (as is against the state. a confederation like Germany has been debated in recting the fundamentals of the state and obtaining a Europe for a long time. At first glance. stopped. however. these result well known. would be vulnerable to separatism. foreign interventions cannot be antor states a right of supervision in this matter. This is because the fun. ting pressure on us. the Muslims are ignorant of the pleasure of freedom tion which is so much talked about: As is known. can be found to dispel these troubles. while the Western states prevent her undoubtedly sink if it does not modify its present from carrying this out. [This saying is generally taken to mean "one judges able to criticize members of the government verbally by the mainstream. the West. What will be the result of all this? The state will man Empire]. ance [of power] against the aggression of the north- these actions may appear as a major contradiction. even if a clear preponderance exists. in fact. In any case. However. because those fa- state. nic group in the Ottoman lands and thereby creating terventions and securing our future existence by cor."—Trans. Russia wants to annihilate the Sublime State [Otto. ceit. us up to now. by including these reforms in the Treaty no barrier against Russia as strong as a united Otto- of Paris. Europeans conclude that Let us first consider the truth of this Eastern Ques. prevails in the state. Eu. every intelligent person reform the conditions of the Christian subjects in the realizes that as long as this tyrannical administration name of the sultan and granted the [European] guar. Instead. the Western Powers cannot refrain from put- Sergeyevich] Menshikov [Russian general. whether true or false. And tance of Russian domination of the region]. Then it will be nize the rules and make the ministers accountable enjoy order?" and "Can a man be free without being 3. Europeans to follow this course. while Russia has absolutism. It is true that the Western Powers have defended ing the Christian subjects of the Sublime State. ministration. contentedness of the people. purses [1. At the end of the conflict. and there can be Furthermore. tector of rebels. and readily submit to the noose of oppression. Then the Europeans will be compelled regardless of the magnitude of the privileges granted to choose the lesser of two evils [that is.

Verse 26]. some farmers refused to accept it. in reality these have no basis. Is there any possibility that word—al-yawma—that shows that the verse refers to the Day in the future people will have a warm affection for of Judgment. [Namik Kemal appears to have deliberately omitted a ness of the foundations. the opinion of the public is not a poison the matter: but an elixir of health. In the gatherings of highly important caused harm because the foundations are corrupt. sultan] became the cynosure of the people and the even when the government distributed cotton seed caliph of Islam. it is said that lations for salt. which is a moral country's wealth is in sharp decline. Therefore." heterogeneity of the Ottoman lands and the ignorance And how could people not be mistrustful? A hun. personality. Just as a physician can only To begin with. Who knows what hidden agenda Second. it is asked how a people speaking seventy- Many persons who had the confidence of the public two different tongues could be convened in one assem- came to occupy high office. All consultation]. personages. Would build. public opinion of the people of Turkistan [Turkey] ties in the council of the nation. depend upon the assistance of the people ings and other expenses have plunged the treasury who are the constituent elements of the state. and put an end to the mistrust of the people? Could the internal debt of 22 million of the people. the One.] . Everybody views official gion. we should not forget the fact that our esty the sultan is heir to the esteemed Ottoman dy- people harbor a deep hatred and mistrust toward the nasty. what has been said above proves dation? Would [the government] have had the audac. sultation. even the ministers cannot deny that help individuals regain health with the support of today the nation is faced with the threat of extinc. they will be unable regarding the necessary reforms. His Imperial Maj- Second. the Omnipotent. state] in the incontrovertible verse: "Whose is the When asked the reason for their rejection of this kingdom today? God's. tion.—Trans. As for the imagined detrimental effects that would term debt was 29 million liras. so long as our and the principles of freedom. The religion of Muhammad rejects to the provinces free of charge because of the Ameri. Sura 40.5 million [liras]? Would the [tax] regu. instead of regarding us as a administration? Furthermore. tobacco. First. of the people are reasons against this [the adoption of dred thousand policies have been put into effect. the right of the sultan in our coun- we assume that the future actions of the government try is to govern on the basis of the will of the people will not conform to its past habits. The to its present level if we had already adopted the only measure that will eliminate the present oppres- method of consultation and established an assembly sion and profligacy. As was made clear in regions. It was thanks to this fact that the [Ottoman declarations as attempts at disinformation. it is argued that the religious and cultural there may be? We would not dare to accept it. almost all responded by saying: "We cannot commit suicide by external threats toward the state will be eliminated. as is now the case. ity to declare that the value of the consolidated long. they responded: "Nothing good can [Qur'an. of kingship" [malik al-mulk. this claim. His title is "one administration maintains its present character? Is it charged with kingship" [sahib al-mulk]. for the same reason: the rotten- 4. and road construction. a title reserved for God ready been tried can only lead to regret? in the Qur'an. when a while ago the scarecrow planted against Russia. the absolutist claim to outright ownership [of the can Civil War. which established its state by protecting reli- present administration. but they could not ac- complish anything. French emperor used the occasion of the Cretan cri- Then if the people of a province resort to arms under sis to advise the Sublime Porte that it should seek the the pretext of being oppressed. the Sublime Porte to justify their claim to Europe." Let us now glance at the internal dimensions of In fact." munificence. Verse 16]4 come from the state. Then Europe will treat the government unless they themselves supervise the us as a civilized nation. have been put into effect? On what basis can our introduction. is the adoption of the method of con- liras have been raised to 40 million through consoli. not "owner not a matter of experience that trying what has al. In fact. their organs. drinking so lethal a poison as public opinion. AND SEEK THEIR COUNSEL IN THE MATTER 147 known that everyone is free. so also the administration's measures tion. In fact. when they have depu. One of the major reasons for this is that the to reform the character of the state. whose the establishment of a council of the people would thousand harms caused the destruction of so many violate the rights of the sultan. Sura 3. when it was calculated stem from the adoption of the method of consulta- as less than 26.

when we can find people in the these councils. method of consultation. and whose administration is not based on any to the dangerous situation in which the nation finds rules? Once the fundamental principles and the inter. membership in which is dependent upon pos- of linguistic heterogeneity in light of this obvious fact? sessing perfected political skills? Is it supposed that a council of the people is a sedi.148 Namik Kemal bly. who achieved. such deceptive superstitions. Serbia. we could not find people to become deputies. and all of them debate issues in the provinces to become members of the State Coun- official language [Turkish]. or raised an objection to appropriations for than even the savages of Montenegro? Can it be that holy sites and pious foundations. and what kind of response would be given if [some people. It will be obvious that the salvation of the desire to separate themselves from the integral nation? state today is dependent upon the adoption of the Who would dare to say a word about [Islamic] reli. If we have any love for the nation. While doing so. in position aimed at achieving this method of admin- return for which [non-Muslim communities] have istration. like the rebels of Crete. let us acquired real estate valued several times more? be fervent in advancing this meritorious policy. O Ottoman liberals! Do not give any credit to tious assembly whose members are absolutely inde. if it did not pre- troops to Crete because they wished to protect the vent these lands? Are we at a lower level of culture Greeks. Montene. Give serious thought pendent. whose O my God! In all provinces there are provincial only necessary qualification will be attaining the councils. itself today. who would the accomplishments that the opposition has already dare to protect those. take into consideration nal regulations of the assembly are issued. Members from all denominations serve in age of majority. and Egypt each have councils of the delay. and upon continuing the op- gious expenditures [purchasing non-Muslim land]. Let Let us come to the matter of ignorance. How can anybody speak cil. . us be fervent so that we can move forward without gro. Why should [our people's] ignorance pre- of] the deputies to be convened opposed dispatching vent us [from having a council].

Islamic Peoples). 1. 384-322 tion. §emseddin Sami was the author of the first modern geographical and histori- cal dictionary of the Ottoman Empire. Although he was appointed to official positions. journalist. Agah Sim Levend. On Dorduncu Asnn Turk Muharrirleri: §emseddin Sami Bey pire. in comparison to modern-day Euro. although civilization lizations—and of its predecessor Greek civilization passed through many hands before reaching those of are extant. pp. 149 .]: §emseddin lation from Turkish and introduction by M. At the same time. In addi. 1126- stroyed. dealing with them is a duty reserved to his. is tantamount to trying to benefit earlier—are like mere drawings made on a wall with from the wick of an oil lamp in the presence of sun- coal by a child in comparison to a painting by the light.] and Ibn Rushd [Andalusia-Morocco. Turkey: Turk Dil Kurumu Tanitma Yaymlan. 18 §emseddin Sami Frasheri Transferring the New Civilization to the Islamic Peoples §emseddin Sami Frasheri (Albania-Turkey. He also established a series called the "Pocket Library" to publish short essays for the general public. 1934). he published his own articles and plays. caused the government to treat §emseddin Sami as suspect. Trans. (Turkish Authors of the Fourteenth Century [A.1 As may be understood from our previous articles on of Islamic civilization—the latest of the ancient civi- [Europe's] history and state. and linguist One of seven children in a prominent Albanian family. yet in today's schools they do not teach Aristotle's History of Animals or The §emseddin Sami Frasheri. Many works them in high esteem. Istanbul. hav- pean civilization those ancient civilizations—for all ing recourse to these ancient works. §tikru Hanioglu. §emsettin Sami Bey: Hay an 1895). he worked for the gover- nor of loannina. Ismail Hakki. which resulted in his banishment through appointment as editor of the official gazette of Tripoli. §emsettin Sami (§emseddin Sami) ve Eserleri (§emseddin Sami Bey: His Life and Works) (Ankara. 1969). along with his participation in Albanian cultural activities. Meanwhile. "Medeniyet-i cedidenin umem-i islamiyeye nakli" (Transferring the New Civilization to the (Istanbul. Ottoman Em. 1883-1884. but given the existence of [modern] works the Europeans. those old civilizations have already been de.M. for example. and then the press bureau of the Sublime Porte in Istanbul. and he was compelled to destroy the parts he had completed. in North Africa. his newspaper ar- ticles—including the one translated here—were outspoken in promoting positivism and modernization.1198] as two great mentors of civilization and hold tory and to the science of archaeology. It seems that he suppressed his more radical opinions in these pamphlets—on the Islamic roots of European civilization. he learned European languages at a Greek high school and Middle Eastern languages from special lessons at Islamic schools.B. Sami Bey) (Istanbul. volume 1. Furthermore. he was asked to conduct his studies at home and lived his last years under virtual house arrest. Thus the scholars and philosophers of present- famous artist Raphael [Italy. The following year. 1850-1904) was a leading Ottoman intel- lectual. Turkey: Resimli Ay Matbaasi. These publications. 179-184.C. and many other lexicons. he was granted an imperial pardon and returned to newspaper work in Istanbul. Gune§ (The Sun). 1483-1520]. or contenting that the later ones were always more perfect than the oneself with them.day civilization consider Aristotle [Greece. Ottoman Empire: Kasbar Matbaasi. whose number is increasing daily.and beacons. Hikmet Turhan Daglioglu. his at- tempt to translate the Quran into Turkish was frustrated by the authorities. and the veiling of women. Following graduation. number 4.

they have been lit by his ancestors. This effort of these people contingent upon this alone. that European civilization was borrowed from the rance and once again bringing them to civilization Muslims. To go be. It is natural that a seed should decompose in the . pamphlets. finding the way with the help of To avoid such fanatical reactions on the part of their lamps. present-day civilization is in the hands of the Chris- ness of ignorance. and to con. we must do so by borrowing science This new fanaticism is like an illness arising from and technology from the contemporary civilization an overzealous physician's treatment. conflict which exists between the Muslim and the They rendered great services to humanity. since the survival and glory of Islam are up of Muslim discoveries. circa 776. At last the sun rose. the wisdom of Ibn creates a new one. Gradually people left this environ. and so to make them warm to the new yond this and to draw a curtain of ignorance and fa. because today duty compels us to say the following to those who have civilization seems to belong exclusively to the Chris. that is to say from our it to be a symbol or requisite of Christianity. some of our literary figures who are un- tion flooded the world. For just as we cannot cure even malaria people who have acquired a new fanaticism—view- with the medicine of Ibn Sina. none of the themselves against it to be a religious duty. saving the Muslim peoples from igno. ber of people among the Muslims who view Euro- lim languages. to extract their books from underneath the dust the first. and although it is less detrimental than 869]. yet it is essential that rea. The duty we owe to those happy with this situation have attempted to make lamps today is simply to cherish and respect them for European civilization seem less loathsome in the eyes their role in getting us out the darkness. tion. This effort has gone to ex- son and wisdom should overcome any such feeling. however. come civilized. things in their hands today is something that was bor- We can affirm that it is not the religion of Islam rowed from our ancestors. and an imitation. so a new idea has arisen from this Rushd. Yet circulation among us the best scientific works of our as a result of their exaggerations. ment of darkness. the fact that lit a lamp in gloomy centuries enveloped in the dark. acquired this new fanaticism: The Europeans bor- tian nations. ignorant masses of our own nation take rowed many things from us. civilization from the Islamic world. thanks the same effort and go to the same expense to put into to the efforts of these preachers of civilization. Shattering this of Europe. 980-1037]. that Islam is no obstacle to true civiliza- are among the most important priorities of any zeal. and the chemistry of Jahiz [Iraq. sheer folly. the people. and leave the study of the works of Islamic fanaticism is a most weighty duty for those who want scholars to the students of history and antiquity. also done some harm. For this reason. imperfect. The num- of libraries and translate them into the various Mus. so we can neither ing European civilization as something stolen from operate a railroad engine or steamship. and planted that lized. In order to achieve tent ourselves with the weak light of those lamps. tion is ours—has correspondingly increased. to publish them. is a most worthy one. and all available means to spread the view Therefore. exaggeration. civilization to the Islamic nations. the number of those own century. tian nations. if we wish to be. one senses be content with the lamp which he knows to have that alongside the good they have done. its harmfulness cannot be denied. But because there is as much It is true that religious zeal would impel a man to exaggeration as truth in what they assert. nor use the us. tremes by exceeding the limits of necessity. sciences and pave the way to transfer contemporary naticism in front of the light of the sun. the light of educa. with the chemistry of Jahiz and the wis.150 § emseddin Sami Frasheri Canon of Medicine by Ibn Sina [Iran. and insulting that telegraph. they each civilized nations—in other words. This It is a regrettable circumstance that. Europe borrowed a seed of which prevents Muslim nations from becoming civi. of the people. civilization while maintaining that the true civiliza- dom of Ibn Sina. to be of service in civilizing the Muslim nations. Just as a Today. and to found schools pean civilization as a product of unbelief contrary to and colleges devoted to teaching them. we must make and incompatible with Islam has decreased. however much effort and expense is required large dose of medicine intended to cure an illness to revive the medicine of Ibn Sina. books. sermons. and that most of science and technology which ous person who loves his religious community and we see in the hands of the Europeans today is made fatherland. rather the cause is the religious difference and seed. they used newspapers. and thus ancestors or more precisely our coreligionists who deem distancing themselves from it and guarding lived eight or ten centuries ago. is this goal.

it has brutally destroyed those who eyes. or are we more pious than the children of the considerable by [the standards of] the time. for all intents the caliphate on the ruins of Babylon. too. and the Muslim nations from the ignorance and Bedouinism caliph Ma'mun [reigned 813-833]. hand in hand. or that depending on works of Greek greatly benefit it. to reconcile religious texts with science. Why then do so that the light of knowledge and true religion may we not want to benefit from European civilization. in darkness of ignorance and fanaticism must be removed high esteem and paid tribute to them. and a mere imi. of God (may God bless him and grant him salvation) There is as great a difference between religion and borrowed it in its entirety." while some of us say "this is an als gathered together. who established that are precipitating their annihilation. At that time she conversing with the Messenger of God? borrowed a lamp from us in order to escape from the In Europe. tation of. with the result pean people of the book [Christians and Jews] more that its very genus has changed. In our society. The rust of fanati- an ongoing enterprise at that time. she no longer needed it. Can we wax proud of this? There is nothing here There too at first appeared some scholars who tried to be proud of. and to elimi- because. we do not even desire to benefit from a sun of cism is not the sort of monster that can be won over civilization which rises and shines before our very with kindness. and waged a war imitation of our old lamp. Some among us say "this is not a sun but a time have attempted to appease it. the and sometimes of being an imitation? Are the Euro- cycle has been repeated many times. viewed Greek and purposes a war must be declared against fanati- civilization with similar contempt. would the Islamic civili. in [caliph Abu] Ja'far [al-]Mansur [reigned 754-775]. in whose footsteps they proudly followed. crowbars. pagans contradicted Islam. maintained that cism to crush it by force and thus open the road to that civilization was derived from. the intellectu- just before dawn. TRANSFERRING THE NEW CIVILIZATION 151 earth in order to bear fruit. for fanaticism is the rust of religion. revived it. That seed decomposed. Islamic scholars were she had reached a bright place with the help of the light viewed as sorcerers. and its future is secured. But because fanati- go out. Finally. against fanaticism with axes. rather we should be ashamed of it. this would in fact Chaldeans. too. even the best steel. and only then did civiliza- Had the pioneers of Islamic civilization such as tion begin to move forward. and threw it ences were accused of heresy and severely punished. they demolished it. and those cultivating the sci- of that lamp. . the civilization of their ancestors the Far from damaging religion." thereby preferring to re. fanaticism was often an obstacle darkness of ignorance which surrounded her. together illuminate and reinvigorate people's minds accusing it sometimes of blasphemy and polytheism and hearts. after dropping this lamp and allowing it to nate fanaticism by appeasing it. and gunpow- main in darkness by closing our eyes! der. civilization. but by Companions of the Prophet who had the honor of present-day standards it is nothing. and had ceased to cism must be removed from religion so it shines with exist. The knowledge that profligate in their religion than the ancient Greek Europe derived from the scholars of Islam was very pagans. so also fanaticism stains even the alized? Although Greek civilization was no longer most truthful religion and rots it. children of the Companions of the Messenger its true and essential luster. The sages. There is no alternative. but once on the road to civilization. order to achieve progress in civilization and save the [caliph] Harun al-Rashid [reigned 786-809]. and held Greek fanaticism as there is between light and darkness. away. and just as within a short time rust eats up and destroys zation of which we are so proud today have materi.

Despite holding a number of administrative and public posts in Otto- man Syria. privileging Arabs over non-Arabs and advocating the establishment of an Arab caliphate. al-Kawakibi decentered the primacy of the Ottoman Turks and transformed them into an internal." [the fictional delegate from cooperate in writing down your speech. On the morning of this day. 5. marily Aleppo. Rahme. In the 1870s. 1995). 1. in al-A 'mal al-kamila lll-Kawakibi (The Arab Movements (London: Frank Cass. possibly poi- soned by agents of the Ottoman sultan. pp. '"Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi's 2. intellectually. and established two independent newspapers. like the rest of the brethren. AI-Kawakibi's thought was influenced by his contemporaries SayyidJamal al-Din al-Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad Abduh (chap- ter 3)." Journal of Islamic Studies.—Trans. His historical significance in the Islamic modernist trend of thought lay in his elaboration of an Arab pan-lslamism intended to reform the decaying Muslim world. to take Mecca] said. and Persian. addressing al-Sayyid al-Furati. Joseph G. Lebanon: Markaz S. Lebanon: Khayats. number 2. that is. al-Furat (The Euphrates). Born into a well-established family of notables in Aleppo. whenever they said: "We are willing to render this service. The eminent Damascene looked at his colleague sion. 1958). Eliezer Tauber. and parts of northern Iraq. among others. 1854-1902) was one of the most influential Islamic reformist thinkers in the eastern Mediterranean at the end of the nineteenth century. al-'Aqqad. "In addition." 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi. reading. Three Reformers: A Study in Modern Arabic Dirasat al-Wahda al-'Arabiyya. Egypt: Matbu'at al-Majlis al-'A'la. [Al-Sayyid al-Furati—probably the alter ego of the au- Reformist Ideology. after summarizing all of the opinions that the [from Alexandria]. He died suddenly in Cairo in 1902. President. "Umm al-Qura" (The Mother 1999. the association expects also ther of them knows short-hand. in keeping with the rules. both of which were short-lived. Ottoman Turkish. at which twenty-three representatives from around the Muslim world—including thirteen Arabs— assemble to discuss pan-Islamic resurgence and criticize Ottoman tyranny. Translation from Arabic and introduction M. al-Husry. 1966). and reviewing—you are the most wide-ranging of us. pri- Other. al-Kawakibi received a thor- ough education in the Islamic sciences and in the major Islamic languages of the region: Arabic. because. which is the topic under discus. writing. pp. 1899] in hearing.1 The Seventh Gathering. Wednesday. The following selection is drawn from al-Kawakibi's famous account of a fictional series of meetings in Mecca. the association as. he edited the official paper in Aleppo. al-Rahhala Kaf (The Traveler K) (Cairo. representatives from Damascus and Alexandria] to "Mr. who indicated his approval. then honorable brethren have mentioned. have been expressed knowledgably and consistently 24 Zi'l-Qa'da 1 3 1 6 [April 5. the association requests the eminent sembled. 19 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi Summary of the Causes of Stagnation 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (Syria. Khaldun Complete Works of Kawakibi) (Beirut. and the minutes of the preceding [meeting] Damascene and the eloquent Alexandrian [fictional were read. 159-177. volume 10. by Joseph G. The Emergence of the of Towns [Mecca]). Rahme.] 152 . 'Abbas published in 1902. leading him ultimately to settle in Egypt in 1898. 358-367. Arab Pan-lslamism. which is used in such to benefit from your personal views concerning the situations.2 "In turns listening to the spoken statements and writing addition to your attention to organizing meetings and them down. ch. problematic other. 1993)." cause of stagnation. and the Internal thor—was the fictional representative of northern Syria. nei- fulfilling editorial duties. First Political Thought (Beirut. In this process. al-Kawakibi experienced chronic persecution by the authorities.

tures and the path of the pious early Muslims. (F) commanded. I will read to you summa. and beauty of life. Fragmentation of the umma into factions and 6. The surrender to taqlid [imitation of previous one or a few causes that can easily be resisted. (D) 9. (F) leniency in religious practice. Coercion and mistreatment of high-minded. Yet all of them can be 19. (D) from fundamental [causes]. of magic and humbug. and asso- 13. (F) 25. the rich and giving it to the poor. The leaders' natural inclination toward deceit- ligion due to adulteration and severity. Loss of justice and equality of rights among the tive details of religious laws. (F) turned away from the desk. (D) 8. omissions. rulers give preferment to the elite. (F) 16. (F) and fanciful interpretations. Banishing noble and liberal leaders. Belief that the philosophical and rational sci- and eloquent Alexandrian took his place. Introduction of innumerable superstitions into cials [to implement] matters that destroy their the public sphere by deceivers and worshipers religion. and I have little to offer." ignorance of its merits. (D) . as already discussed. Neglecting the wisdom of the community. Burdening Muslims with that which God has 1. religion there are secret matters and that knowl- my speech is feeble. 34." Then he edge is a veil. The abandonment of religious tolerance and sponsibility. Requiring leaders. Failure of practicing 'ulama' to affirm divine deliberations that this stagnation. 29. Denial of the umma's freedom of speech and 7. as follows. fables. (F) 24. Some scholars] and the abandonment of reflection and of these causes are fundamental. "hearts"] ciating with flatterers and the wicked. (F) The Second Kind: Political Causes 4. Obstinacy in denouncing religious freedom in with the letter D. Inability to relate statements to practices in re. Undue allegiance to madhhabs [schools of law] reduced to three categories: religious causes. and belittling of that which is ideas of the umma [Muslim community]. not from 18. (D) "It can be concluded from our blessed association's 17. He said: into the beliefs of the laity. Giving oneself over to specious ideas and arti- ficial distinctions in religion. of the association's studies. geomancers. and the eminent Damascene 15. through additions. Reversal of the practice of taking property from of the flatterers. (F) [causes] with the letter F and the derivative [causes] 21. [Al-Furati] ences are incompatible with religion. (D) 22. while delegat- treating it as entertainment and a game. Corruption of the religion by the obscurantism 31. (F) 30. SUMMARY OF THE CAUSES OF STAGNATION 153 Al-Sayyid al-Furati said: "[I shall comply] out of 14. Effect of asceticism on effort. 28. Belittling of religion by the exploiters of Sufism. (D) 23. (F) 11. Requiring what would not be required if one The First Kind: Religious Causes sought guidance from the Book [the Qur'an] and the sunna [practice of the Prophet]. (F) through the threats of astrologers. (D) ing service in religion to the ignorant. (D) umma's [social] strata. (D) 32. (F) deceitful 'ulama [religious scholars]. 27. (D) the pious early Muslims. (D) plethora of conflicting opinions in the deriva. Denial of a livelihood and honor to practicing and harmful innovations into the religion by 'ulama' and seekers of knowledge. (D) stems from the totality of numerous causes. (D) ries from the index list that I extracted from the 20. (F) 33. unity. (D) rightly-guided leaders. Honoring knowledge by stipends through which 10. Policymaking is divorced from power and re- 5. forsaking scrip- causes. Confusion of the umma's beliefs due to the action. and of the hajj [pilgrimage] assembly. political and the opinions of recent writers. Deceit of liars and flatterers [who state] that in affection and obedience though I am really incapable. and moral causes. work. (F) 26. Effect of dissension [arising] from debates about religious beliefs. distinguishing the fundamental Friday [prayer]. and some are derived the quest for guidance. Effect of the doctrine of predestination on the not demanded. (D) of the dead and their shrines. (D) 3. Introduction of scriptural borrowings. Alienation of Muslim minds [literally. Penetration of manifest or hidden polytheism did not linger and plunged into his speech. (D) ful 'ulama' and ignorant Sufis. judges. Religious severity by later legists in contrast to political parties. (D) 2. and religious offi- 12. and loss of its security and aspirations.

Delusion that religious knowledge is found 57. The 50. Loss of the power of public opinion through sociation have set forth. Loss of religious and moral education. (F) self and persisting in his autocratic policies. sermonizing. Preference for earning a living in the military The Policy and Administration and in government service. Restriction of political concern to taxation and tails and explain them. 47. they too share some of these fundamental prob- 48. of the kingdom was lost and the remaining third was bility. more the neglect of zakat [alms tax]. 40. enumerating them by means of the other than ostentation and wealth. Enmity toward the higher sciences because of 58. (D) causes to the ones already discussed by my distin- 38. Loss of collective financial strength because of lems. exists in the fundamental administration of Islamic tence in unwise policies. "Moreover. it would take too long and the military. as suppression and division. [in the Tanzimat reforms of the mid-19th century]. "As for the rest of the Islamic kingdoms and emir- product of their continued existence. (F) 60 years. (D) 43. Descent into alienation by those who are suc. administrative leadership should reside in those distant parts [so as to Then al-Sayyid al-Furati said: "These summarize know] the situations and the particular features the causes of stagnation that the brethren of the as. Loss of the strength of associations and the by. (D) the sultan's power for the sake of preserving his noble 46. (D) thorough examination would take too long. Estrangement from engagement with and dis. (D) itants in terms of [their] races and customs. Neglecting the demand for general rights. (F) ates. Heterogeneity of juridical laws. (D) governments has an important role in producing the 37. (F) 5 9. Were I to give de- 39.154 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi 35. (F) from the capital. cases. and lowliness. this most powerful state whose affairs concern all Muslims. traditional religious laws despite differences in the characteristics of scholars] and in everything that is recorded the empire's parts and differences in the inhab- in the Book. I therefore add the following ers on despotism. Corruption of teaching. (D) . (D) 52. (F) destroyed. (F) cussion of public affairs. In cessful in religious and worldly affairs. The dominance of flattery' s fabrications. disregarding repetitions. due causes I wish to discuss in summary form are the to cowardice and fear of disappointment. Furthermore. Submersion of leaders in luxury and carnal ap- petites. Lingering in apathy as a way of comforting the not improve either taqlid nor its blameworthy bida' self. (D) following. during which time two thirds 44. Standardization of administrative and penal among turbans [that is. (D) headings of the problem only. that is. Dissolution of the bonds of religious responsi. they suffer from other. Abandoning action because of low expecta- tions. (F) we would digress from the aim of our gathering. Foolishness of most leaders and their persis. (F) 54. and their avoidance of any kind of glory guished brethren. Inattention to the avoidance of polytheism and istration despite the distance of certain parts its evil portents. so that its condition deteriorated. Stubborn and arrogant insistence of most lead." 51. (F) harmful and bitter conditions whose exposition and 49. espe- to hatred of God. Loss of mutual counseling and giving free rein [innovations]. (D) doing so. (D) one would suppose. rather than indus. (F) sion of the judiciary in [dealing with] analogous 55. after it rushed to reorganize its affairs 41. (F) cially in the last 20 years. general stagnation. servil- ity. (D) 53. Immersion in ignorance and acquiescence to It has experienced most of these disorders in the last it. the causes that I will mention are the fundamental origins of the disorder in the current poli- The Third Kind: Moral Causes cies and administration of the Ottoman empire. of the Ottomans try. it damaged its ancient foundations and did 42. Adherence to the principle of centralized admin- 56. of their inhabitants. Inasmuch as the disorder that 36. Among the factors determining the ruin of 45. orating. the state was the loss of men and the squandering of and giving spiritual guidance. and the confu- the comfort of ignorance and abasement.

Then al-Sayyid al-Furati said: "Some of these ministration being methodical in name but ar. them—even though its damage in every act of portant matter. ner. the challenge of events. tribes of the Hijaz. the ad- 68. and then flatterers. Loss of the sanctity of religious law and the among them till the Day of Resurrection. The state must select them from of concern for the future. (F) empire became mortgaged to foreigners with 64. their merits and defects. and if it spoke. of natural growth is utterly futile. not just outward obedience. there would be a great uprising. without any supervision. 66. Carelessness in the selection of [government] so as to prevent their divulging what they re- employees and [civil] officials. press] inquiry into administrative activities. and the [government's] refusal to discuss the leader and the led will not agree on any im. Failure to attend to the customs of the inhabit- leadership and governors are never held ac. Gross discrimination among various subject 7 6. sovereignty. 73. Permissiveness in reward and reproof due to in. people despised by their ian interests without consultation of the sub- colleagues in the 'ulama' or the army. 77. 61. until the they will not ally with him against the state. governors. this makes agreement upon administrative in morals. as inhabitants and rendering it impractical for well as hatred toward the administration. silencing experts who know of its defects. like the of] territory. Adhering to a policy of customarily giving spe. the neighboring coun- their indulgence for it. and the Euphrates— 74. appeasement. and com. [all this] so that and damage without any accounting. Administration of property in a centralized man- races regarding subsidies and penalties. Iraq. and dures among ministers. Adhering to the principle that administrative 70. SUMMARY OF THE CAUSES OF STAGNATION 155 60. causes I have mentioned are old maladies inseparable bitrary in practice. from the administration of the Ottoman government . and they will put up concern. the progress of the inhabitants. Administration of the treasury in a loose man- who are incapable of administering them. 65. development. Adhering to [the practice of] racial inconsis. with the aim of complicating understand. ants. If the public were to learn it would of sustaining cliques. extravagance without reprimand. are their superiors. needs of the times. ally know. it would act. by not abiding by and executing [religious law]. (D) free persons and have authority over those who 63. as if the empire had no master. rules. and [to sup- 62. and insisting on ad. despite the enmity and hatred that God planted 69. due to a of lack manders. (D) to forbid its growth. this neglect of matters by cial authority to certain families—like the those who are responsible for them leads nec- rulership of Mecca and the rulership of the large essarily to the debasing of the administration. so as to gain countable for their actions. needlessly em. favorites. Preferential treatment of those base in descent. and habitual speak. or when there is need. them to intermix and secure the administration. purchasing with- result. who hold sway over policy impossible. 71. Administrative confusion resulting from inat. tries would have no means to exert pressure. and rights. Suppression of awakened thought in an effort the kingdom in order to satisfy them. Shaykh al-Islam [chief religious official] or the 75. temptation ing between the employees and the [local] and [corrupting] inducements are the result. Adhering to the practice of appointing to par. Administration of important political and civil- Minister of Defense. tencies in the hiring of [government] employ. Were it not for tention to explaining to the umma and seeking those sights and smells. ministration expends all of that on its neighbors such as erecting rules that conflict with religious so that they will turn a blind eye to the [country's] law. Administration of external affairs through attention to whether administrative matters are bootlicking. lest the public learn the truth of the ploying too many of them with the purpose matter. but with no at. through seeking to con. with the rotten stink of their rule. capitulations. and is detested by them. the governor enrages those whom he out budgeting. bribery. their morals. though the suppression ees. heavy debts that are being paid with [the loss ticular positions in certain professions. as a ner. and their welfare. painful sights. rights. among all the races and nationalities found in 72. (D) their affection. the compromise of done well or badly. (D) omission and commission was well known. blood. Obtuseness toward or willful neglect of the tention to the integration of morals with proce. Inattention to fostering religious requirements. in the absence of some compelling policy destructive. vince them and satisfy their concerns. and money. force of [secular] laws. and in education. so that jects. 67.

82." of the most important maxims of governments is to Then he said: "Connected to these causes are a adopt the characters of the subjects. They intermingled with them and became part "As to the incongruence of morals between the of them. on the contrary. Inattention to the fitness of wives [that is. 'Kibti so that they were truly heads to those bodies. Ghurids preparedness. 1519-1558]. and the descendants of Muhammad 'Ali [ruler able status to their husbands]. would like to do in the present era. 84. as was indicated by the president in his first "There is no disagreement about the fact that one remarks. Mongols] became Persians and Indians. North African dynasty. and as the European colonial states matters of daily life. will danger has come close—may God forbid it—to the Arabs succeed with 'ajam [non-Arab] kings?' heart. 'Egyptian Gypsy. with their subjects and armies in morals and instincts. of Albanian-Turkish origin] 85.exception in this regard was the Turkish Moghuls— nize the histories of nations.' . second caliph. nor do they agree Khattab. such as the Buyids [Turkish dynasty.tional cause for such [behavior] except their intense 1227]. world. 1805-1849. Similarly. 1206." good in themselves. as can be proved by the 1451-1481]. at least until it suc- Miscellaneous Causes ceeds in attracting them to its language. and the shepherds. Success can not be had in any other way. 915- one could be patient with them. Perhaps as the wise al-Mutanabbi [classical Arab poet. the Muwahhidun [Almohads. 79. [Mehmed] the Conqueror [Ottoman sultan. 1250- development of qualities that make them of suit. and [Napoleon] Bonaparte [French con. Mongol ruler. then to its nationality. the greatest and most that is. Peter the Great [Russian tsar. Withdrawal from life and apathy. —their saying about the Arabs of Syria: 'Ne §am'm It is only this congruence that makes the umma con. even if the habits are not enumerating them in summary fashion. even if the commitment be temporary. 1169-1260].' that is. 'Arab Gypsy'. take pride successful kings and conquerors—such as Alexander in preserving the otherness of their subjects.' for Egyptians.]. all of 80. not like Arab. acculturated. or the reverse.' that is. 'It is worth put- sider its leader to be its head.' that is.' that is. Arabized and molded by the characteristics of the Arabs. 634-644] and Salah al-Din to become Arabized. The least a foreign government should do is conform to the subjects' characters. Heedlessness of the need to apportion labor and the non-Arabs who established states in the Islamic time. Saljuqs [Turkish dynasty. 'Umar [ibn al. 1696-1725]. the [probably the Mamluk dynasty in Egypt. The only As is apparent to those who contemplate and scruti. were it not that the 965] said: The people exist only through kings. There is no ra- with them.' meaning 'rude tion. so that it gives itself ting up with the Arabs for the sweets of Damascus. Differences in the natures of the subjects and [reigned 661-750]. [Afghan dynasty. as follows. Heedlessness of balancing [military] power and Ayyubids [Kurdish dynasty. Charles V of Germany [Holy Roman proverbs about Arabs that flow from their tongues: Emperor. general apathy. They had a genuine and complete congruence peasant. and some of wholeheartedly. so that [Macedonian king. it has a great significance. Circassians 83. just as the Tatar Moghuls [that is. the shepherds and the subjects.' a camel's head on the body of a bull. 1062]. the contemporary ones are be- [Ayyubid sultan. —'Arab fingenesi. 336-323 B. 1169-1193]. Weakness of character.1517].who. hatred toward the Arabs. Genghis [Khan. as did the Umayyads 78. with the disappearance of their producers. their great feats except through sincere determina. the 'Abbasids [750-1258]. the Ottomans.' for Arabs of the Hijaz.156 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi since its establishment. 932- 81. §ekeri ve ne Arab'in yiizii. 1799-1815]—did not accomplish 'Arab beggar. so that it was not long until they become 86. that is.C. sul and emperor. and to unite with few miscellaneous causes that I shall examine after them in habits and tastes. may God be pleased coming Frenchified or Germanified. Heedlessness of [the need to] yield to expertise. Abandoning attention to educating women. —their use of the phrase 'kor fellah. without resentment or [the need for] them are temporary manifestations that will disappear coercion. Heedlessness or negligence in organizing the 1130-1269]. —their use of the phrase 'dilenci Arab. 1038-1194]. then to its morals.they do not seek their Turkification. circa 1149-1215]. or for centuries. of Egypt.

'Arab and in respect for fire-pits. 'If I do that. even these would —their use of the term 'Arab' for slaves and black not have been established. But today our time has drawn to a close. President said: "Our brother al-Sayyid al- decay: lice.' that is. 'filthy Arab. 'Arab jawbone. may I become an Arab. and therefore we adjourn till our appointment tomor- except for the establishment of a few mosques—and row. For [it is said that] the "To all that. 'pis Arab.' that is. except sincere counselor is the one who makes you weep. 'Arab existing superstitions. nerde tambura. 'Arab mind. because he knows that I do —their saying. 'Nerde Arab. of which he is aware. Then al-Sayyid al-Furati said: —their saying.' an indica. in fear of astrological misfortune. and the research to which he pointed deserves much tion of suspicion about their Islamic faith.' that not exaggerate. and the plague. 'Where there is an Arab. with two expressions. SUMMARY OF THE CAUSES OF STAGNATION 157 [Literally: 'Neither the sweets of Damascus. animals. 'Bunu yaparsam Arab olayim. the Arabs do not reciprocate. The cause discussion. and if it were not for the religious is." . The first is the Arab saying not the one who makes you laugh. if the Exalted Master permits.' that "I beg pardon from al-Maula al-Rumi [the fic- is.' or excessive babble. I would not have spoken so clearly and openly." fenesi.' to their grandees.' that is.' necessity.'] names mentioned from the pulpits. they joined Islam in blind obedience —their saying. 'Arab taste.' that is." about them: 'Three were created for oppression and Mr. nor the if it were not for their rulers wanting to have their face of the Arab.' And the second Furati is a well-spoken orator and a worldly knight. "Moreover. which added greatly to tabiati.' or small. there is a lute.' or corrupt. of this suspicion is that the Turks did not serve Islam. —'Arab akh. Turks. expression: calling [Turks] 'Byzantines.' tional Turkish delegate].

he taught in several Baghdad mosques and seminaries. He is also no- table for attracting the attention of European scholars. for God is [Wahhabis] and others. In 1902. on Him I depend. [al-Nabhani] continued. al-Sayyid Mahmud pp. Ibrahim Samarra'i. After presenting the the Exalted. volume 1.' The time has come for the pen to gallop along the schools] who admire them. but their effort failed. 1850." I made this discussion racecourse of debate. 1857-1924) was the foremost proponent of religious re- form in late Ottoman Iraq. and he won a prize from the Stockholm Ori- ental Languages Academy for his three-volume history of the pre-lslamic Arabs. on a scholar who objected to ijtihad. the most famous of whom was his grandfather. the Imam [Abu'l-'Abbas] Ibn pretation]—a capability claimed. Introduction and the Rise of the Arabs) (Beirut. 'Arabiyya. 20 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi Ijtihad and the Refutation of Nabhani Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi (Iraq. claim ijtihad in this age in my book Hujjat Allah 'ala [Yusuf] al-Nabhani [Palestine-Lebanon. and should not be relied success only through Him. Ghayat al-amani fi'l-radd 'ala wa-ara 'uhu al-lughawiyya (Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi and his al-Nabhani (The Utmost Desire. "I responded to those who Him I turn in repentance. 44-60. "The first section of the introduction. by the Hajar al-Haytami [1504-1567].'arab (Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi by Hager El Hadidi. 158 . he began to criticize popular veneration of saints' tombs and the inclusion of music and dance in Sufi rituals. Sha'rani [1492-1565]. issue statements of religious scholars such as the on the termination of al-ijtihad al-mutlaq [unre. I cited on this 1932] wrote. li-ashab al-da 'awi al-kadhiba [Arrows that Strike who has mounted the steed of obstinacy. but to safeguard me against hold that the claim of ijtihad in this age—by wrongdoing and lapses in word and deed. This se- lection is excerpted from a polemical attack. Alusi came from a long line of prominent religious scholars. stirring up the dust of contro. which heretics from various Islamic madhhabs [legal 1. edited by Devin Stewart. Those Who Make False Claims]. I ask God. He befriended the great French Orientalist Louis Massignon (1883-1962).'alamin [God's Proof to Mankind]." He also stated. a Refutation of Nabhani) Views on Language) (Cairo. and to upon. Commins. like heliocentrism. falsely. Muhammad Bahjat al-Athari. conservative scholars plotted to remove him from Baghdad for allegedly spreading Wahhabi ideas. Imam ['Abd al- Wahhabi [scripturalist] group and other ignorant Ra'uf] al-Munawi [1545-1621]. Imam [leading scholar] ['Abd al-Wahhab] al- stricted or absolute freedom of Islamic legal inter. Lebanon: al-Mu'assasa al- by David D. Jami'iyya li'1-Dirasat wa'1-Nashr wa'1-Tawzi'. I will achieve false. into a separate treatise. Around 1890. his publishers wrote Alusi's name by hand on each copy of the book. Translation from Arabic Shukri al-Alusi wa-bulugh al. It should be ignored. He also contributed to the reform movement by searching for and publishing the works of earlier scholars like Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328). the author of a major exegesis of the Quran. Egypt: 'Abd al-Qadir al-Tilimsani. After a traditional religious education. not to allow the tip of my pen to descend prologue of that treatise. and others. 1992). with the Quran. al. 1958). "I into false accusation. Egypt: Jami'at al-Duwal al- (Cairo. His modernist inclination appears in ar- guments for the harmony of modern scientific views. Alusi gathered a small num- ber of religious students who continued to pursue Islamic reform in Iraq. 1907). Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi. After the Ottoman Young Turk Revolution of 1908. he addressed such controversial religious issues as independent reasoning (ijtihad} in Islamic law and innovations in worship. no matter how learned—is the Protection and Refuge from all ills. entitled al-Siham al-sa 'ibah versy in the face of the most intractable opponent. First published in 1903. A prolific writer. published anonymously.

scholars corroborating his view that ijtihad had been I mean ijtihad al-fatwa. All the people of Najd follow the seventeenth year of the fourteenth century [A.' Moreover. after stated this explicitly in many of his treatises.D. what then might you think about others? In- masse. there has not been a mujtahid mustaqil said. to interpret within a particular legal school]. a lie. To mention all the fallacies turbed. "If all of al-Shafi'i's texts were lost.D. or 12th century A. as was stated by the ars of the legal tradition concerning whether or not great Shaykh Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-'Arabi [1165. however. 1181-1245] and his followers stated that [ijtihad] had terminated about 300 years before their time. as follows. Abu'l-Ma'ali al-Juwayni. "Ibn al-Salah cited a scholar on theology and articles of faith. singular wajh] within the Shafi'i legal temporaries attacked him and criticized him en school. like someone who rides blindly and strikes included in his discussion would take a long time. 'If there through wilaya [here. ignorance. that of unrestricted ijtihad! himself. 'Contemplate the difficulty of this level. IJTIHAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 159 should serve to persuade every person endowed with the era of [Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad] al-Shafi'i common sense and sound understanding. They demanded that if he had even the lowest produced wujuh—this despite [al-Ruyani's] state- level of ijtihad—that is. randomly. ions [wujuh. So [ijtihad] has now been discon. He did . the author of al- proposed two different rulings considered equally Bahr [The Sea]." [Al-Nabhani] by those of defective mind and religion. They wrote him a petition presenting a num. falseness of his claim. and Ibn The First Point al-Salah was about 300 years ago. 1028-1085] and Small Compendium]. Al-Suyuti. Imam al-Haramayn [the Imam of Mecca and Medina. deed. Shaykh Muhammad of the Islamic jurisprudence to the effect that. and not in its details.]. indicating his that anyone who claims it—let alone claims unre. those who have produced authoritative variant opin- Din] al-Suyuti [1445-1505] claimed ijtihad. how then and provide the appropriate evidence according to the could those who cannot even understand the greater rules of ijtihad. and it will become apparent to you the end of his discussion of this topic. that he was not among those who valid. "Then Shihab al-Din Ibn Hajar said. an outstanding mystic's spe. [1703-1787]—is a false accusation. the year I [al-Nabhani] wrote the may God be pleased with him. the leading scholars said about [Abu'l- ber of legal questions on which Shafi'i jurists had Mahasin] al-Ruyani [13th century]. since he lived in the sixth century [A.'alamin.H. This senseless jabber continues until levels of ijtihad. adopting his opinions book Hujjat Allah 'ala al. 'Even if someone could so instead we will criticize his argument in general. who lived in beliefs of Shaykh Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab the tenth century. "As for ijtihad. for we are in the der against them. and a slan- tinued for about a thousand years. conceive mentally of the level of unrestricted ijtihad." on the individual points of law and agreeing with him [Al-Nabhani] said. with respect to the era of Ibn Hajar. '[Taqi al-Din] Ibn al-Salah [al-Shahrazuri.' Ibn Then [al-Nabhani] quoted a number of statements by Hajar said." Then he quoted al-Jami' al-saghir [The that is. it is not claimed today except [independent interpreter of the law]. saying that he was busy with other concerns Glory be to You.' [Ibn Hajar] said. O God! This is great slander!'" that prevented him from looking into the matter. his bankruptcy of all knowledge. or school of the Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal [780-855]. unless it is said. ijtihad al-fatwa [the ability ment. by Ibn Hajar. I could to select among the legal opinions proposed within dictate them from memory.H.." If such great scholars a particular legal school]—then he should explain the are not qualified for ijtihad al-madhhab [the ability opinion he considered most acceptable in this regard." Then he [767-820]. his con. 1899-1900 A. 1240]. so as of To attribute the call for ijtihad to the Wahhabiyya— today it has been discontinued for 600 years'—that the term [al-Nabhani] uses for those who share the is. 'When Jalal [al. Muhammad] al-Ghazzali [1058-1111] are among tary on this book: "[Ibn Hajar] said. which is the lowest of all the discontinued.]. and the stricted ijtihad—is addlepated and his thinking dis. which al-Munawi Hujjat al-Islam [the Proof of Islam] [Abu Hamid also quoted in the beginning of his large commen. [Ibn Hajar] to the following points: said.. has been a longstanding debate among leading schol- cial status or closeness to God]. he would be too ashamed before God to claim it for Al-Nabhani's thesis will be addressed according any person of these times. and excused to claim a higher level. sent back the part of their expressions correctly allow themselves petition without writing any answer.

references to which we must turn in cases of disagree- visible. ment. for the schol. nor did he call on anybody to adopt verses and hadiths [narratives of the Prophet] with him as an authority. that is.160 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi not claim ijtihad. You have also learned from necessary for adoption by others of a mujtahid's our summary of their statements that they did not verdict in a court case—and aptitude. This is good for you ity and invalidity. the Exalted. is mujtahid restricted to a madhhab. God. [For technical mat- [people of the sunna. derive legal rulings from the texts of his Imam [the commanding good and forbidding evil. who becomes thor- oughly versed in the law and able to perform tarjih [demonstrating the preponderance of one alternative The Second Point ruling over another]. and Reconciliations] by Ibrahim ibn Musa al-Shatibi. refer it to God and the Messenger. the full requirements for someone to act ditions they laid down for ijtihad are not impossible as an official witness in court cases]. who supported the articles of faith. prooftexts. single and multiple chains of transmis- tice of the Prophet] with the Shaykh and to consider sion. God willing. This ability is the foundation of and the best of settlements. abrogating and abrogated scriptural of Najd and those who follow the sunna [the prac. Below this is mujtahid al-futya [inter- either plain ignorance or an insult. the the particular case at hand alone. the Hour of Judgment. lieve in God and the Last Day. This aptitude claim that the gate of ijtihad is closed. be familiar with legal issues on which good and forbid doing evil. however. Sura 4. be learned in the Qur'anic espouses it. Sunni Muslims]. sions of the topic. He did. dismissed. which is only but may exist in any era. standing of the intended meanings of speech. Stupid or incompetent people are 59] The opinion that ijtihad has terminated is not incapable of ijtihad. ijtihad being di. it is a false and slander. and mental acuity. so to call stu. or knowledge of scriptural prooftext from the Qur'an or the sunna. and returned to the one who upholds it. thing. eponymous founder of the school of law to which dents and supporters of the Shaykh Wahhabiyya is he belongs]. The rank [and not al-Wahhabiyya]. [Such cases] involve a mujtahid al-mutlaq discussed below. nor was it indicated by a knowledge of the law as a whole. [A mujtahid] must also attain supported by any evidence. rubric that we need not relate. whether it is permissible for an age to be devoid of sively. then disagreed on ars of Islamic jurisprudence have discussed it exten.] it is sufficient for injustice and an aggression." [Qur'an. "A group of my nation will continue sup- clared that ijtihad is the utmost exertion of effort on porting the truth until God's command arrives"— the part of a jurist in order to arrive at a probable that is. an innate. therefore. and if you are at variance over some- dence. and recognize valid. who is able to not his father. if you be- erly analyze cause and effect. both of which are preter restricted to the legal opinions already pro- clearly wrong. [unrestricted interpreter]. thrown back in the face of the person who guage and theology. Others held that it is not died 1388]. Conditions [permitting This is a summary of the jurisprudents' discus- such interpretation] are legal capacity—and not pro. To associate the people consensus exists. enjoin doing legal content. so that obey God and the Messenger and those in authority he might be able to deduce legal rules from evi. and you have learned that the con- bity [that is. posed within a single school]. among you. the scholars of ju- risprudence mentioned numerous issues under this The topic of ijtihad has been exhausted. The scholars have de. the mujtahid to rely on the assessments of hadith ex- ous accusation. In addition. prop. It is preferred that he designating the Shaykh should be al-Muhammadiyya be able to search for contradictory evidence. Prophet]. recognize similar and dissimilar cases. . This issue will be ruling. since 'Abd al-Wahhab is lower than that of absolute or unrestricted mujtahid Shaykh Muhammad's father. even that it actually occurs. Verse the legal craft. and the condition them a sect of Muslims apart from the ahl al-sunna of hadith transmitters and texts. Even more odd is that the adjective perts and leading theologians. citing as evidence the hadith [of the be mentioned here in brief. and it was the Shaykh. said: "O you who believe. nor was this involves the rational capacity for acquiring necessary implied by their argument. Despite that. is an ters of hadith science and theology. it should be a mid-level [or higher] expertise in the Arabic lan. keen under. the occasions of Revelation. particularly in the book al-Muwafaqat [The a mujtahid. Some held that it is permissible. some relevant issues should permissible.

Qur'an or the sunna.lowed to choose between rulings after those you have lowers of al-Shafi'i disagreed about whose opinions mentioned. a second group who produced ihtimalat [pref. or the adoption of an ion without considering the statement of the one he authority's opinion without independent proof of its imitates and follows. IJT/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 161 The Third Point who speak with knowledge have vanished from the earth.D. and consider him more acceptable for 1111]. shall never be devoid of those who uphold God's the Maliki jurist [died 955]. the jurist with a false judgment that openly contradicts the gives a verdict or legal opinion accordingly. He will continue to al-Awza'i [707-774]. died of others.]. Bakr [Abu the truth of the saying of His Messenger that the earth al-Fadl ibn Muhammad] ibn 'Ala' al-Din al-Qushayri. has been able to select rulings after ['Abd al-Rahman] and that every hundred years.taqlid than others? What gives you the right to per- erable variant rulings] but not wujuh. The fol. died 976]. They divided [legal scholars] into three Scripture of God and the sunna of His Messenger? levels: a first group who produced wujuh. ac- "According to these scholars. whether a scriptural prooftext from the neither wujuh nor ihtimalat. No one should rule or give a legal opin- [those who engage in taqlid. peace be upon him. or a statement of a companion of the when the gate of ijtihad was closed.tire Muslim community to follow him. Verse 23]. in agreement with the who could not. have reached the utmost existed since the early eras of Islam. it is not permissible to of those who uphold God's proofs for Him. Sufyan al-Thawri [716-778]. They also disagreed about legal analogy. and a third group who produced evidence. "One should also object to this opponent: If. and the abandonment of the Qur'an al-Kufi. an instance of consensus or erence unclear] and others. [Another] group said that to object to those who uphold them: If no one is al- nobody could choose rulings after al-Shafi'i. however. which is not supported by any Ma'ali [al-Juwayni]. wise. falsehood. to extract the rulings of the ion [that ijtihad has been terminated]: "Muqallids Sacred Law. and the authority [a reference to the Qur'an. and the sunna of His Messenger as sources for the Muhammad ibn al-Hasan [al-Shaybani. died 798]. 'No jurist has the right to choose They represent the espousal of religious positions between alternative legal rulings after Abu Hanifa without any basis in knowledge. in response to this opin. such as Ibn Hamid [ref. while you forbid selection of what has been diverse opinions.' sure the completion of His Light and make manifest This is the opinion of many Hanafi jurists.H. If the authority agrees with what correctness] have flouted God's decree and His law is contained in the Qur'an and the sunna.ger. 7th particular [mujtahid]. and ijtihad leads him to adopt. One group of level of invalidity. and al-Hasan Ibn Ziyad al-Lu'lu'i [734-819]. peace be upon him. how do you . and how do you force the en- century]. the sunna.Scripture [the Qur'an] or the sunna of His Messen- Jawziyya. such as Abu'l. that a group among His umma [the been able to choose between legal rulings since the Muslim community] shall remain faithful to the year A. These opinions [about the closing of the God's proofs for Him and stating that no scholar has door of ijtihad]. stated that nobody has proof for Him. Verse statements of the Companions? 40. Sura 12. al-Qaffal [Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ' Ali al. as you see. 200 [816 A. 1292-1350] said. he rejects the scriptural evidence and does not thereby emptying the earth of people who uphold accept it.form this selection. the rejection of [circa 699-767] and [his students] Abu Yusuf [Ya'qub God's proofs. No one is allowed any longer to examine God's The hadith expert [Muhammad] Ibn al-Qayyim [al. send to this umma someone to renew its faith. Zufar ibn al-Hudhayl [died 775].H. forbid taqlid Shashi. and 'Abdullah "Concerning these invalid opinions. circa 750. Others have said that nobody genuine Truth that He revealed through [the Prophet]. none of which has God granted any demonstrated in the Scripture. Waki' ibn al-Jarrah [died circa 812]. will en- 805]. and contradiction. by what right can you choose to adopt should be relied upon among those associated with certain scholars as authorities and not others? How him. who could produce a wajh that others of lesser do you forbid a man from choosing positions that status could adopt in their judgements and rulings.] 200. God. and Sura 53. and Abu Hamid [al-Ghazzali. other- statements of His Messenger. the world is devoid cording to you or others. such as Ibn How do you allow yourselves to choose taqlid of a Shurayh [possibly Shurayh ibn al-Harith al-Kindi. those choose between rulings after [A.rulings of the Sacred Law. it is sufficient ibn al-Mubarak [736-797]. upholding many Prophet. [muqallids] said.

the sunna of can one find the likes of [the 7th and 8th century His Prophet. Sahnun ibn Sa'id [777-855]. ['Amir ibn Sharahil] 884]. Asbagh ibn al. the God-given affection of the faithful towards as if [the later scholars] had said: 'These [early Mus- them. ibn 'Abd Allah ibn 'Utba. [the Maliki jurists] all of these contending groups as follows: This opin- Ashhab [died 819]. tance with teachers and authorities whom later schol- Qushayri]—to select the opinion of Malik [ibn Anas. 'Alqama [al-Kufi]. and other opinions of Companions and Successors who were jurists of the same rank would have been able to earlier. Sulayman ibn Yasar [al-Hilali]. 'Abbas? Where among the followers of [later] imams nity concerning the Scripture of God. and their ingenious use of ibn 'Abd al-Rahman [al-Makhzumi]? What made evidence? When those among them who upheld the [later] imams more fortunate with their followers than validity of legal analogy used this method. or jurists from the more for their own chosen authority's superiority on major cities who are equal to him. second caliph. unmatched by those of other than those of Companions [of the Prophet] who were scholars—the other groups can argue as much or even more knowledgeable than he. equals. for their status did not allow them erence of the particular [mujtahid] whom they accept to derive religious learning directly from the Qur'an as an authority on the basis of some type of superi. the Companions—such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal. fame. Zayd ibn Thabit [died would have been prohibited—all of a sudden—from 665] and Mu'adh ibn Jabal [died 627]. both scholars and the masses. so per- able. one of the companions of 'Abdullah Ibn of Islam—the most learned of the Muslim commu. about whom al-Bukhari wrote. the least question. or the follow- choosing what they had been free to choose before. that the latter enjoyed the status of their era. and their likes. while you deny the sors. transmitted knowledge from him. both Companions and Succes- personal judgment and analogy. founder of the Maliki madhhab]. and blessed with more numerous and more il- month of the year 200. 816] they Ibn Mas'ud [died circa 652]. 656-661]. al. more pious. died find the likes of the two Sa'ids. Masruq. on that night [July 30. more as- choose between rulings to until the end of the last cetic. with the great catastrophes and wonders of the world that followers of later imams. where among the followers [of later imams] can one Dawud ibn 'Ali [founder of the Zahiri madhhab. al-Aswad [ibn of the sunna. ers of 'Umar [ibn al-Khattab. Mujahid [ibn Jabr al-Makki]. Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh [circa 778-853]. and elevated status pre- refuse to grant them this status. their efforts to record later imams] are the likes of Nafi'. al-Qasim the sayings of the Companions and the Successors [ibn Muhammad]. or the vast number and illustrious 710-796. and Shurayh? Where among the followers [of from inauthentic hadith reports. 'Ikrima. an opinion about the religion of God on the basis of 'Eight hundred men.] despite their extreme vented later scholars from following their example. al. asceticism. ars did not meet. their ability to distinguish authentic Yazid]. 'Ubayd Allah Shafi'i. adhering to a contradiction—forces you to leave aside Faraj [died 838]. in numbers and revered sta- you grant only the imam?. for example. their these [earlier figures] with their followers? It is true analogies were the most accurate. ['Abdullah] the sun disappeared. and Jabir ibn Zayd? And Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Bukhari [810-870]. but when the new moon of lustrious followers.' What of Zayd capability of selection and ijtihad to the protectors ibn Thabit. and Abu Bakr examination [of texts]. the opinion of your chosen authority in favor of the Ahmad Ibn al-Mu'adhdhal [ninth century]. fourth caliph. or later jurists? these points or others. [Yet you haps their greatness. piety. and the sayings and legal opinions of scholars] 'Ata' [ibn Abi Rabah]. acquain- years after the year 200 [apparently a reference to al. bility to select rulings. and the tremendous respect accorded to them lims] were too lofty for us. to engage in ijtihad. piety. rather status of their followers. ion of yours. tus? What of Abu Hurayra [companion of the Prophet.162 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi permit yourself—you who were not born until sixty ority—precedence in time. Salim. more knowledgeable. Tawus [ibn Kaysan]. in order to hold water—if you insist on Mutarrif ibn 'Abdullah [died 835]. against themselves. It is also possible to object to According to this position.' They stated this explicitly and testified to it "Though each group of them argues for the pref. 634-644] "One should object to the others: Is it not one of and 'Ali [ibn Abi Talib. to express died 678]. They would say: 'We are not capable . and the closest to the texts of scripture. and we are in no way their by the Muslims. you mentioned the capa. their precise Zayd. How can one compare the follow- the month of Muharram in the year 201 appeared and ers of ['Abdullah] Ibn 'Abbas [619-686]. Kharijaibn [the following generation of Muslims]. and the sunna. despite their wide knowledge al-Sha'bi. 'Urwa [ibn al-Zubayr]. Ibn al-Majishun [died 829].

in both We have therefore made do with [the opinions of] their subsidiary topics and their fundamental theo- someone who is more knowledgeable of [the Qur'an ries. and teaches them the Scripture and Messenger. who recites His revelations to them. and have a close man among you. put in its place!' I am that brick. All of this indicates that prophecy ended with the 14) God. without any side in Heaven) are 'a multitude of those of old. of the Ignoramus al-Nabhani's Thesis parison. one does not know which is better. those who follow the teachings of [the Qur'an and sunna]. since only one who is more ignorant than the and sunna] than we are. He gives whosoever He '"Ali ibn Abi Talib. also informed us that Seal [Muhammad]. except for a single who dispense the favor of your Lord? It is He who corner brick. God is master of great bounty. while being the most moderate of faiths.' God. peace be upon him. "Muhammad is not the father of any live in your era. glory be to Him. Verse 2) He also said. 'That is the bounty of God. sigh. [In Iraq. The people walk around it and wonder apportions the means of livelihood among them in at its beauty. Kumayl ibn Ziyad al-Nakha'i [died circa 778] said. Verses 13.] . and bankruptcy in the fields of knowledge. 'My na. not because of defects in the Qur'an or the deviant predecessors—are evidence of his ignorance sunna. for before him they were clearly in error. may God be pleased with him. Verse 40) wishes among his worshipers. why do you deny it to those who have reached it could be said to have been sealed by so-and-so.' (Sura 43. people's hearts muwaqqi'in [The Notification of Court Clerks]. //I/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI I 63 of this.' (Sura 56. provide evidence that it has been sealed. Ijtihad is not like a prophecy so that grapes. Verse 3) Then He related." (Sura 33. saying: 'Are they the ones builds a fine and beautiful house.' son of an owl.' ings of the Companions. 'O Kumayl ibn Ziyad. When we reached the desert he began to pert Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya in his book I'lam al. tion. and its miracu- its beginning or its end. peace be upon him. but they say. a few of those of later time. 'Would that this brick be this world. Rather. God bestows gifts upon whom He of the prophets. texts from the Qur'an and the sunna which God's bounty. al- censured those who opposed the prophecy [of Bukhari cites Abu Hurayra. formed us that the foremost believers (who will re. accepting statements that agree with [these sources] and rejecting those that contradict them? Any knowledge which has no evidence to indicate it Just because you have not yet reached this bunch of is unacceptable. said. [He] 'raised among the Meccans a messenger from however. cemetery. we have seen evi- (Sura 62. bring their suits to them for a verdict. then said. but a messenger of God and the seal kinship with you. took my hand and brought me out with him near the Verse 4)" This ends the statement of the hadith ex. For ijtihad. fection of the shari'a [sacred law]. giving it to some. grow up with you. mighty and wise. make [these scriptural texts] the arbiters of their disputes. and I am the last of to make some submissive. Muhammad] by arguing that He had denied it to peace be upon him. peace be upon him. who quotes the Prophet. and exaggeration or shortcoming. either in the Book of God or the sunna of His reforms them. God. Ibn Qayyim's passage makes it perfectly clear that 2. As it and tasted its sweetness? Why do you limit that for prophecy. before me are like the following example: A man one else of lesser stature. In the Sahih [Collection of Sound Hadiths]. or even in the say- the Law. in. the owl is held to be the epitome of igno- the statements made by al-Nabhani—following his rance. Verse 32) is also supported by rational proofs such as the per- "The Prophet. that human reason or imagina. we have seen no evidence of its termina- amongst them. God. glory be to Him. as saying. the tion cannot fathom. please. its inclusion of tion is like rain. glory be to Him. He is scholars shall continue until the Hour of Reckoning. has made broad? Even if jurists Exalted.2 such as himself. and raises some in position over others. The Fourth Point Indicating the Invalidity and hold up scholars' statements to them for com." The fact that prophecy has been sealed are better than what they amass. 'And for others dence indicating that the science of shari 'a and its among them who have not joined them yet. but because of our own incapacity and defects.—Ed.' (Sura 62. "I and the prophets prominent men and town leaders. would uphold his "One should object to them: Why do you blame thesis.' (Sura 62. said. legal rulings for all ages and times. The favors of your Lord the Prophets. lous preservation from change and modification.

from Anas [ibn Malik." It is related that' Abd al-Rahman gathering and piling up wealth. without any insight in their peace be upon him said: 'My nation is like rain: one bosom. so that they were [always] led Verse 103) Alusi's point here is that scholars who do not pass by prophets. prophets continually ture.] prophets of the Israelites. who follow anyone who shouts. or merely Prophet]. and were exempted from most labor. lest His 'Ammar [ibn Yasir. and souls ascend to divine heights. God made its scholars to applied to camels accorded an honored status because they succeed one another. (Sura 5. companion of the over His worshipers with His blessings. God defends [days] of the umma. Remember what I am telling you." peers and plant them in the hearts of people like them. Their bodies live in this world. of nations. Among the Israelites. their likes shall live on in the hearts group of my community shall remain steadfast in the [of humankind]. follow the people of truth.164 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi are vessels. here! Here is knowledge!' and Truth. where he wrote after his death. not affected by their tormentors or detractors. shall not be devoid of those who uphold God's proofs while scholars live on. The love of knowl. the best among them are those that are ality. Knowledge guards may leave. Miftah dar al-sa 'ada scholar obedience during his lifetime and fine praise [The Key to the Abode of Happiness]. it may end up in the hands of [This hadith] is also confirmed by the report related people who cannot be trusted. indeed. 948-1038] in Hilyat al-awliya' [The Adorn- more you give away'"—or according to another ver. succeeded one another. from over the Qur'an with His proofs and ascendance Thabit. camels. "O God." In another hadith. Knowledge gains for a hadith in detail in his book.'" This was recounted by Abu Nu'aym [al- you.—Ed. and they welcome that which frightens the There are three types of people: the divine scholar." ruler and wealth is the one ruled. ignorant. as well: . Here is knowledge! Scholars for Him": "This is confirmed by the following au- shall live on until eternity. how I long to meet them! I ask God's of knowledge. sentatives of God on earth and the propagators of His bend with every wind. its beginning or its sign of specious challenge. "The Messenger of God. or be bent on the pursuit end. and drink freely. If you wish. who reported." In the same chapter. O God! Yes. They might use the by [Abu 'Isa Muhammad] al-Tirmidhi [died 892]. peace be upon him: 'A might be lost. pas. indeed the earth once it is exhausted.'" [Al-Tirmidhi] said: "This is a reliable but of delights. "the more you put it into practice"—'"but al-Khatib [al-Baghdadi. so that the outstanding features had born a large number of offspring or as the result of a vow of the faith might not be erased and its signposts not on the part of the owner. Though they themselves thentic hadith of the Prophet.'" come attracted to it. Until God's command arrives. one of the best in letter and in spirit. and fail to resort to a solid support. while their the student who learns as a means to salvation. and there will 3. The hoarders of money die. ment of the Saints] and by other authors. they would not be described as His proofs so that they might convey them to their having such good qualities. He used to say. the earth will never be ers]. the best nation ever brought to the people. ['All] pointed to his chest. They are most like sa 'iba al-Abahh a trustworthy transmitter. the scholars of this nation are like the on their knowledge cease to benefit society. vanish. This and related customs are rejected in the Qur'an. Its Prophet is the seal of the prophets. so that they find easy what the affluent find most capacious. forgiveness for myself and for you. These are the repre- the riffraff rabble. so that doubt penetrates their heart at the first does not know which is better. Knowledge brings them near the truth of re. yet their statements are were no mujtahid to uphold God's proofs in the last great in the eyes of God. Such people are not ibn Mahdi [died 813] considered Hammad ibn Yahya ones who call to the faith. Knowledge is the fine hadith. Hammad ibn Yahya al-Abahh.3 Their knowledge dies with the death of its "[Hammad] is one of our shaykhs [respected teach- bearers. Yes. but you guard wealth. Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya has interpreted this edge is a creed to adhere to. They were allowed to roam. died 657] and 'Abdullah ibn proofs and pronouncements come to nought. they shall remain so. trying to gain power citing Qutayba. Also [the report]: "This nation is the most perfect selves. remain impervious to the light religion. difficult. easily driven by lust. Through them. 'If unworthy bearers be. you Knowledge is better than wealth. the term sa'iba (unhindered) be no prophet after him. Knowledge grows the Isfahani. These 'Amr [died circa 680] [appears the report]: "If there [persons] are few in number. tool of religion for worldly gain. [In pre-Islamic Arabia. Abu Bakr sion. Oh. 1002-1071] said. or obsessed with uncommon hadith. Look. "This is a wealth decreases as you spend it. on the authority of devoid of those who uphold God's proofs. but the effect of wealth disappears about 'Ali's statement.

Nabhani included in the introduction to his book. my words are. We leave this matter up to God. according These seedlings of God are the people of knowledge to him." That is my knowledge. They wrote him a petition pre- senting a number of legal questions on which Shafi'i The Fifth Point jurists have considered two disparate rulings equally valid. it would be devoid of seedlings of God. "The Prophet says. I respond that even if Ibn Hajar related the text of have defective minds and defective faith? Is this not the quotation accurately. peace be Muhyi al-Din. Why do those who fulfil the was busy with work that prevented him from look- conditions for ijtihad. ". as was he should explain the opinion he considered most stated by the great Shaykh . acceptable in this regard. This point will be treated ex- of scholars. al-Khawlani [Abu Idris or Abu Muslim." but I am not among those who say. Rather. "Thus This hadith shows that Islamic religious knowledge spoke Ibn Hazm. ing any answer. edge can they grasp. sunna. and pious works. experts in jurisprudence response in defense of Imam al-Suyuti. the Shaykh Muhyi This has been transmitted by the Imam Abu Hanifa al-Din [Ibn al-'Arabi] is among those who claimed and others. It is said that Imam Malik was asked 40 questions Nabhani. He said in one of his poems: Verse 255) . They demanded that if he had even the lowest [Al-Nabhani's] statement—"As for ijtihad. indi- upon him. IJT/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 165 "This knowledge will be passed on by the virtuous They claim that I follow Ibn Hazm [994-1064]. mercy be or the points of law. "I don't know. . there is a report of profess. as will be seen in what follows. unless it be through wilaya. 1263-1328]. it is not level of ijtihad—that is. the ignorant injure themselves more and said in response to 36 of them. as Suyuti. died 699 or 682] who said that the Messenger of God. century after century." from the Scripture. his contemporaries attacked him and criti- cized him en masse. ever considered this term part upon him." is immune to the distortions of extremists. and consensus. In Or. Shaykh al-Islam [Ibn Taymiyya. Indeed. We have already noted that it is not ate evidence according to the rules of ijtihad. Or anybody else. The Sixth Point idity of the senseless drivel the ignoramus al." That is my norant. ranting come from an ignorant heretic like al." their religion [directly] from the Scripture and sunna. and not even a little of His knowl- ijtihad al-mutlaq. knowledge and enlightenment. We have learned from this [fourth] point the inval. sent back the petition without writ- Hanbali and traditionalist scholars of Islamic juris. ijtihad. of ['Abd al-Rahman agreed unanimously on the opinion I Ibn] Abi Hatim [circa 854-938]. the pre. is that the mujtahid need not have all the of the topic of ijtihad! But it is no wonder that such knowledge contained in the Preserved Tablet. text of the Scripture avers. Al- possible for an era to be devoid of a mujtahid. saying that he prudence have stated. "The tenses of liars. In addition. The Have any religious scholars. and reliable members of each successive generation." (Sura 2. God's mercy be upon him. for but the statement of an ignorant person who has been he fabricated even greater lies than this against the struck by the touch of Satan? Then. be carried through the ages. who are prepared to derive ing into this matter. and his ing of his statement: "unless it be through wilaya"! lies are apparent. ijtihad al-fatwa [the right to claimed today except by those of defective minds and choose from among alternative legal opinions]—then defective faith. He is far from [Al-Nabhani] quoted Ibn Hajar al-Makki as saying.. without intellect or "When Jalal [al-Din] al-Suyuti [1445-1505] claimed discernment." than their enemies do. these three alone are the sources of the law. and the misinterpretations of the ig. except what He will. and provide the appropri- ing nor effect. what is the mean. he is not trustworthy. haustively in the appropriate place below. . said: "God will continue to plant in this cated in these verses that he deduces legal rulings faith seedlings that serve to maintain obedience. however. If the earth were to become devoid and not legal analogy. We have quoted sufficient material for the purpose at hand. and excused himself. as the texts of his books indicate. . It indicates that knowledge will continue to judgment."—has neither mean." or "The scholars have the collection of sound hadith?.

and the Companions. may [the Abu'l-'Abbas Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyya. I am referring to own opinions or those of others. The or 12th century A. Therefore. for he let himself be so seduced by his free to accept or reject the opinions of the Succes- whims. whose brilliance and ijtihad as well as of their own opinions and sharply censured adher- righteousness and scholarly excellence are generally ence to their statements without proof. one is ing from him.upon him. in addition to the preceding statements. They do not ad- years ago. since he lived in the sixth century [A.166 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi The Seventh Point whims and chose the path of error. and demons that he saw fit to attack sors [the generation after the Companions]. pick up a bundle of fire wood and excellent arguments. [Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya The Shaykh al-Islam Taqi [al-Din] al-Subki [1284. and a calamity whose misfortune will reflect to what has come down from the Prophet."—my response is: This state- ment is beneath consideration on account of the ar- guments of the hadith expert Ibn al-Qayyim we have The Eighth Point Indicating the Invalidity presented in the third section above and the texts and of the Ignoramus al-Nabhani's Thesis evidence of the falseness of this statement that we included there.'" Ahmad the great mujtahids.. it has been dis. "The four imams [the founders of the four 1355.states]. peace be on him until the end of time—are not surprising com. whereas he wrote in his book al-Jawhar al.. making it apparent to Hanbal] say that ittiba' means following what has any impartial judge that Ibn Hajar followed his come down from the Prophet. and his statements are inconsistent. undertook to refute [Ibn Taymiyya] in an someone who gathers firewood at night: he might. because they speak according to their whims. may God bless his soul and brighten that he who seeks knowledge without proof is like his tomb.]. so. a critic of Ibn Taymiyya]. 'Is al-Awza'i more Taymiyya made—even though they were a horren. Ibn Hajar's argument shifts. dous offense whose sinful effect will never be un. In the book Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyya: I'lam al-muwaqqi'in. peace be upon him.deserving of being followed. May God treat him with His justice. Al-Shafi'i said acknowledged.of al-Shafi'i and the gist of his statements in order retical and whimsical approach and method. "I heard [Ahmad ibn text] continues in this manner. desires. May God thank him for his effort. precisely and clearly with a snake in it and so get bitten. or Malik?' He said. Adhere done. but follow the worst of paths. here to the evidence." [Ibn Hajar's ceptance]. at the beginning of his Mukhtasar [The Abridge- See how Ibn Hajar claims a consensus here on the ment].D. The poor man did not realize that differentiated between taqlid and ittiba' [critical ac- he was committing the foulest of sins. In al-Jawhar al. After these. 300 years earlier. "I have summarized this from the teachings ijtihad of al-Subki. As for Ibn Hajar's statement—'"Ibn al-Salah and his The point here is that the words of fanatics such as followers stated that [ijtihad] had terminated about these. soul. He states here it must be followed and its purport must be accepted. Each of the imams has stated that if a hadith is sound. and Ibn al-Salah was about 300 cannot be used in valid arguments. and 1066]. but at the same time I would have him know whose lofty status neither al-Subki himself nor his that al-Shafi'i prohibited the blind adoption of his teachers could even approach.'Don't imitate either of them for your faith. argument of the heedless al-Nabhani has crumbled and continued for 600 years'—that is. the great scholar of primary Sunni madhhabs] forbade the blind adoption mankind." Abu Da'ud [al-Sijistani. [Ibn Hajar] said: "The outrageous statements Ibn "I asked Ahmad [ibn Hanbal].H. Abu Da'ud said. time of Ibn Hajar . because he follows the same he. and . [This statement] setting forth the correct approach through brilliant is cited by [Ahmad ibn al-Husayn] al-Bayhaqi [994- proofs. circa 817-889] said. independent work in which he presented valuable without realizing it. but then to make them more accessible to the interested stu- cannot bring himself to admit the ijtihad of one dent. however. . in relation to the cannot be granted any serious consideration.of his faith and exercise caution for the sake of his munazzam. that ijtihad had been discontinued 600 years before That is why many of the imams have stated that one his era. must accept the sound hadith and forsake all state- munazzam (Strung Jewels) in the course of insulting ments by mujtahids that contradict it. may God student] examine [al-Shafi'i's teachings] for the sake the Exalted have mercy upon him." Isma'il ibn Yahya al-Muzani [791-878] said continue to shower him with divine mercy and favor. as of today.

not abrogated. made obedience to Him and His Messenger. It has been established in the Bishr ibn al-Walid [8th century] reported that Abu Qur'an. so what about those who abandon Siddiq al-Umma [The Truthful One of the Nation. You must compare my statements ignorance. one is free to ac. the words of God and His Messenger for the words Abu Bakr.'"" their duty. a Hanafi ters]. Malik ibn Anas. met with the imam of Dar al-Hijra The dim-witted al-Nabhani's opinion implies that the [Medina].' That is why. or al-Awza'i." Then Malik stated. mujtahid. for if I disobey God. citing Ibrahim [al-Nakha'i].' All [of the four imams] us have written books. having writ. "Did they con. Yusuf said. Muslim community] after its Prophet. I would accept what is in the Munyat likewise. God's mercy be upon him. and if someone comes up with a better opinion. a generation later] except His Messenger. These four "It was a transmission as reliable as that from imams. as was be asked to repent. sider the words of 'Umar to be authentic?" I replied. said: 'Obey me as long as I obey God. Imam Abu Hanifa said. warned people not Ibrahim. was asked 'It is limiting to a man's knowledge to adopt the about a man who studied law according to one of the opinions of other men regarding matters of his faith. Should he practice accord- tate Malik. "It is a sign of limited understanding [Ibn Taymiyya] answered: "Praise be to God. God's mercy be upon him.' madhhabs and became accomplished in it. peace be upon him [who must be obeyed].' Malik. in everything he commanded and forbade. /JT/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI I 67 from his Companions. peace ion until he knows the evidence on which it is based. and [Abu Yusuf] responded. hadiths. alms to be paid for vegetables. with the Qur'an and sunna. in all of what he com- ten that someone related such-and-such. except God's Messenger. 632-634]. but then He also said. speech of anyone except for the Messenger of God. the most learned of Abu Hanifa's disciples. a religious duty for His worshipers. informed him what a Turkish judge say: "If I were to see a text in Munyat was indicated in the sunna concerning these [mat- al-musalli [The Wish of the Worshipper. agreed that no one is infallible. the Ex- me that al-Haytham ibn Jamil told him: 'I said to alted. and had my master and a hadith in Imam al-Bukhari's al-Sahih that con. the best [of the of one like Ibrahim. [Abu Hanifa] seen what I have. and consensus that God. "O Abu 'Abdullah! People among you owe me no obedience. draw ing to the madhhab or practice according to the from the sources that they draw from. or contradicted by cept or reject the opinions of the Successors." Just look at this stupidity and tremendous sometimes wrong. sunna. After that. "Nobody is allowed to adopt our opin." Lord of the worlds. ments of his madhhab. 13th century]. he would have ceded tradicts this text. It is the best I can do." [Ahmad ibn hadiths that contradict his madhhab! Hanbal] said. used to say. Malik ibn Anas. may God bless his pure soul. peace be upon him. first caliph. Ibrahim al-Nakha'i [666-715. the Mighty and Sublime. 'I cede to your legal text by Sadid al-Din Kashghari. That is why several of the [four] imams such. I am sometimes correct and by it. and asked him about the statements of one who is accepted as an authority sa' measure. peace be upon Firyabi said: "Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Dawraqi told him. Shaykh al-Islam Abu'l-'Abbas Taqi al-Din Ibn Al-Shafi'i. and one of them. and don't imi. 'This is my opin- ion. the Exalted." [Ibn any known scriptural text. used to and leave aside the hadith from al-Sahih and not rule say. 'I am only human. al-Thawri. mercy be upon them all. for studied hadith at a later time and found authentic they are bound to make mistakes. "These [people] should to adopt all of their own statements blindly. and someone else related such-and. be upon him. judgment. citing 'Umar mands and forbids. restricted. peace ibn al-Khattab. He Malik stated explicitly that anyone who abandoned did not require this nation's obedience to any particu- the words of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab for the words of lar person. and vari- today are to be given more weight than authentic ous species [a debate raged over which sorts of pro- prophetic hadiths that contradict the opinions of the duce were subject to alms-giving requirements]. Taymiyya. or one lesser than he?! Ja'far al. Rather. which went against ele- Hanbal] also said. God's mercy be upon him. "Don't imitate me.' Established reports . I have heard Malik. O Abu 'Abdullah." be upon him. we will accept it.' or words to this effect." Malik inquired. that a man base his exercise of religion on taqlid. 'Don't adopt your faith from men. then adopted the instructed [people] to pick and choose from the words of Ibrahim. Thus needs to repent. The Ninth Point when Abu Yusuf. and this is the essence of error.

what that proof is. belief that it is not authentic. or the practice of some of the Ansar cause someone might object that the speculative abil. Legal understandings following speculation and the dictates of whim. and the deeds [of the Ansar]—then the first person's tural text. and that the text of a sound hadith has priority over that there would not exist any evidence on the side the unambiguous texts of the Qur'an. If. only a mere con. it becomes apparent to another person that ijtihad regarding this issue might be incomplete. but another per- likely to him. or shifting from one opinion to is not a monolithic capability. tic and that its transmitter is trustworthy. or some such reason. if it indeed occurs.168 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi relate that the Prophet. However. he would be respect to the second person. such it. Some say that anybody tion would then be like that of the independent capable of using evidence to establish proof is abso. We the opinion of the later jurist. Others say that taqlid is one opinion to another because of some truth which allowed without restriction.' Implicit in this "His situation would be completely different from statement is that those whom God. you can. are jus- this is not a legitimate legal proof. Verse 16) Your best attempt. peace be upon him. that its transmission is Second. the grounds that the clear meaning of the Qur'an. If you later find that the text is con- acquiring knowledge of religion. just because he is the have shown that they were justified in their rejection imam of the madhhab in which he studied law—but of certain hadiths for these reasons. but not in another field. so that the ac. but says that he does not know quisition knowledge of religion is a religious duty. but the prophetic texts remain reasons of the first person are invalid with respect to protected from violation in practice—and this is the the second person. have knowledge of religion. they are only re. then such a person would be required to reason [for rejecting the hadith] no longer holds with follow that text. [early Muslims of Medina] contradicts it—and at the ity of this particular person might be limited and his same time. however. the clear meaning of the Qur'an does not contradict however. God willing. one should respond To acquire knowledge of religion means to know the that God. tradicted by more convincing evidence. If he did otherwise. or taqlid} has heard a hadith and then abandoned it— issue. strated that they had some twenty reasons for aban- he is faced with two options. or "We have made this partial concession only be. if one person rejects a hadith in the who have studied in the madhhab?. his agreement with one imam implies tak. your situa- quired to do what they can. he were capable of complete ijtihad. If someone examines an issue that has been of probity—such a case. Each person's ijtihad varies according to his especially if it was narrated by a person with a record ability. he may follow the opinion that seems more anonymous. does not make knowledgeable in matters of ion is supported by proof which carries more weight religion are not wished well by Him. legal analogy. First. might be incapable of must follow it.' (Sura 64. or issue. Our writings that appear to corroborate one of the disputed opin. too. he might follow doning practice according to certain hadiths. When a muqallid [person engaging in field. We. knowledgeable in matters of religion. said. then the ing issue with another. tified in rejecting these hadiths for these same rea- vention contradicted by the conventions of others sons. He makes him and His Messenger. topic. This is to be dis- is allowed only when necessary. so you "Some people. of the opposing opinion sufficient to reject the scrip. than the scriptural text. Ijtihad been proved clearly. legal analogy. in defense of the distinguished imams have demon- ions and are not contradicted by any other known texts. the Exalted. Those who do not know this do not terms of knowledge and understanding of the law. Still others say that taqlid becomes apparent is praiseworthy. indicates that the first opinion is more likely. A man might be a mujtahid in one particular reprehensible. is not an disputed by scholars and finds scriptural prooftexts excuse to abandon the scriptural text. but may be parceled and another simply out of custom or whim—such acts are divided. To this person. mujtahid when his ijtihad changes. of other imams. the Exalted. would be most disobedient toward God. 'So fear God as much as rulings of the shari 'a through the appropriate scrip. said. and occur to people's minds or remain hidden to them in . 'When God wishes somebody well. shying away from an opinion that has the most correct of these opinions. such as when the time tinguished from insisting on an opinion unsupported allowed for producing such a proof is limited—this is by any proof. topic. To change from lutely prohibited from taqlid. in view of the texts that indicate it. in tural evidence. Whoever abandons a hadith on more correct option. In son knows at the same time that this hadith is authen- this case. the Mighty and that of someone who claims that the opposing opin- Sublime.

peace be upon him. son of Mary. One understands from the words of the dim-witted "People abandoned the statements of 'Umar and al-Nabhani that for the last thousand years Muslims. Ibn Mas'ud. Verse These Companions were equal to one another in de. This is simi- equals among the other imams. [to adopting later imams as ultimate authorities]. to be gods apart from ions of the Prophet] Abu Bakr. 'Umar. ing instead the statement of Mu'awiyya ibn Abi From the book I'lam al-muwaqqi 'in. But they pressed him. Mu'adh. and that anyone deriving his ablutions with sand or dry ground when water is not faith from the Qur'an and sunna. similar prominent figures. arguing with Ibn 'Abbas about temporary mar. because everyone is commanded to fear God as . scholar of recognized learning has ever professed it. Ibn Mas'ud. is He for what they ascribe to Him!' (Sura 9. or adopting the available] on the part of someone with a major ritual opinions of others—such as a Companion or some impurity. tus among his followers as a prophet among his and-so has been contradicted on this issue by his people. If they were at odds about something. the various imams are like [the Compan. the Exalted. 'Abu Bakr said [such-and-such] edgeable and most pious—or not? Concerning this and 'Umar said [such-and-such]!' So Ibn 'Abbas issue. said [one thing]. They ers. he declared Muhajirun [early Muslims who fled from Mecca to it permissible. and no blood money due for the loss of fingers or toes. 31) God. This is one of the implications of his false words abandoned the statements of 'Umar regarding the and worthless statements.] despite their awareness that Abu who heard it from them. Each imam would have the same sta- would be a corrupt comparison. regard. that some of them. son. peace knowledgeable or is the Imam so-and-so?' This be upon him. If this gate is opened "Suppose someone were to challenge this peti. be pleased with them. the Messenger that the Muhajirun and Ansar did not in fact aban. they de- ferred the question to God and His Messenger. faults the Christians knowledgeable than this or that imam. glory be to Him. Too holy 652]. and others. or some Muslims [tend to forget this. mercy be upon him: "Must the he transmitted from the Prophet. and you tell me that Abu Bakr and cially the case if someone abandons a hadith because 'Umar said [something else]!' When [Ibn 'Abbas] he believes that its use was abandoned by the was asked about [temporary marriage]. They consider their rabbis and each other. 661-680]. 'Uthman [died God. may God be pleased with them. 'Ali. peace be upon him. IJTIHAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 169 a process we cannot entirely fathom. practiced in accordance with Bakr and 'Umar are more knowledgeable than Ibn it. died circa only one God. and this would alter the religion. the Exalted. ness and followed a way other than that of believ- dence from the Qur'an and sunna they cited. presenting Medina] and the Ansar—the people of Medina and as contradictory evidence the statement of 'Umar. person seeking afatwa engage in [a type of] ijtihad saying. 'Stones are about to rain down on you from the already discussed: the correct opinion is that he ought sky! I tell you that the Messenger. but later hears 'Who has more right to be followed. even though they had been enjoined to worship 656]. may God. even though some of them were perhaps more knowledge. have had to adopt the opinions of one ing the performance of tayammum [performing ritual of the four mujtahids. peace be upon him. appealing only to the one he estimates is most knowl- riage. This is espe. because Imam so. The Tenth Point able than others in certain areas. of God. east and west. or 'Umar?' The people don this hadith. In relation to with in His words. or other such reasons which render invalid the 'Umar ['Umar's son] and Ibn 'Abbas. to. because of the statements expert Ibn al-Qayyim. 'Are you more ments of God. You are not more lar to what God. and adopted the statements of Abu Musa other figure—has departed from the path of correct- al-Ash'ari [died 662] and others because of the evi. there are two schools of thought. His interlocutors objected. as we have said. Debate among [later] imams is similar. by the hadith Sufyan [caliph. It is to be rejected. monks and Christ. knows best." bate. it tioner who is seeking guidance [to whose question would be necessary to turn away from the command- Ibn Taymiyya is responding]. in order to choose the right mufti for consultation. the evidence that contradicts the scriptural text. so others—who are said not to have abandoned a hadith he showed that 'Umar had not intended what they unless they believed it to have been abrogated or claimed. adopt. 'This and that are equivalent.' A certain per. so he remonstrated: contradicted by a preferable [hadith]. for there is no god but He. asking. Ubayy [ibn Ka'b. and His Messenger. said to him. Exalted.

according to this madhhab and have learned the legal place. learning. then it would be prohibited for him to petition legal fessional secretary: one does not become such things scholars outside his adopted madhhab. 'I am a Shafi'i' or have a madhhab say: 'He believes that this madhhab 'I am a Hanbali. or called for it? Does a single word of their [early] centuries of Islam and the early generations statements indicate it?! of Muslims came and went entirely free of such prac. opinions and reject the opinions of all others. This nor is the mufti. neither he nor anyone else would be under a legal opinion from any of the followers of the the obligation to follow the madhhab of an ordinary imams or others that he wishes and that he is not man. "The obligations imposed by God.' and so on. If a hadith is sound. Moreover. time. a grammarian. or even preferable. which dent invalidity that indicate the invalidity of the can only be true if he takes after [the imam} in knowl. The noble opinion. but nevertheless says. and God and His altogether ceased to exist.170 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi much as one can. Moreover. had claimed to be a jurist. change. and all the imams of Islam. by consensus . tices. or a pro. except for the madhhabs Messenger have not obliged anybody to follow the of four souls from among all the leading scholars and madhhab of an ordinary man. so he must fulfill the his mere utterance of such a statement. how can he properly claim to be related to such a person be required to reject the text or the him except through an empty claim. the Exalted. are entitled to the obligations imposed by God. and His claim a madhhab. and deductive reasoning. Is the those who state that one is obliged to adopt one of layperson obliged to follow one of the well-known the four madhhabs. peace be upon him. whether it be Hijazi. This is clarified by noting that one madhhab of an imam comparable. the true position is that he may petition possible. for they are higher in of his region or any other region. does not become so by he has adopted is the truth. Indeed. Syr- knowledgeable of God and His Messenger than to ian. and the madhhabs of the Successors and their because there are no religious duties except what God successors. premise on which they are based. adopting as his faith jurists. or Yemeni. and circumstance—but this is also inherent in opinions and statements of its imam. or other untenable implications of evi- that he follows this imam and adopts his path. to follow the just by saying so. and more he should follow it. Iraqi. With his would require that. It is as if he obligations of his belief. which have been presented above. This is him. and their successors are the same obligations to. and scholarly by the [first] four caliphs that contradicts his imam. Even if they follow one. knowledge. who says he is a Shafi'i. More out- two muftis differ over an issue. more distinguished in status. the scholar should community. degree. have died and and His Messenger have imposed. On man can properly have a madhhab. a madhhab is not appropriate for and His Messenger upon the Companions. when faced with a text by the ignorance and the extreme disparity between him and Messenger of God. how astonishing! The madhhabs of the issue. and give precedence void of all meaning? It is not imaginable that a lay. and one is more pious landish than this is the opinion of those who state that while the other is more knowledgeable. or a Hanafi claims to his own. method. though it might differ in terms of execution or those who have read a book on the points of law or amount according to variations in ability. or a statement the imam in behavior." [Ibn al-Qayyim] states: "When impose such an obligation on the people. In addition. a Maliki. Someone who is not qualified for Messenger. they ought not cessors. because only those who possess the means of ra. Those who consider that a layperson can this at all. the Exalted. peace be upon this is the correct and undeniable opinion. Religious duty does not differ or in the various madhhabs on account of this ability. imposed on all who succeed them until the Day of tional inquiry and deductive reasoning and are versed Resurrection. over them to the opinion of the imam he follows. to limit himself to the positions of disgraceful heresy has recently befallen the Muslim one of the four imams. statements of the Companions. Has any of the leading scholars ever held this this man's opinion and no one else's. none of the leading scholars of Islam has not be limited to the hadith transmitted by the people ever professed this opinion. these ideas edge. the Suc- laypeople. madhhabs or not? There are two opinions on this "O God. Even if it were the contrary. which one one is obliged to follow the madhhab of a particular should be followed? There are three approaches to scholar. One is that [the layperson] is not obliged—and Companions of the Messenger of God.' If what they say is correct. such that he would have to accept all of his obliged by the consensus of the Muslim community. Egyptian. a statement de. and even more outlandish is the opinion of this issue.

D. they are not invalid. peace be upon him. then it is permissible to single man who followed their disastrous ways in the read according to it. of his opinions while dismissing all the opinions of by consensus. peace be upon him [that is. IJTIHAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 171 of the Muslims. the requirements wrong. on property. ting or prohibiting the taking of women. when those who made religious arguments However. permit- other prayers. qallids. Rather. madhhabs or seek out what he wishes from whatever The hadith expert Ibn al-Qayyim criticized mu- madhhab he finds to contain it. and other respected scholars have also written useful books on this issue. The third opin. senger of God. but which cessors. according to the most correct opinion. Let the the Messenger of God. are in grave danger. and the muqallidun try to prove us wrong by identifying a Companions after him read. is correct in terms of panions engaged in the blind adoption of all of the Arabic grammar and usage. This heretical innovation. These opinions are both reliably reported for which the Messenger. lives. ion is that if he prays the standard prayers using it. peace be upon him. from the arguments book—we would not have needed to open our mouth presented in the ten points above. but if he uses it in supposed authorities in everything they say. as they were termed by the Mes- remains valid. the first The second opinion is that prayer performed using three centuries of Islam]. one may read and pray according to it. ex- from the Imam Ahmad [ibn Hanbal]. Even if one reads a version which others.]. Had this Conclusion ignoramus [al-Nabhani] not raised the issue—even though it has nothing to do with the topic of his It should be apparent to you. They shall be in a diffi- for the standard prayer were not completely met. and has a sound chain opinions of another Companion. that the miserable or move our pen concerning it. This is the opin. [the petitioner for legal opinions] may not without knowledge will realize their error. deavor to seek the truth as far as this is possible. of ijtihad is false and heretical.H. one is not obliged to limit oneself to al-Nabhani's thesis concerning the closing of the gate the seven well-known variant readings of the Qur' an. he must en. or the successors of the Successors. who follow their he has not fulfilled his obligation. without knowing whether this is right or the grounds that. no invalidating element occurred. extensively in his book I'lam al-muwaqqi 'in. in the first case. tion]. occurred in the fourth century [A. pressed blame. We know necessar- but if the reading one adopts matches the unpointed ily that no single man during the time of the Com- text of the Uthmanic codex. it is invalid." refuting the arguments of the ignorant concerning the termination of ijtihad. . and ion espoused by Abu al-Barakat Ibn Taymiyya. or 10th century A. for they seek out the easiest obligations among the various did so without any justification. Muqallids. and prayer performed using it virtuous centuries. in the second. not dismissing any of authority. Nor did such a person exist among the Suc- departs from that of the Uthmanic codex. and cult position before God [on the Day of Resurrec- that..

1908). with absolutism and disinformation. History is the most eye-opening branch of the lines and details of which are neither toned up or sciences. and all existing copies were confiscated. he founded the journal ictihad (Rational Interpretation) in Geneva. Supplement. Cevdet could not return from exile until 191 I. Turkey: 09dal Islam) (Cairo. This translation—whose introduction is presented here—was banned. whereas religion is the science of the masses. the ers. 55-60. Arabic. culminating in the unprecedentedly negative reaction to Cevdet's Turkish translation of Reinhart Dozy's controversial work on the history of Islam." as he put it In 1889. edited by M. It was necessary to bring God and whose tyranny and treachery overshadow into existence a "History of Islam" that truly pos. Despite having founded the organiza- tion that came to power in the Constitutional Revolution of 1908. 3-8. in effect. later moving it to Cairo. whose opposition to Ottoman absolutism led to their exile. Th. Other open eyes can discern oppression and freedom and books that are not like this and yet are still called will develop a desire for justice and truth. M. 1869-1932) was a leading publicist and freethinker who used Islam to promote modernization and materialism. Houtsma et §iikrii Hanioglu. Translation from Turkish and introduction by M. '"Abd Allah Djevdet. Egypt." Ency- pp. and to submit it to the attention and con- mits the conditions and transformations of the world sideration of our brothers in religion. Netherlands: E. Brill. The reason for this deficiency should To put it in another way. Cevdet's closest associates entered parliament while he was stigmatized as a collaborator of the European Allies' occupation of Istanbul after World War I. history. Cevdet became increasingly open in his campaign against religiosity. he helped to found the Ottoman Union Committee. J. volume 1. In 1904. It is obvious that open eyes cannot coexist down. 1938). Abdullah Cevdet ve Donemi (Doctor Abdullah Cevdet: A Po- lator). Karl Siissheim. Cevdet was a devout Muslim and had even written a eulogy of the Prophet until his education at the Royal Military Academy in Istanbul turned him toward European materialism. through reading. is like a motion picture that trans. a photograph exactly reflecting the original. While Europeans considered the journal Islamist. According to Cevdet. which we call consciousness. and Turkish. to the sense of hearing. and to the center of perception and verified that there is no such history [of Islam] in consideration. "Ifade-i Miitercim" (Preface by the Trans. Persian. 21 Abdullah Cevdet Preface by the Translator Abdullah Cevdet (Turkey. and must be like that. in Reinhart Dozy. pp. Egypt: Matbaa-i ictihad." He therefore argued that materialism should be promoted in Islamic terms—"stitched onto an Islamic jacket. Bir Siyasal Dusunur Olarak Doktor Abdullah Cevdet. I deliberately to vision. 172 . it faced considerable opposition from Ottoman Muslims. In the Turk- ish Republic. "science is the religion of the elite. through the three major Islamic languages. In subsequent years. Tarih-i Islamiyet (The History of litical Thinker and His Time) (Istanbul. the most cruel and treacherous of creatures is best sesses the requisites and specifics of a real work of 1. later called the Committee of Union and Progress. People with Real history is like that. clopedia of Islam. history is similar to a be sought mainly in the absolutism of Muslim rul- photographic plate that has not been touched up. including a notorious article ridiculing prayer. Nesjiyat. alia (Leiden. §ukru Hanioglu. Switzer- land. one or both of these. and as a Kurdish nationalist1 History. The folly history are either negligently written works or take of Muslim tyrants who claim to be the shadow of advantage of negligence. use the words "bring into existence" because I have through listening. 1981).

" We have found a "History of Islam" 'ulama' [religious scholars] of Islam." Mr. consider the hadith of the Prophet." for salla'llahu alayh wa sallam [May God History of Islam]." Every learned and virtuous person is a grief of truth.C. will make it clear how tire- sor Doctor [Reinhart] Dozy [1820-1883]." "The best of men is he who dignified dignity of our ignorant selves in the face of is the most useful to people. is a thousand times more Muslim We should possess the courage to face the truth than vagabond Hamids [a reference to the Ottoman regardless of how harsh it is and how strongly it con- sultan." name. So is it Some of our observations and additions are given possible to trust what he says?" To this inevitable at the bottom of the pages as footnotes.A.A. An ignorant. and which possesses the other than preserving the textual integrity of the origi- qualities of enormous erudition and thorough re- nal. or even sacri- 1390] ficing oneself. none the attentive of the Prophet]." and "One hour's search the divine magnificence of reality and truth. Bravery is not deeds and desires are nefarious. whose tradicts our former beliefs and feelings. they have question we respond in the following manner: Being been differentiated from the footnotes of the author a Muslim does not consist in [having a Muslim] by appending to them the initials "A. immoral person is not a Mus- displaying a moral courage of this kind. and what restricted ourselves to the judgment of "wisdom is an outstanding zeal for understanding he possesses. "Religion We are of the opinion that today there is no book is social relations (mu 'amala}" [a hadith. Iranian poet. "Religion is social Culture and virtue will reduce all religions to one relations"—which. to about forty years ago. who spent than the History of Islam. ligion. mere fables they worship are those aiming to benefit and save all God's explore. one The method that we have followed in translating appropriates it. Profes- be published in French. and "R. states that religion religion. beginning with one's own self. PREFACE BY THE TRANSLATOR 173 summarized in the awful truth embodied in the fol. Learned. the believer's stray camel: wherever one finds it. A. We have less a researcher this young Orientalist is. circa 1325. that possesses the required qualities among the su- His massive volume "Sources of Islam. relations." We have translated this work [first this essay is the same method that we have always published in 1863]. "The Muslim is one from whose hand and enemy. reigned 1876-1909]. or tradition more beneficial to the Muslims. that of justice and truth. placing them in parentheses: they are Essai sur I'histoire de I'islamisme [Essay on the "S. Guy's article entitled "Islam in the Last Forty The distress of mind of one who seeks justice Years. it is nothing lutely impartial good sense. The times for naive or mis- his entire life in teaching and study. thus a stranger to the religion [of Islam]. and are already is nothing other than social relations—then it is plain doing so: how far most of us Muslims are inadequate in our re- The warring of 72 sects ignore. Guy is a young Orientalist. fasting. and performing the prayers. We should demonstrate our bravery by Muslim. beneficial to them." soon to perb works of the famous Dutch Orientalist. Abdiilhamid II. or even lack it altogether. a non-Mus- radiallahu anh [May God be well pleased with him]. The best acts of Failing to find the truth. The history of Islam during 1292]: these last forty years is reproduced from our erudite friend A. Doctor Dozy has covered the history of Islam down lowing couplet ofShaykh Sa'di [Iranian poet. . and who strove leading works full of silly tales and deceptions is long to enlighten the minds of God's people and to be passed thanks to the enlightenment of evolution. people. He has such Can overthrow the king from his realm. 1184. virtuous Doctor Dozy. bless him and grant him salvation]. lim. It is our own Prophet only just exposing ourselves to the bullets of the who says. into Turkish from its French version entitled to the text. as we have said. and of for knowledge is better than a thousand years' acts adorning ourselves with the decoration of the sublime of worship." for "The author is from the Netherlands. If we seriously lim even if he stems from the lineage of the Prophet. a high degree of knowledge of Islamic affairs and of the obscurities of the Islamic religion that it would be We strongly sensed the Muslims' need for a "His- appropriate to say that he has no match among the tory of Islam. religion is nothing other than social reading of which would be a more absolute necessity. [Hafiz. We must possess the power to abandon the un- tongue people are safe. There are only four letters which we have added search. which is a product of an abso- used with a religious scrupulousness.

Moses and Aaron are instructed to 2. 1921).—Trans. "Peace be upon those who follow right guidance!" pression prevail. 1207-1273]: examining the affairs and changes of the past and drawing on the adventure of our fathers and grand- With head on the ground and backside in the air. Here then is the aim of the study of history: by lana Jalal al-Din al-Rumi [Iranian poet. and they have criticize Islamic fanaticism. and that ignorance and oppression [Qur'an. Verse 47]3 3. fathers. Here Cevdet's intention must be to exclude Mus- man Empire: Orhaniye Matbaasi.—Trans.] lim fanatics but include Dozy and Guy. for example Dilmesti-i Mevlana become a conventional nongreeting to unbelievers at the end (Rumi 's Language of Spiritual Intoxication) (Istanbul.] ." it may be easily understood that Islam could provide such a lesson. If we take into consideration the fact and publishing this work is to present for the under- that the word "Muslim" is derived from the word standing of the Muslims a book the study of which "salvation. pp. to reach a life-giving conclusion. only confirm the truth of the famous couplet by Mau. cannot live in places where ignorance and op. True Islam cannot coexist with ignorance and We repeat and confirm that the aim of translating oppression.174 Abdullah Cevdet Those ignorant pietists who are not aware of this cannot take root in places where Islam rules subtle social aspect of the exalted religion of Islam can supreme. Sura 20. 17-18. [Cevdet used this couplet in other writings as well to speak these words to the Egyptian pharoah. of letters. Otto. and to de- He considers to be God the place of his prayer!2 rive a salutary lesson of awakening. [In the Qur'an.

§ukru Hanioglu and Yektan cial and Economic History of Turkey: Communications) (An- Tiirkyilmaz. Osmanh Ilmiye Salnamesi (Yearbook of Ottoman Shaykh al-lslam Musa Kazim: Religious and Social Essays) Religious Scholars) (Istanbul. and those concerned with this world. 1909. "Islamda Usul-i Mesveret ve Hiirriyet" (The Prin. while opment. Turkey: Turk Tarihi Kurumu Basimevi. Milletlerarasi Tiirkiye Sosyal ve Iktisat Tarihi delivered at the §ehzade Club in Istanbul on August 20. maintaining that he was a devotee of the Naqshibandiyya Sufi order. he became a member of the Ottoman Senate and an organizer of clerical support for the regime. defending Islam against its Christian critics and defending constitutionalism against its Muslim critics. the second piece was a speech 610 in V. Musa Kazim taught religious studies at seminaries and modern schools in Istanbul until the Constitutional Revolution of 1908. Following the Ottoman defeat. §iikru Hanioglu. volumes 4-5. respectively. and Shaykh al- ls/am (chief religious official) of the Ottoman Empire. he authored a thirteen-page manifesto on Islam and constitutionalism. Turkey: Ayyildiz Matbaasi. "§eyh-iil-Islam pp. kara. whose exalted mission happily coincided The fundamental ordinances pertaining to the next with the period of the human mind's highest devel. 175 . Prophet of the end of times and apostle sent to men and matters of detail. 157-158. Turkey: Milli Kelamiyye'nin Ihtiyacat-i Asra Gore Islah ve Te'lifi" (Reform Gazete Yaymlari. world are concerned with matters of doctrine. Due to illness. Educated in a traditional manner.' The Principles of Consultation and all mankind can be divided into two groups: those Liberty in Islam concerned with the other world. he was appointed Shaykh al-lslam. translated in the first part of this chapter. Amire. Introduction by M. and 1917. not just Ottomans. pp. 1858-1920) was a leading member of the 'ulama' (religious scholar) branch of the Committee of Union and Progress. into two groups: matters of fundamental principles. Under the new regime. Musa Kazim: Dini. 603- manifesto on July 24. Osmanh §eyhiilislamlan (Ottoman Chief Reli- ments of the Age)." pp. pp. Kulliyat-i §eyh'ul-islam gious Of