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MODERNIST ISLAM, 1840-1940

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MODERNIST ISLAM,
1840-1940
A SOURCEBOOK

Edited by CHARLES KURZMAN

OXPORD
UNIVERSITY PRESS

2002

OXFORD
UNIVERSITY PRESS
Oxford New York
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Copyright © 2002 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Published by Oxford University Press, Inc.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Modernist Islam, 1840-1940 : a sourcebook, edited by Charles Kurzman.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
ISBN 0-19-515467-3; 0-19-515468-1 (pbk.)
1. Islamic renewal—History—19th century. 2. Islamic renewal—History—20th century.
3. Islamic countries—Intellectual life—19th century. 4. Islamic countries—Intellectual
life—20th century. I. Kurzman, Charles. II. Title.
BP60 .M55 2002
297'.09'04—dc21 2002022046

The editors thank the original copyright holders for permission to re-publish the works in this
anthology. We thank the Noor Research Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for their financial support.
We thank Ihsan 'Abbas, Edward A. Allworth, Ali Badran, Margot Badran, Niyazi Berkes,
Leon Carl Brown, Kenneth Cragg, Hager El Hadidi, Raghda El Essawi, Howard L. Goodman,
Abu Bakar Hamzah, Achmad Jainuri, Erni Haryanti Kahfi, Nikki R. Keddie, Lathiful Khuluq,
Javed Majeed, Helena Malikyar, Ishaq Masa'ad, Akhmad Minhadji, Natalie Mobini-Kesheh,
Ken Petersen, Samiha Sidhom Peterson, Lisa Pollard, Christopher Shackle, Durlab Singh,
Devin Stewart, Christian W. Troll, and Yektan Tiirkyilmaz as well as our fellow editors, for
their fine translations.
We thank Butrus Abu-Manneh, Engin Akarli, Louis Brener, Daniel W. Brown,
Abdelwahab El-Affendi, Carl W. Ernst, Paulo Fernando de Moraes Farias, Thomas
Hinnebusch, Hasan Javadi, Ahmet T. Karamustafa, Enes Karic, Bruce B. Lawrence, Roman
Loimeier, Ma Haiyun, Hossein Modarressi, Ebrahim Moosa, Henry Munson, R. Sean O'Fahey,
Shantanu Phukan, Stefan Reichmuth, Saba Risaluddin, Heba Mostafa Risk, Andrew Robarts,
David W. Robinson, William R. Roff, Holly Shissler, Devin Stewart, Amin Tarzi, Mohamad
Tavakoli-Targhi, Ibrahima Thioub, Ghulam Vahed, John O. Voll, and Muhammad Qasim
Zaman for their kind advice and assistance.

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Printed in the United States of America
on acid-free paper

Contents by Region

Introduction 3 Chapter 7
Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui
Kenya, 1890-1947 86
Section I. Africa
Chapter 8
Chapter I Abdullah Abdurahman
Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi South Africa, 1870-1940 90
Egypt, 1801-1873 31
Chapter 9
'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis
Chapter 2 Algeria, 1889-1940 93
Khayr al-Din
Tunisia, 1822-1890 40 Chapter 10
Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub
Chapter 3 Sudan, 1908-1976 96
Muhammad 'Abduh
Egypt, 1849-1905 50
Section 2. Iran/Afghanistan
Chapter 4
Chapter I I
Qasim Amin
Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
Egypt, 1863-1908 61
Iran, 1838-1897 103
Chapter 5
Chapter 12
Bahithat al-Badiya
Mirza Malkum Khan
Egypt, 1886-1918 70
Iran, 1833-1908 111

Chapter 6 Chapter 13
Muhammad Rashid Rida Muhammad Husayn Na'ini
Lebanon-Egypt, 1865-1935 77 Iran, 1860-1936 116

vi Content s by Region

Chapte r 14 Chapte r 26
Mahmu d Tarzi Dz•emaluddin C•aus•evi
c•
Afghanistan , 1865-1933 126 Bosnia, 1870-1938 198

Chapter 27
Sectio n 3. Ottoman Empire 'Abd al-Qadi r al-Maghrib i
Lebanon , 1867-1956 207
Chapter 15
'Abd al-Qadi r al-Jaza'ir i Chapte r 28
Algeria-Syria , circa 1807-1883 133 Halid e Edib Adivar
Turkey, 1882-1964 215
Chapter 16
Ali Suavi
Turkey, 1839-1878 138 Sectio n 4. Russian Empire

Chapter 17 Chapter 29
Nami k Kema l Ismai l Bey Gasprinski i
Turkey, 1840-1888 144 Crimea , 1851-1914 223

Chapter 18 Chapte r 30
S•emseddin Sami Frashër i Munawwa r Qari
Albania-Turkey , 1850-1904 149 Turkistan-Uzbekistan , 1878-1931 227

Chapter 19 Chapte r 31
'Abd al-Rahma n al-Kawakib i Ahmed Aghayev
Syria, 1854-1902 152 Azerbaijan, 1869-1939 229

Chapter 20 Chapter 32
Mahmu d Shukri al-Alusi Abdullah Bubi
Iraq , 1857-1924 158 Tatarstan , 1871-1922 232

Chapte r 21 Chapter 33
Abdullah Cevdet Rizaeddi n bin Fakhreddi n
Turkey, 1869-1932 172 Tatarstan , 1858-1936 238

Chapter 22 Chapte r 34
Musa Kazim Abdurrau f Fitra t
Turkey, 1858-1920 175 Bukhara-Uzbekistan , 1886-1938 244

Chapter 23 Chapte r 35
Jama l al-Di n al-Qasim i Musa Jarullah Bigi
Syria, 1866-1914 181 Tatarstan , 1875-1949 254

Chapte r 24 Chapter 36
Mansurizad e Sa'id Mahmu d Khoja Behbudi y
Turkey, 1864-1923 188 Turkistan-Uzbekistan , 1874-1919 257

Chapte r 25 Chapter 37
Ziya Gökal p Abdulhami d Sulayma n Cholpa n
Turkey, 1876-1924 192 Turkistan-Uzbekistan , 1893-1938 264

Contents by Region vii

Section 5. South Asia Section 6. Southeast/East Asia

Chapter 38 Chapter 46
Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali Al-Imam newspaper
North India, 1837-1914 273 Singapore, 1906-1908 339

Chapter 39 Chapter 47
Chiragh 'Ali Achmad Dachlan
North India, 1844-1895 277 Java, 1868-1923 344

Chapter 48
Chapter 40
Syekh Ahmad Surkati
Sayyid Ahmad Khan
Sudan-Java, 1872-1943 349
North India, 1817-1898 291
Chapter 49
Chapter 41 Hadji Agus Salim
Muhammad Iqbal Sumatra-Java, 1884-1954 355
North India, 1877-1938 304
Chapter 50
Chapter 42 Ahmad Hassan
Muhammad Abdul Khader Maulavi Singapore-Indonesia, 1888-1958 360
Malabar, 1873-1932 314
Chapter 51
Chapter 43 Muhammad Hasyim Asy'ari
Ameer 'Ali Java, 1871-1947 365
Bengal, 1849-1928 316
Chapter 52
Ya'qub Wang Jingzhai
Chapter 44
China, 1879-1949 368
Abu'l-Kalam Azad
Bengal-India, 1888-1958 325
Glossary 377
Chapter 45 Index of Quranic Citations 379
Muhammad Akram Khan
Bengal-Pakistan, 1868-1968 334 Index of Personal Names 381

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1877-1938 304 Turkey. 1890-1947 86 Chapter 35 Musa Jarullah Bigi Chapter 10 Tatarstan. 1851-1914 223 Singapore. 1878-1931 227 Java. 1874-1919 257 Afghanistan. 1854-1902 152 Chapter 41 Chapter 21 Muhammad Iqbal Abdullah Cevdet North India. 1868-1923 344 . Contents byTheme Cultural Revival Chapter 33 Rizaeddin bin Fakhreddin Chapter 7 Tatarstan. 1858-1936 238 Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui Kenya. 1865-1933 126 Chapter 38 Chapter 19 Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi North India. 1869-1932 172 Chapter 29 Chapter 46 Ismail Bey Gasprinskii Al-Imam newspaper Crimea. 1875-1949 254 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub Sudan. 1908-1976 96 Chapter 36 Chapter 14 Mahmud Khoja Behbudiy Mahmud Tarzi Turkistan-Uzbekistan. 1906-1908 339 Chapter 30 Chapter 47 Munawwar Qari Achmad Dachlan Turkistan-Uzbekistan. 1837-1914 273 Syria.

1889-1940 93 Lebanon-Egypt. 1849-1905 50 Chapter 9 Chapter 6 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis Muhammad Rashid Rida Algeria. 1865-1935 77 Chapter 12 Chapter I I Mirza Malkum Khan Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Iran.x Contents by Theme Chapter 49 Chapter 25 Hadji Agus Salim Ziya Gokalp Sumatra-Java. 1839-1878 138 Iraq. 1840-1888 144 Turkey. 1860-1936 116 Algeria-Syria. 1854-1902 152 Syria. 1877-1938 304 Chapter I Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi Chapter 44 Egypt. 1801-1873 31 Abu'l-Kalam Azad Bengal-India. 1822-1890 40 Religious Interpretation Chapter 8 Chapter 3 Abdullah Abdurahman Muhammad 'Abduh South Africa. 1838-1897 103 Chapter I 3 Chapter 15 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri Iran. 1858-1920 175 Chapter 19 Chapter 23 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi Syria. 1884-1954 355 Turkey. 1858-1920 175 Tatarstan. 1857-1924 158 Chapter 17 Chapter 22 Namik Kemal Musa Kazim Turkey. 1888-1958 325 Chapter 2 Khayr al-Din Tunisia. 1866-1914 181 Chapter 22 Chapter 32 Musa Kazim Abdullah Bubi Turkey. 1876-1924 192 Chapter 52 Chapter 31 Ya'qub Wang Jingzhai Ahmed Aghayev China. 1869-1939 229 Chapter 41 Political Reform Muhammad Iqbal North India. 1870-1940 90 Egypt. 1833-1908 111 Iran. circa 1807-1883 133 Chapter I 6 Chapter 20 Ali Suavi Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi Turkey. 1879-1949 368 Azerbaijan. 1871-1922 232 .

1886-1938 244 Index of Personal Names 381 . 1864-1923 188 Chapter 51 Chapte r 26 Muhamma d Hasyim Asy'ari Dzemaluddi n C•aus•evi c• Java. 1863-1908 61 Chapter 48 Chapte r 5 Syekh Ahmad Surkati Bahitha t al-Badiya Sudan-Java . 1872-1943 349 Egypt. 1873-1932 314 Women' s Rights Chapter 45 Chapter 4 Muhamma d Akram Khan Qasim Amin Bengal-Pakistan . 1886-1918 70 Chapte r 50 Chapte r 24 Ahma d Hassan Mansurizad e Sa'id Singapore-Indonesia . 1850-1904 149 Glossary 377 Chapte r 34 Index of Quranic Citations 379 Abdurrau f Fitra t Bukhara-Uzbekistan . 1868-1968 334 Egypt. 1867-1956 207 Sayyid Jama l al-Di n al-Afghan i Iran . 1870-1938 198 Scienc e and Educatio n Chapter 27 'Abd al-Qadi r al-Maghrib i Chapter 11 Lebanon . Content s by Them e xi Chapter 39 Chapter 37 Chirag h 'Ali Abdulhami d Sulayma n Cholpa n Nort h India . 1882-1964 215 S•emseddin Sami Frashër i Albania-Turkey . 1893-1938 264 Chapter 40 Chapte r 43 Sayyid Ahmad Khan Ameer 'Ali Nort h India . 1871-1947 365 Bosnia . 1888-1958 360 Turkey. 1817-1898 291 Bengal. 1838-1897 103 Chapte r 28 Halid e Edib Adivar Chapter 18 Turkey . 1844-1895 277 Turkistan-Uzbekistan . 1849-1928 316 Chapter 42 Muhamma d Abdul Khade r Maulav i Malabar .

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Federspiel (Southeast Asia) Michael F.iikrii Hanioglu (Turkey) Joseph G. Miller (Malabar) Sufia Uddin (Bengal) Southeast/East Asia Zvi A.Section Editors Africa Randall Pouwels (East Africa) Emad Eldin Shahin (North Africa) Iran/Afghanistan Charles Kurzman (Iran) Helena Malikyar (Afghanistan) Mahmoud Sadri (Iran) Ottoman Empire David D. Lazzerini (Crimea) South Asia Marcia K. Commins (Levant) M. S. Rahme (Levant) A. Altstadt (Caucasus) Ahmet Kanlidere (Tatarstan) Adeeb Khalid (Central Asia) Edward J. Lipman (China) . Hermansen (South Asia) Roland E. Kevin Reinhart (Turkey) Itzchak Weismann (Levant) Asim Zubcevic (Bosnia) Russian Empire Audrey L. Laffan (Singapore) Jonathan N. Ben-Dor (China) Howard M.

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MODERNIST ISLAM. 1840-1940 .

The Moon of the Fourteenth Night: Being the Private Life of an Unmarried Diplomat in Persia during the Revolution (London: Hurst & Blackett. FINDING REASONS FOR THE CONSTITUTION IN THE KORAN (FROM "MULLA NASIR-UD-DIN THE PERSIAN "nwcn") Source: Eustache de Lorey and Douglas Sladen. 1910). . 98. p.

but rather mocked an old-fashioned re- erupted and came to power in 1906. Duncan Black Macdonald (United the Constitution. 147-148. mon among Christians. some of the leading tution in the Koran (from 'Mulla Nasir-ud-din[. Jurisprudence."1 States. 4."2 The cartoon said nothing about consti- Tehran. in Azeri Turk- ish: "I cure the ill by writing down verses [from the 2. Egypt—wrote privately in 1904 that he supported It is. He is the pointing with one hand to the Qur'an and holding up successor of Muhammad and must rule. vine] limitations. even apparently enlightened ones. p. Macdonald. The original—published with Cemaleddin Efendi (Turkey. he Valmont's suspicion of modernist Islam was com- held that Iranians. Muhammad 'Abduh (Egypt. Islamic Reform: The Political and ried Diplomat in Persia during the Revolution (London: Hurst Legal Theories of Muhammad 'Abduh and Rashid Rida (Berke- & Blackett. Malcolm H. Iran. 1910). rather. see may claim that Islam supports constitutionalism. appointed famed satirical journal of Baku. Charles Kurzman Introduction: The Modernist Islamic Movement Edouard Valmont was a French diplomat serving in Qur'an]. 1848-1917)—the chief a slightly different drawing in Mulla Nasruddin. Valmont was bemused. 4-5. Kerr. The Development of Moslem Theology. Valmont's memoir included caliph "cannot set up beside himself a constitutional a cartoon. as an absolute monarch. Azerbaijan—had an entirely different caption. It read. Islam was compatible with democratic principles. reproduced at left. This movement. Eustache de Lorey and Douglas Sladen. the religious authority of the Ottoman Empire. 1903). 3 . 1966). a few years of that statement. Mehmed doesn't bear scrutiny. for example. 3. p. Trans- lation from Azeri by Mahmoud Sadri. wrote in 1903 that As evidence of the difficulty modern institutions Islam does not allow constitutionalism because the faced in an Islamic country. from antitraditionalism to antimodernism. argued that ing an Islamic scholar and inverted its meaning. 58. 1863-1943). Valmont saw an image lampoon- combining religious and secular forces. pp. and Constitutional Theory (New 1. 1906." The message seems clear: Muslims contrary.4 In 1908."3 Yet within ing.'] the scholars of the Islamic world were arguing exactly the Persian 'Punch'). "Valmont" was a pseudonym. the Fourteenth Night: Being the Private Life of an Unmar. when a constitutionalist movement tutionalism. but chapter 3)—the highest-ranking religious official in such claims don't bear close scrutiny. Valmont's use of this cartoon that a parliamentary democracy. In a ghostwritten memoir. pp. 1849-1905. within [di- his other hand to block curious onlookers from peek. ligious practice. showing a clerical figure assembly and give it rights against himself. ley: University of California Press. Duncan B. September 22. The Moon of York: Charles Scribner's Sons. The caption read: "Finding reasons for the consti. even among scholars who suffer "the lack of real comprehension of the spirit of studied Islam. 156. Mulla Nasruddin.

divine mandates. as well as of discourse. which supplanted modernist Islam in the middle of dent. chap- 1978). education. (By contrast. modern-style movement from previous Islamic reform movements. privileging nationalism. the combination of modernist and Islamic dis- that is. We have picked the date This movement sought to reconcile Islamic faith and 1840 as a rough marker of the emergence of this form modern values such as constitutionalism. Malaysia: Oxford University Press. 489-490. 67. Abdul-Hadi Hairi. 242. Late in the twentieth cen- the self-conscious adoption of "modern" values— tury. Several authors are omitted from 6. initially a pejorative term applied by opponents to the ment in Iran's Constitutional Revolution: "We would modernist Islamic movement. . codified law. Following one classic study. pp. 1798-1939 (London: Oxford University Press. 1902-1908 (New York: Ox. 2d ed.. nationalism. muda. women's rights. cultural revival. 8. 1908-1913) (Istanbul. The authors and activists alists who rejected modern values. also wished to preserve and improve Islamic faith in patibility of Islam and constitutionalism also ignored. Brill. litical Memoirs. as several Islamic states adopted European mili- formed part of a movement that generated tremen. William R. 2001). progress and enlightenment. pp.8 out the Islamic world. have dated the moment of decline at roughly 1940. Netherlands: E. ford University Press. two senior scholars of languages. Thus this movement was not simply "modern" earlier modernists. values that authors explicitly associated with courses was revived in a subset of modernist Islam the modern world. Albert Hourani. was Shi'i Islam telegraphed their support at a crucial mo. M. and similar words in other stitutionalism. that I have labeled "liberal Islam. and mass education) but down- tion or reformation of educational institutions. agi. and themes discussed later in this introduction (see also from contemporaneous competitors such as tradition- the Contents by Theme). p. (new) and genf (young). the modern world. 1962). but its core was clear: a set and their goals by the Arabic terms jadid (new) and mu'asir (contemporary). on the other hand religious revivalists with European domination made repair possible. Preparation for a ter 13. and a bundle of other which did not identify their values as modern. especially rationality. (Kuala Lumpur. This combination of characteris- or dismissed. These proposals tury.)7 A second character- like to know if it would be possible to execute Islamic istic involved the usage of a self-consciously Islamic provisions without a constitutional regime!"6 discourse. 1908-1913 (Po. The who espoused modern values (such as social equal- modernist Islamic movement pioneered the forma.4 Introduction directly by the caliph—said that he too supported con. Islamic faith and modern values as a historical acci. Modernism distinguished the modernist Islamic terpretation. J. 1977). Activists were not simply Muslims but Macdonald's blanket statement about the incom. Liberal Islam (New York: Ox- ford University Press. ity. 9. the Turkish terms yenl 7. played their modernity. Activists described themselves ment could be imprecise. 43-47. not an inherent feature of Islam. The Origins of Malay Nationalism. 1994). lier anthology. Finally. 5. science. tics emerged in the first part of the nineteenth cen- als for Islamic constitutionalism. or other repair necessary. Roff." which sought to constitutionalism. and the modern values associated ideologies.5 Also in 1908. tary and technical organization. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age. Malay for young. The boundaries of the modernist Islamic move- ponent of modernity). §iikrii Hanioglu. the half-century's crescendo of propos. and various Muslim dous intellectual ferment throughout the Islamic travelers to Europe brought back influential tales of world in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. resuscitate the reputation and accomplishments of ity. freedom of religious in. though modernist Islam continued to spread in swcsev- One defining characteristic of this movement was eral regions after this date. The modern the twentieth century: on one hand secularists who period both required and permitted this accident to downplayed the importance of Islam in the modern be repaired: the threat of European domination made world. Cemaleddin Efendi. scientific investigation. we and the establishment of a periodical press through. Revolution: The Young Turks. Turkey: Terciiman. socialism. it distin- engaged in this movement saw the tension between guished the movement from two of its successors. and certain forms of human equal. privileging authenticity and tation for political liberalization or decolonization. ed. 1998). Siyasi Hatimlar. Shi'ism and Constitutionalism in the present book because their work was included in this ear- Iran (Leiden.9 (a feature of modernity) but also "modernist" (a pro. p. Charles Kurzman.

succinct. al-Nabhani in the Age of 'Abd al-Hamid II. chapter 17). ists' Islamic faith encompassed both mysticism and lim intellectuals of the late nineteenth and twentieth abhorrence of mysticism. plus regional pioneers Sayyid I would like to take this opportunity to thank my Ahmad Khan (North India. by pioneering new forms of discourse. Chicago. This is to be expected of any intellec- 1883-1914. 1898. chapter 11). . criticized—indeed. 1870. modernists criticized one another 1873. and variation. 1868. and Modernity: Yusuf erty. and some decisions may be con- (The Strongest Link). 1884. and poems. 11. "Histoire et interpretations 10. relevant. Much of North Africa. ists had to defend the right to defend modern values.. and Gasprinskii's Tercuman/Perevodchik (The for going too far. and. the selection of authors and works in this anthology. plays. and this What can we learn from these voices? The follow- anthology seeks also to highlight the contributions ing sections explore four issues that emerge from the of authors from around the Islamic world who were writings of the modernist Islamic movement. for Second Muslim Reformism. do not wish to construct a "canon" of modernist lation to these central figures. I propose Africa to East Europe to Southeast Asia. Inevi- of these figures. by arguing that their own. often nontraditional positions. (to be discussed in a moment) may be in question— 1935. 1851-1914." paper presented at the Middle East Studies Association. These ues included both state-building and limits on state power. as political control and circuits of training reached disme)" (Contemporary History and Interpretations of the across geographic boundaries. the and opportunities posed by the onslaught of moder- anthology presents a cross section of themes and nity. 71. was part of the Ottoman Empire. discipline and lib. by laying out their modernist vision of Islam. and 'Abduh's student and Considerations of influence and diversity guided collaborator Muhammad Rashid Rida (Syria-Egypt. applying their expertise to the selection of Ismail Bey Gasprinskii (Crimea. Even authors who disagreed with the tual movement. Modern val. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 5 of key figures who served as lodestones for Mus. Ijtihad. modern- forms of discourse: journalistic essays. but it is grouped russe (Annals of the Russian World). tably. In addition. each influential in their regional contexts. or not far enough. strategic use of traditional centuries. colleagues who served as section editors and project Namik Kemal (Turkey. even deep disagree. Namik Kemal's Hurriyet (Liberty) and Ibret tanic. 1817-1898. important. Yet the modernist Islamic movement. 1996. Rida's troversial. existed on virtually all subjects. throughout the Islamic world: Sayyid Jamal al-Din return to a pristine early Islam and updating of early al-Afghani (Iran. finally. and characteristic con- ter 29). and collaborator 'Abduh. published in Paris. In order to defend modern values. his student practices in keeping with historical change. "Sufism. 1998. pp. The regional classifications are inevitably somewhat contemporaines du second reformisme musulman (ou djadi- arbitrary. and didactic fiction of various sorts. Three figures in particular were famed scholarship and rejection of traditional scholarship. never monolithic. The modern. from South organized around the freedom of speech. chapter 40). Crimea. leading modernists were "irreligious" and even "sa- 1896. scholarly trea. chapter 6). ment: the right to say novel things in an Islamic dis- The anthology also samples the modernists' varied course. or Jadidism). especially the periodicals they ed. movement was not limited to central figures. Europhilism and anti-imperialism. Islam but rather to make available in a single volume The present anthology includes influential writ. opponents charged that 'Abduh and other (Refinement of Morals). 19-20. including This they did by referring to the particular challenges dialogues. The modernist Islamic movement was educations qualified them to speak on Islamic issues. Supporters cited and debated the statements tributions from the authors they have chosen. and advisers.10 but not so that this was the central intellectual issue of the move- well known to other Muslims or scholars of Islam. the anthology omits certain important figures ited: Afghani and 'Abduh's al-'Urwa al-Wuthqa for lack of space. published in Paris and Istanbul. published in Cairo. numbers 1- here with the rest of Africa to provide cross-regional balance. ment. Sayyid Ahmad Khan's Tahdhib al-Akhlaq indeed. The Islamic faith of a couple of authors al-Manar (The Beacon). 1840-1888. 2. a representative sampling of major voices in the ings by these authors."11 The modernism of some authors may be (Warning). volume 37. elitism and egalitarianism. 1865-1935. 111. p. Cahiers du monde example. stories. published in Aligarh. or another. 1838-1897. published in Bakhchisaray. Yahya Abdoulline. chap. tises. in one direction Interpreter). Readers should note that the editors modernist Islamic project located themselves in re. Amal Ghazali.

tify his call for democratic reform: "every intelligent course. rather. Arab Travellers and Western Civi- Modern World. to demonstrate stan. John Obert Voll. modernity appeared to generate wealth and commodities that the Islamic world Modernism is hardly the first movement in Islamic lacked and desired. chapter 14): "European states. 36. pressed.. 633. Such calls could be heard already in the street lamps and other indicators of prosperity. ever. for example. All. the in the hearts of people an uneasiness and careless- most powerful Islamic state. argued that "the [Ottoman] na. a European increases in productivity and to exploita- period whose revivalist activity "created an under. help and control. Holt et al. the Mus. 30. Namik Kemal (chap. including Islamic homelands. person realizes that as long as this tyrannical admin- istration prevails in the state. Muslim visitors to Europe in the history to claim a dire need for reform and revival of early and mid-nineteenth century marveled at the gas the faith.. (Syracuse. Ahmad Khan. Khayr al-Din (Tunisia. to maintain social peace and build national unity in ways that con- 12. Books. by their continuity with Islamic tradition. Modernist Muslims accepted these claims. lying theme for the modern Islamic experience. John Obert Voll. Modernity was not a disembodied set of ideals. Sumayya Damluji Shahbandar (London: Saqi Press." in John L. with the imperialist expan." Ottoman "state will undoubtedly sink" if current Politically. According to bridge. modern institutions of government seemed. ed. but also ter 6). which threatened Islam in emphasized the medieval Islamic roots of modern at least five registers. Voices of Resurgent Islam (New York: Oxford University Press. He used this dire prediction to jus- wish to espouse modern values in an Islamic dis.: Syracuse University lization. This is simply because they have the knowledge Yet the modernists faced a challenge that earlier and we do not. which lamic History. 1983). for example. Modernist Muslims attributed this prosperity both to ments recurred up through the eighteenth century. according to their proponents. 1996)." Why Speak Now? Economically. contribute towards spreading them—there will arise 1949. . among others. trans. Islam: Continuity and Change in the 14. the "black stains" of traditionalism from "the origi- tion is faced with the threat of extinction. 1865-1933." reformers had not. Even the Ottoman Empire. M. not only exploit their own mines. In addition to natural re- Prophet): "God sends to this nation at the beginning sources. modern science challenged other nity. vol. foreign interventions cannot be stopped." According to the empire's domestic affairs.Y. p.14 eighth and ninth centuries. 1875. pean "progress in the governance of mankind."13 A combination of resentment and respect is ex- Some modernists called upon this and other prece.12 and revivalist move. it was associated. Euro- ume 2. The Cambridge History of Islam (Cam. 13. recognized science as a challenge to Islamic This trend had begun in the seventeenth century but understandings of the world. 2d ed. identified this threat even as he that modernist Muslims worried about the prospect embraced modern scientific disciplines: "I am cer- of complete subjugation. in part." tion. Some sion of Christian Europe. p. Ahmad Khan (chap- gained such momentum by the nineteenth century ter 40). too. science. temporary Islamic states could not. they are also capable of industrial produc- of every century someone who renews its religion." and the nal luminous face of Islam. how- Europe to conquer vast regions of the Islamic world. "Revival and Reform in Islam. 1994).6 Introduction problematics remain vivid today for Muslims who trends continued. contrast. modern means of warfare allowed raculous advances made in recent years. "Renewal and Reform in Is. eds. namely the onslaught of moder. Esposito. had lost territory and ness and even a positive disaffection towards Islam submitted to treaties allowing foreign intervention in as it has been shaped in our time. Cognitively. it appears. tain that as these sciences spread—and their spread- lim world remains everywhere under someone else's ing is inevitable and I myself after all. England: Cambridge University Press. worldviews with its dramatic claims of success. 1822-1890. Nazik Saba Yared. chapter 2)." in P. tion of other regions. cited the hadith (saying of the those of the entire world. while others emphasized the seemingly mi- Militarily. this threat required Muslims to wipe ter 17). for example. N. 1970).. by Mahmud Tarzi (Afghani- dents of reform. Rida (chap. p. "Like a convict. Fazlur Rahman. chapter 35)." wrote Musa Jarullah Bigi (Tatarstan.

450. like their pastimes. and those Tahtawi (Egypt. The Emergence of Modern Af- ghanistan: Politics of Reform and Modernization. 1801-1873. tions are praiseworthy. requisite of Christianity. 1997)." British Empire that makes it the greatest Muham- In sum." relied primarily on respect for personal and more. in this view. their love of coun. rev. or others like you. chapter I). p. chapter 7) worried that "every day we themselves from it and guarding themselves against see ourselves mimicking whites. Fereydun Adamiyat. modernity introduced novel patterns long exclusively to the Christian nations. "The published in Iran and Afghanistan suggested that greatest benefit that the peoples of the Orient have "The black smoke rising from the roof of the father- derived from the Europeans was to learn how real land / Is caused by us. ignorant of behavior that threatened to displace existing prac. It is not the number of ners. Iran: 1882) (Cairo. he continued. Moralistes et politiques musul- 16. Islamic societies could you."15 Ayatullah Muhammad Taba. their Even colonial dependence had positive implica- ways of [conducting] meetings. ed. p.. and not only in ways it to be a religious duty. "It is a regrettable circum- and flourishing of the country. some modernists argued. masses of our own nation take it to be a symbol or tices. By realizing flected upon the state of these people [Europeans]. is doing one of our own them comfortable and neat. and other things like these. but the spirit of the and crafts and cooking. Gilbert Delanoue. me. 1982). not permit us to perform. 1969). "All new things are taba'i (Iran. their solidarity. . 1837-1914. Vartan Gregorian. "Had you not re. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 7 has led to the utmost point of prosperity for their coun. modern ideals." Thomas Ismael Urbain threaten the very existence of Islam. 1854- political rights. Calif. du Caire. 1880-1946 15. 167.: Stanford University Press." Muslims could not have developed Yet these challenges also provided an opportu- this independently. 1843-1921) noted in a speech to the newly hardly blameworthy. that the constitution is the cause of the security 1850-1904. which he identified as "the basis of the 1902." wrote Rifa'a Rafi' al- stitutional countries myself. Choueiri. the religion of Islam which prevents Muslim nations gion. Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui (Kenya. 1812-1884). and with good customs and man. . volume 2. later an Muslim women cut their hair in European styles but apostle of Pakistani independence. 18. 46. the challenges of modernity appeared to madan Empire in the world. nity." Muslims adopted alcohol and European garb. most innova- founded Iranian parliament: "I've never seen the con. p. will remain in the world only a few days tries. potential of colonization to develop "an administra- chapter 38) worried that the "dilapidated hall of the tive organization favorable to the development of true religion. We can affirm that it is not that are good and which do not contradict our reli. chapter 18). 4. nonetheless defended the Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali (North India. argued that the ought rather to value "the knowledge European British Empire was "a civilizing factor" in the Islamic women have in fixing up their houses and making world: "England. Youssef M. original ideals of their faith.18 Accord- who have seen the constitutional countries have told ing to §emseddin Sami Frasheri (Albania-Turkey. cism of their brutality. (Stanford." 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (Syria. / The flames that devour us government ought to be. Islamic Fundamentalism. Fikr-i dimukrasi-i ijtima'i dar mans dans I'Egypte du XIXe siecle (1798-1882) (Muslim nahzat-i mashrutiyat-i Iran (Social Democratic Thought in Moralists and Politicians in Egypt of the 19th Century. as well as recover the to be part of Islam. as well as the assimilation of from left and right / Are caused by us. whose pillars have been tottering for 17. many Muslims ated French colonizers of North Africa with his criti- worried that Islam would not be able to compete." A poem the European kingdoms. and thus deem distancing 1890-1947. chapter 41). from becoming civilized. Egypt: Institut fransais d'archeologie orientale Intisharat-i Payam. tions." but not "their good customs. (London: Pinter. would not have considered this not only survive but thrive. chapter 19) feared that "danger has come great development of knowledge and civilization in close—may God forbid it—to the heart. and the ability they have in [doing] handy work Muhammadans which it protects. Muhammad Iqbal try." (North India. a convert to Islam who infuri- of social Darwinist competition. and rearing their children great duties. p. according to modernist Muslims. because today civilization seems to be- Culturally. which unfavorable circumstances did in a healthy way. 1798- the Iranian Constitutionalist Movement) (Tehran."17 this knowledge. . 1975)." Rida wrote in 1907."16 stance that. ages. In the context (France. On the contrary. in fact. But I've heard. 1877-1938.

noted the hypocrisy of Roses! Tulips. 1888-1958. p. and finally various philanthropic institutions. Pilgrimage of Eternity (Javidnamah).8 Introduction agriculture and commerce . all the while seeking world domi- Since this garden ceased to enthral me nation like Caesar. tion. also in Kurzman. ing to live up to these ideals. the founders of the Singapore reformist journal al. Reynold 20. ed."22 Yet these critics embraced the ideals God save him. 1879-1944) compared the freedom of the French The Turk. idol-making!23 not possibly countenance any nationalistic awaken- ing or agitation for progress.. and since the antidote of newspapers and writings published in France and He has renounced. 21. Islamic Modernism in Ma. quoted above praising colonialism's "civilizing" Imam (chapter 46). Rashid Rida and the West (Herndon. 159-160. First published in 1920." Abu'l-Kalam Azad (Bengal- I have nested on the Paradisal tree. dom and equality. Iqbal (chapter 41). Thought in Islam (Oxford. pp. 1993). of modernity. Malaysia: University of Malaya Press. First published in 1915. La Tunisie martyre (Tunisia the ture. Mahmud Ahmad (Lahore. p. Muhammad Iqbal. opinions. Ibrahim bin Abu Bakar. Martyr) (Beirut. p. a large system of public educa."21 Others. 1961). a mirage of perfume. . pp. The Reconstruction of Religious 1994). keen intellectual and moral struggle. A. Nicholson (Lahore. trans. 404. he praised Tur- fall of its dominant power."20 a few years later: Not all modernists fawned so enthusiastically over But do not seek the glow of Love from the European civilization. torn from the self. trans. p. 1867. that warn one not to European ideals in the age of imperialism: "Just look smell them— how those Frenchmen talk pretentiously about free- Like paper roses. 1867-1934). chapter 44) was bitingly critical Modern knowledge is the greatest blind— of the "inequity" of British colonialism. hand. Lebanon: Dar al-Gharb al-Islami. Liberal Islam. 1930). 1985).. 1950). 1934 (Kuala Lumpur. Charles-Robert Ageron. press with French colonial decrees limiting the Tu- Enravished by the West. drinks from her hand nisian press and "prohibiting the entry into Tunisia A poison sweet. idol-selling. rather. that is. Later in life. which "can- Idol-worshipping. 1968). taking on the responsibility for prepar. Abdelaziz Thaalbi. for example. alone has shaken off its dogmatic slumber. The acqui- Learning the secrets of the New Knowledge: sition of these aspects does not require all this amount Its gardeners have put me to the trial of Westernization. . such as Ali Suavi (Tur- And have made me intimate with their roses. warned Muslims against modernity colonizers as God's "righteous servants. he castigated Turkey for Westernizing: sia. went so far as to praise British mission in 1909. Pakistan: Institute of Islamic Cul- 22. Les Algeriens musulmans et la France (1871-1919) (Muslim Algerians and France. The Secrets of the Self(Asrar-i khudi). 262. Long have I been running to and fro. technical skill and advanced industries. 29. frankly. laya: The Life and Thought of Sayid Syekh al-Hadi. 1884-1954. or justice . 23. concluded that "all that we need infidel's cup! to acquire from Europe is its scientific achievements. an organization of re. Do not seek the nature of Truth from this Rida. 49. Va.25 19. Emad Eldin Shahin. p. she alone has passed ing these people to develop their own independent from the ideal to the real—a transition which entails talents. Turkey whether the Dutch colonial government was "exer. 24. 76-77."24 On the other pendent country?" 'Abd al-'Aziz al-Tha'alibi (Tuni. volume 1. reform. and at- cising its power in accordance with the spirit of the tained self-consciousness. First published in 1932. right of intellectual freedom. Through Muslim Eyes: M. even as they berated Europeans for fail- ligion and of justice." Hadji Agus Salim key for its drastic Westernizing reforms: "The truth (Sumatra-Java. . chapter 49) questioned is that among the Muslim nations of today. 1839-1878. 167. Iqbal offered similarly antagonistic as such agitation would spell the inevitable down. key. She alone has claimed her times. for example.: International In. India. 25. Some distinguished between knowledge of to-day. so that Indonesians can have their own inde. 162. chapter 16). aspects worthy of adoption and those to be rejected. conflicted Sayid Syekh al-Hadi (Malaya. On one hand. one of about European civilization. p.. 1871-1919) (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France."19 Some modernists seemed. England: Oxford University Press. Shaikh stitute of Islamic Thought. Pakistan: Shaikh Muhammad Ashraf. what can I say except elsewhere.

Third was the effort to reconcile obedience to political tyrants. as stated by Muhammad Abdul Khader Maulavi gued that active reinterpretation of Islamic sources (Malabar. Liberal Islam. chapter 42). London: Luzac. But this tension repre. 'And if sents the challenge of the modernist Islamic move. Calder." wrote Abdullah Bubi (Tatarstan.29 First was the right to reach across the sev- the authority of the past and the authority of the eral legal schools (madhhabs) in which scholars tra- credential." had for centuries been lim- Who Can Speak? ited to a fairly technical meaning. chapter 20) called it "outlandish" established scholars but which modernists ritually to "state that one is obliged to follow the madhhab denigrated as blind. N. "Taqlid and Islam are mutually contra." wrote Muhammad Husayn Na'ini (Iran." Rather than follow precedent." Second was the better to follow a beast than an imitator." wrote ' Abd right to bypass the madhhab?. to the sacred sources. as he has pleased the Messenger of God. 1866-1914. Muhammad said. chapter 32). 2d ed. 1871. chapter 45). God's Messenger. (Leiden. "Idjtihad." in P. 2d ed. chapter 48) wrote that taqlid was not only ter 23)—among many others—quoted a hadith in contrary to reason and revelation. namely the Qur'an and the chapter 15).. 1026-1027.. external imposition and internal reno. World: The Anatomy of a Scholarly Dispute in the 19th and volume 10.' opportunity. eds.' The 28. J. Mu'adh ibn to the instructions of the imam?. "Taqlid of religious leaders who Muhammad Akram Khan (Bengal-Pakistan. 1860-1936. 1857-1924. from any and all of them—Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi tice of taqlid. Prophet then said. Syekh Ahmad Surkati (Sudan-Java. Schacht. Tool (San Francisco. chapter 13). 26. Modernity involved both threat and ijtihad [rational interpretation] and spare no effort. 9. tended. and reach back directly al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri (Algeria-Syria. Legal Reform in the Muslim cyclopedia of Islam. 'And if you do not find a ruling in dernity may be at odds with his English-language God's book?' He said. pp.: Austin & Winfield. modernists con- from the early Islamic era in support of this position. the opinion of those who state that one is obliged to ment weighed in on this theme. 'I would judge by God's book. "put the Qur'an in its rightful place. "Islam is a religion that is compatible with reason. rive at legal rulings on matters not covered in the the modernists had to defend their right to make sacred sources. and he struck his chest. pp. p.' The Prophet then said. 2000). . ditionally limited themselves. 'How would you act as judge?' He said." in the words of 1922. J.27 as did others: "It is adopt one of the four madhhabs. (Leiden. 'Praise God vation. chap.. En. to serve as governor of Yemen: main Sunni schools of law] whom those practicing "The Prophet said to him. the Early 20th Centuries on the Usage of Ijtihad as a Legal 27. eds. that is. This widened door of ijtihad should not have been cumstances. Bearman et al. it has no principles that contradict reason." in Bernard Lewis et al. a term that literally meant to follow (Iraq.'" The concept of ijtihad. Netherlands: Brill. circa 1807-1883.26 of a particular scholar. but also "contrary which Muhammad sent a companion. the modernists ar. Kurzman. 'I would perform ment as a whole. and draw arguments The authority of the past crystallized in the prac. 1868- pretend to present true religion is no different from 1968. They did so by challenging two term and broadened its scope to include three distinct forms of scholarly authority that stood in their way: usages. and even more outlandish is All of the lodestone figures in the modernist move. volume 3. 1943. p. Muneer Goolam Farced. [founders of the four Jabal (died 627). Modernists argued that the crisis demanded to give success to the messenger of the Messenger drastic reform in the Islamic world. Encyclopedia of Islam. 29. 137-138. Brill. irrational imitation of tradition. Some cited revelation and precedent shut in the early centuries of Islam. was permitted and even necessary under certain cir. derived from a root mean- ing "effort" or "struggle. "Taklid. you do not find it there?' He said. 1996). Netherlands: E. 8. Calif.28 The modernists latched on to the such arguments. J. of God. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 9 Iqbal's Persian and Urdu poetry denouncing mo.. 'By the sunna [precedent] of prose embracing modernity. 1873-1932. precedent of the Prophet and his Companions—to dictory. Either one is a form the sacred sources with human reason. referring to the intellectual effort of trained Islamic scholars to ar- Logically prior to the substance of their arguments. 1872- Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (Syria. to contend that of idolatry. 1971).

" Even the ment but as an instrument of institutional authority Prophet's understanding of Islam. conservatives and interrogated by Ottoman authori. des Islams (The World of Islam). 114. 1990). 1936) of the Ahl-i-Qur'an movement. Daniel W. 1858-1936. the building of legal uniformity and predictabil. 1889-1940. 32..10 Introduction taqlid claim to be imitating. Islam. "The Social Logic of Taqlid and 35. Yann Richard. who "would not have approved of cal authority. chapter 9). ." The Algerian reformist newspaper al- [religious scholars] in every era wrote books in ac. of taqlid was enforcement of conformity." in Said Amir Arjomand." Indeed. is the most perfect religion of all the religions. pp. volume 41. and we would hear nothing but repetition. We must also reform the theological opening editorial against the combined tyranny of books in accordance with the needs of our era. 1890-1944). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Social Change in Late Ottoman Syria (New York: Oxford Islamic Thought (Cambridge. "Do not later men study. servative thought "useful only to oppressive rulers 1858-1920. 1997).36 Or per- at the authority of conservative scholars than at their haps. most of which did not conform to more qualified than earlier ones. chapter 33) made time and again in the modernists' works. as scholars—even scholars espousing created. especially a parallel argument about Muslims' veneration of the analogy between religious authority and politi- saintly figures. "Shari'at Sangalaji: A Reformist 31. nized no intermediary between the Creator and the pletely. edited by ' Abd al-Hamid Ibn cordance with the needs of the d a y . chapter 50) accused support. and both to idolatry. quoting a of this agreement. "Islam tributed to them.30 Musa Kazim (Turkey. England: Cambridge Univer- University Press. bridge. 62-63. pp. ity—see Mohammad Fadel. was not nec- tional Islamic thought may have been aimed more essarily superior to that of other Muslims.31 Indeed. Recent scholarship has confirmed this view—see Reformism and Modernism in the Muslim World."35 ers of taqlid of adopting the practice only when it Modernists proposed that contemporary scholars suited them: "When these traditionalist religious are just as qualified as their predecessors to engage scholars agree with the actions and words of the in ijtihad. "Jadidism in Central Asia within 30. Muntaqid (The Critic). England: Cambridge University Press. articulate tongues would be blunted. Le reformisme musulman en Algerie de the Rise of the Mukhtasar. penetrating minds 'original' scholars and may not use hadith directly.. were repeatedly accused by gressing day by day. number 2. if one believes in progress. University of New York Press. . Brown. Modernists saw taqlid not as a religious require. . then a great deal taqlid—"on the basis that they themselves are not of knowledge would be lost. David Dean Commins. therefore the latest religion. ed. Ingeborg Baldauf. 1940) (Paris: Mouton & Co. Ahmad Hassan (Singapore. 193-233. 1925 a 1940 (Muslim Reformism in Algeria from 1925 to ume 3.32 and modern. according to designed to suppress challenging views. vol. 172. intel- Indonesia. a theme broached the modernists' caricature. Ali Merad." Islamic Law and Society. they engage in limited to the books of the ancients. Na'ini. ties on charges of espousing ijtihad. 51-52." wrote Mirza Riza Quli Shari'at-Sangalaji taqlid—were forced by changed circumstance to (Iran. directed its same need. they go directly to the hadith as the source things like earlier men?" Qasimi asked. p.33 The theme of authority arises Fakhreddin (Tatarstan. for example. quoted above. ." In political and religious authorities who sought "to a more critical tone. 34. compose. 2001. Modernists in Dam. then they go tenth century scholar (chapter 23): "If people were to their earlier scholars"—that is. and religious affairs. A History of Islamic Legal Theories (Cam. 1967). or in more flatter. Similarly. number 1. 68. sity Press.117-124. chapter 22) wrote that "all of the 'ulama' and sultans. to political tyranny. rule [the community's] political. 77. later scholars are actual writings. 55-59. Hallaq. It recog- that the door of ijtihad had never been shut com. p. Recent scholarship suggests that the original purpose Theologian of the Rida Shah Period." Die Welt Wael B. by Bubi (chapter 32): "Since God's creation is pro- ascus. economic. 1988). lectual. 1996). pp. We have the Badis (Algeria. p.34 Bubi (chapter 32) called con- devise novel approaches. 445-446. Authority and Political Culture in Shi'ism (Albany: State ing terms. 1888-1958. 1996. it is quite possible and in accordance with ists in Central Asia had to tiptoe around the issue 33." would go astray. 1861- the modernists' polemical denunciation of tradi. and see Prophet. pp." Rizaeddin bin to avoid trouble. likened taqlid such lies and the extravagant praise and miracles at. Khwaja Ahmad Din Amritsari (North India. Islamic Reform: Politics and 36. some modernists suggested delivered man from the slavery of priests. But if they disagree.

reformists—not necessarily full-fledged modern- tify it with our swords. number 4. 104-105. Shi'i. Deen Society of Nigeria. Islamic Revival in British India: p." For Azad. women are deprived of learning and most of the men tation. and prizes at the Deoband seminary in Muslims was deemed praiseworthy. ers. 16. taught herself to teachers who assigned rote exercises "in order to take read. England: Cambridge University Press. Several modernists of Islam. and Nation: Gen. 1988). that "the chapter 34) made the analogy with trains and steam- intelligent person must consider the statement rather ships. 30. Tadeusz Swietochowski. Feminists. in the words of one invited all Muslims to judge the propriety of his ac. grades.38 Further. its founders. 1995). also Ian Henderson Douglas." A man stood up and said."40 lims. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT II God's sunna that in our time there might be scholars ter 11) likened traditional scholarship to "a very nar- of the same degree as. 373.37 Modernists combated their handicap by Education in secular subjects. N. would arguing that credentialed scholars ought not to mo. along with al-Jaza'iri (chapter 15)." The Singapore news- Musa (Egypt. Baljon. J. (Sura 4. pp. can Islam tions. let him among you who sees any This critique emerged from within the seminar- deviation in me set it right. Islam. 1886-1951). "A major reason for Some modernists went further and argued that the decline in the 'ulama"s influence in the country. Margot Badran. respectively—both cite the precedent of the founded in Nigeria in 1923. ume 26. or better than. J. 1905- 1920 (Cambridge.: ligious Associations Among Yoruba Muslims: The Ansar-Ud- Princeton University Press. ies themselves." In these precedents. Modern Muslim Koran Interpreta. "Praise God ists—who admired aspects of modern education. established a series of second caliph. some modernists suggested that all two great scholars appear. India41—and modern disciplines. In Khayr al-Din's telling. Brill. by contrast. 40. tion (1880-1960) (Leiden. Afghani (chap- 39. 40.J. mod. p. and sought to interpret up time. prepare students properly for the practice and study nopolize religious interpretation. 1860-1900 (Princeton. Netherlands: E. who Western-style schools. S.. pioneered by traditionally trained "By God. on top of which is a very small flame that the past. 1985). p. . Abdurrauf Fitrat (Bukhara. Press. vol- 38. since the verse did not limit "they" to a small live in illiteracy. 1961). . Stefan Reichmuth. Under the old system. "is the popular perception that they have ates from meaningful intellectual work. N. 1982). Russian Azerbaijan." The Azerbaijan newspaper Kaspii mosque in Cairo objected to this act as "heretical.: Princeton University India: Oxford University Press." 'Umar replied. that "by this means alone . p.J. 198-199." Journal of Religion in Africa. who created in this umma him who would rectify with They sought to reform the seminaries by incor- his sword my deviations. a teenager prevented by paper al-Imam (chapter 46) excoriated traditional her family from attending school. leaving the field open to the modern-educated. be better studied and understood. memorized the Qur'an. 1886-1938. 1996. legitimated widespread interpre. invented by "infidels" but resulting in in- than the person who is stating it. "O people. Abul Kalam Azad (Delhi." Bigi (chapter 35) blamed seminaries for the ernists faced a second hurdle: many of them lacked "widespread stoppage of brains that caused the mind the seminary credentials historically required of re. the scholars of row wick. both women and men will be- Din (chapter 2) and Na'ini (chapter 13)—Sunni and come learned. Barbara Metcalf. "Do they not consider the Qur'an?" studying is just the same. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-644). 41. examina- independent religious judgment of noncredentialed tions. because it is easier. if we saw in you deviation we would rec. M. and therefore to decline. 'Umar told the Mus." (The Caspian) wrote that traditional schools "do not and said that even he would not proceed without a deserve to be called schools. the creased pilgrimages by Muslims: "The question of Qur'anic verse. 127. 37. A male relative studying at the al-Azhar ing] plants grow. lazily believing that [education is like watch- its verses. and in every generation one or group. Muslims had a duty to engage in ijtihad. in India." traditional educations had become so sterile and wrote a founder of the Nadwat al-'Ulama' seminary scholastic that they actively disqualified their gradu." The Young Ansar-Ud-Deen Society. Verse 82). argued. Khayr al. Deoband. of the Muslim world to remain lifeless and motion- ligious scholars. "Education and the Growth of Re- der and the Making of Modern Egypt (Princeton. Under the new system. pp. Educational pioneer Nabawiyah less."39 mentor. arguing." neither lights its surroundings nor gives light to oth- Even if they overcame the hurdle of taqlid. the porating modern discipline—for example.

1997). Brill.46 A Tatar seminary its devaluation of traditional scholarship that its pro- in Crimea. chapter 30)—trained at the traditional role models for cadres of modernists. pp. Dzemaluddin Similar schools emerged throughout the Islamic Causevic (Bosnia. "The Clerics of Jabal 'Amil and the tian Society and Modern Feudalism (Syracuse.: Princeton University Press. pp. sent a ponents viewed religious training merely as a cover leading student to study at al-Azhar. 1973). p. tutional reform. so that in worldly matters their ing of a "a Shi'ite Muhammad 'Abduh.45 Nonetheless. 1901-1946). 1910). One strain of Islamic modernism went so far in proved methods" of education. ondary education as qualifying him to guide the Ira- Muzaffar (Iraq. In Bukhara. 266-268. 1999. pp. Hamid Algar. Reform of Religious Teaching in Najaf Since the Beginning cuse University Press. Muhammad Qasim Zaman. Neth- gan and Scott. vol. Said Amir Arjomand. Islam. pp. §iikrii Hanioglu. 1996). "Our present schools take four or five years who considered him comparable to Protestant Ref." Qari founded Azhar fired the imagination of dozens of young the first usul-ijadid (new principles) school in Tash- religious scholars who came to study with him. leading internal critics served as 1878-1931. 2000).51 as did ume 41. another returned to China dedicated to "im. pp. to teach only reading and writing. 176-189. 59. 49. Ahmet Kanhdere." in Rainer Brunner and Werner 46. Yitzhak Nakash. p. erlands: E.43 At al-Azhar in take 15 to 20 years to study introductions [to canoni- Cairo. combining religious and secular coursework. seminaries. The New Mamluks: Egyp.47 'Abduh even for modern values. Brill. 183. One such student.Y. pp. who proposed that Shi'i nian nation toward "civilization.: Syra. 51. without any particular merit in its inspired Shi'i modernists who never studied in own right. Sabrina Mervin. N. 51.. 325-341. J. Chris Eccel. Netherlands: E. Bir Siyasal Dusunur Olarak 48. producing graduates who often considered to the Balkans as a convinced modernist and called themselves legitimate competitors with seminarians 'Abduh "Respected Teacher" for the rest of his ca. Ugdal Nesriyat. Mirza Malkum Khan (Iran. J. chapter 12). Islam in China (London: Mor."50 Abdullah Cevdet (Turkey. 306. impart a knowledge of the sciences of the present age corporate al-Azhar graduates into a state-run judi. and Social Change: al- Azhar in Conflict and Accommodation (Berlin. Egypt. p.'Abduh's plans for al. number 2. 70-71. reer. for limiting themselves to commentaries on commen- spired a generation of seminary-trained modernists taries.48 and Muhsin Sharara (Lebanon. "Religious Education and with great delight when it was proved that they were the Rhetoric of Reform: The Madrasa in British India and latent in Islam. 1833-1908. 262-268. Amira El-Azhary Sonbol. To hope for them to the chief religious official of Egypt he helped to in. "Ideological Revolution in Doktor Abdullah Cevdet ve Donemi (Doctor Abdullah Shi'ism. of the Twentieth Century. 1932. p." in Arjomand. 45. 44.12 Introduction withdrawn into their cells and know nothing about Iraq. Turkey: Eren Yaymcihk. schools of Bukhara—condemned such institutions Shihabuddin Marjani (Tatarstan." Comparative Studies in Society and History. Europeans seeking to inculcate modern values in an 43." He told a British seminaries be reformed on the model of 'Abduh's audience of his strategic approach to Islamic educa- plans for al-Azhar. West Ger. many: Klaus Schwarz Verlag. versity of California Press. 47. 'Abduh achieved little reform44—though as cal texts] and the four readings. Authority and Political Culture Cevdet: A Political Thinker and His Era) (Istanbul. M. The Twelver Shia in Modern Times (Leiden. considered his French sec- early twentieth century) and Muhammad Rida al. Turkey: in Shi'ism (Albany: State University of New York Press. for brief periods. A. N. attempting comparable reforms. 2000). and our colleges ormation leader Martin Luther. returned world. chapter 26). even kent. ing in the sky while standing in a well. 1984)."42 Some seminarians despaired of reforming the Even when they failed in their attempts at insti. eds. such as Shaykh Asadullah Mamaqani (Iran. 1870-1938. tion: "ideas which were by no means accepted when coming from your agents in Europe. 1818-1889) in. is as futile as to expect one to reach out to a bird fly- cial hierarchy. 1869- Pakistan. Munawwar Qari (Turkistan-Uzbekistan."49 guidance is entirely unworthy of attention. for religious knowledge. Cairo. Ende.J. 1988). p. 1981). for example. . born 1904). 82.. Marshall Broomhall. The Shi'is of Iraq (Princeton. chapter 21) made similar comments. Reform within Islam: The Tajdid and Jadid Movements among the Kazan Tatars (1809-1917) (Istanbul. 1994). National Movements and National 50. ed. who called in 1928 for the com- the state of the world. Mirza Malkum Khan (Berkeley: Uni- Identity among the Crimean Tatars (1905-1916) (Leiden. 13-17. Hakan Kinmli. were accepted 42.

Martin's. Mehrdad Kia. temporary Debates in Islam: An Anthology of Modernist and 57. contrib- world as well. I do not say that whatever I investigated is true. 1988). number 3. p. Christopher Harrison. 2000). 383-424. sembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses (New York: 54. Columbia University Press.. 1975. Routledge." leading to dangerous schisms.57 speech on the pragmatic grounds that open debate In sum. urging all Muslims to nents or critics. the modernists sought to breach the mo- advanced the search for truth54—was dismissive of nopoly of traditional religious scholars over Islamic "the opinion or independent judgment of every Tom. though not all. interpretation. but seminary training. 1908. tion of freedom that permits "saying whatever comes considering the other to be disqualified from ijtihad to one's mind." Ibn Badis condemned opposing make independent religious judgments. Other Europeans considered modernist Islam a threat to colonial control and sided instead with con. nor a mufti [re- 52. 'Abduh movement led to other polemics—for example. Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Fundamentalist Thought (New York: St. "Russian Jadidism and the Islamic tute for Inner Asian Studies. 1986). 189. 88-90. Rida's resentment at Gasprinskii's leadership of pan- ries of Islamic history. volume 31. they opened a space for the right to speak. Call for the Modernization of the Islamic World." Middle volume 16. 1987). 1812-1878). World: Ismail Gasprinskii in Cairo. 55. and Harry. 1967). pp. Reagent (Bloomington: Indiana University. eds. 56. They ex- "not by any traditional argument. ligious official]. pp. Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850 (New York: pp. Martin Kramer. 41-45. 7. Research Insti. dress." but not for the "horde of heretics" who en- not imply complete democratization of the right to gage in "chatter. who saw no need for the religious freedom "on condition that it adheres to the pretense of Islamic education and doubted that Islam principles of religion"—meaning the principles that could ever be construed as compatible with modern he emphasized. pp. such as Mirza Path 'Ali Akhundzada agreed with them. 422^48. neither a maulavi [religious scholar]. Le reformisme musulman en Algerie de servative Muslims—for example. forms and Training in Persia) (Paris: Ernest Leroux." Cahiers du monde 53. or personal by nature. 2001). pp. and to limit the relativistic damage of Dick. Gustave Demorgny. see Guy Imart." fications were asserted in humble terms. and insolence in criticizing their oppo- that some modernists cited. Suavi (chapter 16) rejected a defini. . But once I had no other choice but to do whatever 1860-1960 (Cambridge. uted to the polemic between the Sunni and Shi'i sects. . opinion. (chapter 3) offered a warning from the early centu.56 or the took his stand upon the liberty of thought the Qur'an Calcutta-based challenge to Ahmad Khan's North enjoined. pp." Surkati (chapter 48) limited ijtihad only virtuosity—as compared both with their scholarly to "those who have the capacity and opportunity to opponents and the "masses. Islam As- Eastern Studies. speech. nor a preacher. France and Islam in West Africa. Mansoor Moaddel and Kamran Talattof." giving the example of a French news. 231-234. sophistry. when "every opinion-monger Islamic conference planning in Cairo. 1995. the modern. Ayesha Jalal. Rida (chapter 6) supported "freedom values.55 a ists generally replaced one form of credentialing with charge that was often leveled against the modernists another—just as modernists did outside the Islamic themselves. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 13 Islamic language. Ali Merad. ment administratifs en Perse (Essay on Administrative Re- . modern education. and The modernists' critique of seminary training did work. Tahtawi (chapter 1) supported (Azerbaijan. as in Ahmad Khan's statement (chapter 40): "I am an ignorant person. Islamic and 1925 a 1940 (Muslim Reformism in Algeria from 1925 to Slavic Fundamentalisms: Foes or Allies? The Turkestanian 1940) (Paris. by their imperfect faith. Essai de reformes et d'enseigne. 109-121." and sought to justify his position this breach. Several authors. "Mirza Path Ali Akhundzadeh and the russe et sovietique (Annals of the Russian and Soviet World). p. .52 This strain shaded into outright Other modernists limited ijtihad to those who secularists. England: Cambridge University Press. nor by any proofs pressed confidence in their own qualifications— of the mujtahids based on independent judgment. And competition within the paper that denied the existence of God.53 of religion. audacity in mixing right engage in Islamic reasoning. nor a qadi [judge]. writing. Con. positions as bid'a (impermissible innovation). Despite the precedents with wrong. 1915)." Even when these quali- understand the proofs of God and His laws. through a single maneuver. Ahmad Indian leadership of the modernist Islamic movement Khan (chapter 40)—while favoring freedom of in South Asia. Thomas Kuttner. France: Mouton.

p. 126-127. pp. and has been bequeathed to the Muslims as a World (Istanbul. Taymiya) (Cairo. volume 12. In an un. 145-170. and crude humor clerical circles for its rationalist heritage. 63. 2001). They sought to replace flow. eds. adopted the ography. trans. Stephane 58. orientale.60 as in Kawakibi's fictional pan-Islamic assem. and partisanship is avoided as poem. Mehr Afroz Murad. 4-50. Intellectual Modernism of Shibli Flow and Ebb of Islam." in Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu. Netherlands: 1953). Laffan. scribed by Siraj al-Din Hakim (Bukhara. eds. Hali's Musaddas: The 62. 1997). 93. for the purpose of awakening Art. "Portrait of the Intellectual as a Young Man: Rashid politiques de Taki-d-Din Ahmad b. a popular figure among particular rhyme scheme and verse length. Brill. The Encyclopedia of Islam. my heart became sick of the old poetry.58 One of the most in. for example. 1993). 141-161. India: Oxford University Press. volume 7. trans. century). Iran and the Surrounding World (Seattle: was also adopted and infused with modernist con. and I began to feel the development of novel forms of religious writing. Bosworth et al.. among others. bly (chapter 19) and the startling inversion effected actly what I did and what I am still doing." in C. Jakob Skovgaard. pp. modernists held that long-standing literary 1914). eds. England: Palgrave. Turkey: Research Centre for Islamic History. Egypt: 1'Institut fran§ais d'archeologie pp. volume 9. pp. University of Washington Press. . 541-575. The books by Tahtawi and Mirza Saleh Shirazi (Iran. pp. Michael F. 2d ed. Souvenirs de voyage pour les gens de Boukhara (Travel Memoirs for the People of Bukhara). and Culture. thor—"every piece of information and fact is exam- usually extensive and reflexive introduction to the ined meticulously. Mod- ernists commandeered the travelogue format. Taimiya (Essay on the Rida's Muhawarat al-muslih wa-al-muqallid (1906). throughout the Islamic world.61 Theology (kalam). Hali's "The graphic literature was transformed into modern bi- Flow and Ebb of Islam" (chapter 38). "The Quest for the Secret of Strength in Iranian Nineteenth- the community. as reported by 'Ali Ahmad al- themes were insufficiently attuned to the concerns of Jarjawi (Egypt. God knows by Fitrat (chapter 34). E. 1976). pp. The Encyclopedia of Islam. 2001. ed.. Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi. It is true that much has been written. number 22. Hali explained: much as possible" (chapter 33).. Brill." East Asian History. Refashioning Iran (Houndsmills. 35-76. 93-104. 1869-1946). as de- literary forms of the past were inadequate. E. . Pakistan: Institute of Islamic Culture.. and 61. adapted traditional poetic forms 1857-1914) and Ismail Hakki Izmirli (Turkey. 1939)." Islam Social and Political Doctrines of Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn and Christian-Muslim Relations. long suspect within ery language. but also stressing the wonders The novel approaches of modernist Islam frequently of modernity—generally focused on Europe. 419-424. Christopher Shackle and Javed Nu'mani (Lahore. as in found expression in novel forms of discourse. J. with its tury reformer Ibn Taymiyya. Keddie and Rudi The traditional literary form of debate (munazard) Matthee. 1997). irrelevant fantasy. and Japan. Essai sur les doctrines sociales et Petersen. Netherlands: "Making Meiji Muslims: The Travelogue of 'Ali Ahmad al- E. . Hilmi ZiyaUlken.59 Century Travel Literature. pp. Henri Laoust. 1999). Thought of Islam) (Istanbul. (Leiden.62 Traditional hagio- fluential exemplars of this adaptation. ashamed of stringing together empty fabri- cations. 565-568. mid-nineteenth-early twentieth contemporary Muslims." European and a Bukharan Muslim is staged with the author embodied in the European character. E.. 2d ed. Jarjawi. but filled the modernists." in Nikki R. E. Mirza Siradj ad-Din Hakim. "Al-Tahtawi as Translator of the continues to be written about this. 462-410. 1992). tent. 1877- First. as in Fakhreddin's study of the 14th cen- traditional Urdu structure of the musaddas. but also Iran and India. Lapensee de I'Islam (The 60. Bosworth et al. J. Wagner. Dudoignon (Paris: Actes Sud.. Nadia Abu Zahra. then I had certainly to do ex. Various articles on "Shi'r. modernists specified at least three ways in which the circa 1790-1845). pp.63 in which—according to the au- the structure with nontraditional content. (Leiden. 59. legacy from the Arabs. But no one has Culture of Parisian Society. "Munazara. Modernist Islamic vived by Muhammad Shibli Nu'mani (North India. which makes a natural appeal to Transfer of Modern Science & Technology to the Muslim all. Monica Ringer. pp. 2002). 2001. pp. yet written poetry. A second movement among modernists involved When I beheld the new pattern of the age." in C. poets. main- How to Speak taining the positive comparison of Islam with reli- gions of other lands. Majeed (Delhi. in which debate between a my pure intention. . Turkey: Fakiilteler Matbaasi.14 Introduction could be done by me. number 1. Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali. was re- with noble and useful themes.

1836-1912). pp. ed. and the Debate eds. 159. Nets of Awareness: Urdu Po. Pritchett. Self and Sovereignty. and Reaction amongst the Malays. 1993). morality. 1994)." It "alerts the entice the reader to absorb its useful information and unattentive" and "has taken it upon itself to spread instructions. Gelvin. paid homage to the power of the newspaper in rather than works on pure scientific or practical con. The Politics of Muslim Cultural Re. p. 178. Azade-Ayse form: Jadidism in Central Asia (Berkeley: University of Cali. eds.. E. 1997). 73. 66. 60. J."65 Similarly. 69. maga- 70. p. as items were read aloud). described theater as out a newspaper. about the 'Woman Question' in Early Twentieth-Century lands: E.72 Religious conservatives Urdu play was performed in 1853. 1824-1893) made this reasoning explicit in showed a modernist waving a newspaper. tion Press. comparing it favorably to the legacy of the cerns. 1991). and from Malabar 69."69 Later. historian novation of the modernist Islamic movement was the periodical press. Scholars. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 15 The effort to rejuvenate Islam involved an intensive ship. Ralph Russell. 1986). 68. 72.67 Life) in Kazan (1906-1917).. The Repentance ofNasuh. Nether. Various articles on "Masrah." in C. 64. chapter 36). Daniel R. partment of History. "The Umma Below the Winds: zines.." in K. "'Pious' Religious 67. 170. narrative fiction. Bosworth et al. 2d edition (Leiden. man. (chapter 7) to Durban (chapter 8). 71. a poem. p. Calif: Hoover Institu- fornia Press. and entertaining works. which it established in virtually 68. for example."66 The first feared the power of periodicals of "the new style" plays in the Arab world were adaptations of French enough to try to ban "papers debating the Muham- works produced in Lebanon in 1847. p. Michael F. 186. Cairo. and other Islamic cals such as Isha 'at al-Sunna (News of Tradition) in regions appear to have followed suit at the end of the Lahore (founded 1878). the title char. this anthology include pioneers from Mombasa 1997). The relatively Egyptian State: Muftis and Fatwas of the DarAl-ifta (Leiden. Lazzerini. The latter works breed boredom and lead the Egyptian pyramids: the newspaper is "the nourish- readers to shun them. the first modern medan religion" in 1929. 1900-1941. the first modern also made use of the same media. This persuaded me to write ment of the spirits. Sabry Hafez. The Encyclopedia of Islam. as a young I have realized that the readers are inclined to reading epic tales. 1962). illnesses of nations may be cured with the publica- acter burns a roomful of old books and identifies the tion of journals"70—but participated in producing the antidote for such "poison" as "books of faith and two most influential modernist papers. The Genesis of Arabic Narrative Dis. Reformist Islam. Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen.. and perhaps the greatest discursive in. 1992). p. 1998). he Arabic and foreign books in arts and sciences. and al-Haqa'iq (Truths) The third. James C. (Egypt. founding periodi- Turkish play was produced in 1859."71 Yet conservatives in Malaya "a place for preaching and exhortation. Defining Islam for the (chapter 42) to Singapore (chapter 46). bring first modern play in Central Asia. . Papers on Malayan History (Singapore: De- etry and Its Critics (Berkeley: University of California Press. p. University of Malaya in Singapore. William Roff.73 In the 1920s. Mahmud Khoja Behbudiy An Indian opponent of the modernists mocked their (Samarqand. 1874-1919. Netherlands: Brill. Selections in Russia's Orient (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. author of the confidence in the medium: "Faced with a gun." "the tongue of heavenly secrets." Ph. which have been collected from many the sciences among the common people.. Rorlich. for which new discur. 'Overly-Europeanized' Falsifiers.D. every community of the Islamic world. Frances W.' Ali Mubarak 1907 cartoon in Mulla Nasruddin. A sive strategies were deemed necessary. Tregonning. pp. causing the introduction to one of the first Arab novels: traditionally garbed religious scholars to run fleeing from the power of the paper. Brill. volume 6. Adeeb Khalid... The Volga Tatars (Stanford. Jalal. p. lamic movement held great hopes for its impact. 192. 130-131. Laffan. and a Conceptualization of reached a relatively large readership (and listener. Din ve Ma 'ishat (Religion and nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. G. Damascus" (paper under review). p.68 'Abduh. dissertation. "Kaum Muda—Kaum Tua: Innovation course (London: Saqi Books. by "These days there are people who believe that the Nazir Ahmad (North India. and journals opened a stream of words that Mecca. p. Brower and Edward J. in Damascus (1910-1913).64 admitted a certain skepticism about this power— In an early Urdu novel." this useful book in a form of attractive narrative to and "guidance for those who seek. Aus- tralia. The Pursuit of Urdu Literature (Lon- don: Zed Books. University of Sydney. 131. 746-773. The modernist Is- project of outreach and uplift. low cost and wide distribution of newspapers. 65. Indonesia.

who defeated the six-foot-tall giants. Brinkley Messick. August 17. 118. and a duction. Each issue presented modernist writings included in this anthology. for example. a sup. 76. the scales for [weighing] the activity of the commu. . 'Abd al-Qadir al-Maghribi (Lebanon. published in Calcutta.75 despite Afghani's complaint that his host "caused this The press brought news of parallel and compet." Bulletin of the changed. Habl al-matin (The Firm Rope). Cultural Revival ity. The Calligraphic State: Textual Conservatives also pointed to the massive changes Domination and History in a Muslim Society (Berkeley: Uni." Rida wrote years The substance of the modernist Islamic appeal may later in Egypt (chapter 6). Japanese apologies may mask the lack of full scholarly appa- military victories over Russia in 1904. . they trum. the modernist movement adapted tradi- offering inspiration. In addition. they were witnessing. were more adept at producing. pp. minimum of scholarly citations. 1993. and we turn now to the other four. pp. Afghani's Calcutta lecture on teaching tives also published printed books rather than relying and learning (chapter 11). Like other periodi. So forgive me if I hasten or if I gloss regions and language groups. glibness. they often reprinted. "Commentaries. the vigilant eager students or the lecturers themselves sometimes overseer of the government. or 1867-1956. The minstrel and the music—both have ies. The color in the cheeks of spring has changed. be summarized in any number of ways. increasing the density of linkages across for a phone call. which nity and the indicator of its condition. preferred to write texts without detailed citations and porter of the isolationist Yemeni imamate. were carried "live" in the newspapers of the world. 229-251. p. for example. The Malay newspaper al-Imam tional literary forms to modernist purposes and pio- (chapter 46) commented on "the ascent of the Japa. 1993). the instructive school. published. number 1. volume 27. What to Speak cations of Japan's success. 74. cals of the era. as for example Akbar versity of California Press. ratus expected of written work on religious subjects. ritualized peted models of successful modernization. which seminary-trained writers newspapers as "the great force. pp. Allahabadi (North India. especially emphasize five general topic areas. 12-16." These inelegant. 60-81. "Technology and Religious Change: Islam and the Impact of Print. As a result. School of Oriental and African Studies. num- ber 1. I choose to The immediacy of the periodical press. 1846-1921): 75. was published exclusively on hand-copied manuscripts. superseding previous statements.76 "We need an indepen- dent renewal like that of Japan. Yet in the competition for religious author. writers without seminary training may have The sense that cultural decline had gripped the Is- lamic world was not limited to modernist authors. Print. over certain aspects.16 Introduction 'Abd al-Wasi al-Wasi'i (Yemen. and Patronage: Hadith Our sleep has changed. Francis Robinson. wrote at length on the impli. volume 62. 1906. . talk to be delivered only in an abbreviated form. In sum. Religious ing news and ongoing debates. each of which is daily newspapers. nationalist Mustafa Kamil (Egypt. expressed in its very form the deep enough to capture a significant portion of the modernists' view of progress. The nightingale now sings a different song." emphasized the contemporaneity of knowledge and and referred to writings on Japan by the Egyptian deemphasized scholarly citation. Muhammad changed. credited extended quotations. especially a periodical press that nese race . opinion within the modernist movement." Modern Asian Stud." ing movements around the world. news- paper writers were vulnerable to accusations of shal- lowness. A wide enough to involve significant differences of properly informed person had to keep up with break. The Iranian newspaper Habl al-matin (The Firm Rope)."74 Religious conserva. Another kind of rain falls from the sky. Qasim Zaman. The newspaper for. interpretation has already been covered in this intro- mat exerted pressure toward brevity. 1874-1908). the tale we told has and the Madrasas in Modern South Asia. chapter 27) published a lecture in Beirut summarized articles they found interesting from other despite complaining that his host "gave me time only periodicals. died 1959). and the latest word. neered new forms. 1999. Similarly. A similar case could be made for lectures. translated.

chapter 47). One set involved light. Arabic and Islamic Themes (London: of aspects of recent culture as a recovery of older or Luzac & Company. religion Germany has witnessed the upheaval of the shines. Intellectual Discourse and the Poli- 82. by contrast.81 A third set Islamic modernism to secular modernism. practices. such as the "principle of move- case of Hasan Taqizada (Iran. 54. in a moment of Modernists described this revival with a handful respect for the West. University Press. 1868-1923. A second set of images in. Translation from Urdu by Muhammad Qasim Zaman. awakening has encompassed the Muslims. 1995). "Masjid-i Qurtuba" (Cordova Adeeb Khalid. drew on parallel imagery: of recurrent metaphors. number 4. The descendants of the Greeks. 496. more authentic culture. p. bridge. cational Book House. aged by their or light). volume 16. Oasis Identities: Uyghur Na. pp. p. and Persian. but the The sanctity of the temple priest has been person who follows the religion. 201. Ralph Russell. customs." began a poem posted turns. homeland must erase existing cultural forms. without any exception save language. which from nur (light).&2 A fourth set of similation of the culture. Muhammad Iqbal. . A. and anonymity. ed. lowliness. arts. ply because it comes from others." ocean. let us see what colors the sky now "Awake ye Arabs and recover.83 around Beirut and Damascus in 1880. munawwar al-fikr (enlightened of thought). "Truly. Hidden in the Lute: An Anthology of Europe. "Truly. and the whole attitude of 77. life. [but] this is a divine secret which the in an optimistic moment. 1997. Tola asarlar toplami (Complete Collection of Works) (Tashkent. L. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 17 The grain that grows upon our land has images involved rebirth and renewal. organi- zation. Translation from Uzbek by 83. used in Arabic. Kazakh!" in 1911. erence to the Protestant Reformation in Christianity. 1865-1939. Justin Jon Rudelson. 255-269. (chapter 34) worried that Muslims "will sleep forever Let us see what springs from the bottom of this in the land of dishonor. and ziyali (person associated with ziya. Mosque).79 "Awaken. have become youthful volved awakening.80 and "Awaken! Hey! Uyghur. often with ref- changed. 1974). 1997). The Reconstruction. First published in tionalism Along China's Silk Road (New York: Columbia 1933. "The National Liberation Move. England: Cambridge University Press. especially if we had p. India: Edu- 81. has overturned the world of the Westerners. also in tics of Modernization: Negotiating Modernity in Iran (Cam- Kurzman. Hamza Hakimzada Niyaziy. pp. and the delicate ship of thought has incorporated into the words for "intellectual": embarked on its course. This effort must com- bine "religious renewal and earthly renewal." Iqbal (chapter 41). Iqbal." Central Asian Survey. as in the involved motion. In the words of Khayr al-Din 79. who fa- ment" that Iqbal sought to recover in The Reconstruc- vored "absolute submission to Europe. 78. chapter 31) wrote today. but later it appears to become dull. 2000). justified the erasure Carcanet. p. "There is no reason to reject or ignore ment of the Kazakh Intelligentsia at the Beginning of the 20th something which is correct and demonstrable sim- Century." wrote Rida (chapter 6). Liberal Islam. 1988-1989). 119. p. it is not religion that becomes dull.77 ers. pp. which has erased all marks of Achmad Dachlan (Java."84 Two Centuries of Urdu Literature (Manchester. in Kulliyat (Complete Works) (Aligarh. Those who fa- [Turkestan]" in 1918." wrote Reformation. Less optimistically. 148. 139-170. as in the European Enlightenment. England: Islamic modernists. 308. Ottoman Turkish. (chapter 2). worship of antiquity. Tibawi. Fitrat tongue is unable to express." Such imagery was nullified. 84. 1878-1969). Ali Mirsepassi. vored almost complete erasure crossed the line from it is time to awaken" in the early 1930s. A revolution has brought this about." Ahmed The soul of the Muslim has a similar ferment Aghayev (Azerbaijan.78 a motif The modernists disagreed vehemently among adopted in the poetry of Central Asian nationalism: themselves as to the extent to which cultural revival "Waken. 391-392. 80. volume 2. sciences. "Throughout the world a spirit of again with the pleasures of renewal. we are in a dire need for renewal and renew- In all the realms of nature all has changed. Uzbekistan: Fan. derived The French have also seen a revolution. Gulnar Kendirbay. 1995). the same The distinctiveness of the modernists lay in seeing way Europe has done with religious reformation and modernity as a promising avenue for cultural revival. earlier times. pp. "Originally. used in Uzbek. and the as- tion of Religious Thought in Islam. 145. modernization.

Press." and put it to use. An Age in Motion: Popular Radi- 1999). and lack of discipline" are said to jus- rights that "Islam had already proclaimed . Khayr al-Din (chap- constitutes one of the main reasons for the spread of ter 2) praised societies in which "the circulation of Islam in the world." In more provocative language.85 Arabs such as and an Islamic Communist movement emerged to the Kawakibi (chapter 19) objected to Ottoman Turkish left of the social democrats in Indonesia in the late "use of the term 'Arab' for slaves and black animals." elsewhere. Natalie Mobini-Kesheh. Put bluntly. 1925 (Berkeley: University of California Press. 1865- (New York: Oxford University Press. "It is this spirit of democracy which modernist Islamic movement. Community and Identity in the Netherlands East Indies." and expressed the "vital racial in. Great Britain. Marmaduke Pickthall: British Muslim ter 4. Takashi Shiraishi. with figures such as Hadji Mohammad Mis- Non-Arab Muslims such as Marmaduke Pickthall bach (Java. Peter Clark. A similarly scientized view is evident in Maghribi's Halide Edib Adivar (Turkey."91 Support of capital- to "the struggle between aristocracy and democracy. they oppose or defy the commands of God . . Bernard Lewis. p. 1986).: Cornell Southeast Asia Program. . 69.. circa 1876-1940) criticizing Salim and (England."88 who can cause it to increase. pp. N. chapter 28) discussion of women.89 Adivar's reference to race introduces the issue of Modernists also adopted a second form of social purportedly biological social hierarchies. The Modernist Muslim Movement in In. Aziz Ahmad. in luxury and social evolution. sand years ago. but they pick are still 'the patrons'. Bakhsh (North India.: Cornell University 88.. and other. for example the cam. they perform dency among Arab scholars to "think that the Arabs the precepts of the religion of Islam.87 Salim likened this in [the system of] Capitalism. . Those men'. chap- 86. and choose those precepts that suit their desire." Salah al-Din Khuda Yet modernists—Muslim. Some modernists fa- modernists valued along with other "scientific" doc. p. p. Christian. donesia. which hierarchy. Wilfred Cantwell Smith. . just zurrahman Sihvarvi (North India."92 hierarchy and evolution of human capabilities. Certainly many Muslims engaged (chapter 49). 91. and Muhammad Hif- in racial discrimination prior to the modern era. Islamic Modernism in India and Paki- 87. and the Mastery of the Sudan. . . 285. 201-204. (London: Quartet Books. other Islamic modernists: "To be sure. . 89. 1990). but people who invested in modern economic and cul- Maghribi (chapter 27) is typical of many modernists tural enterprises and those who did not. vored social-democratic reform—notably Salim trines of the era. a thou. in Africa or China for example. that of capitalism. 1875-1936) detected and detested the ten. Eve Troutt Powell. . denouncing in mentioning groups at a particular "stage in their the latter for their "submersion . . whose "weak self-confidence. Similar views have been documented in Egypt and stinct" of "the Turkish soul. 92. Deliar Noer. 91-107.Y.Y."86 One modernist theme was the erasure that do not suit them they throw away. tify the lesser value of their courtroom testimony. 2002). and the non-Arabs their 'freed. 32. calism in Java. profits increase accordingly. 1946). . 64. p. 1901-1962)90— as Europeans and others did. 1882-1964. 1857-1964 (London: Oxford University Press. 1900-1942 (Singapore: Oxford University Press. and paign in Southeast Asia to allow female descendants rather fear and love the will of Satan—that Satan of the Prophet Muhammad to marry Muslim men whose evil influence is apparent in this present age who did not share this descent. . Those who extinguish this spirit capital is expanded. pp. wrote that "all-round Westernization" reinforced gullibility. N. don: Victor Gallancz. 1900-1942 (Ithaca. of these racialized distinctions. there is an obligation to restore it position of their temperament to adopt polygamy.18 Introduction formerly possessed it and it had been taken from us. Modern Islam in India (Lon- 1973). Different Shades of Colonialism: 85. Race and Slavery in the Middle East Egypt." ism was indeed the dominant economic theme in the and concluded. ." 1910s. 90. 1877-1931) espoused the right wise—replaced older forms of racism with a new of Muslims "to attend to their religious obligation version based on scientific research into the alleged without sacrificing their worldly prosperity. constrained by their social situation or the dis- On the contrary. 1990). It may Modernists made a moral distinction between rich be unfair to single out a particular author. . The Hadrami Awakening: stan. in this anthology.. 1967). and belong to those who hamper the development and wealth is put into the hands of the most proficient spread of Islam. 1912-1926 (Ithaca.

. Netherlands: Brill.101 In relation to Sufism. Tagiev and rationalism on thoroughly Sufi grounds.99 The profit to be had grows weak and vanishes. Jo-Ann Gross. and a nation that has lost its civilization cially the veneration of saints. A. rev. Turuq and Turuq-Linked Insti- Identity and Change (Durham. Islamic p. that the modernist movement was bankrolled of debate. Pakistan: Islamic Research In- Kashgar: New Light on British. 1973). p. pursue everything Western we shall destroy our own modernists held Sufi practices to be abhorrent. adoption of Western culture. "The Azerbaijani Bourgeoisie and Elizabeth Sirriyeh. Taste of Modernity: Sufism. ernists as a whole. Bahithat al-Badiya who defended Sufi mysticism as both "the basis of (Egypt. Salafiyya." in the existing customs where necessary while maintaining words of Kawakibi (chapter 19)."100 and trying to ban the commercializa- neither Eastern nor Western.: Duke University Press. Sufis and Anti-Sufis: The Defense. with all the weaknesses of the one without as to other Islamic practices and beliefs. Modern Reformist Thought in 93. Colonial Encounters (Algeria and 95. ed." in Press. Audrey Altstadt. Rebel and Saint: Muslim No- 1996). 1993). Islam in the Balkans (London: Hurst & Company. Norris.97 Some Islamic modernists worried about wholesale and 'Ubaydullah Sindhi (Sindh. Netherlands: 1992). Mazheruddin Siddiqi. a leading merchant who supported Is. England: Curzon. Clancy-Smith. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 19 carnal appetites. 222. T.93 or H." according to heretics of Europe and its liberals."95 Modernists aimed these critiques at one another. Z. J. al- lamic constitutionalism in eastern Turkistan in the Jaza'iri (chapter 15). Brill. P. but something in.96 Some other industrialists who supported cultural reform modernists wished to maintain certain Sufi practices in Azerbaijan in the late nineteenth and early twen. and the matter deserves systematic ject and what to maintain was frequently a subject study.."98 More commonly. Julia A. stitute. 1872-1944). Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of 101." in Ronald thinking and Rejection of Sufism in the Modern World (Rich- Grigor Suny. and Arabism in Late Ottoman Damascus (Leiden. suggested that "If we ception of a universal religion." Aghayev warned. the most influential modernist in Damascus. the scope the qualities of the other. tables. and their avoidance of any kind sidered themselves in happy equilibrium. and beliefs. while promoting Islam" and "an international or purely human con- education in modern subjects. Itzchak Weismann. chapter 5).C. E. N. 97. 164. such as Husayn Sufism. Netherlands: Brill. . "in imitation of the fame and earn more worldly profit. One becomes lifestyles. Macartney at the Muslim World (Islamabad. Transcaucasia. 96. 188. pp. Frederick de Jong and Bernd Radtke. p. p. C. "Simply to transplant grounds. p. All modernists. "Beyond Renewal: The Jadid Tunisia. Nationalism. One broad field of disagreement was the in part by industrialists and traders promoting topic of popular religious practices associated with international economic linkages. p. ed. just as religious conservatives aimed them at mod.94 Sufi organizations to develop into a political party. con. reformist Sufi leaders con- the "Westernized Oriental" as "Western only on the demned certain of their colleagues on similar surface. 1800-1904) (Berkeley: University of California Response to the Pressure for Change in the Modern Age. 1999). Frederick] de Jong. and Aghayev mocked others. 1994). "As a result. Edward J. 1982). Populist Protest. was a Sufi sage and justified his early twentieth century. ed. 1886-1918. Mysticism Contested (Leiden. 1890-1918 (London: Methuen. presumably. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 100. tion of religious practices. ties in Sinkiang. who urged Albanian tieth centuries. part 2. and Russian Activi. It is probably not the most important Islamic values. H. 98. eds. Skrine and Pamela Nightingale. rejecting of glory other than ostentation and wealth. including Frasheri." Rida (chapter 6) assailed from such practices lured sham clerics eager to "gain the faction of Egyptians that. 99. Chinese. 170. 94. Yet what to re- coincidental. tutions in Nineteenth Century Egypt (Leiden. 2000). who constitute the were overwhelmed in economic and political affairs. majority of the nation.. 157). is hostile to reli." Salim (chapter 49) criticized and so were destined to be crushed under the feet of "taqlid" of Western manners. the Muslims gion and despises the devout. Re- the Cultural-Enlightenment Movement in Baku. espe- civilization. 199-209. India. and Social mond. Fakhreddin (chapter 33). accusing them of "spending their lives in Western civilization to the Orient will only result in the pursuit of the things of this world and lavish doubling the misery of the Oriental. between. Some modernists had Sufi backgrounds— Baybacha. 19. Change." At the same time. 1999). Lazzerini. 1978).

men and women. 'Abd al-Raziq (Egypt.. the old and the young. §erif Mardin. in one of the earliest manifestos of Is. chapter 39) argued that "the A second major goal of the modernists was the Qur'an does not interfere in political questions. N. religious authorities and the then again in 1908. or moral. "A Treatise on the Meaning of Constitutional Government." life." not a "warden" or a "guardian. "reminder. "He but sharing the same laws. and constitutional Namik Kemal (chapter 17) quoted the Qur'anic in."102 Sayyid 'Abd al-'Azam 'Imad the people. Author. and Muslim States (Leiden. nor implementation of constitutionalism. protection of a growing list of rights. ed. lack morals. or in large countries" such as p. Suavi (chap- ter 16) argued that "democracy is the highest form of egalitarian government and the most in accord with 102. preferred some to of Muhammad are neither barriers to spiritual devel- others in endowments. constitutionalist movements around the Islamic tion of the first Iranian constitution." Mustafa Fazil Pasha (Turkey. 1988). Brill. fairness." 'Ali country. Islamic does it lay down specific rules of conduct in the Civil dictates on human equality were marshaled in support. or unity. the Ottoman Empire. p. No one can rule without the consent of justice incarnate. 104. descendants of the Prophet and non-Arab in 1909. J. Hamid Dabashi. there is no such thing as a democratic insti. of justice. intellectual." he ar. 337." trans. 105. Liberal Islam. 281. reduction to establish the legitimacy of constitutionalism.. "Equality means nothing Na'ini (chapter 13) quoted the Qur'anic verse. Iran briefly in 1906. mid-nineteenth-early These and other Islamic arguments accompanied twentieth century). pp."103 as it came to be understood over the course of the Modernists referred to a variety of sacred sources twentieth century: universal adult suffrage. 1829-1875) verses referring to the Prophet as a "warner" or a wrote in 1866. the right to delegate authority to the leaders and de- gued." Chiragh 'Ali (North Political Reform India. Tu- dient servants. after the colonial in- kings. serfs and nisia briefly in 1861 and then. And until we are regarded as equal in this against the absolute power of earthly tyrants. Egypt promulgated a constitutionalist docu- "God has not made any distinction among his obe. vants and masters. Prophets and messengers.J. ment in 1860. 1962). that Islam dictates human fate ing that kingship was not required by sacred prece- in the afterlife. and equality." and therefore cannot justify tyranny: "there first caliph. we had no right yet [reactionaries] declared it un-Islamic to struggle to do so. and so on. con- (South Africa. 32-34. then again masses. whether political. writing soon after the promulga. but them. (Sura 3. of monarchs to symbolic offices. The Genesis of Young Ottoman the holy law. in Said Amir Arjomand. opment or free-thinking on the part of Muhammad- countability. and politics is pose them. according to the laws sarily intend constitutionalism to mean democracy. the Ottoman Empire briefly in 1876. He made them equal in ac. the rich and the poor. chapter 8): "If God made cluding that "Absolute power belongs only to God. ans. but does not limit "the rights of the dent.20 Introduction and meaning of cultural revival was contested both junction. ity and Political Culture in Shi'ism (Albany: State Univer. Sayyid 'Abd al-'Azam 'Imad al-'Ulama' Khalkhali. and a fuller constitution in 1882. 1966).104 Ibn Badis (chapter 9) quoting a speech of the people.: Princeton University Press." al-'Ulama' Khalkhali (Iran. the leader and the subordinate." concluding that "the Qur'an or the teachings "[Although God. Netherlands: E. which needed a sultanate to 103. 1888-1966) quoted Qur'anic tution. no distinction between man and man. nor an obstacle to innovation in any sphere of able and the base." conclud- lamic constitutionalism. in 1959. . according to Abdullah Abdurahman they will be questioned" (Sura 21. Here too. most exalted. stressed that world. 1870-1940." but was "not possible when people Thought (Princeton. concluding that "the salvation of the state today is dependent upon the adoption of the method of consultation. Verse 159)." Similarly. social. 1844-1895. Law.105 Muslims. with no distinction between the honor. "And seek their counsel in the matter" within and outside the modernist Islamic movement. are all equal and Yet the modernists of this period did not neces- partners in their obligations. Verse 23). concluded that "It is the people that have are no Christian politics or Moslem politics. and being equal before [God] cannot be questioned about what He does. Dustur: A Survey of the Constitutions of the Arab sity of New York Press. Kurzman. "for there is only one justice. ser." wrote Tahtawi (chapter 1). terlude. ed.

was to hold the sultan's ministers ened majesty. of modernist Islam sacrificed political reform alto. for 1964). Afghani continued. The power of science." making Afghanistan "the beam of ing sufficient state power to effect societal changes. the monarch suppressed an Islamic English have reached Afghanistan. number 4. era and their influence on later European scientific 1908) (Ankara. and these finite thoughts cannot function. the French have constitutionalist movement in 1909. and population. he will see that science rules the world. gion. 1994). Ignorance had no al- abandoned hopes for constitutionalism and chan. 110. the scale of justice and equality in Asia. Afghan modernists such as Tarzi (chapter 14) fests its greatness and power." This oppositional pair. ernist Islamic authors made the parallel explicit. and precision." International Journal of Middle East Studies. Rejali. this statement by Afghani (chapter 11): ing. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 21 remain "in conformity with its geographical location. developments. In Afghanistan. In reality this usurpation. but that the contrary should cause a dimi. 89. So- age of ignorance (jahiliyyd). vol. Timothy Mitchell. Tarzi praised circumstances."106 eloquent speakers and sages have already expressed Other modernists reversed the order and consid. died 1909). advancement. and an administrative system duly complied Science and Education with be the causes of an increase in wealth. Maulawi Muhammad and conquest have not come from the French or the Sarwar Wasif (Afghanistan. their thoughts to explain science and its nobility. he wrote. 48. movement's religious leader. Islam and Politics in Afghanistan ume 29. Turkey: Turkiye 1§ Bankasi Kiiltur Yaymlari. counting the scientific advances of the early Islamic 1895-1908 (Political Thought of the Young Turks. Darius M. and acknowledging its submission. and will be no ruler in the world but gan of "Union and Progress. for the reverses suffered by the Islamic world: "The for example. and State in Modern Iran (Boulder. p. Colo. and British Imperial Policy in Afghanistan during the 19th and Early 20th Cen- turies. and property. order"107—a view expressed in the Young Turk slo. A cartoon in Mulla Nasruddin. Torture and Modernity: Self. p. in the world-view nution in all of these things. except no end or limit to science. as in a 1903 Egyptian educational text: "There is How difficult it is to speak about science. England: Curzon Press. There is no way to educate and strengthen something. 1895. Clergy." whose "ever-increasing innate talent and In addition. 1988). position between the age of Islam and the pre-Islamic 107. thousands of speed. Jon Tiirklerin Siyasi Fikirleri." its virtues. 1997.: Westview Press. he concluded. §erif Arif Mardin. executing the seized Tunisia. Asta Olesen. p. "science" versus "igno- rance"—denigrating all forms of knowledge aside 106. ing by consent would increase the state's effectiveness. numerous mod- ciety. Senzil Nawid. p. 598. Their solution to this dilemma lay in the idea that rul. and Government without a King. . capability has caused continuous growth and tween limiting state power to protect liberty and build."110 God's custom in His world that justice. as in role of the state lay in cultivating consent through train. 119." Elsewhere. were "security and the question. ternative to prostrating itself humbly before science neled their energies into lobbying the king to an. 1995). re- 108. The benefits of science by training and drilling it in the performance of its are immeasurable. "State. Despite this. would resemble in- as in Khayr al-Din's formulation (chapter 2): "It is organic substance or a car without an engine. is. Modern science held such power. accounted gether for the sake of other reforms. constitutionalists faced a tension be." The best to be hoped the king in lavish phrases as "his great and enlight- for. good manage- ment. Indeed. 109. peoples. encompass what is infinite. that it could only be described adopted the recently developed European view that the in terms generally reserved for divine entities. aggression."108 Indeed. a nation or fatherland "without Government. one strain science. Besides. (Richmond. Thus I say: If someone looks deeply into wrote an Iranian educator. Rather it is science that everywhere mani- after. There was. nature does not permit me not to explain The "first conditions of any progress and reform." Some modernists of modernist Islam. the beacon of the nation and the reli- accountable to an elected parliament. English.109 There. nounce social and economic reforms. Colonising Egypt (Cambridge. ered state power the prerequisite for all other reforms. until it can accomplish it with smoothness. from modern science—paralleled the traditional op- England: Cambridge University Press.

many leading coupled with dismay at later stagnation.. suggesting that centuries of scientific stagnation sistent with Islam. distinguish. importation was problematic. pp. 'Abduh. science along with the belief that science was con- ther. 114 coreligionists who lived eight or ten centuries ago.. Livingston. Nikki R. p. Gasprinskii (chapter 29)." Muslim World. 111. 1909. sought to pro- fruit. Translation 114. a seed should decompose in the earth in order to bear founder of the Aligarh school in India. . criticized Western-style schools for trying to turn Muslims into Europeans. as if the Qur'an was delivered over ley: University of California Press." conquest.300 years ago just to endorse in advance. Mulla Nasruddin. 1962). numbers 3-4. ence. Others attributed the shift to internal de. Abu'l-Kalam Azad. pp. invoke the Qur'an to lend its support to the achieve- in An Islamic Response to Imperialism: Political and Reli- ments of modern research in the different spheres of gious Writings of Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani (Berke- scientific thought. and was in turn accused of atheism by conservative velopments. published in 1930. showed a speaker castigating an audience: 1. but by India: Asia Publishing House. 1972). which The Europeans borrowed many things from us." trans. was perfectly intrigues and attract benefits?" understood by the Muslims. 65-80. xl. with the result that its very genus has changed.113 The danger of atheism helped to moti- gious elite "tried to stifle the sciences" and "was vate education reform. p. such as Ameer 'Ali's science might result in Muslims' rejection of Islamic emphasis on destruction wrought by the Mongol faith. she planted that seed. 1995. That seed decomposed. "Muhammad 'Abduh on Sci- from Azeri by Hasan Javadi. Afghani accused Ahmad Khan of "naturism. chapter Islamic science was a foreign import. modernists also worried that excessive respect for uted the shift to external forces. May 17. Some attrib.. trans. The knowledge that Europe derived from the scholars of Islam was very 112. not an expres- 43) credited the Prophet Muhammad as well for his sion of the original Islamic spirit. While Pride in the past greatness of Islamic science was expressing deep respect for science. tion was a favorable sign of Islam's openness. which was intended to com- marvelously served in its designs by despotism. 1849-1928. The tists] could find out for themselves without the aid Europeans have taken our ancient science and of any revealed scripture. [European scien- hadiths about science being obligatory upon all. Along similar lines. and bringing him view of Khayr al-Din (chapter 2): "If it was permis- into the closest affinity with the modern world of sible for the virtuous ancestors to take such things thought. 130-171. . The deductive objection can there be today to our adopting certain method. pioneer ofjadid schools in however. It is natural that national language!" Ahmad Khan (chapter 40). none of the things in their hands today is the Russian Empire. Ameer 'Ali continued. volume 1. "The Refutation of the Materialists. First present. The Tarjuman al-Qur'an (In- terpretation of the Qur'an). then what nated over all its achievements. volume 85. Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani. Syed Abdul Latif (Bombay. would-be reformer of undermined any pride in past accomplishments: al-Azhar in Cairo.22 Introduction example. developed "a true and to translate it from Greek when they saw it as and strongly marked scientific spirit. which domi. 224. Keddie and Hamid Algar."111 Ameer 'Ali (Bengal. Yet this importa- "devotion to knowledge and science . in the ing him from all other Teachers. hitherto proudly regarded as the invention skills that we see we greatly need in order to resist and sole monopoly of modern Europe. centuries. what for centuries. excoriated Russian-educated something that was borrowed from our ancestors. A countertheme in modernist Islam held that early ward. Sayyid Jamal ad-Din "al-Afghani": A Political Biography (Berkeley: University of California Press. Azad ridiculed the attempt "to 113. but we have remained back. being among the beneficial instruments. in the "Sirs! There are hundreds of [Qur'anic] verses and form of riddles." The intellectual centers of the early Islamic as logic from outside their own religious community. as in Afghani's accusation that a reli. scholars." pete with European-run schools by teaching modern Frasheri (chapter 18) took this accusation a step fur. 1968). p. considerable by [the standards of] the time. Muslims who knew European languages and sci- Europe borrowed a seed of civilization from the ences but were "unable to read and write in their own Islamic world.day standards it is nothing. John W." For others. Nikki R. Keddie. 12. that is to say from our ancestors or more precisely our he likened to making chickens lay goose eggs."112 reached civilization. the cycle has been repeated many times.

women's association in India called for an end to eth centuries. ed. Aligarh's First Generation man. wife. including military service. emphasizing the Qur'anic guarantee of tion to every corner of the world. Women's Movement."115 "Many of the ways [the Prophet] used to treat his wives we see today as inappropriate and unsuitable. The Azerbaijan of the modernist Islamic movement was the promo. 101. 1906-1929. a various sorts in the late nineteenth and early twenti. when you demand your polygamy. "In Pursuit of the Ottoman Ph. Remaking Women: Feminism 1890-1975 (New Haven.J. but published early years of Islam engaged in. though. p. Muslim Women in Mombasa. p. One focused on the fusal that Adivar (chapter 28) called "perhaps a bless- rights of women. emphasized. Afsaneh Najmabadi. 158. a pioneer in women's education in the danger of being identified with party politics. even one nineteenth-early twentieth century) told a women's who had himself called for such a ban. p. p." since women have thus "been protected from gal. 105. we are at the eve women's right to equal treatment by their husbands. gender did not nec- say that women will become wanton and unruly. Brill.: Princeton University Press. Russian Azerbaijan. 78. In 1917. Martin's tion and Muslim Social Reform in Colonial India (Delhi.123 Qasim Amin (Egypt. Conn. p. 2d ed. which accords women an equal "Islamic" dress—which Western observers took as right to education. Modernists justified girls' 1918. Representation and Discourse.ing.. left "the inner spirit dead.People's Republic granted women's suffrage in tion of girls' schooling. 1998. meeting the same year." in Zehra F. Nonviolent Soldier of Islam: Badshah Khan. 1996). and Modernity in the Middle East (Princeton. "Pay atten. ed. Kamp. a 115. Gail Minault. why do you deny it to of first wives.: Princeton 1979). 1863-1908. defended hijab. 1999). so that it would not infringe on the rights freedom [from the British].122 yet the republicans in Turkey refused. University Press. The World of Muslim Women 290. Calif. pioneering educator and The rights of women extended to a variety of be. 1998). took a more radical Islamic regions began to demand gender reforms of position. p. Liberation. Rokeya Sakhawat Hossein (Ben.121 Similarly. "Crafting an Educated House- 119. J. "Unveiling Uzbek Women: (Tomales.be stopped for political reasons. and South Asia. 110. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 23 vide an Islamic response to English education." in Lila Abu-Lughod. According to Maghribi (chapter 27). chapter 4).other (male) modernists were scandalized. the women have no enemy. the (male) All-Russia Muslim Con- women?"116 Similarly. calling for a complete ban." a rights women should enjoy. University of Chicago." ference in 1926: "The opponents of female education As these examples indicate. Marianne R. Swietochowski. 123. p. 120.120 In 1918. Eknath Easwaran. pp. that women of the died 1919).their activities outside the political world could not tial address to the Bengal Women's Education Con." 117. "O Pathan. "The Prophet himself says divided modernist Muslims along ideological rather that women and men both should be educated. In Iran. N. 1998)."119 than gender lines. 1978). Aside from edu- "Except for the Pathan.: Nilgiri Press. many others.J. a re- schools on various grounds. 129. Secluded Scholars: Women's Educa- Images of "The Turkish Woman" (New York: St. conference in Istanbul in 19II. . 1998).D. 289- 118. 145-146.. haviors. 117 modernists debated women's right to divorce and Among the most common themes in this segment their right to participate in politics." such as camel-racing with his wife and watching Women's Rights entertainment together in a mosque. N. p. Sonia Nishat Amin. women—and men—in many gress. 122. among a potent symbol of Muslim women's oppression."118 As Mazrui (chapter 7). Margaret Strobel.editor Maryam Amid Muzayyan al-Saltana (Iran. A Man to Match His Mountains." Fatma Nesibe Hamm (Turkey. 1880-1932). Aral. dissertation. 129. Netherlands: E. 1876-1939 (Leiden. Deconstructing 121. which (chapter 33). modernists disagreed as to which He is clever but is ardent in suppressing women. born circa (Princeton. India: Oxford University Press. Aynur Demirdirek. cation. a woman. mid. 105. and Nazira Zein-ed-Din (Lebanon.: Yale University Press.polygamy. Even hijab—modest basic tenets of Islam. wrote Fakhreddin the work of other Iranian women who objected to it. emphasized this theme in her presiden. 116. in Colonial Bengal. Fie! essarily predict a modernist's position on any particu- They call themselves Muslims and yet go against the lar aspect of women's rights. David Lelyveld. Press. using an Islamic discourse. Muslim Pathan woman named Nagiria wrote in the journal women's organizations in Russia urged limits on Pushtun in 1919. of a revolution.

Islamic Legislation. 147. Opening and Veiling (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Conn. 1990). both of which are equally indispensable. by contrast. 1980). ed. while the founder of the Soci. . 223. . justified modern education on the that illiteracy presents. volume 2. while Rida (chapter 6) and Kazim. pp. instinct. The Women's Awakening in Egypt 129. the more aware she is of her responsibili- of civilization you aspire to. Babikr Bedri. eds. held that ety for the Progress of Women. . or in ter 4) adopted the language of women's rights but whatever profession she works. 127. .: Yale University Press. pp. In Ahmad Khan's words: "The learning that will be beneficial today to women is the same that benefited 124. Perfecting Women: Maulana (Tunis. On the contrary. Tunisia: Maison Tunisienne de 1'Edition. 1990)."126 the view—common in global scientific discourse of A second strand justified girls' schools on the the era—that education desexed women: "No mat- grounds of benefit to society. Indiana University Press. . a woman. 222-224. Even quite conservative religious scholars. (New Haven. from among her relatives or fellow diseases. 126. despite all the grave girls' schools in the Sudan. Niliifer Gole. First published in 1928. of California Press. Zaynab Fawwaz (Lebanon. 1994). a thing which would and culture."128 priate for women to perform certain forms of work A variant of this argument. and then some. Margot Badran and Miriam Cooke. inveighed against hijab. But this trans- the era. considered it appro. went beyond the currently being wasted.. men from marrying foreigners. The Forbidden Modern: Civilization 128. women to their children and in many respects even Egypt. Barbara Daly Metcalf. "Unveiling and Veiling. 47-48."127 Training women for these roles—notice the Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanavi (North India."129 accomplishment of her duties as mother of the fam. . responding to turbing "third sex. 1860-1914) objected to any limits on had its effects on their husbands. dangers for our present society and future generations 1860-1954). that it may well constitute a third strand. First published in 1930. died 1953). formation would not occur through employing and Bahithat al-Badiya (chapter 5)."130 This line of rea- women's usefulness: "man and woman are equal in soning allowed some modernists to call for limits on mental capacity and are two members of one social girls' education. Nazira Zein-ed-Din.124 a woman.125 men. without these activities preventing the bring to nought our efforts in educating them. Haven't you seen ignorant women and peasant sists of liberating your women from the bondage of women ignore their crying child for hours? Were ignorance and hijab [here. prefer. 1864- gendered limits of Haddad's list. rearing. such as ily. could support women's education on the association of women with family—would allow grounds that ignorance. women in men's occupations or men in women's fended it.24 Introduction 1905). 1996). Bahithat (Egypt. home economics. 101-106. plus the recurrent 1943). 1899-1935) attacked those "condemning or in reading and writing?" The founder of the first women to eternal ignorance. ter how much a mother has been educated. Beth Baron. associated such work with a dis. Babikr Bedri (Sudan. This would help to prevent our educated and all the functions involved with health. p. Liberal Islam. p. ties. 125. . It is critical that women grounds that it "would enable a girl to run her home have access to certain careers of social importance. in such a way as to attract educated young men of such as medical treatment of infants and women's her own race. 42.. occupations. "the ruination of the religion society to make use of human resources that were of the women of Hindustan. citizens. God in His creation has set laws whose transforma- ring the middle-class garb of Western Europeans of tion cannot be decreed [by humans]. women needed only to learn child- body." Tahar Haddad these women also occupied in preparing legal cases (Tunisia. the Gates: A Century of Arab Feminist Writing (Bloomington: p. It con. Tahar Haddad. Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi's Bihishti Zewar (Berkeley: University pp. 1978). Notre femme. Yusuf Bedri and Peter Hogg (London: Ithaca Press. and moral virtue. . Bahithat. de. teaching in orphanages and kindergartens. al-Badiya (chapter 5) made this case. and Society) 130. . this would not cause also linked women's education to the aspirations of her to forget her children nor to lose her maternal male modernists: "There is a way of raising your. la legislation islamique.. Fatima Rashid schools would make women better mothers. adopted so commonly outside of the home. p. the more enlightened she selves up to the highest level of civilization—the kind becomes. The Memoirs of Babikr Bedri. et la societe (Our Woman. 132. Qasim Amin (chap. trans. isolation]." in Kurzman. education.

276. with this army of vagabond softas [seminary students] 135. 1998). hadith for the requirements of modern political life. with these snuff-addicted preachers. 1897-1968). Islam and Modernity (Chicago. Fazlur Rahman. ers. 1997. we have. 1982). Refashioning Iran."132 The emphasis on women's role as mothers was Many observers of the modernist Islamic movement. volume 39. bemoaning "the brainy graduate of high culture"— pp. Not all observers have been so critical. I had made myself a romance about these re- readers by noting that certain women "have perceived formers. the vation and protection." Fitrat study of Islamic modernism that "we need not expect (chapter 34) accused traditional religious scholars of much to result in the way of uplift to Islam from ra- pederasty—"indecent acts with a beardless youth"— tionalizing and intellectual defence and pruning. Modem Movements among 134. who takes pride Queen Surayya Tarzi (Afghanistan.133 and a Turkish modernist accusing tradi. pp.: Mazda Publish. May 19. and to Protect. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 25 them in the past. Niyazi Berkes. eats sparingly. Tavakoli-Targhi. Senzil Nawid. versity Press. men who did not embody the ern Egypt in 1897. 1916). p. noting the "efforts. of theological tractates. Najmabadi. 111. dissertation. namely. timid voice be- morality. if he does produce any at all. religion and practical presumptively male—"whose low. 442-467. 136. p. the Orientalist Ignac Goldziher (Hungary. incapacitated liberating us [women] as he has been about our en- half of our body and have destroyed our subsistence slavement.135 The male modernist. 2d ed. 77. 1888-1914 (New York: Alfred A. Mulla Nasruddin. 1919-29 (Costa Mesa. and produces unhealthy children for all three sorts of arguments—benefit to family. The crisis and decline of the Islamic world that it won't amount to much. and women's rights—in consecutive modernists projected their conception of an idealized sentences in her announcement of the opening of the heterosexual family onto the nation as a whole. but I see that it has no substantial basis. We are weary of his despotism. homosexual. even many sympathetic observers. bene. Religious Response to Social Change 137. ity. 1997. The Development of Secularism in Moslems (New York: Fleming H. as did a cartoon in Mulla Nasruddin showing ample. complains of daughter of Mahmud Tarzi (chapter 14). "Nurturing the Nation: The Family Politics of the 1919 Egyptian Revolution. Afsaneh desires to own beautiful girls and boys in Para. My Diaries: Being a Per- in Afghanistan."131 tokens the dearth of soul in his body. 182. Revell Company." Male fit to society. 132. traditionally garbed men groping and kissing danc. rescinded his optimism after being attacked in west- nate men—that is." Comparative emasculation onto modern-educated Muslim men.: Yale Uni- University of Chicago. 133. One British supporter was associated in male authors' writings with effemi. 1992). an experience that "has convinced masculine roles associated with success in the mod. that is. tends to be "as despotic about women of education. me that there is no hope anywhere to be found in ern world. a Christian missionary concluded from his the men. Knopf. 378. p.D.: cal Roots of a Modern Debate (New Haven. 1850-1921). Studies in Society and History. mirrored in the modernist Islamic discourse on mas. in a large number ing boys. 221. whose ideas of faith do not go beyond voluptuous University of California at Berkeley. his community. combined sleepless nights. 1906. 138. in his submissiveness. (London: Hurst & Company. Samuel Graham Wilson. For ex- ity."137 the meaning and virtues of Humanity far better than In 1916. . drinking": "How can we restore the vitality of this as also for the requirements of progress in civil life great religion with these Shaykh al-Islams [religious officials]. 171. If we deprive Bahithat protested."136 with our own hands. Wilfrid Scawen Blunt. 1. have said all along culinity."138 identifying premodern maleness with homosexual. Lisa Pollard. number 3. to find support in Qur'an and tional religious scholars of "adultery. Leila Ahmed. p. Conn. Calif. in effect. 113- 134. better than our non-men. p. Malkum Khan (chapter 12) goaded male Islam. p." Ph. rep- country's first girls' schools in 1921: "Women are resenting the nation as a female in need of male sal- in charge of bringing up the future generation. Turkey. most important responsibility in life. 1922). sonal Narrative of Events. "The Erotic Vatan (Homeland) as Beloved and dise?"134 Iqbal (chapter 41) turned the image of Mother: To Love. It was not in vain that Hazrat Muhammad (may peace be upon him) made the ac- quisition of knowledge obligatory for both men and The Legacy of Modernist Islam women. p. to Possess. 1999). Women and Gender in Islam: Histori- 131.

ments—Algeria and Indonesia.).143 Chandra Muzaffar (Malaysia.144 emphasized the modernist aspects of modernist Islam. The Azerbaijani Turks (Stanford. By the 1930s. 1908-1976. its energies sapped ists. Riddell. p. vol- ume 83. Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr. The centennial of the death of Afghani recently led and by religious revivalist movements emphasizing a high-level official in the Islamic Republic of Iran the Islamic aspects. 1750s-1960s (Leiden. millions more par. "Modernism. Introduction to Islamic Theology 144. and Iran. Calif. socialism. even among the educated. 1950.. . the Sudan. N. old and new. for acy. 1997). 1993. the Arab World. "Religious Modernism in modernist-Islamic nationalism." The Muslim World. "Religious Links between Wang Jingzhai (China. Rachid al-Ghannouchi. Ignaz Goldziher. carry ernist Islam seems to have had greater staying power. number 1. inti. etc. the Soviet to praise modernism as "necessary for the survival Union witnessed the most spectacular denunciations of Islam at the theoretical. hun. 1979). 131. and of previous identities—Azerbaijani Islamic modern. the seeds of a new phase in the evolution of Islam. 1981)." The Iranian 140. This lamic modernists in North Africa and South and approach might find support in the resurgence of Southeast Asia. Malaysia: Aliran. 1879-1949. "These cultural tendencies. Islamic Movement. Princeton University Press. trans. Andras and Ruth Hamori (Princeton. Netherlands: Brill.'ammafi al- dawla al-islamiyya (Public Liberties in the Islamic State) (Beirut. pp.: (Penang. India. Audrey Altstadt. social levels. 1850 to c. Chandra Muzaffar. Mohammad Javad Hojjati Kermani. where Ya'qub 141." in Ulrike Freitag and William G. First pub. number 1. Lebanon: Markaz Dirasat al-Wihda al-'Arabiyya. practical.. At the same time. Scholars. ed. Clarence-Smith. pp. This split did not reconcile modern values and Islamic faith. where Ocean. contribut- the movement appears to have diffused beyond the ing to global intellectual trends shifting away from elite intellectual circles that spawned it. millions opposed interest in modernist Islamic figures among Muslim the modernist Islamic movement. juxtaposition of "modernist" and "Islamic. other approach might view the split-up of modernist dreds of thousands of families sent children to re. but sympathy for intellectuals of the late twentieth century. maut—where a "boomerang effect" brought modern- 143. Peter G."142 An- Thousands read modernist Islamic newspapers.141 In regions where Muslim tious optimism. pp. for example—mod- selves felt in various parts of the Muslim world. 1992). chapter 10) and other college graduates developed a 142. Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub (Sudan. such as West Africa or China. p. is its defining feature: the attempt to without the threat of Soviet purges. Rachid Ghannouchi (Tu- In midcentury.26 Introduction (the question of women. which republished excerpts from Ameer 'Ali and Azad." concluded with cau. scholars played an active role in nationalist move- mately related to religious life.224-229. The Universalism of Islam and Law. that are making them. and fascism. and other modern- movement was in serious decline. 93. the civil rights to Afghani. 'Abduh. al-Hurriyyat al. c. 1993). born 1941) has dedicated his recent work on pated. 43-45. and Statesmen in the Indian numbers in the 1920s and 1930s. lished in 1910. and the Hadhra."145 ists signed an open letter admitting that "we were The modernist Islamic movement's primary leg- deceived and mistaken" in their earlier views. chapter 52) and Hadhramaut and the Malay-Indonesian World. Admitting occur evenly throughout the Islamic world: modern- ist Islam was still arriving during this period in some regions."139 A recent critic has suggested that this bifurcation Many Muslims of the early twentieth century reflected a "disintegrative tendency" inherent in the seem to have agreed with Goldziher's assessment. 263.: Hoover Institution Press. nisia. fascism and communism. born 1947) has by secular nationalism. political.J. throughout the world—not just among Muslims— brated the constitutional revolutions in Iran (1906) during the Interwar period. the toleration of multiple identities. 236. the aspect that appears to attract contemporary example140—but similar transitions occurred even Muslim thinkers. with authenticity on the and the Ottoman Empire (1908). Among secularists. 1997. and the Islamic Revolution. ism via Southeast Asia. others only began to study in the Middle East in large Hadhrami Traders. Islam in terms of the weakening of liberalism formed Islamic schools. 145. such sympathies largely dissi. eds. volume 9. right and the "New Man" on the left crowding out ticipated in the anticolonial movements led by Is. 139. Journal of International Affairs. millions of Muslims cele.

Translations are famously imperfect. and globalized commodities markets have tive. such as references to European civilization as tional: "Both of these personalities are connected the world's sole civilization. and particular rights for women (as articulated ern terms. have rejected such an attempt. ed. then. with the modern concept of constitutional democ- rize the compatibility of such values with Islamic racy.146 cepts of citizenship and rights with the Islamic con- Accepting modern values as modern is only the cept of equality. Even Islamic revival. Nissim Rejwan. and we cannot mulations does not necessarily amputate the under. Some of the admis. 50. Mass education. Arabs Face the Modern World volume 3. the first personality from being scholarly. Critics may argue that these concepts faith. (Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Esposito. but the modernist Is- characteristically modern concern. who suggested that every human may strike later readers as embarrassingly foolish and is composed of two separate parts. inquisi- munication. the are imbued with modern values such as cultural revival modernist Islamic movement has taken up the task (defined in a particular manner). 118-123. ues into Islamic terms. and by international organizations). 1995). democracy (on West. and so on. p. pp. . science and education (as practiced glo. such as Taha Husayn sions generated in the first century of modernist Islam (Egypt. 146. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Is- lamic World (New York: Oxford University Press. and Islamic values into mod- bally). THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 27 that one has both modern values and Islamic faith is a coherent individual self. as- generated huge populations in the Islamic world who piring to the highest ideals?"147 More commonly. What. the modern con- roots." in John L. But rejecting such for. David D. Commins. "Modernism. 147. critical. This search for consistency may itself be a lose something in translation. and the second believing. Even some modernists the first step in this reconciliation. escape from either of them. with our constitution and make-up. 1998). The second step is to theo. the Islamic concept of consultation first step in reconciliation. modernist Islam involves particularly difficult pair- ists share many of these concerns—though they might ings: the Islamic concept of justice with the modern be scandalized by association with their modernist concept of law and judicial systems. as previous eras lamic movement argued that they gain something were less insistent on the discursive construction of through juxtaposition. is to hinder lying values. assured. 1889-1973). rational and emo- craven. rapid international com. through a process of double translation: modern val- ern lines)..

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1980). learned French. Thanks to Heba Mostafa Risk for her assis- by Charles Issawi. a speci- an Overview of Paris fied sum of money to the Treasury. (Beirut. Civil Rights Established for the French Article 3: Each one is qualified to attain any po- sition or rank. Upper Egypt. 102-105. The Extraction of Gold. or an Overview of Paris and The Honest Guide for Girls and Boys Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi (Egypt. pp. pp. fringe upon it except in rights that are stipulated in the law and in the way the law is deemed applicable by the judge. He then assumed the directorship of the Military School and participated in several educational reform commissions. whose emphasis on the Egyptian watan (homeland) constituted one of the first statements of nationalism in the Arab world. and became the mission's main translator. [The French Constitutional Charter of June 4. He also read the writings of major French thinkers. to a rural family of modest means yet with a line of descent from the Prophet Muhammad. and was only able to return four years later. Lebanon: al-Mu'asasa al-'Arabiyya li al-Dirasat wa Muhammad 'Imara. I Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi The Extraction of Gold. or Article 2: They pay. 1970). translated from Arabic by Ihsan 'Abbas. 1984). edited by Ra'if Khuri. 11-31. or an Over- view of Paris (Takhlis al-ibriz Ha talkhis Bariz). First 'asr al-hadith (Rifa'a al-Tahtawi: Pioneer of Enlightenment published in 1834 and 1875. 1973). Kingston Press. Khaldun S. 469-477.J.1 The Extraction of Gold. Tahtawi stayed in France from 1826 to 1 8 3 1 . and a book of guidance. In 1835. Article 4: Each one has an independent personal- 1814:] ity. 1983). Egypt: Dar al-Mustaqbal second selection from Arabic and introduction by Emad al-'Arabi. revised Eldin Shahin. Albert Hourani. in Modern Arab Thought (Princeton. Tahtawi translated two dozen French works and wrote several original books. pp. He studied for seven years at the famous al-Azhar mosque in Cairo. al-Husry. pp. Translation of in the Contemporary Era) (Cairo. he ran the School of Foreign Languages. al-Murshid al-amin li 1. Nobody may in- Article 1: All Frenchmen are equal before the law. 429-435. whose freedom is guaranteed. As a result of a falling out with Khedive 'Abbas (reigned 1848-1854). 67- Boys). where his mentor nomi- nated him to serve as religious leader for a student mission to Paris. Tahtawi was exiled to the Sudan. which produced thousands of translated works in various fields. including a didactic memoir of his experiences in France. al-A'mal al-kamila li Rifa'a 83. When he returned to Egypt. respectively. each according to his wealth.: tance with this translation. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age: al-banat wa al-banin (The Honest Guide for Girls and 1798-1939 (London: Oxford University Press. 31 . Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi. 180 l-l 873) was a pioneering figure in the Arab intellectual awakening of the nineteenth century. Rifa'a al-Tahtawi: Ra'id al-tanwirfi al- al-Nashr. Tahtawi also served as editor of the official newspaper and an educational journal. a program for the reform of Egypt. Tahtawi directed the Medical School. his own brainchild. then worked as a translator for the Artillery School. N. after 'Abbas's death. without distinction. Origins of Modern Arab Political al-Tahtawi (The Complete Works of Rifa'a al-Tahtawi) Thought (New York: Caravan Books. also excerpted here. excerpted here. in Muhammad 'Imara. volume 2. Tahtawi was born in Tahta.

The ghoul. Consider this first article: it has great Paris. denied predestination. by the common people. and lute justice as well as perfect faith. which the poet says: Article 7: The maintenance of Catholic and other When among the people of my time I found no Christian churches shall be met by money of the faithful friend to choose. the law being the one condition like that of the Chinese and the Indi- reference and the guide. Thus there is no point in limiting impossible things Article 6: The religion of the state is the Apos. advanced their cultural program has become. especially when zakat [alms the Parliament tax]. be considered as relative and not absolute. nowadays. Taxes might have some France. to have the head of an eagle and the body of a for the public welfare. the griffin. power in establishing justice. During my stay in anyone else. If it does. The And in it were happiness and sincerity. Treasury.32 Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi Article 5: All who live in France may profess their In general. who believe in transmitting arts and crafts from which the following verse applies: father to son by inheritance. with no intervention by any. from doing so. provided that it pays an ade. if justice exists in any country it must religion as it requires. for to rule according to liberty means to tion. the griffin. especially in that the wealthy are protected sive principles among the French. "All Frenchmen are equal not meet the need of the Treasury or are prevented before the law. so that of knowledge and their civilization is not limited to the ruler cannot wrong anybody. and booty can- The first article. must. his Qisas al-Anbiya [Stories of the Prophets] mentions lable and nobody shall encroach on the property of the story of the griffin and King Solomon and how it another. complete purity. and the faithful friend. to the ghoul. I never heard any complaint against taxes. which had to be inherited by his sons. as they are in that country. Legal Great Imam [Abu Hanifa. What One of its merits is that it encourages everyone to they hold dear and call liberty is what we call equity learn. so that all may be promoted to a higher posi- and justice. The second article is purely political. Christians. yet it does exist as a bird. It can be stated that had taxes been clearly set in Muslim coun- tries. whether high or low. [Ahmad ibn Muhammad] al-Tha'labi [died 1035] in Article 9: All property and possessions are invio. roots in Islamic law according to some sayings of the tion. provided that This is not true about the griffin. own craft." means that all those who live in from being levied totally. and the faithful friend. fay' [revenue from state lands]. reason for such a procedure. that is. quate price before acquisition. land-tax is the pillar of kingship" is an established self. "Kharaj proceedings can be initiated even against the king him. circa 699-767]. People do not mind pay- and satisfying the poor by convincing them that they ing. without distinc. they shall be assisted to accomplish that. according to [this his- . It is clear proof of against injustice and bribery. how highly justice is valued among them and how The third article does not cause any harm at all. be subject to the provisions of the law. because taxes are levied in a way that does no are great as far as legal proceedings are concerned. and other levies. and none of that money shall be allocated I became certain that the impossible things are for the maintenance of places of worship that belong three: to other religions. Thus the French could acquire different kinds establish equality through judgments and laws. Arabs and Franks [Europe- rogative of compelling people to sell their property ans]. does not exist. harm to the payer and at the same time benefits the This criterion has become one of the most comprehen. Article 8: No one in France shall be denied the right to print and publish their opinion. and judgment can be passed against him like maxim among ancient wise men. anybody who molests them in this shall be stopped and similar things do not exist anywhere. for abso- body. lion. then it shall existing species of birds mentioned by botanists. in helping the wronged imposts. It is true that the griffin believed Article 10: The state shall have the exclusive pre. because it is an it does not contravene the law. This is indeed a country to ans. be suppressed. A historian states that the law of the ancient Copts assigned to everyone his And justice filled it from end to end. this would have been Rights of the People Secured by a course of satisfaction. of tolic Roman Catholic faith.

. useful youth. and yearn and the vulgar. facts. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 33 torian]. which deserves its When I heard of him I heard of one. both domestic and foreign. sixth. and part of his inner self. making it thus a good lesson to others. [. . whereas if other crafts were whose breeze has reared him and in which he grew open to him he would prove to be successful and up. or deviation from. In people do not prefer any country to their homeland. for it helped them reach the degree of The ninth article is the heart of justice itself. if it could not be date news. and when I children's hearts to be inclined toward it. land. they still contain news It has been the custom that those who are away which the people may wish to know. . and air have raised him. with. is that all arts and crafts were considered gets to the courts and is dealt with according to estab- honorable. and lation of this country increased and its culture pro. [. for the pearl merits of the mother of the world and of the bless- does not lose its value because of the mean status of ings [that is. coming from the noble people. yearn for it. 770] said: what proves the freedom of humanity and The fourth. the case clear [Qur'anic] verses and hadiths [traditions of the . except the search for eminence. especially on reading the daily sheets ing keeps away sane people from their homeland called "journals" and "gazettes. he states his case in the orable place. They may also from the homeland where they spent part of their contain newly established scientific matters. Abu 'Amr ibn al-'Ala' [linguist and poet. This procedure was necessitated by cir. Thus the doer of good deeds is Nobody doubts that Egypt is an honorable home- encouraged and the doer of evil ones restrained. Thus one does not aspire to what is higher but directs his at. Free whatever occurs to him if it does not harm others. even if we refrain from calling it the most hon- man is wronged by another. For it to be followed by the tenth article is times and does not direct his desire to another craft. it appears to us that it is considered the first of all homelands in the world. whether they be Bedouin or city notices. unsuccessful craftsman. mere propriety.] So if we show some of the opinion given to you by a lowborn man. long for their beloved ones like the lion longs for its The eighth article encourages every man to express jungle. 689- achieve his aim. this way a man comes to know what his fellow men and are never patient being away from it. To confine him to it might produce an homeland whose soil. It is perfection in their arts. Sometimes the latter discover what the for it the same way people might yearn for the gar- former miss. It is the land of honor and glory in the newspaper to make it known to high and low. or profitable advice. Generous people gressed with the many foreigners who migrated to it. yearning for the return of compatriots. food. to propagate his knowledge and to say like the high-born yearn for their resting-place. high and low. Although these achieved within. lished laws. It is said: "Do not look down upon a great dens of Damascus. because the son usually im. Egypt]. [. Their Homeland it is reported in the paper. and much came in its praise in out any alteration in. The Bedouins regret leaving Najd. This method usually cut the roots of covetousness and kept everybody content with his craft. Thus the popu. past and the present. One of the great merits of the newspaper is that if a The Egyptians' Attachment to man does an outstanding deed.] Noth- are thinking. It is most saw him he was to me the whole universe worthy for the souls of its people who are separated Every kind of game is in the belly of the onager from it to yearn for it. weeping over the passage of time. A Discourse on the Homeland tention to inventing new things that can carry his craft to a higher degree of perfection. and made known to all people. whether good or bad.] abound with innumerable lies. fifth. cumstances. . the congrega- not everyone has the natural aptitude to learn his tion of his family. and rational people yearn for their country his opinions." A poet also said: His land. and seventh articles are very the generosity of its nature is the longing for home- useful for both natives and foreigners.. essential to curb the oppression of the weak by the proves on what he witnessed his father doing many strong. where he The answer to what this historian claims is that toddled and from which he emerged. The homeland [watan] is the nest of man. It is the father's craft." which publish up-to. and one man can represent all the good men. which is the quiver of God in the diver. If a land. .

in this sense are they patriots and natives.." as stated in the The Rights of the Citizen Noble Qur'an. as if it was the image of everlasting para. or give their views on issues. countries are both praised and insulted. the heir of Dar al-Salam [the House the enjoyment of civil rights and civil privileges. It was said: the world is Basra [a city Also. and those dangers have been re- . or to the a young bride adorned with money and beauty. the children of the homeland—those who origi- in Iraq]. They its people are dignified and strong. governor. Its exquisiteness of one man [united]. people of most nations. in addition to ness between them. Now single king. and morals. they adopted much of its brilliance in sci. so they are called "native". We say: Egypt is to the people. When rulers reigned by whim. [. One old times. upbringing—so may it be a place for mutual happi- enthusiasm. Its king is mighty. and those who and the order of their path unravels. and the insecurity of the homeland. The one nation should not be intelligence. as if the homeland were [. so that the system of their rule is disturbed tics is the abundance of currency in it. them except that who inflicted failure on them with mense. should not wish for his own happiness and the mis- ence and knowledge.] Some said: Among Egypt's characteris. and faiths. In general. ministration. and leadership. it is prominent in every art. Its share of civilization is im. Its kings and lead- ers were greeted as "mighty one. Their adherence to the rules of the coun- It is indeed across the nights and days a source try requires. The greatest of the old and the new. which gathered life's merits in it. prudence. the people had no way to oppose their rulers or defend the rulings of the shari 'a. it is sought for its beauty. doing what they pleased. . dise engraved across the earth by the divine hand has prepared them for cooperation in the reform of of wisdom. that they would be to one another like it nearly confined them in its corners and regions. the members of one family. Only of Peace. so they are called "patriot.." for example. and all else is a desert. and the adorn." By God's will. . and the states and kings of the world. insight. in entering under the care of a held jobs or positions below their qualifications.] It has the right to be respected by all nations ions for what follows from this of quarreling. made them equal and required them to be on the heart It is still the pride of every time. or money. mentation. contribute to matters of policy and ad- The wisdom of the One Able King [God] has so des. pleasantries. They were tined that the children of the homeland are always like foreigners in government affairs. and they only united in language. In hatred. most exalted. and not to take as an enemy for adorns every place. so they are called "Egyptian. especially that the shari 'a and politics led it to towering heights. it is the source of splendor and those rights is complete freedom in social association. implicitly. they are considered members of the community. 660-714] used to say: Kufa [a city it as their homeland—are affiliated with it: first to its in Iraq] is a beautiful young girl that possesses no name.. and homeland. Al-Hajjaj [ibn nated in it. meaning that ment of the territories of Islam. one of the greatest virtues." This means that is sought for its money and beauty. adhering to the hadith: greatest privilege in civilized nations. It now combines they enjoy the rights of their country. policy. land to be secure of their country and to enjoy their tics is that the Egyptian who seeks a homeland in freedom. . and Baghdad has no equal. another place lives in humiliation. has been denied to the it is secure and safe against the accidents of time. envy. "Love of homeland is part of faith. a description of heaven].] It is said: Among Egypt's characteris. This is what proves that God. On the Children of the Country and They were not able to tell their kings what they saw Their Responsibility as inconsistent.] the home of their parents and the place of their [Egypt is] described by all in terms of courage. until their country. and in following a single law and a single ideas have changed. his deceit. that the country guarantee them of happiness. . pleasant attributes. [.. God will never enrich dent enemy who does not like the people of the home- them. and it is the urban they follow the law of the land and assist in its imple- [city] of Africa. loved by the relate to it as organs relate to the body. This is the children of [other] countries. branched out into various parties with different opin- [. or those who came and settled and adopted Yusuf.34 Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi Prophet]. This is the evi- enter it and do not get rich. which engulfed the world and ery of others. This privilege. it offers benefits to the seekers of the Patriots are not characterized by freedom except when best.

the text the essence of true civilization to be considered and of which is: adopted. and serve multiplicity of its rulers. and that I shall sail on the seas shari'a. God's Prophet [Muhammad]. may peace it. If the children of the homeland advanced in civilization than another. its affairs The Responsibilities of the Citizen were ruined. May God be my witness that I before. even if they must harm themselves to do so. nor be. would ascertain that future laws and customs in my country. After being ruled by one it by offering all they possess. which involves who reached twenty years of age to give an oath that the lack of prosperity in the standard of living. failure beset the members of this nation. May God be my witness that I am willing to fight and prayer be upon him. that no prophet came with country and religion." Anyone who practiced the science of the whenever necessary in all conquests that the govern. and repel anyone who seeks to harm it the east and the west. it is understood that the Roman patriots can fill their hearts with the love of their home. is the reason it reigned over all the countries of the world. and the lights of right guidance reached beyond whenever there is a chance I would be able to assist the horizons. When the quality of patriotism was removed. fit and goodness. May God be all the rational deduction—which the minds of the my witness that I shall not tolerate anyone who dares people of civilized nations developed and used as the violate them or undermine their order. and whose inclination should be toward that which brings bene. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 35 moved from the children of the country. improvement of condition and status. throughout one's life. both for nations and indi- homeland. Their nation whose government is in disarray. proves morals and customs. and not toward anything that violates the fect existence to nonexistence. nation firmly adhered to the love of country. it was divided between two Caesars in the their soul. and make every one of them loved by the others. the Caesar of Rome and the Cae- same way a father would keep evil away from his sar of Constantinople. perity. they would have followed only my tray it or deceive it. The principles and rulings that arrived with "May God be my witness that I shall carry the Islam have certainly civilized all the countries of the sword of honor to defend my country and its people earth. There they would defend their country and their govern. state is disorganized. and ment orders. and the order of its system disintegrated Patriots who are faithful in their love of homeland by the numerous disagreements of its princes and the redeem their country with all their means. then the civil person more civilized than another with regard to the rights to which they are entitled will be lost. That is why you find one kingdom more toward the country. No motivates people to be inclined toward commendable one could be happier than the human beings who are qualities. fulfils civic perfection. All must always be directed toward the country's virtue its wars ended in defeat. Likewise. is no doubt that the laws delivered by the prophets are ment. They must also carry out their obligations viduals. Had my brother Moses and all the prophets shall not disturb the serenity of my country. The intentions of the children of the country one mighty force was split into two minor forces. been in my time. Civilization varies. Now. Individuals may differ with The quality of patriotism requires not just that regard to [the level of] advancement and improve- humans demand the rights they are owed by their ment. The love of home- land and the promotion of the public welfare are Civilizing the country allows civilized people to among the beautiful characteristics that get inculcated improve their physical and moral condition. This is what civilization is for the nation re- land. and that I pledge to follow present and learned its regulations and rules. and also one fail to earn the rights of their country. They required a pledge to this effect. Power that had belonged to child. and that land. true Based on this. constantly. siding in the homeland. because they have become members of it. fundamentals of fiqh [Islamic jurisprudence]. perfects socialization. said: "I was sent to you with with the army or on my own for the protection of the a clear Abrahamic shari'a. They redeem it with Caesar. the Romans used to force citizens Contrary to civilization is crudity. and it retreated from a per- and honor. and promotes pros- naturally inclined to keep evil away from their home. It im- into each person. In olden times. This is the fate of any rights of their countries and fellow countrymen. the country protects its children from all that harms them. because of its On Civilizing the Homeland possession of those characteristics." basis for the laws of their civilization and laws—hardly .

covered a new world. hostility decreases. tries of Europe. the Egyptian. promoting science and knowl. political books. and in a bottomless pit actions revolve. freedom of navigation and travel. in the homeland all humankind is equal. and indus. and combines religion and patriotism. with- ian. Similar to the science we call the fun. who put the printing houses under his laws." It was said to be invented by the Arabs Also among the reasons for civilization on earth: of Islam. and discovering the countries that can help was invented by none but the Europeans. government and should take a moderate path. while still desiring the home. inventing machines and equipment may say: the Arabs invented this machine. were saved by Louis XI. their re. for both reasons. and around which trans. conquests be. as. and the that facilitate the path to civilization by providing the Europeans worked to perfect and improve it. daily newspapers of the countries of Europe. the religion of the Prophet wars diminish. Zeal for one's country could be entirely for rea. and poverty and humilia. for example. unite Among the greatest supports to civilization is the against the foreigner to protect their country. Travel brought all the kingdoms of the earth fortune. best of people [that is. What we call justice and benevolence. which are among the fixed a magnetized iron needle. we achieve all this. It knowledge to write legal. love of country is but one of Among the things that helped to broaden the scope the branches of faith. ligion. Then printing reached the rest of the coun- rights or laws. It is said that the first inventor ward the North Pole. the king of France [reigned lating good and bad. Therefore. and wanted to kill them. The greatest aid in navigating the sea is the invention of the "compass. However. We find that parties. The Arabs of Islam used to travel to discover new struction. The only con- sons of citizenship and status. of printed books in Europe was the German nation. Inside it are drawn the and that it traveled from there to Chinese lands. It is a box. attentive Europeans followed their example and dis- tion vanish. to] the law of freedom of expression. The love of religion East and Egypt. Muhammad]. commerce. its chil. of the [Indian] Ocean and its shores. south. Then shrewd and ment and bondage end. and from there the countries of the they call freedom and equality. in which is sisted education and learning. they call civil protection. and the desire to protect it. on land and sea. or their kind. What we call the branches offiqh. the Yemeni. because of coarseness. [thanks land. Printing houses. despite their differences." which is the "house of On the Reasons for Civilization the needle. tion] through print and pictures. instability and revolutions become seas. stipu. literary. [The . They believed that printers damentals offiqh. upon which they base their civil 1461-1483]. They discovered countless lands and come less brutal. they civilized countless people on the islands rarer and disappear completely. advancing agriculture. and wealth. In sum. cause of blind ignorance. and never deviating from it. traveling to all sides of the [Indian] Ocean adhering to shari'a. they have the science of "natural were sorcerers. east and west. countries and bring their people to the religion of the tion advances among the kingdoms of the earth. always heading to- pillars of civilization. and the Syr. But for us. But the in this respect by disseminating [aspects of civiliza- practice has run to confine [this love] to religion be. around them revolve all the sciences of life and de. especially in the cause of its importance. and familiarity with the wonders of the world. out neglect or excessiveness. and to ways and means. The four directions: north. But they rights" or "natural law"—rational regulations. philosophical. Every Islamic kingdom is a kings' approval for scientists and possessors of homeland for all those in it who belong to Islam. except for a small deviation. and the protection of religion is of civilization in the countries of the earth is the the core of all pillars. It was [also] said that the house of the needle try.36 Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi go beyond those fundamentals upon which the people of France at that time were in a deep sea be- branches offiqh were built. whose adherence distin- guishes the people of Islam from other nations in Freedom of Opinion and Expression power and defense. The benefits of civilization are numerous. gions. [There was an expansion] of freedom dren are obliged to protect it. they call love of country. This could be the case dition is that [this freedom] should not destabilize the of the Qaysi. the people of Islam. previously unknown to the ancients. unlawful enslave. That is why some have said: as civiliza. to spread Islam to the barbarian nations of these re- edge. produce it in large quantities.

People may do as they please and their ministers are unrestricted in the different with themselves. People kingdom. most that what they say or write does not violate the laws kingdoms of Europe are masters of sea power. How. of the country. opin- the extent that satisfies its needs. The rights of all the people of the civilized king. which has a strong naval power. ers. for every member of the community—as deduced tion that desires many ships and ports must increase from the rules of reason. since one's conscience rests proper wood so that the naval kingdom can build its upon the goodness of one's behavior in dealing with fleet. trade. Over- most beneficial thing in demonstrating the sea power eating. Natural freedom originated with humankind. impenetrability and security. gious interpretation] on minor issues. social association is permitted. As a result. and their work. Among the advantages of sea power is that it Behavioral freedom involves commendable con- helps in promoting agriculture. died circa 944]. it must obtain the appropri. so that each individual has pledged to the oth- . ment has important ports that could be [world] lead. that is. They are ways [they formulate] political procedures. is not allowed. others. joining together to honor each other's are not restrained from dealing with their money as rights. and whose ports which cannot be matched in Freedom is divided into five types: natural freedom. ion. except in ing of the four original winds and the catastrophic accordance with the laws of the country. and doctrine. It is the attribute necessary especially in colonies outside the kingdom. ate ships through purchase from foreign countries to Religious freedom is the freedom of faith. ever. without ha. being feels secure in following one of the madhhabs tion. they please. then the kingdom of France and the Sublime The Types of Freedom State [the Ottoman Empire]. and as required by the in- the planting of forests and tree farms. and it will not be confiscated. principles of religion. and political freedom. Humans cannot suppress natural freedom Seas. the opinions of the heads of official administrations and each individual may move from one house to in implementing their principles. duct and noble morals. according to the codes of their countries. world. Ash'aris [followers of Abu'l-Hasan al-Ash'ari. on condition that it adheres to the tiful source to broaden the scope of civilization. With this [compass] the captains at sea are ion on any subject may not be muffled. and in adhering to it in matters of worship. except by a legal or political ruling in ac. centers of trade in all sorts of exports and imports. which are required by the principles of their politics and justice. the social community formed out of the people of the cordance with the principles of the kingdom. as long restrained only by the limits prescribed by law or as they refer to consistent criteria. like the doctrinal views of the which is built upon justice and public freedom. drinking. that they cannot do without. as is eating poi- of a kingdom is that its banner be allowed to sail in son. The human out an impermissible obstacle or a prohibited objec. and decrees another and from one place to another. 873- 925] and the Maturidis [followers of Abu Mansur al- Maturidi. and walking—things common to all power should be relative to its land power. just kingdom. Sea power is a plen. to grow the tegrity of the individual. The Egyptian govern. The na. without being considered unjust. obtained its freedom. Monarchs rassment or coercion. Among the rights of civil freedom is Civil freedom involves the rights of a city's resi- the human being's right not to be forcibly exiled or dents and communities toward each other. so long as accordance with the greatness of its dominion. In a kingdom that has applies to the freedom of political madhhabs. and in individuals. for that is good politics. The they do no harm to the individual or to others. for example. or eating other people's food without their the sea and to be respected throughout the seas of the permission. eat- Policy experts have said that a kingdom's sea ing. For example. their time. religious freedom. The same dom are based on freedom. If that is difficult. and the followers of On Public Freedom and Social Equality madhhabs [legal schools] who exercise ijtihad [reli- Freedom is the license for permissible action with. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 37 function of this compass] is to determine the blow. It is as if punished. laws. civil freedom. and industry. and aided by the advantage of the Mediterranean and Red molded it. on condition guided toward their destinations. behavioral freedom. the greatest sea power is the kingdom of the British. Their opin- wind.

It is not surprising for a kingdom. and as divine wisdom has decreed that hu.] they do not upon their rights when the government collects taxes oppose the individual. benefits to be generated. [In return. The greatest Freedom. and dom is associated with equality. Per- has thus guaranteed human happiness. combining toler. Clever people in agri- ance with firmness and reverence. try. It exists when ity is nothing but a protection of freedom. This is part of their duty toward their coun- condition that the individual does not trespass the try. This in real- Political freedom refers to the state. once they ever restricts them arbitrarily has stripped them of reach a lofty level in understanding the knowledge of a recognized right. The two rights [of the state and the all their inventions in books. and the gains. among those who live nearby and compete with the grated or humiliated. people will have to fight and repel him. actions regarding personal property. It provides a rea. expand commerce and continuously invent ing upon their rights. to reap public benefits and As freedom is naturally imprinted on the hearts of financial fruits. When education progresses and condi- freedom of the people of every kingdom can be tions improve. ated with justice and benevolence. and both are associ- their ruler. trade. is the greatest difficulty for the person who appreciates the benefits means for making the people of kingdoms happy. and expanded in practice. Human minds. welfare. world that have no freedom. It would not be surprising for the same humans. and industry. in all these meanings. dom. daily life. knowledge. Every member of the community will equip their minds with good judgment and [the is allowed to enjoy all that is permitted in the king.38 Rifa'a RafT al-Tahtawi ers to help them in all their activities that do not vio. because of their incomplete civil son for their love of their countries. and the expanded spheres of agriculture. If people feel obligated to serve their coun. mans be dignified above all others. People of that era strive to perfect the prac- nied by the justice of monarchs. and trade can record and document fear freedom. If the freedom of the people is accompa. and The Relation between Freedom that human beings have been inclined toward it for and Happiness centuries. right not to be coerced into doing what is unlawful Socializing people and improving their conditions in their kingdom. is considered to be a cation. The government the freedom of agriculture. and they all repudiate anyone to fight enemies or contribute to government expen- who would impinge on the individual's freedom. tice of their business and work. trade. people of that kingdom in these sciences. and not deni. limits of the law. and the practice of their natu. ral freedom without infringement of any kind. on ditures. will thus be multiplied by ruler and the ruled will both be happy. and is hurt by the enslavement of the nations of the every individual may engage in all legitimate trans. In short. industry. the state need not culture. the education. . and abundant profits and individual] will counterbalance each other. thriving day by day. where the sciences of management and banking have pro- gressed. Thus. Among the the state assures all of its people their legitimate and splendors of the nation's freedom is that this nation recognized property. and industry. Some wise people said: allow me to improve edu- without a legitimate reason. But the If freedom is built on just and sound laws. ditions of the whole world. then they will not consider it an infringement late the law of the country. and since the enemy transgresses by invasion. of the kingdom perceive their subjects as unqualified ing them happy in their countries. ability] to handle huge operations. it will reason for the restriction might be that the monarchs be a great means in comforting the people and mak. they will allow people the freedom of summed up in the right to do what is legal. also feels happy with the freedom of other nations. where their strong principles and solid foun- The Duty of the Free toward Their Country dations have been mastered. Evidence has proven that this freedom is of the greatest public benefit. and opposing the laws of the equipment and machines contributing to the public country. and thereby would be infring. for this freedom. Restricting what people are allowed to do. Who. mitting them is one of the principles of the art of governmental administration. so long as one The greatest freedom in the civilized kingdom is avoids harming one's compatriots. and I will devote myself to improving the con- denial of their recognized right of happiness. And free- dom to honoring their country. as civilization has advanced. their compatriots. so should they devote their free. of these arts is to see these spheres restricted.

and touch. and people owe one other. This is the highest level of justice. two ears. If their country suffers a mishap. Thus. without internal or external distur. It encompasses civil and public It makes sense. most exalted and glo- some to others in endowments. will establish its the saying of [the Prophet]. [states]: "None of you is a believer until a strong basis. Equality in rights is associ- the senses of smell. They must virtues and the basis for human society. ness or distastefulness. All are equal in their conduct. we find ways associated inseparably with rights. It is the cornerstone of the es- ity would be associated with freedom when the ban. and its kingdom will have upon him. . regardless of their status in the king- ral human quality. Equality means trusting all the people are all equal in this respect. All other virtues stem from jus- would be added: their concern for the continuation tice. rights requires equality in the responsibilities that tributes. because all people share common at. In any case. chivalry. principles devoid of inhibitions and doubts. they must to. and also in physi. attain. modesty. To this a third character managed without it." bances. of the Messengers prior to Islam. internal purity. It will be strong enough to defend its territo. without distinction. because and thus differed in moral makeup. and no one is preferred of the kingdom. Equality All people manage their property and rights in a Equality among the members of a society is a natu. civil rights to another. and revered by all. As humans de- tenance. tion. noble or mean. but with spe- of their country's stability and public welfare. the leader and the subordi. Each needs sus. taste. and the resolution of of country. love prevention of internal disorder. They form part of its attributes. the source of civil strife. which makes each one equal in dom. that this equality is illusory. sincerity of the heart. and being equal before them. are characterized by justice. attain. Some were world revolves are based upon rational and sound granted magnificent qualities while others were not. continues to observe this equality. threat. a wisdom that is weak. Obligations are al- But if we examine the matter thoroughly. two hands. Justice is a quality that lows that they must cooperate to remove a public induces humans to be rightful in words and conduct. obligations toward each other. some bodies being strong and others can perceive. equal. it fol. shari'a and nature. they must [in turn] fulfill their and have the same right to the necessities of life. The noble hadith. or prevent all that is stipulated by the Legislator. nate. Divine Providence has the legal and political obligations around which the already privileged some over others. and it is consis- ries. And although God. may peace and prayer Justice be upon them. or prevent legally. the cific names such as sympathy. and civilization. They responsibility. Each has two eyes. moral decency. and the like. as its removal would serve their public inter. ated with equality in obligations. with no distinction between the detests. may peace and prayer be freedom on firm grounds. moderniza- adhere to equality and forget privilege. unless shari 'a law has stipulated its right- honorable and the base. all are on equal footing in life. Some est. you love for your brother what you love for yourself. although the support of natural Equality in rights is nothing but the legal ability laws should not be taken into consideration unless it of the human being to do. and these are the products of justice. proper due from others. therefore. This nation is strong. This Those who perform their duties and receive their equality cannot be suspended by human legislation. If people can be proven to be equal in rights. Therefore. and fend off the aggression tent with the wisdom of the philosophers and the laws of its neighboring kingdoms. most exalted. Any nation that considers generosity. It is supported by inside and outside. that human equality in freedoms. This is ordained and articulated in all the books revealed to His messengers. protect its country. We cannot depend on what the mind likes or in accountability. and persevere in so doing. to perform their over others in terms of survival. shari 'a and politics are based on a wisdom that we cal qualities. mand their rights. similar manner. and to be just with themselves and others. piety. He made them equal rified. preferred known to God the Sustainer. through worship. All equality the basis of its laws and natural rights. philosophers perceived [justice] as the virtue of all tally put aside their private privileges. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 39 is possible for others to do. Equality means nothing but sharing the same laws. tablishment of kingdoms. whose affairs cannot be ner of war is brandished.

1 In the name of God. is crucial for peace and prosperity. Turkey: Kultiir Bakanhgi. 1976). and its future. I decided to assert what I believe no intelligent Muslim will contradict and no one who Khayr al-Din. He was the main inspiration behind the promulgation of a constitution and the establishment of a parliament in Tu- nisia in I860. 1850-1881) (Leiden. umma [community]. Nether- Alaaddin Cetin. ress and backwardness of nations.: Cen. relying on the Islamic and European his- in all tongues. agricultural. Khayr al-Din was a Circassian who was enslaved and sold to a notable in Turkey. Harvard University. His major written work. 95." knowledge. 1822-1890) was a prominent reformer and effective states- man. 33-53. he introduced influential fi- nancial. Introduction by 1798-1939 (London: Oxford University Press. ac- mands justice and charity. 1979). whose combination of Islamic and modern education produced much of the elite that later struggled for Tunisian independence from the French. (Leaders of Reform in the Modern Era) (Cairo. ligence. First published in 1867. 158-197. Egypt: G. Khaldun S. Mass. Whose rulings de- Praise be to Him who made prosperity one of the scribe orbits around the two points of faith and God's results of justice and endowed mankind with intel. And I pray for his family cording to evidence which experience has decreed and his companions. the beneficent. Albert Hourani. which he headed. J. 1980). pp. Origins of Modern Arab Political 1. After his dismissal. should be accepted. by which He made it possible for man to After this invocation the compiler of these pages attain right conduct and the various gradations of says. "May God guide him to the surest path. 40 . 1999). To whom it was revealed that God com. and constrained by the autocratic tendencies of the sultan. 1970). A. and on what the authors master Muhammad. translated from Arabic by Leon Carl Brown (Cambridge. Khayr al-Din went into retirement in Istanbul. Still a teenager. Khayr al-Din ar- gued that liberty. 71-96. 1967). Zu'ama' al-islah fi al-'asr al-hadith Thought (New York: Caravan Books. al-Husry. 2d ed. and practices that he considered compat- ible with the Islamic shari'a. where he received Arabic and Islamic education and learned modern military sciences. And commanded him to cooperate in good works and to fear God to the exclusion of idols After I had long contemplated the causes of the prog- or transgression. values. Tunuslu Hayreddin Pa§a (Khayr al-Din lands: E. 2 Khayr al-Din The Surest Path Khayr al-Din al-Tunisi (Tunisia. ter for Middle Eastern Studies. where he spent seventeen years before being brought to the court of the Tunisian ruler. 84- Emad Eldin Shahin. Khayr al-Din's remarkable talents facilitated his ascendance to the premiership of Tunisia (1873-1877) and of the Ottoman Empire (1878-1879). who was sent with the Book and of both groups have written concerning the Islamic the Balance. contained Khayr al-Din's political visions and his program of reform. He founded the Sadiqiyya School in 1875. pp. both personal and political. 1850-1881 Maktabat al-Nahda al-Misriyya. The Surest Path (Aqwam al-masalik). which is suitable for all times. Pasha of Tunis). pp. He is to be praised at all times and generation. He advanced strong arguments for the acquisition of Western institutions. the merciful. Khayr al-Din et la Tunisie. Ahmed Amin. pp. And I pray for His servant and our tories I was able to examine. (Ankara. van Krieken. the book excerpted here. generation after I praise Him. administrative. His tenure as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire was brief. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age. lasting only eight months. 160-165. S. pnme among them the concept of liberty. its attributes. As Tunisia's prime minister. (Khayr al-Din and Tunisia. protection. Brill. and educational reforms. the guardians of his Holy Law. he studied in the ruler's palace and then joined the Bardo Military School.

I have also noted the superiority formerly held Whoever considers these two undoubtedly true by the Islamic umma (as attested by even the most principles. The general nomic and administrative policies. I have shown their nation. stacles to a knowledge of the most appropriate course In addition. pelled us to compose this work. Then. I have called the book The Surest Path to Knowl- edge to the exclusion of its contingent circumstances? edge Concerning the Conditions of Countries. will be ignorant of its ailments? Or that they should di. writing. and who according to religion knows important European historians) in the two fields of that the Islamic shari 'a [religious law] is a guaran. by others out of a predilection for despotism. This includes their own eagerness to learn who surround us and live close to us. especially if it comes upon hearts working together in defense of Islam. There- Thus. of the people by demonstrating what would be a zation and the keen rivalry of even the greatest among proper domestic and foreign conduct. tries. THE SUREST PATH 41 has been shown the evidence will oppose: if we con. integrity and correctness. kingdoms attained their present strength and worldly gious scholars] of Islam who are entrusted to take power is that we may choose what is suitable to our into consideration the changing circumstances of own circumstance which at the same time supports time in the application of the Law are opposed even and is in accordance with our shari 'a. supporting the religious system. Further. The folding-in of the globe. by use of it overcome the present predicament of This is undoubtedly one of the most imposing ob. And good intentions are. if we consider the many ways which have whose farthest distance is now connected with its been created in these times to bring people and ideas nearest. if the by His Excellency the Bey [Muhammad al-Sadiq. rect their concern to acquiring the essence of knowl. a sufficient guarantee to the ruler of Tunisia. be found throughout the several chapters. The motive for a work is its true beginning. and especially of those known. With the guidance of God we seek the paths of For this reason I was fired to believe that if I as. we will not hesitate to visualize the With God's help I have collected all possible in- world as a single. each of part of certain statesmen and a feigning of ignorance which has several chapters. Should this prove to be sembled what years of thought and reflection had above my own powers. even when it is pursuing its own personal progress in the governance of mankind. knowledge and prosperity at a time when the shari 'a tor for the two worlds. about other nations. closer together. we may to learning about domestic events. All-High God so wills. Such a person will The purpose in mentioning how the European then be saddened to see that certain 'ulama' [reli. not be without benefit. Nor will we be content to indicate what com- portant events of these days and to awaken the heed. 1859-1882]. plus what I had seen during my travels to guished readers is to be hoped for as a means of avert- the various states of Europe where I had been sent ing my own poverty. Rather we believe it . other material which the reader might of action in this world. It is We are likewise saddened by such ignorance on the made up of an introduction and two books. less both among the politicians and all the classes sider the competition of nations in the fields of civili. and their minds be able to restore what was taken from our hands and are empty of any knowledge of the outside world. and that secular organization is a firm foundation for all conduct was regulated accordingly. suffices to make it sought after by the rest led to the utmost point of prosperity for their coun- of mankind. properly expect on such a subject. with reference benefit to be derived from the experience of each to their situation in earlier times. negligence existing among us. call attention to these aspects of the Prankish [Eu- it becomes clear that we can properly distinguish what ropean] nations—especially those having close con- is most suitable for us only by having knowledge of tacts or attachments with us—which ought to be those outside our own group. which has interests. will necessarily recognize exerted its influence on the wraraa's conditions. the object of this book is to remind the fore it is appropriate that we set out our motive in learned 'ulama' of their responsibility to know the im. makes this easier. It is also to them to achieve what is most beneficial and helpful. then my effort might attainment of aspirations. the indulgence of my distin- produced. including obser- Is it fitting that the physicians of the umma should vations based either on precedent or reasoning. united country peopled by various formation about European inventions related to eco- nations who surely need each other.

from which munity. Discriminating critics must sift out the truth prove of. may God by such things as expanding the scope of the sciences honor him. they have attained the sound orga. indicated to The disgrace is our needing outsiders for most ne- the Prophet of God. of non-Muslims which we have forbidden are those which violate the requirements of our canon law. but pay attention to what was said. 'Ali [ibn Abi Talib. promoting all the indus. "The learning of a man having no knowl- The second task is to warn the heedless among the edge of logic is not to be trusted"—then what objec- Muslim masses against their persistent opposition to tion can there be today to our adopting certain skills the behavior of others that is praiseworthy and in that we see we greatly need in order to resist intrigues conformity with our Holy Law. In the Sunan al-Muhtadin [Traditions of the ganizations of non-Muslims must be renounced. died 1492] is found the following. and to translate it from Greek when they saw is born that security. [administrative reforms of the nineteenth century] whether it be word or deed.42 Khayr al-Din important to build certain arguments upon it. Actually.al-Hanafi [jurist of Damascus." it to use. took his advice The first task is to spur on those statesmen and and dug a moat around Medina when it was attacked. "There is no harm in imitation of that ceaselessly emulating what they deem good in the which is linked to the good of the believers. permissible for the virtuous ancestors to take such tries. and the deficiencies in economic development and When Salman the Persian [a companion of the public policy which overtake the umma as a result. and such every- not according to the person that truth is known. He even worked in it himself in order to exhort the sible ways of improving the condition of the Islamic Muslims. indicating the backwardness of the umma peace. and proficiency in work it as being among the beneficial instruments—so much to be seen in the European kingdoms. may to one ultimate goal. reigned 656-661]. By the following. there is an obligation to restore it and put of anyone who does what God permits. of surrounding their cities with a moat incentive is a desire to accomplish two tasks leading as a protection against attack. There is no hiding the disgrace wherever one finds it. while not avoiding other things correct. This is what the French have done. savants having zeal and resolution to seek all pos. Prophet]. their Rightly Guided] by the Maliki scholar Shaykh al- books must be cast out and not mentioned. God bless him and grant him peace. especially if we had formerly gories of obligatory. son-in-law and fourth umma and of promoting the means of its development successor of the Prophet. day needs just as in weapons and all military re- Rather. Andalusian one praising such things should be disavowed.quirements. It is other in clothing. home furnishings. One is to take it European products. This judge. they should accept and adopt it whether or which harm them. The truth is that all of these things are dom is the goal of the believer. we find them refusing to accept tanzimat by a probing examination of the thing concerned. The shortcoming in economic develop- . and any. the Prophet of God." work of others. Our by the enemy. There is no reason to reject or ignore something There is no need to abandon acts practiced by non- which is correct and demonstrable simply because Muslims that are in accordance with the shari 'a cate- it comes from others. 1111] said. Wis. may God bless him and grant him cessities. and eliminating the causes of idleness. Mawwaq [Abu 'Abdullah al-Gharnati. if we reflect on the situation of those nization of their affairs in this world to be witnessed critical Muslims and the European actions they ap- by all. may God be pleased with him. hope. We see them vying with each not its originator be from among the faithful. "Do not pay attention to who and knowledge. when besieged in skills. The things as logic from outside their own religious com- basic requirement is good government. No further so that [Abu Hamid Muhammad] al-Ghazzali [1058- evidence is needed of this. that the Persians had a custom. has said. smoothing the paths to wealth in spoke. On the because the Holy Law does not forbid the imitation contrary. it is by truth that the person is known. recommended or permissible possessed it and it had been taken from us. If they find it to be and its results. "The acts attitude is a mistake under any circumstances." If it was agriculture and commerce. 1783-1836] is found guided. Anyone devoted to religion should not be On the margin of Durr al-mukhtar [The Selected deterred from initiating the commendable actions Pearls] by the learned Shaykh Muhammad Ibn' Abidin related to worldly interests of one religiously mis. simply because they and attract benefits? are possessed with the idea that all behavior and or.

it would be the lesser of two evils. We receive these the state of preparation imposed by the Holy none of the increased value resulting from the manu. Empire in 476. if we considered the total of what is strength. are found in other parts of the world. Europe fell into a shocking state of nection the statement of a European author on mili. These institutions are based on two pillars—justice dence and a weakener of its vigor. both for us and for others. he approves of? The present situation in the kingdoms of Europe How can he lightly turn down what will benefit him. and then in a short sword. of its regions. fight as his adver. Then. which also entails a knowledge of the exported from the kingdom and compared it with means leading to this goal. died 625] in its darkest period of ignorance and oppression by its the hadith. does urge the enforcement of justice and equality . savagery. Without the value of our land's raw materials. self of something which. sary to keep up with one's neighbors in all aspects and most of the kingdoms of Europe in 768. match cau- this statement is in seeing. rulers. This requires knowledge facturing process. Europe returned to bin Thabit [companion of the Prophet. the kingdom's tanzimat comparable to those we see among others? need for others stands as an obstacle to its indepen. defying fatigue fight them with the same weapons they use to fight for the entire year. THE SUREST PATH 43 ment is the failure to use our country's industries veyed through you to those with you. of the northern barbarians and the fall of the Roman placed caution? It is worth mentioning in this con. especially when and liberty—both of which are sources in our own linked to the need for military necessities. Emperor Charlemagne [742-814]. After the attacks simply because of unfounded misgivings and mis. Therefore we must press on to the purpose reason for all this except European technical of this book which is to reveal the conditions of the progress resulting from tanzimat based on justice European nations. the basic means of creating abun. for similar or even better conditions died 642]. for if the tion without progress in the skills and bases of value of imports exceeds the exports. can we today attain such a level of prepara- other." The meaning of this hadith is made ined that Europe's peoples arrived at their present clear in the advice of Abu Bakr [first caliph. Corroboration of with fear. be successful without our implementing political As for political imperfections. herd. we now get only other such inventions needed for defense. Although it Khalid." He singles out military matters because that several nations. How can a thinking man deprive him. king of France. rifles. has not long been firmly established. to 'Asim other ways. at a have said instead cannon. "O the influence of their Christian religion. "Kingdoms which do not keep pace movement of decline—which is naturally quicker with the military inventions and tactics of their than that of advance. It is not to be imag- sary fights. There is no doms. even at many times the value. In sum. He said. sell the produce of his labor to you—arrow for arrow. armored ships. including what might be suitable and liberty. our shep. may the strength and support of God be con. as will be shown in detail. growth to be seen among others? Can this progress avoidably take place. After entering their country. people by striving to promote knowledge. It is well known that these two are the easy to purchase in peacetime are not easy in time prerequisites for strength and soundness in all king- of war. in itself. may God be pleased with both of them. Nor is it due to when he sent him to fight the apostates. Under these cir. lawlessness and oppression. reigned state because of a marked fertility or temperateness 632-634] to Khalid ibn al-Walid [Muslim general. but it is equally neces." If Abu Bakr had known this age. for example. he would time buy it back. Supporting erted every effort to improve the condition of the what we have related is the statement of the Prophet. which if Holy Law. "Let him who fights. When you meet a fighting party. spear for spear. Law will not be attained. military or non-military. sword for the European for a cheap price. ruin will un. for this on to say. their of slavery to its kings and oppressive grandees of the prey. beginning a tary policy." and he went to process the goods we have produced. He ex- of progress. tion with caution. For this reason it can be the imports and found that the two approximate each asked. after his death. and price several times higher. and in may God bless him and grant him peace. for the Islamic umma. "May the people of al-Yamama be seized should be a major source of gain. effort to mobilize against him equal or superior cumstances. until the rule of is the subject of his book. called noblesse. of the capabilities of any potential aggressor and an dance. Europe remained in the noose neighbors risk becoming. sooner or later. after it has been processed. or silk farmer or cotton farmer.

"There can be no right be- just. the proof of Islam." One of ity and the security of its subjects. all of which can be of creatures. The under- orders of the people. is a clear sign of what we have mentioned. although Muhammad could The Prophet. is. "The caliphs conclusive proof that oppression foreshadows the ruin and kings of Islam want to be refuted. once said while This has occurred today in certain Islamic kingdoms. tive system duly complied with be the causes of an increase in wealth. tion directly from God. and with their knowledge of agriculture and commerce. and other matters of this nature. may God bless him and from both Islamic and non-Islamic histories. without the restraint either of ordi- of retirement from the world and asceticism. This was the result of doms. This is well known from our Holy Law charged His impeccable Prophet. their rulers being restricted by shari 'a laws applicable Rather. may God bless him and grant him have dispensed with this since he received inspira- peace. and justice is the guardian. will find Ghazzali. Europe has attained these ends and progress to both religious and secular matters. Even nances based on reason. whether Muslim or not. let him among you who sees It happened in European kingdoms during those cen. and property. and grant him peace." A man stood up and . the protection to wealth. by Ibn bidden is obliged to resist any forbidden act. 1076-1148] has will be destroyed." Among the sayings of 'Ali. preaching.44 Khayr al-Din before the law. this world. any deviation in me set it right. imposed upon all men from the prophet to the least ity needs a thousand qualities. consideration of the public interest appropriate to the The essential prerequisite for all of this is security time and the circumstances. 1332-1406]. Christianity does not interfere in po." The Nasa'ih al-Muluk [Advice to Kings. They are providing for the country's prosper. high and low. Al- Khaldun [Tunisian historian. but that Among the most important of the shari 'a principles the contrary should cause a diminution in all of is the duty of shura [consultation] with which God these things. since that was incompatible Jesus. If he acts by these two he will be be pleased with him. turies when royal despots had absolute power over litical behavior. for the authority of his holy law was over That some of the European kingdoms were on the the spirits and not the bodies. or of religious law. leader of the Christian religion. 634-644]. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab [second caliph. forbade his disciples from with their appetites. which is built on retire- politics saying that he did not have dominion over ment from the world and asceticism. Among its care- in the sciences and industries through tanzimat fully guarded principles are the release of the creature based on political justice. may God be pleased with him. with the good behavior of their neighbors at that time ing recognized in the rest of the European king. and by extracting treasures of the earth of the rights of mankind. the principles upon which there is consensus is that Anyone who leafs through the third section of every adult Muslim knowledgeable of what is for- Book One ofMuqaddima [The Prolegomenon}. this being opposing the kings of this world in what relates to nonexistent in Christianity. It is God's custom in His world terest. It is a duty by al-Ghazzali] asserts that the possessor of author. even if they of civilization. later rulers. "O people. which is to be contrasted of his unwillingness to imitate the political order. may God grouped into two. "Consultation is one of the foundations of the be lost. ing corruption over that of advancing the public in- tion in their lands. "The king is the foundation. has said. Justice guaran." natural propensities are such that unrestricted author. has said. by smoothing the roads from the exigency of his own passions. good management. because it is founded on the concept God's creatures. as has been said. because unlimited authority of kings. whatever its previous condition." A that it should become a tradition incumbent upon Persian maxim affirms. upon him be peace. Man's should be in the pulpit. religion and God's rule for the two worlds. and also because of the many probity to constituted authority and strength to all perfections which God had placed in him. verge of vanishing and losing their independence was Also. "Justice brings glory to the religion. peoples. the imperfections existing in the provinces due solely to their poor conduct resulting from the of the pope. giving priority to avert- and justice. lying reason for this obligation upon the Prophet was tees the security and well-being of all subjects. and an administra. What has no foundation Ibn al-'Arabi [Andalusian jurist. and [what has] no guardian will said. carrying out the lesser of two evils when one is that justice. havior when consultation has been omitted. ity for kings brings about some kind of oppression. which have become the normal condi. necessary. from among the Islamic umma.

vig. personal aims or appetites that would prevent him both of which stem from irradicable strength rooted from carrying out the general public interests. If it is imposed from God All-High by means of him saying. "By God." his anger with water for ritual ablution. For this reason it is diffi- doubt that if a just imam [leader] such as 'Umar. replied. "Since kingship is an expres. For this reason it is neces- liphate. them that which is not within their power." Mu'awiyya. est. in the state then it is a policy based on human rea- Khawlani [famous ascetic." 'Umar replied. "Abu The aforementioned benefit will be realized only Muslim is right. the best safeguard for the king. THE SUREST PATH 45 said. if we saw in you deviation we would ity usually turn aside from the right and are unjust to rectify it with our swords. Or he in mankind. as it depends on qualities which restrainer to provide a check. pation of those qualified to loosen and bind with the The Europeans have established councils and have kings in all policy matters (with responsibility for given freedom to the printing presses. and be capable of implementing the Muqaddima in saying. most important and most discriminating persons held the people's allowances. and the minister to advise him in complicated matters of original state of neglect would remain unheeded. the fruits to be expected from this need to have the love of justice to seek the aid of an informed loyal a restrainer would not appear to the umma. might be both lacking in knowledge and deficient in . Group feeling is produced leading orous in defending religion and the rights of the ca. caliph. 661-680] with. for he usually demands of God who created in this umma him who would rec. Al-Ghazzali nations. Or he might possess complete knowledge but have and its basic characteristic is domination and force. The aim of the two [that is. ship would not be proper for mankind. It public interest. but if people exercising this re. he would not have masses will submit and let themselves be led to their praised God but would have been impelled to oppose authority as was the case with the Persians and other it and to rebuke the man who spoke. either in the form of a are seldom combined in a single person—and even heavenly shari'a or a policy based on reason. at the same time. For this reason it is incumbent upon the with his death. A king might may differ. Ibn Khaldun has referred to what we have possess complete knowledge. Thus we must assert that the partici- 'ulama' and the notables of the umma to resist evil. to turmoil and fighting. Come forward for your allowances. because some Nor do we deny the possibility of finding among form of restraint is essential for the maintenance of kings one who conducts himself properly in the king- the human species. and Abu Muslim al. this is rare and not to be is essential that the restrainer should in turn have a taken into account. "This is not from your toil. public interests through discriminating supervision. the kings fear those who resist evil. cult to obey him. dom without consulting "those qualified to loosen straint were left to do as they please and rule as they and bind" [political power brokers]. This is not the result of my toil nor if it remains respected through being preserved and my father's. had not believed such a harsh retort to be in sary to return to imposed political laws to which the accordance with the shari'a. the judgments of the holder of author. European and Muslim] is the same: to demand an accounting from the state in order that its conduct Consideration of human nature thus makes it clear may be upright. is. king. If the dynasty violates such a policy its po- relates also in the section on "Commanding the Good sition will not be well established and its control will and Forbidding the Evil" in the Ihya' [Revival] that be incomplete. as we have said. well-observed ordinances) is the situation most of the masses that proceed from them and from the likely to bring about what is best for the kingdom. just as the isters directly responsible. even if the roads leading to this end that there are only three types of kings. it is then a religious of your father or mother. died 682] came before son." There can be no because of his appetites." protected by such precepts as commanding the good Without this type of resistance to authority. in accordance with pre- kings of Europe fear the councils and the opinions cise. and is moved by see fit. love what would bene- mentioned in the chapter on the imamate in his fit the country. nent manner in one person. and forbidding the evil. It freedom of the press. This is tify with his sword my deviations. after stilling policy valid both for this world and the next. However. "Praise whoever is under him. In the Islamic administration of the kingdom placed upon the min- umma. sion of the essential grouping together of humans. they would disappear lated. nor from that a prophet who determines it. If these laws are imposed by the wis- Mu'awiyya [ibn Abi Sufyan. but assuming these qualities were combined in a perma- neither of these can defend its rights if they be vio.

sweetness of agreement with the appetites in a situa- because the matter of advancing a minister to execu. showing in a permitted to endanger himself for the good of the coun- manner hardly to be hidden that his own interests try. of the kingdom. especially ing this. or by delaying them beyond the ability and probity. who is both the judge and the plaintiff? Because of this second set of obstacles. however. of concurring in what would lead to the destruction able. In this way the condition of the of you. and even to himself. This is manifestly a mistake. homeland. so there would be no need for those quali." in the king's family. especially in eastern 1806-1873] has said. service once and for all. "The English nation reached countries. out of the dom." This was only tration of the kingdom within the framework of the through the participation of those qualified to loosen public interest. who was mad. These same three types can apply appropriate time in order to make manifest the de- to the chief minister as well. fects and increase the errors. or by hiding his good gation of consultation and ministerial responsibility qualities and making public his bad qualities in order in the case of the first type would not impede the to turn hearts against him. As the could find acceptance even among the thinking man translator of [John] Stuart Mill [English thinker. the aforementioned min- It might occur to some weak minds that to entrust ister is obliged either to choose the first situation of with responsibility a minister endowed with good conformity and adopt the ways of dissimulation with reputation would repair the disadvantages of the last the disastrous consequences resulting in harm to the two types. but not his honor and reputation. Either he would agree with the king and his for the creator and censure of the creature. king. The obedience outweighed any concern about the harm done to the to the king and the love of country required of him are kingdom. who has not been forewarned. Rather it would help him. is treason. because the fied to loosen and bind. then they fall back on the tactic of defaming him need for opposition in the second case and for assis. whose fondest It is clear from this that kingdoms administered hopes would be to do him harm and in every way without regular and well-observed laws under the available to them to stop his beneficial activities supervision of those qualified to loosen and bind will which tend to diminish their personal profit? They be limited in their best and their worst to the person might do this by carrying out his orders other than of the king. then his situation would turn upon two possi. If kings are more nearly like the If God frustrates their hopes by granting such a last two types. He may be retinue in their aims and appetites. that such protection then in order to escape the consequences a minister were appointed and his conduct commend. stories of the type spread by the unrighteous. then his agreement. of 'Ali. when this entails opposing the man and bind. "He is acting independently tance in the third. to whom the ministers were responsible. for even if not for self- ous opposition to him. The extent of success will depend on his the way intended. minister success in his efforts to administer the king- tation and responsibility would be clear. One of the supplications complete knowledge from achieving its good pur. Fail- he be able to triumph over that opposition. and it is not to be imagined that the king would or the minister is obliged to resign from government advance someone whom he knows would offer seri. with the knowledge of if there is no Holy Law in operation to protect him the harm which would ensue. from the factiousness of his enviers. of all are an aid in attaining the public interest. if he ests of the country require. before the king. since the opinions protect me from an enemy who carefully watches me. where would is able to do this. which oner of his appetites or is weak in judgment. may God be pleased with him.46 Khayr al-Din executive ability. then the imperative nature of consul. mote the public interest and ward off corruption. This is shown in the situation of . which would necessitate punishment bilities. "God pose. In that case. You are king only in name. was." and other such kingdom is set right even if the governor is a pris. the king. How then in such a situation would it be its highest peak during the reign of George III possible for the minister to carry out the adminis- [reigned 1760-1820]. If not. Assuming. Or he could oppose them and order those realized only by his striving to advise on how to pro- functionaries under him to carry out what the inter. saying. then he must withhold his he get this right and by means of what support would agreement to anything which would cause harm. just If he sees something good in me he conceals it. It is clear that the obli. tion out of which results destruction of the kingdom tive power or of removing him is in the hands of the will later be followed by the bitterness of remorse. but as this facilitates the maintenance of the monarchy if he sees bad he divulges it.

be dispelled by reading Qawanin al-wizara [Ordi. made said on the subject of special taxes taken from the succession to the caliphate a matter of consultation people when the treasury is empty. "This also is to be agreed to. appointing and dismissing power with a group—those qualified to loosen and administrators. al-Maula Sa'd al-Din and what causes them to prosper or wither. may God be pleased with him. for the view of those qualified to loosen and people. ther the general scope or the basic prerogatives of the 'Appoint for me a helper [wazir] from among my imamate. In such circumstances." ing exclusive charge of implementation and direc- Therefore. in the management of the party which includes 'Abd al-Rahman ibn and care of his trees would not be able to do without 'Awf [a companion of the Prophet. "If you divide two taken publicly not secretly. and in accor- Sayyid al-Sanad [reference unclear] adds the com. they all recognize the soundness of Sa'd's state- the imam chooses a vizier to whom he delegates au. [Ahmad ibn Musa] al-Khayali [died circa 1457] con- Mawardi [Iraq. if the imam's sharing his power with tion. "The unauthorized kill the tree at the roots. As an additional element of clarification. not arbitrarily. He restricts his disallowing of multiplicity to his helpers disagreed. execution of all judgments. the sense referred to here. by ['All ibn Muhammad] al. but all forms of consultation roots of imperfection growing out of the two types with a single imam are authorized. This is an illusion which can circa 1544] and 'Abd al-Hakim [possibly Siyalkuti. would be a restriction of the imam's jurisdiction or such as 'Isam al-Din [probably al-Isfara'ini. it is even more per. would promulgate any decision. As he has stated ciples of cultivation that pruning at that time would in the course of an exposition. if this is should also be noted that the imam is the one who permissible for the prophethood. ment. He has said in ex. 1332-1389] in the Shark al-'Aqa'id [Ex. died circa 652]. to . he said. Commentators on Sa'd. Now it [Taftazani. In the former is not restricted. let us try since their opinion was more likely to be correct— to understand this by means of a parable. It him and cause him to share my task. tive activities not requiring the association of others. It is thus clear how even more explicitly ac- thority to administer affairs as he sees fit and to ceptable is consultation in general policy matters in implement them in accordance with his own indepen. dance with the views of the public. ner is permissible and is not deemed a diminution of such as carrying out political and commercial rela- his general executive authority. which is linked to the unity of and bind with the princes in all aspects of policy commanding and forbidding. but ate. for during that time they had imams with obedience owed to each of them sepa- ministers famous to this day for their complete rately. who ibn al-Khattab. such executive actions which are the very bases of sible. believing that the sharing of the executive authority of the imam. the sums should be spent against four. The authority of this type of vizierate than consultation in all executive acts." the assistance of helpers knowledgeable about trees On the other hand. my brother Aaron.' So." This is because of royal tyranny referred to above. because a group of opinions is more likely to the unity of command. The owner "and if you are equally divided then decide in favor of a large garden. Increase my strength with bind would be tantamount to that of the imam." mentary that his preference was for the majority. have approved his statement. firmed it in saying. Additional evidence is to be attain the correct answer. for God all High has related the type of consultation there is no restriction upon ei- speech of His prophet Moses. upon him be peace. circa 974-1058]. died 1657]. as he is the one hav- missible for the imamate." In plaining the delegated vizierate: "This occurs when sum. for this could create an obligation to obey knowledge and valor. For this reason when 'Umar found in the words of the imam Ibn al-'Arabi. and other bind—in all aspects of policy is even more permis. then decide in favor of the four"— justly not appropriated exclusively. for this is less extensive dent judgment. and nances of Government]. It should not be the multiplicity of persons in no way contradicts the said that the participation of those qualified to loosen unity of the imamate. just as he has exclusive authority other execu- the delegated vizierate in the aforementioned man. died of his executive powers. THE SUREST PATH 47 the European kingdoms in past centuries. then his sharing of tions with foreigners. "they should be among six persons. might happen that the owner of the garden wanted planation of "The Creed"] does not even disallow to cut some of the branches of his trees. before the imamate is the appointment of two independent establishment of laws. knowing from the basic prin- whatever might create corruption. Yet they were unable to cut the conflicting ordinances. would strengthen the roots and increase the fruit. for example.

'Umar ibn al-Khattab. but if not.48 Khayr al-Din obstruct the owner's wish could not be considered a Since what we have been presenting on this subject restriction on the scope of his supervision or his com. may God be pleased Papal State and the Muscovite state. Whoever gives due attention to the matter Since the granting of liberty in this sense to all the of necessity. Furthering the interests of the umma which is the demand of the subjects to participate in and managing its policies are matters which do not the politics of the kingdom and to discuss the best come easily to everyone. eral Deputies. the people instead elect from would not hesitate to assert that this is necessary among those possessing knowledge and virtue a especially in these times characterized by a dearth of group called by the Europeans the Chamber of Gen- knowledge and an abundance of tyranny. Can it be argued that this was a restric. there can be no prohibition on the meaning any deviation in his conduct or governance type of consultation which has already been de. honor. the laws yield from the garden belongs to its owner. subjects does not extend beyond the limits of the The second sense of liberty is political liberty. "Whoever among you a means of liberation from the unsoundness of that sees any crookedness. "are you so sparing in granting him sibility. order to avert any possible ambiguity. in owner should wish to sell the fruit before it was ripe. when giving him his fear encroachment upon their person nor any of their way would have been contrary to divine wisdom that other rights. and result in confusion. to someone else. who is the true two senses. this is not enough to protect the rights of the upon the owner. for these two are with him. the blame would fall one's self and property. indicates that liberty is the basis of the great devel- plete executive authority in his garden. In a con. loosen and bind. The chamber has the right to discuss in the pres- . for you concede that given his qualities no such scribed obligation upon them. Each is equal before the the garden. they would indicate to him that such action would The expression "liberty" is used by Europeans in displease the Creator of the trees. participation is needed?" He replied. if the strate the meaning of liberty in actual practice. of the umma. I was prais. scribed. Thus. duly the earth is for the sons of Adam? It is true that the determined before the courts. of the reprehensible in our shari'a is in the category plied that the king by his very nature and intelligence of those responsibilities which can be delegated. "Who will guar. They would not be prosecuted for any- the production of the world and the exploitation of thing not provided for in the laws of the land. The Chamber of Deputies is to be found in all antee to us that he and his descendants after him shall European kingdoms except the Papal State and Rus- remain upright?" sia. when he re. may God be pleased limits of permissible action is. then let him set it straight. We would call them those qualified to versation I had with a European notable. but bind both the rulers and the subjects. opment of knowledge and civilization in the Euro- ers might attempt to stop the owner in what he wanted pean kingdoms." This is owner. One is called "personal liberty. so that no individuals need tion on the owner of the garden. This is similar to what the second obstruct his will when he does something beyond the caliph. said—like that of the orphan's guardian. "Then some members of the community assume the respon- why." I asked. If was incapable of acting in the wrong manner. as Shaykh Ibn al-'Arabi has done (for people is most likely to cause a divergence of views he is our source in all that we have previously stated). this responsibility becomes a strictly pre- dom. or even sense exists in all the European countries except the if his position was—as 'Umar. to course of action. nated. When such a group is so desig- wish to participate with him in the affairs of the king." argument. as we have explained. and wealth. In general. we believe it imperative to demon- to do because of the Holy Law. law to others of the race. referred to in saying. This is because the avoidance knowledge of political fundamentals. and why do you of the community. Liberty in this whether it belongs to him. public interest. and the protection of one's upon him. In such circumstances. It is well known that the imam's umma. with him. For example. Although these two possess established one should not think that such action is a restriction laws. even though this [latter] group is not ing at length their king and mentioning his great elected by the people. for the influence of those laws depends on the freedom of action concerning the condition of his will of the king. then the obligation is removed from the rest freedom of action in government. Or the help. This might oblige him to accept their advice the individual's complete freedom of action over in these two cases. despotisms. and he would deserve to be deprived of person.

actually hides an ulterior motive. subjects rights which it would be easy to bestow upon subjects of other states. Artisans. Because of the faint hope of the people in many lands In this matter there are differences among the of Asia and Africa. They can do this by concerning themselves In general. they have planted? Who then will venture to sow it? even if this includes opposition to the state's policy. even if it appears countries which have progressed to the highest ranks to be confined to returning the state to the paths of of prosperity are those having established the roots of public interest. that being despoiled of any of the fruits of their labor or is. Or they crops if the sowers cannot realize the harvest of what can present their views to the state or the chambers. We have seen that the opposition of the various parties. Then it becomes impos- working to bring about its possible consequences and sible for them to put it into circulation. This is because the conditions Among the most important things the Europeans of kingdoms vary according to the aims of their sub. This leads directing their efforts to the interests of the world in to the consequences already mentioned. In addition to this there remains to the public some. because lands quickly enough to be useful. commerce. One of the benefits of liberty is com- One of the duties in kingdoms that have granted plete control over the conduct of commerce. which can be reduced to four basic high prices will overwhelm its peoples. Some believe the cause it to increase. and the at- from the straight path. THE SUREST PATH 49 ence of the ministers and other statesmen which lines foundation of material well-being. whereas their the ruler and the subjects share the same aim regard. jects should repay having received this blessing by they are compelled to hide it. is that its sub. have gathered from the lofty tree of liberty are the jects. Their peoples have reaped its benefits by to abstain from granting complete liberty. which they live. growth of human ambition. the rulers have granted the and with the severance of hope comes the severance people the second liberty subject to important con. for example. even if only personal liberty. liberty. . As liberty and the constitution. state should be a republic. What does seems to them to be in the public interest. If people liberty. importation was formerly impossible. of activities. These four categories are the experience reveal. ganization of society. In such circumstances it railroads. In others. They would ing the public interest. There can be no doubt this second liberty with the first. in books or it profit a people to have fertile lands with bountiful newspapers which can be read by the public. Their percep- categories: agriculture. Some subjects resist their kings only in order improvements in communications by means of rail- to have the right of opposing the state if it turns aside roads. which causes the of state policy seem to be beneficial or the contrary. people cannot be prevented from writing what hampered in certain aspects of their work. There are those who have obtained uncultivated and neglected. benefits. and to draw it toward a policy tention given to technical training. synonymous with politi- a result of this belief. must feel secure against thing else which is called freedom of the press. lose the assurance that their property will be protected. you find the most fertile fields European states. physical work. and wealth parties. with each seeking the policy which it believes is put into the hands of the most proficient who can most beneficial for the kingdom. as both logic and and intellectual activity. solute liberty. By means of the of benefit to the kingdom. for these governments have refused their vasive that it leads to annihilation. profits increase accordingly. then with the various branches of knowledge and all kinds comfort and wealth will disappear. and poverty and of industries. that the hostile action against property cuts off hopes. if liberty is lost in the kingdom. so that the subjects are divided into expanded. Some would choose the Through technical training wealth gains the nec- monarch from a different family than the one favored essary means of productive activity from among the by others. support for commercial societies. reason for the struggle is to exacerbate factionalism With these societies the circulation of capital is and fanaticism. some kings deem it permissible cal tanzimat. which is based on justice and the sound or- as will be seen. and are a complement to and other such matters affecting the public interest. products can be imported from distant is easy for kings to grant complete liberty. tiveness and zeal will be weakened. This causes the dynasty to believe that the ranks of those without capital. until finally destitution becomes so per- ditions. thus achieving ab. have spoiled en route or the freight costs would have There are those subjects who suppose that the been several times the value of the goods.

309-315 in al-A'mal al-kamila (The Study of the Modern Reform Movement Inaugurated by Complete Works). Humanity is thus involved in activities are among those things that depend on the capacity for rational inquiry. The Osman Amin. Muhammad 'Imara (Beirut. Kerr. pp. During Afghani's sojourn in Egypt (1871-1879). 1979). inspiring reformists throughout the Islamic world. Now. the Arabic language. pp. respectively. Islam and Modernism in Egypt: A ditions of Nations). desired. 1966). God also bound one of them to plished in a particular fashion. Charles C. 1849-1905) was. where he taught for several years before being pardoned by the Egyptian ruler. and the education of girls. Through a return to the fundamental sources of Islam. Abduh hoped to liberate the Muslim mind from traditional patterns of stagna- tion. indeed. he served as a judge and then as Egypt's leading religious official. al-Azhar administrative board member. reprinted by permission 'Abduh and Rashid Rida (Berkeley: University of California of HarperCollins Publishers. bic by Ishaq Masa'ad and Kenneth Cragg (London: Allen & Islamic Reform: The Political and Legal Theories of Muhammad Unwin. 151-154. 'Abduh became closely associated with him and his reformist ideas. 'Abduh was exiled to Beirut for his association with the 'Urabi revolt. 29-40. along with his mentor Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (see chapter I I). D. Zu'ama' al-islah fi al-'asr a/- Arabic by Devin Stewart. 1. and labored to introduce reforms in al-Azhar. he joined Afghani in Paris. Malcolm H. In 1884. 1966). entrusted to takes no task unless the results thereof induce him humanity two powers. then continued his education at the celebrated al-Azhar semi- nary. Certainly. the ability the other. ed. to do so. pp. Adams. enabling Muslims to address the requirements of modernity.C. The first piece presented here makes a case for legal reform. making the perfection of the first depen. for he under- The First Creator. the most prominent figure of modernist Islam. in order to do so. 3 Muhammad 'Abduh Laws Should Change in Accordance with the Conditions of Nations and The Theology of Unity Muhammad 'Abduh (Egypt. 'Abduh devised programs for the reform of the educational system. can Council for Learned Societies. and the court system. Returning to Egypt. it must be accom- tion intended for us. Lebanon: Muhammad 'Abduh (London: Oxford University Press. to envision results and knowledge of the methods dent on the perfection of the second. the religious endowment administration. Ahmed Amin. 1953). First published in 1881 and 1897. Abduh returned to Beirut. If this Muhammad 'Abduh. 1933). which agitated against imperialism and called for Islamic reform and unity. and Egypt's Legislative Council member. "Ikhtilaf al-qawanin bi-ikhtilaf ahwal al-umam" (Laws Should Change in Accordance with the Con. God the Sublime. 50 . Born to a peasant family of modest means in the Egyptian Delta. where they produced the famed journal al-'Urwa al-wuthqa (The Strongest Link}. Muhammad 'Abduh (Washington. Egypt: Maktabat al-Nahda al-Masriyya. he received a traditional Islamic education in his hometown. Introduction by Emad Eldin Shahin.' Laws Should Change in Accordance with innately disposed to seek out a theoretical under- the Conditions of Nations standing and to discover the true state of matters before he begins any practical work. one practical and one theoreti. 1972). 302-369. not every activity produces the results cal.: Ameri- Theology of Unity (Risalat al-tawhid). Abduh's influ- ence extended beyond Egypt. Mu'assasat al-'Arabiyya li al-Dirasat wa al-Nashr. In 1882. Translation of first piece from Press. translated from Ara. the second piece highlights the role of reason in understanding religion and the shari'a. so that through them we might attain the perfec. hadith (The Leaders of Reform in the Modern Era) (Cairo.

The consider the correct to be invalid and the right to be sentencing of this criminal. teacher. it will not contravene them simply because to lead a full life. the laws of each nation correspond to these laws. punishment. such as banishment. the results of that suit their conditions. or hard. or produce long- is because of short-sightedness on their part and ig. They are task. for they will be harmed by investigation. the beneficial with the harmful. an impossibly difficult obligation. They will against perpetrating the crime he committed. and the road thing to one of them would be a very great check to understanding will be closed before them. suppose that one of these people we thereof. They are restricted by it. Laws vary in accordance proper dose of medicine. Because laws are the basis of activities organized Such people should have prescribed for them laws properly to produce manifest benefits. whose spirits are examination and a more elevated plane of thought. they For this reason. ing laws. and the first the outcome is more complete. their such-and-such a crime. people who were not in- guish results according to their relative benefits. They will pervert the application of these laws. beginning with not to be blamed for discarding such laws. collective stores of information." the occurrence of such a path toward good sense will be obscured. tradict the customs and traditional values that its natu. they do not deviate from the harshness or tion and its level of thought. and the two are related incomprehensible. leniency that customs and traditional habits require. they will not stumble along their path and confuse It has been the custom of legislators in every age. have described did something that required punish- It is not permissible. noble. of circumstances. It is more appropri- Human knowledge is in effect a collection of rules ate for them to learn first what the need is. They also do so in order to distin. the benefit that results is greater. and essary. It might is a cure for others will become a disease for them. to take into account the level of hardship and suffering at the hands of misfortune. then work turns out in plish. so that what miliating labor. If the institu- lar so that through it they might be guided to the tion of laws within a nation is motivated by its need proper methods for the work they perform in order for them. However. intelligence of those for whom laws are to be insti- Since the conditions of nations depend on their tuted. because of his and surpass the first in level of understanding. thus encountering in instituting laws. unless fortune provides punishment restrains many a group of people whose it the chance to ascend to a higher level of rational temperaments are readily compliant. then. or devoid of discernible purpose. and is set forth most reliably. all humans are bent on rounding strive to fulfill it. would be a clear injustice. lasting dejection and perennial rancor in the hearts norance of what these laws were intended to accom. This cause his death soon thereafter. and do not out their theoretical knowledge. In establish- in accordance with its power of theoretical investiga. is accom. so that the people will not find them unclear. and de- that which produces benefits most quickly. When people properly recognize need. to apply the law of ment. or the lack For example. of his folk and clan. arranged in a known manner. go against its dictates and prescriptions. due to their certainty that the . so duced by need to institute such laws do not consider that they might put each result opposite a particular them among life's fundamental necessities. so that they about useful benefits. so that and united with them in the consequences thereof. what motivated them. They should not be bur- theoretical inquiry. each nation adopts rules [Legislators have also customarily] paid full atten- for its activities and chooses laws for its circumstances tion to customs and traditional habits. therefore. hu- change them. for him. Need is the guiding master. A little reprimand suffices and the threat of a light ral disposition has established. At no time does it con. and put others in their place. in terms of cause and effect. because pride and delicate sensibility. exile. and if the spirits of his the law will not suit their state of thinking and will not clan and the inhabitants of his town cannot bear that match their customs and traditional habits. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 51 capacity is fully developed. and whose senses are quick to be affected. by which people organize the might be equal with others in their level of knowledge methods of work that lead to those benefits. with nations' varying levels of knowledge. like someone who takes more than the its level in understanding. and what made them nec- the best fashion. first and in particu. someone should say "So-and-so was imprisoned for order among the second group will be disturbed. If imprisonment. manding that they abide by such laws would impose plished most easily. troubles his tempera- one group of people to another group who differ from ment and severely pains his spirit. to a more severe wrong. and the outcome of intellectual dened with severe laws. Otherwise.

It is a clear mistake to sentence a fleeing. Their insides are and were no longer overly concerned with govern- filled with vileness and baseness. This would flourished at particular times of the year. but they instituting laws is to prevent that which disturbs or. Egypt acts or else their spirits would be extinguished. and new law should not be the sort of general rules whose the market for whips became brisk. Such people are only deterred portance of agriculture. them a just law concerning this issue. for example. and agriculture was made easy for them. then they are but empty bur. Either they would be destined to commit evil work. through the government of Tawfiq [Egyptian we should see them as merely widening the sphere ruler. for ignorance was changed so as not to debase a person's honor. When appropriate for present conditions. in actuality. and their pride utterly measures which made the methods of farming easier crushed. taking it seriously and com- from perpetrating offenses or restrained from the peting in their crop yields. This will prevent the laws from beatings. This was a consequence of the difference owned. choosing laws that the time came for the government to demand the are not difficult to understand. government had adopted to prevent farmers from vere punishments. in the long run. The purpose of control over them for quite a long period. consideration to the laws of our courts. former and latter. and not a punishment. and defaulting guilty party from among such a group to imprison. So the laws that the pursuit of immoral aims by harsh laws based on se. the prisons filled up with those left be. a miserable end indeed. because they had begun to learn the im- far from honorable. Villagers left and settled in of writing their names in the landowners' register. them. They did not pay and public welfare was regulated according to laws attention to agriculture. They grew tired der. someone who established for of corruption and increasing instances of injustice. They Many a nation has raised its members on coarse. suggest multiple interpretations. without only lead. through farming and seeking better ways to accumu. other villages. in a fashion different from that followed in ear- Landowners did not know the value of the land they lier laws. then falling in arrears would have tarrying in town long enough for the hands of the been their dearest wish. The country regularly withered and themselves from serving as a pretext for those who . instituting harsh laws for violators. on the submission of taxes changed to a certain ex- ment. 1879-1892]. to the fires of rebellion variation. The articles of the hind by the others who had fled their villages. Egypt entered a new era. If laws do which the matter of their tax payments would be put not serve this purpose. until the populace's spirits became attached to them. Egypt's inhabitants were barbarians who did not ishment for falling behind in the payment of taxes know what was good for themselves. but now it has late wealth and fortune. With this new As an example of what we have just stated. They avoided the owner's land. had a tight hold on them in that era. compelled to force villagers to take possession of the The time has come for our government to turn its land and farm it. we law. since his spirit considers even tent. disrupts the structure of society. It appeared that verdicts are meant to apply to various punishments everyone had either fled. despite the availability of the that do not go against the inclinations of the popu- necessary means for it and the suitability of the soil. adopted a unified plan for the farming of their lands ness and the shunning of delicacy. Some time whip was removed from among its people. The hand of divine Providence brought to dens thrown on the shoulders of the people. Then various oppressive hands had successive harsher punishments to be trifling. their entered a new stage of development as a result of temperaments humiliated. harms individual of abuse. and detracts from public welfare. If the punishment for would not be burdened with paying the taxes that the falling in arrears in earlier times had been seizure of government had imposed on them.52 Muhammad 'Abduh ruling was wrong and the judge unjust. whose texts do not royal taxes. lace. so that they inclinations. and got the populace to remain in their villages. The pun- ago. so that they could be relieved governors to grab them. It continued in this sorry state for a long being lit and the heat of hatred flaming up among time. in order. remained settled in their properties. and their spirits are ment taxes. or ached for many diverse crimes. They continually wished that their properties between the two conditions and the change in the two would be transferred to someone else. The government was thus become the most severe punishment. neglecting to work the land. Indeed. been imprisoned. to make them including provisions for severe punishment. and their spirits longed for a just law by interests. fearing that they could not survive This recompense would have been a reward for them. and the sound of the may cite the former state of our own land.

Moreover. the need to ascend to a state higher than their present Certain laws are known as "The Imperial Law. Changes in the form of gov- of legal cases and disputes. they were able to overcome all the outside forces that rectives of the Ministry of Justice. Indeed. customs and traditional habits in order to establish terpretations contrary to their evident meaning. otherwise. The shift straightforward manner. The governing conjectures. The laws should suit the conditions of the taking. the Moreover. It is therefore necessary that the articles the citizenry's legitimate claims. a free republic. It behooves us to do this lization and legal organization. expenses in. The government welfare of the people is obstructed. did not occur by the will of those in The laws that have been in common use in our land authority alone. as they had imagined. and use simple lin. it is extremely difficult to tions and beyond their capacity to understand. which has deprived people of their rights themselves prepared to move to a higher level of civi- and jeopardized security. laws in a just and beneficial manner. we do not are not transparent. enabling through their collective body. they will be nothing but ink on paper. fact that those who exercise control over the law do Scholars and political leaders of both ancient and not have the status of legislators able to derive the modern times have long recognized that legislators rulings which apply to the actual situations at hand and institutors of laws must always take into account from general rules or from texts which support in. as is the case in our land ernment and the replacement of its laws depend on at present. [We urge this] while recognizing the erwise. and these are tan- of the law be written explicitly. laws are named "Regulations. imposes these things on its subjects willy-nilly. given an abundance capacity of those ruled. absolute monarchy to a restricted monarchy. factors were the conditions of the people. The laws must fulfill all of the necessary restric. so they end up regressing to a sions." This free and open to all. then to guistic constructions." some "The Royal Decree is. because it is foreign to their condi. and the disorder of them to understand the laws and abide by their require. desires. goal after breaking through the obstacles that stood sued on such-and-such a date. those of us who have legitimate claims conditions of nations are themselves the true legis- are not beyond entertaining invalid suspicions and lator. the increase eral. power is actually dependent on the capacities of its nocent of error or treachery. of the government of France. While they set out to make leg- tions and conditions. they could not have reached tum. How could this scattered mess reasonably serve their goal or attained their desire. Oth- as they wish. It It is necessary to reform this obvious flaw in our often occurs that a certain group of people think legal system." some are called had stood between them and the attainment of their "Decisions of the Privy Council. from an be set forth in logical categories. and written in an unclear style—are not precise in their level of thought. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 53 harbor immoral designs to play with people's rights ments. the wise. The disease of discord spreads rapidly populace and their level of comprehension." and so on ad infini. ligence and discernment. but crease. nor do they possess the make them conform with the exigencies of the present means necessary to prepare them for such an under- situation. less desirable state. They fail to ar- . and the gates of these impositions must be in accordance with the corruption are flung wide open. the depends on the governing power." others "Proclama. obstinacy pursues them relentlessly. they only arrived at this noble tions of Legal Rulings. as a law by which the people should abide? Even if Since the identification of the proper means and they were informed of the law. This leads to repeated appeals for deny that the preparation of means and measures judicial inquiry: The matter takes a long time. regulating guide. apply to all possible cases. each one according to his own situation." some one. for example. and should refer us back neither islation and participation in the establishment of laws to the "Proclamations" nor to the "Regulations. indicate rulings in a tamount to the condition of the populace. it would remain incon. learn and acquire them in their essential forms. while the actual articles subjects. We might suspect someone who is in. before them. the former does not take a single step un- of the law do not provide a clear ruling and their texts less induced to do so by the latter. the strongest contributing up to now—in addition to being insufficient." some are called "Di. but the matter is not quickly and avoid wasting time in pointless discus. True. resentments grow strong. nor are they known by the people. they are not safe from the machi- should facilitate the determination of legal rulings and nations of special interests. measures presents a difficult puzzle for human intel- ceivable to them. too gen. and their new awareness of and well organized. By learning what their true obligations were. Rather.

however. There were in every people custodians and their conduct. belonging even to the From Him alone all being derives and in Him alone shortest chapter of it. a road appro- The original meaning of tawhid is the belief that priate and feasible alike to the contemporaries of the God is one in inalienable divinity. little recourse to rational judgment and customs excellent. they include in the gov. as well as cate subtleties and credulous admiration of miracles. the essential works. placing ology. like branches of the same stem. its laws are inseparable from these capacities. identical procedures but differing subject matter. This is en. But it does not as will fully appear below. The proof of the science of theology is named from the most impor. Indeed. settle on firm opinions. which they went on yet again to further deductions. prophethood of Muhammad was quite a different tant of its parts. morals may become virtuous They had. So kalam. During the course of a nation's ascent or de. appropriate qualities and of what is incompatibly The Qur' an came and took religion by a new road. Unity was the great of the rhetoricians to reproduce. Theology consisted for the most part of intri- and the possible affirmations about Him. case on a quality of eloquence. of religion concerned with its protection and propa- formed from a burden to a custom and natural dis. In this way. or is essential tirely evident from the verses of the mighty Qur'an. was known among the nations torious aptitudes. prophetic interpretation. and The doctrine of unity could equally well be called give decisive verdicts. ernmental laws themselves chapters and sections that This branch of science." In sum. was used as a term in preference to logic. require our acceptance of its contents simply on the . It deals also with the apostles and the authen. gation. associated with them. Indeed there is an almost total con- trast between the intellectual cut and thrust of science The Theology of Unity and the forms of religious persuasion and assurance of heart. and so lose the benefits of decisive action fact that the chief point of debate at issue between and squander their own welfare. They spend ages in pointless scholastic theology. including their familiar sionally appealed to dogmatic tradition (naql) and practices and the customs on which they have been then only after establishing the first principles from raised. though in his aim of the mission of the Prophet Muhammad. Another thing on before its time. strive first to change the the speculative sciences.54 Muhammad 'Abduh rive at correct decisions. or scholastic the- people's capacities and traditional habits. "He who hastens some. of which the first prerequisite is expression. so that their work may be trans. the form of civil rule for a demonstration as alleged by each theologian in his nation is nothing but a reflection of the capacities that spoken case. They are thus aptly the learned of the early centuries was whether the described by the proverb. They rarely relied for their path of rectitude toward the best ultimate goal. and all its studies the being and attributes of God. will be punished by being may lie in the fact that theology is built on rational deprived of it. when methods of proof in theology were comparable to they desire to establish a sound system to regulate those of logic in its procedures of argument within the nation's social life. for us. guide individuals in their activities before Islam. untrodden by the previous Scriptures. iar enough to those acquainted at all with the condi- ticity of their message and treats of their essential and tion of the world before the coming of Islam. Book gives us all that God permits us. The blessing and peace of God be upon him. Qur'anic word was created or preexistent. and the nation may follow the in their custody of belief. position. dogmatic theology and serve to regulate customary habits and preserve meri. ideas and dogmas on the nature of existence or the laws of the universe. the recipience of the revelation he was simply a man. quite beyond the competence every purpose comes to its term. to genuine education before all else in order to be able denote the distinction between the two. It rested its unity of God in Himself and in the act of creation. Oftentimes religion on the authority of its own The theology of unity (tawhid) is the science that leaders was the avowed enemy of reason. This is what makes intelligent people. the negations that are necessary to make relating to with free play to the imagination—a situation famil- Him. with their to attain this goal. One reason for this lies in the argument. to know about His attributes. Thus the whole revelation and to their successors. scent. For in their rationality they only occa- its members have acquired. namely the demonstration of the matter from that of earlier prophecies. The name may per- no matter how much its classes change or its affairs haps also be credited to the fact that these scholastic vary.

are made compa. of His knowledge of the content of their in. had little leisure at that time for critical discussion Verse 30] Even in the realm of the moral it relies on of the basis of their beliefs. passages involving human comparisons. Verse 23] And again: of doubt. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 55 ground of its own statement of them. it pro. In been killed with no legal judgment and thus the popu- what is ascribed to God we find points that have coun. his foes and ensuring the unity of the Muslims. choice. Only the Qur'an remained unimpaired in its The Qur'an describes the attributes of God. So plain is the for the most part. As God said: "It is We who have sent down large. This Qur'anic esteem for the rational judgment. and the Muslim people from their right and proper there is nothing which reason finds impossible." [Sura 13. the recompense of approbation and punishment to the Among the actors in that crisis of disloyalty was arbitrament of God. not go beyond what was indicated by the literal mean- sengers. sary. His two immediate successors in the caliph- "God does not change a people's case until they ate [Abu Bakr and 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. with the available men of insight. sound study would conduce to belief in God. So the case remained until the events which re- and. Both worldlings and zealots together had on both sides of this theme. lows invariable laws. ." [Sura 48. which. Qur'anically depicted. had to do with branches of law. not point that no elucidation is required. It set out the order in the much as the appeal of this religion to reason in the universe. reputed founder of need to expatiate further on similar topics. and ger had possessed many of the very exponents of pi- takes controversial issue with those who exaggerate ous religion. hearing. course. Nevertheless. Men There is no altering the creation of God. and study of created things was in no way limited or required a lively scrutiny of them that the mind might hedged about with conditions. gress the proper bounds of religion. The caliph had rable. lar mind was made to feel there could be free rein to terparts in man. as Even in relation of the narratives of the past. In this introduction there is no 'Abdullah Ibn Saba' [7th century.. The Qur'an deals at allowed the faith to rule in their hearts. excessive abstraction or over-rigorous definition." [Sura 41. like taking one's seat upon a throne. with a far surer accent of transcendence than the the Reminder and We truly preserve it. after consultation. such as power. It spoke to the rational mind great scope to alert intelligences. many consequent points relating to sulted in the death of the third caliph ['Uthman in the comprehension and evidence of prophetic mission. So it had no need of either ceeded on the conviction that the created order fol. On the contrary. ing of the words. the shape of religious man as God has made him. by and continuity. with these. and seeing. of His will to give them particular messages. They believed in the transcendence of God that there are many things in religion which can only and refrained from debate about the implications of be believed by the way of reason. 656]—a tragedy which did irreparable damage to the So Muslims are of one mind that though there may be structure of the caliphate and brutally diverted Islam in religion that which transcends the understanding. passion in the thoughts of those who had not truly and like the face and the hands. therefore so inas- and alerted the intelligence. What few differences evidence: "Requite evil with good and your worst there were they took to the two caliphs. It addressed itself together with the use of parables in the allegorical to the opposing schools and carried its attacks with or ambiguous passages in the revealed text. earlier religions. liph gave his decision. reason finds its brotherly place." [Sura 30. in name or form. They did edge of God's existence. Shi'ism]. of His power to send mes. all Muslims are of one mind in the conviction allusions. it offers arguments and evidence. the principles and certitudes within it. spiration. It affirms the reward of overborne the steadfast people and set in motion a train good deeds and the retribution of evil deeds and leaves of consequences they could only deplore. and the ca- enemy will become your dearest friend. such as the knowl. ture. a Jew who had embraced Islam and an . as the Qur'an says: "Such was The Prophet's day passed—he who was men's the way of God in days gone by and you will find it recourse in perplexity and their lamp in the darkness does not change. "Lawless an- length with predestination and human free will. Under those two ca- Saving those who give place to neither reason nor liphs. men understood the Book in its meaning and faith. These issues. gave spirited substantiation. 632-634 change their own disposition. For it knew that every thus be sure of the validity of its claims and message." [Sura 15. there are several human Verse 9] And thus the way was open for man to trans- attributes. with the principles of dogma. if neces- Verse 34] Thus for the first time in a revealed Scrip. Verse 11] and 634-644] devoted their span of life to repelling ".

they gave due ity—in a spirit of contention against the first group. This in turn gave rise to forgeries teaching according to his own independent lights. he went persuasions had come into Islam without knowing it to Kufa. ers asserted their right to an equal stake with the Events took their subsequent course. seeking some kind of mediating com- wanted. the point of excessive pleading of the Qur'anic text. no effort was made to regulate the issue or to weak. In the time of 'Ali. free play. Shi'a [supporters of hereditary suc. place to the delivered tradition without neglecting the totally repudiated reason and thus went counter to the . however. and education. and he was the first tradition-collector. reigned 656. even the ramifications of law and matters Africans. were of the view that treme pietists]. Ibn Saba' claimed that 'Ali al-Basri [642-728]. People came into Islam in droves—Per. questions were examined. So after the collaborators with the dire consequences we know. Rival schools of thought about the pented of. He had a school in Basra to was the rightful caliph and rebelled against 'Uthman. He proceeded to Egypt where he did find promise between the old and the Islamic. son-in-law proud role of reason or overlooking the intellect. Individual idiosyncrasy had the present in certain areas of Africa and of the Ara. Con- These developments. ship. were not all. Syrians and their neighbors. and moderates. great numbers were ready to busy themselves with Others limited the writ of reason to the first prin- the first principles of belief and law.56 Muhammad 'Abduh excessive admirer of' Ali [ibn Abi Talib. including Hasan excess brought sharp divisions into Khawarij [ex. Egyptians and principles. did not halt the troversy developed also over the question whether propagation of Islam and did not deprive the areas the real attributes of God should be posited of the remote from the center of controversy of the light of divine essence or not. issuing in The first theme of contention to arise was that of the hegemony of the Umayyads [reigned 661-750]. which some espoused even to necessity of defending the temporal power of Islam. People of all religious gated his seditious views. which held that man to demand a republican form of government. among the Muslims. however. he was exiled to Mada'in. until after much fight. al-Basri. will—man's independence in willing and doing and But the community had been sundered and its bonds choosing. Hasan al-Basri. They fled into remoter parts but continued their get people back to first principles and bring them seditious activities. caliphate developed and were propagated in partisan. though 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz [caliph. His ideas spawned erty of thought the Qur'an enjoined. of traditions and interpretation. The Khawarij from his knowledge and will. and others in their train. and schisms raised their heads those who had pledged allegiance to the fourth ca. man truly has choice in the deeds which proceed cession of the Prophet]. These two problems. in pursuance of ciples. or so it is alleged. had come by. or determinism. There was also the question the Qur'an. but carrying with them into it their exist- Damascus. Freed from the pertaining to worship. when his school showed its head Every opinion-monger took his stand upon the lib- again. Some of existing authorities. tempests of sedition came the tensions of doubt. and the question of the supreme sin unre- of unity broken. Wasil ibn 'Ata' [founder of Mu'tazilism. The Shi'as carried their heresy to the 682-720] gave directions to [Muhammad ibn Mus- point of exalting 'Ali or some of his descendants to lim] al-Zuhri [died 741] to record the traditions he divine or near-divine status. where he failed to find the support he ing notions. as explained above. He went to Basra where he propa. Civil war ensued. For a in his volitional activity is like the branches of a tree long time they maintained their "excommunication" swaying necessarily. bian peninsula. So they opposed the went so far as to declare their opponents infidels and school ofjabr. which students came from every part. over its adversary. quences in the field of dogma. A remnant of them survives to to a common position. liph broke their fealty. died ing that cost many Muslim lives their cause grew 685]. The newcom- a lot of later heresies. died 748] and his [spiritual] master. Evicted from there. rule of the sons of Marwan [Umayyad caliph. and the sectarian Many of the first Muslim masters. and thence to inwardly. and various who exiled him. taking his poison with him. each striving by word and act to gain the better differed on this issue and the former broke away. In this task. of reason and its competence to know all religious sians. of sincere integrity took to the vocation of knowledge 661] (whose face God honor) to the point of assert. the most famous of them being Hasan ing that God indwelt him. Throughout the period of the of those who resisted them. Men and fourth successor of the Prophet. Others again—a minor- the Qur'an's guidance. with widespread conse.

came to his support. They had the idea that it was were agreed that religious principles were a matter a work of piety to establish dogma by scientific cor. a still partly reared edifice. they were an integral part of Islamic dogma. and other Despite the identity of purpose shared by the or- Persian persuasions. Their schools of thought had a brought them into high positions among their min. within The disciples of pristine loyalties doubted his views the terms laid down by the Qur'an. helped them and their views prevailed. In their han- viction. At this juncture the science of theology was still a as is well known. principle. familiar. 750-1258]. Technical the subsequent tendencies towards extremes. including Manichee sectaries and Yazidis.]. as well as utterly irreligious thodox and those at issue with them. as well as by other names current They relied strongly on Persian collaboration and among historians. Athe. the dogma of the Qur'an's being created. to the point that [Abu Ja'far] al-Mansur profiting from the other.M. criminally shed. of obligation for their followers. He theology took its point of departure from its perpetual based dogma on the principles of rational enquiry. however. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 57 Qur'an itself. there were consid- by attitude and utterance induced those to whom their erable areas of contention between them and the views were congenial to accept their direction. acts of worship and mutual dealings. though lacking the support of the rulers. All ideas from the Greeks. vicissitudes were prolonged. be. sustained by the power of con. every plain deed some hidden mystery. Opinions on the caliphs and the caliph. Several of the 'Abbasid caliphs adopted manded his death. both in respect of roboration. Whereupon them on assuming the externals of Islam. In the name of faith. the Imam al-Haramayn [the Imam of Mecca Prophet] either abstained from declaring themselves and Medina. It was recognized that the in- what was merely a figment of the imagination. They the adherents of the schools of the early masters took strayed far in their exegesis and pretended to find in up their challenge. gnostic Shi'i sect]. as if did violence to faith. namely the study of the created order. who believed in hulul 'Abbasids [caliphs. that is. They persisted on this A further element in the picture was the sect of tack until their sects multiplied apace. Many of them thus came into conviction. The dispute brought much humili. and views inimical to belief in God them. Abu'l-Ma'ali al-Juwayni. His from a reluctance to give expression to what might school came to carry the name of "the people of the conduce to heresy. 1028- or took a stand for uncreatedness. This did not prevent ism emerged. and should be tween what went back to rational first principles and stringently followed. The followers of [Ahmad] the dispute over the createdness or uncreatedness ibn Hanbal [780-855] called him an infidel and de- of the Qur'an. each group became rife. The rule of the the Dahriyyun [materialists]. among them Abu Bakr considerable number of those who held to the plain [Muhammad ibn al-Tayyib] al-Baqillani [circa 948- sense of the Qur'an and the sunna [the practice of the 1013]. They began to disseminate their opinions and bating of these atheist sectarians. reigned 754-775] ordered the issue of books Shaykh Abu'l-Hasan al-Ash'ari [873-925] early in exposing their errors and negating their claims. while a however. dling of the Qur'an they were as far from the import The early 'Abbasids knew the extent of their debt of the text as error is from truth. So ner attitudes of heart and the spiritual life constituted they mingled with the tenets of religion what had no a binding obligation to which the soul must be set." Two powerful forces were ation to men of reason and piety. There ensued here and many maligned him. however. then in the prime of [the incarnation of God in humans] and sought to power. the fourth century [A. Their foist upon the Qur'an the notions they brought with learned scholars began to write books. For they had recourse to drawing congenial erate or extreme upholders of the text of the law. They were known to the Persians for the successful establishment of as the Batiniyya [esoterics] and the Isma'iliyya [a their power and the overthrow of the Umayyad state. as to the com- people. and much blood was effectively overcome by these esteemed thinkers— . The reticence arose 1085]. the community ate marched with those on matters of doctrine. from mutual borrowing. disastrous influence on the faith and undermined isters and retainers. and [Abu Ishaq] al-Isfira'ini [died 1027]. A number of eminent 'ulama'. until the emergence of [caliph. between the early "orthodox" and young plant. It was in this way that the lines were drawn be- With the disciples of Wasil the paths diverged tween the thoroughgoing rationalists and the mod- further. without discriminating. sunna and consensus. He plotted a middle course. valid rational applicability. Their deviations and deeds are only too authority without any part or lot in Islam religiously.

died and the only concern of philosophic rationalists was 1355]. they All this explains why matters of theology mingle held. destroy- the social order through the disclosure of the secrets ing the remaining traces of the rational temper which hidden in the universe—all in accordance with the had its source in the Islamic faith. no justification for making the argument from with philosophy in the writings of later authors like the negative instance absolute. the assump- ity in elucidating the unknown and fathoming the in. religious believers who afforded them full liberty of Then there supervened the various successive action to enjoy and give rein to their intellectual in. required the believer as a so came under attack. school. Later exponents of this criti- and [Fakhr al-Din] al-Razi [1149-1209] and those cism became so extreme as to forfeit their following. the criterion between truth and falsehood. who brought sharp criticism to bear upon the tional premises and deductions in the same assurance entire content of philosophical lore in the fields of with which he accepted the dogmas of faith. the to-be-proven was of substance and accident. according to whom one Ordinary people turned from them and the special- or even several proofs could be shown to be false.C. ated from more adequate evidence. Fostered by the general educational pov- battle of Badr [in 624] an example of behavior based erty. Then came al-Ghazzali and his matter of obligation to hold the certainty of these ra. Second. whereby the tives. They took up highly misleading po- . time yet leave open the possibility of the object whose exis. they gained ground. and others.58 Muhammad 'Abduh the temper that leans wholly on the literal and the and with it a too precipitate inclination to accept their instinct that runs off into the imaginary and the ex. worth and Ideas which had never had any place in science found loss. sies obtaining among speculative thinkers in the field The disciples of al-Ash'ari's school. the pursuit of crafts and the strengthening of the obscurantists who got the upper hand. Nevertheless. became concentrated in a single pursuit. tions and debates of which approximated more to telligible. died circa philosophy. 1286]. porary trend of will. Ash'ari scholar. the Qur'an hav. theories of matter and nonexistent also. remembered. ized by feebleness and mediocrity. and. In due course. Two centuries or so later these types sur. al-'Adud [al-Din al-Iji. For they got themselves into controver- periphery of the Islamic world. and students of the writ- mind: "He created for you all that is in the earth. the whole gamut of rationality of [Abu Hamid Muhammad] al-Ghazzali [1058-1 111] in relation to religion. That outlook continued until the rise physics. There was. and why various rational sciences to gain knowledge.]. they drew their ideas from pure reason.] and Aristotle [384-322 B. a traditionalism than a rationalism. insisting theology and related themes. ing espoused the high role of reason and confirmed As a consequence. and the laws of the universe. edge and faith. Verse 29] which exempts neither the seen nor the limited to mere wrangles about words and scrutiny unseen. They betook them- divine mandate for such exploration by thought and selves to devious by-paths. Though there were relatively few of them. of methods—and that in a very few books character- bar them or to impede their findings. a complete intellectual confu- its competence as the ultimate means to happiness and sion beset the Muslims under their ignorant rulers. aided too by the remote- on intelligent discernment and the proof of experience. better of them. Had not the Prophet observed: "You are most sponsors. precluded the results the Muslim world might have tence it was intended to demonstrate being substanti. in which it was terests. there was the prevailing contem- travagant. having based their doctrine rationally on they clashed with the beliefs predominantly held. including the principles that where proof was wanting. to satisfy their intellectual curios.C. They were well able to achieve their objec. who adopted their position. and ists became indifferent to them." [Sura ings of the previous generations found themselves 2. and this had the more mischie- vived only as insignificant pockets of opinion in the vous effects. The first was an admiration for all that They went so far as to espouse the view of some in derived from the Greek philosophers. ness of men from the pristine sources of the faith. it is clear that most of the philoso. As for the schools of ['Abdullah] al-Baydawi [Shafi'i scholar. who asserted things Islam had never before cognizant of the world and its ways. notably Plato other nations who alleged an enmity between knowl- [circa 427-347 B. They evicted intellect from its rightful place and dealt phers were subject to two influences that got the arbitrarily with the false and the valid in thinking. authority. indeed. it should be of religion." and given at the tolerated. Not a single intelligent Muslim sought to de. insurrections aimed at the civil power. inasmuch as they were sheltered by the mass of progress of knowledge was arrested. expected from their activities.

and even and broken up into groups and schools? the issues of Islam and the very denial of God. supposing thereby reason. There can be no doubt that the con. So the Qur'an hearts of men. why this numerous fantasies fell very far short of the real meaning of diversity among Muslims? If Islam turns the believer religion. how is it that Muslims are content gion is a religion of unity throughout. It is a deceptive thing. why is the Qur'an not read except by chant- guides. honesty. relying therein upon proof and not tak. religion only know it very approximately? ply followed their fathers with complacent satisfac. with so little and many indeed have closed and barred gion of conflicting principles but is built squarely on the door of knowledge altogether. for it in vain? They who were once exemplary in The purpose of this discipline. theology. is the energy and action are now the very picture of sloth realization of an obligation about which there is no and idleness? dispute. It is. with Him. It is not a reli. to acknowl. into its particulars. saving only therein the main- We must. liberation of slaves. abandon and forsake? confidence. how It is said by some that if Islam truly came to call di. enjoining rational procedure and intellec. does it come about that deception. and if the and calumny are so current among Muslims? Qur'an says "You have nothing to do with those who If Islam forbids fraud and treachery and warns divide over religion and make parties. why do multitudes of Muslims turn their faces sequences befalling the masses of men in their be. What are all these accretions to their religion. and even the majority of the educated men of for our stimulus points the moral of peoples who sim. their conjectures. is it that Muslims practice deception against God. how 159] how does it come about that the Islamic com. Verse imposters that they have neither part not lot in it. and ing. that is. however. while divine revelation is its surest pillar. and fulfilment of pledges as being its very pillars. tenance of faith. even to the its widespread confusion were grievous and heavy. How does it happen that the very apostles of love sions. earth. giving it free rein to range at will goal and quality. namely. through all its secrets. and liefs and principles from this prolonged disaster with apart from God are helpless either way. to know God most high in His at. The Qur'an has cognizance of every man's have become in these days a people who nose around deed and judges the true and the false. grasp it? and. . while their ideas and language sadly mis. Their If Islam is a faith that unifies. munity has been sundered into sectarian movements things allowed and things forbidden. that God is pleased with ignorance and a neglect of Whatever is other than these must be understood as study of His marvelous handiwork? contentious and inspired by Satan or political pas. is it somehow beyond the reach of those who would tual enquiry into the manifestations of the universe. point of thinking such practice part of tawhid itself? The foregoing is a summary of the history of the. If Islam was the first religion to address the ratio- ology. [. it is ries enslaving the free? scarcely seemly in man. perfidy. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 59 sitions on questions of both morals and doctrine. believe that the Islamic reli. If Islam really is so solicitous for the mind and ing things merely upon tradition. the . so as to If Islam welcomes and invites enquiry into its come by certainty in respect of the things to which it contents. ] If Islam regards loyalty to covenants. tributes that are necessarily to be predicated of Him when all the time Muslims have the very Book of God and to know His exaltation above all improper and as a balance in which to weigh and discriminate all impossible attribution. why have Muslims spent centu- and though it may be pardoned in an animal. summoning it to look into the whole ma- and how at length partisanship sadly distorted its true terial universe. and may occasion models of tyranny? If religion eagerly anticipates the loss as well as conduce to gain. . falsehood. why are the greater part of its rulers such evil consequences as well as good. Well is it said that traditionalism can have justice." [Sura 6. how is it that it has bound them with their beliefs and their own disappearance as a com. If Islam granted to reason and will the honor of tion and were finally involved in an utter collapse of independence. verse peoples into one common unity. as far as may be. indicating how it was founded on the Qur'an nal mind. such chains? If it has established the principles of munity. It forbids us to be slavishly credulous. in trust toward Him who created the heavens and the represented God. to powerless things that can neither avail nor harm. why today in the opinion of so many directs us. and yet its very injunctions they edge His messengers with full assurance and heart.

indeed. filling whole volumes. Can we not. but its full light is in the east. and these several generations past. Those Muslims who stand on the threshold of God wills. and fellow believers in both supposition. tive writers in other nations. As a medicine for human society its Does this seem intelligible? Is there any parallel in success when truly tried is so manifest that not even the annals of men? Doesit not appear that the very the blind and the deaf can deny or gainsay it. do good works. those who deceive themselves that they have some both physical and spiritual? pretension to be religious and orthodox believers in If Islam teaches that religion consists in sincerity its doctrines regard reason as a devil and science as before God. but in another book. squarely what the divine will requires? Why do they both about the general population and the intelligen- not hold to it with fortitude and speak truth about tsia. who follow it. whether evident or hidden. . Verses 1-3] and yet. and if this the whole story? Parallels could be found in the de- which they quite fail to fulfill is in fact their most scriptions of Islam in their day given by al-Ghazzali. sent down and to the way they put it into practice. All that Muslims who have known something of science are the objection just elaborated leads to is this: a physi- precisely those who. ered. he has think themselves forward-looking. why is it that they thus so totally fail [Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad] Ibnal-Hajj [died 1336]. these evaded prohibited things and achieved some distinc. while they preen themselves on illness could take up the medicine and be cured. and the true and loyal believers? If it science see their faith as a kind of old garment in prohibits all abomination. which it is embarrassing to appear among men. His Apostle. to counsel each other and lay upon each other and other writers on religion. they go altogether to the bad. is. if tion. then the doctor himself succumbed to the dis- ciples and precepts as a farce? They find pleasure in ease he had been treating. Such Islam was—and der even what remains in the hands of the wretched. for the most part.60 Muhammad 'Abduh sacred law. and all men to witness that science loser . interpreted according were totally unrelated the one to the other. His angels. Do you not see yet no will to use it. and and reason have no accord with this religion? enjoin upon each other justice and patience" [Sura It may well be said that the foregoing has not 103. it suffices to read the pages of history as in- neighbor? Where is the just dealing the rich owe to dited by those who truly knew slam and the objec- the poor with their possessions? Rather the rich plun. ture of Islamic religion. ignoring each other's affairs as if they to understand its real import. letting things go as they will in rabid indi. if "man is the God. bounden duty. In dire straits from pain aping the free-thinking people who scoff and jeer and and with the medicine by him in the house. But the reading of the Qur'an suffices of itself right and wrong? Who do they in fact take each their to vindicate what I have said about the essential na- own way. and daughters prove refractory toward their mothers? To admit the validity of what I have said of its fine Where are the bowels of mercy. both secret and open. call immediate and general relationships. Whoever uses it well and takes its directives west. or forbidding evil. it is said. not enjoining kindliness exaggerated the plight of Muslims today. provided it is read with care vidualism. But is the objection their honest folk call and get no response. having to the understanding of those among whom it was nothing in common? Why do sons murder fathers. while what is it we see among them. Qur'an which they despise and regard as worthless We have now set forth the religion of Islam and to religion and the world! Many of them simply pride its true character. of compassion for a effects. save those who believe. instinctively cian treated a sick man with medicine and he recov- regard Islam's doctrines as superstitious and its prin. in the light of all this. must be dealt with not here. while being memorizers of their precepts and expert in their he himself despairs of life and waits either for death laws? How far they are from the rational study of the or some miraculous healing. Yet precisely there will gain the blessedness God has promised to those its own people lie in the deepest glom and cannot see. Many of those who come to visit Muslims whose only business with the scriptures is him or seek his ministrations or even gloat over his to finger their pages. We have earlier said that religion is guidance and A glimmer of Islam. as if thereby they had conduct have become an argument against it. illuminated the reason. As for those Muslims who by their themselves on ignorance.

alerting me to its advantages and remind- status of women in Egyptian society. The Liberation of Woman and The New Woman: Two Documents in the History of Egyptian Femi- nism. Translation of second piece from Ara. to which Amin responded in al-Mar'a al-jadida (The New Woman. in 1899 and 1900. The book generated heated controversy in Egyptian intellectual circles. 2000). When it was eventually stripped of all confound. mad 'Imara. in Muham. Leila Ahmed. 1993). overcame them. 1863-1908) was renowned for his support of women's liberation in the Islamic world. such as the need for women's participation alongside men in public life. it occupied an important place in my think.. Qasim Amin: Jadaliyat al. al-Mar'a al-jadida (The New Woman). power that compels a human being to communicate ing errors. 1894). I became aware of the absence that such individuals will arrive independently at the of a platform from which this truth could be elevated same conclusion I have. to which 'Abduh secretly contributed sections. he joined the judicial system and worked as attorney general and judge. Egypt: Dar al-Shuruq. a former Ottoman governor of Kurdistan who had retired to Egypt following a major revolt in that province. I have considered it. and Tohrir al-mar'a (The Liberation of Woman. from reflection to the unlimited space of appeal and proving the status of Egyptian women. Amin was born in Alexandria to an Egyptian mother and a Turkish father. and finally reached the point where it became my dominant I call on every lover of truth to examine with me the thought.'alaqa Amin: The Complete Works) (Cairo. bayn al-mar'a wa al-nahda (Qasim Amin: The Dialectical Re- 1989). Debate (New Haven. lationship Between Woman and Renaissance) (Beirut. whose introduction is presented here. 1900)—whose conclu- sion is also presented here—adopting further liberal views. 511-518. translated from Arabic by Samiha Sidhom Peterson 1. in which he defended Islam's treatment of women. respectively. 3-10. and once it is accompanied by the belief that it will benefit the progress of future generations. an improvement in their status. Qasim Amin: Tahrir al-mar'a wa (Cairo. pp. and analyzed opment and ensures its positive future is the strange it. Qasim Amin: al-'Amal al-kamila (Qasim 1988). al-tamadun al-islami (Qasim Amin: The Liberation of Woman pp.1 The Emancipation of Woman ing. I am confident ing me of its necessity. Qasim Amin. called for an end to the seclusion of women. Conn. 1992). Amin's major works in- clude Les Egypt/ens (The Egyptians. examined it. The truth I attention. he joined Sayyid jamal al-Din al-Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad 'Abduh (chapter 3) and participated in their publication of the journal al-'Urwa al-wuthqa (The Strongest Link). Egypt: Dar al-Shuruq.: Yale University Press. First published non: al-Sharika al-'Alamiyya li al-Kitab. 4 Qasim Amin The Emancipation of Woman and The New Woman Qasim Amin (Egypt. Leba- bic by Lisa Pollard and Raghda El Essawi. namely the necessity of im. Introduction by Emad Eldin Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Shahin. Muhammad 'Imara. 61 . There. After his return to Egypt. Samir Abu Hamdan. After finishing his primary education at the aristocratic Ras al-Tin School and the Khedival School. and Islamic Civilization) (Cairo. and widespread edu- cation of girls. The latter book. every scientific or literary idea once it crystallizes in the mind. rivaled other ideas. Egypt: © American University in Cairo Press. am presenting today has preoccupied me for a long A profound factor that influences human devel- time. Qasim Amin obtained a bachelor's degree in law in 1881 from the School of Law and Administration and was sent to France in an educa- tional mission for five years to study law. 1899). ed.

and when the separating borders and for. This characterized Islamic countries conventions of a country defining the special customs during the early days and the middle ages. Every cipal traditions or of current events. or to avoid its application. and wars that originated with laws of creation—God who has made change a pre- the purpose of establishing the superiority of one idea requisite for life and progress. and other factors. I have strength he has to assist it in reaching that goal. The history of nations is saturated with disputes. when formulated in a book. its intellectual state. erences are similar to those of the Turks. To these people I will respond: Yes. The aside for them and freed them from obeying natural impact of this power is recognized by anyone who law. even though he and his traditions History offers numerous proofs of this phenome. which are characteristic of death victory was sometimes for truth and at other times and backwardness? Is not tradition merely the set of for falsehood. intercultural exchanges. intellectual movement toward progress is inevitably An intellectually lazy person whose arguments are followed by an appropriate change in the traditions weak is often satisfied. the arts. and appearing in an unfamiliar form. resisting Islam. political structures. heredity. rather than immobil- or ideology over another. bidding walls have been torn down. understanding that traditions are one of the intellec- between right and wrong: it is an internal struggle in tual products of humans. Why should it. like a gas that a Muslim believe that traditions cannot be changed could not be contained through pressure. the changes are influenced by have become like barren soil. in refuting an apparent truth. whose power dominates human beings and the has experienced a trace of it. or claim that the tra- who have toured the whole world and who presently ditions of any country have remained the same since can be counted by the thousands. regional factors. It is as over any negative consequences that may be incurred if God created the Muslims from clay especially set by the individual in presenting his knowledge. In truth. coercing him if he tries to force which ought to be brought to perfection. there should be to hurl a false remark and declare it a heresy in Islam. but the heresy is not against eventually overcome him in the struggle. Such an individual feels rest of living creation. during a specific historical era every are translated and published simultaneously in five country has peculiar traditions and mores that match or six languages. Likewise. sufferings. These changes or the Indians. and mores of a society. beliefs. religious unfamiliar idea. parts of the world imply a uniformity of traditions tance and isolation have been eliminated by modern or ways of life? Who can pretend that Sudanese pref- inventions. This is a well-known. Therefore. falling at all times under non. ethical ideologies. and at the same time maintain the continuous struggle between truth and falsehood. and place? How can people believe that traditions able to state that the life of Western countries is a never change. it will come up with a heresy. Our laziness has caused us to be hostile to every scientific inventions. whether a product of the sound prin. are a part of the universe. or believe that the Bedouin tradition are reflected in the increasing number of individuals is appropriate for an urbanite.62 Qasim Amin Communicating these findings supersedes concern labor of research. It is against our traditions and social dealings. and differs according to historical era or geographical an external struggle among the various countries. along to his work. the Chinese. appropriate to its life and behavior at a specific time tinues to characterize Western countries. the ideas the creation of that country? of any Western scholar. him if he opposes it. and if he does not use whatever heresy. the laws of change? Can the Muslim contradict God's arguments. so that existence. established . location? Does the presence of Muslims in various This is especially obvious in this century when dis. These traditions and mores Countries like ours have preferred a less ruffled change continuously in an unobtrusive way. and that human intellect all branches of education. This is because we have neglected the people living during that era are unaware of the nurturing of our minds to such an extent that they changes. In fact. unfit for any growth. or to disengage from the tellectual status. It is reason. and con. the or replaced by new ones. However. During these encounters ity and inflexibility. that if he fails to use this power toward the goal it is Some people will say that today I am publishing aiming to achieve. examples of differences between the Sudanese and He only makes this false remark to avoid the effort the Turks comparable to the differences in their in- of understanding the truth. and industry. and that it is his duty to pressure may cause an explosion that would destroy preserve them forever? Why does he drag this belief its container.

We have learned that women in the first antee her rights through either specific or general human societies were treated as slaves. lowed by the British. compatriots. the status of has advanced because her Christian religion helped women is also low. has been molded by the traditions and manners of nation. Women in all these societies have felt that they gion. ponents of a nation. the German. the Italian. one is walk- laws of that society. or death. and the Russian woman. and so times tradition may even supersede the existing reli. force is also the medium of control for governments tion is one of the most influential permanent com. and that she and children of the race) to be the same in a civilized should not live after her husband dies. for example. unless they change. because at Austrian. the status of women in that country is guarantees the freedom of women. On the other hand. believe that the Western woman an uncivilized condition for that nation. rather than on formal structures. considered a ciples on this topic. When the status of a nation is low. On the contrary. is inac- is elevated. Prior and influence over local traditions. because the present her to their guests as a sign of hospitality. been relegated. Other Asians nation as in an ignorant. it was acceptable for Arab fathers to kill lim women today should have been at the forefront their daughters. This belief. as one would present a guest with the best of his ate to the intellectual abilities of that society and to possessions. the French. fol- become new instruments for corruption. then the Mus- to Islam. its. barbaric one. and it does not prescribe any guiding prin- Greeks and Romans. on. that a woman has no immortal soul. This belief is confirmed through ing while the other is running. then her tianity has been introduced and spread. He could dispose of her through trade. destroying or transforming it so that those who deserve their independence. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 63 fact. who like to associate all good things nation. The head of no tangible impact on the normative structure affect- the family had the absolute right of ownership over ing women's status. just behavior of every individual in a society is appropri. The American woman is in the forefront. Christianity did not set up a system which of that nation. His heirs eventually inherited her and with there were a religion which could have had power her all the rights that were given to the owner. citizens of a nation cannot but comply with a more advanced civilization have gradually with the existing traditions. however. In every country where Chris- woman to be under the power of her father. run by autocratic structures. Force is the only law edge suggests that the power of tradition controls a with which such societies are familiar. The differences between Egyptians and Euro. One woman is factors in a society. do. It is not dif. . and are searching for the are most knowledgeable about religion eventually means to achieve it. the ficult to understand this phenomenon. reflecting with their religion. family. and This is the basis of our observations. whenever and in whatever way he the specific nations in which it was introduced. The ancient rules. This evi. These women believe that they disown its existing form. we find that women in nations Therefore. the method by which its children are brought up. This authority still prevails among uncivilized Af- We cannot consider traditions (which are merely rican and American tribes. they are therefore striving for freedom and demand- dence of history confirms and demonstrates that the ing every human right. and after him his eldest son. and that they even influence the crawling while the other is taking steps. and have started to overcome the gap Thus I believe that traditions always overcome other that has separated them from men. and is least likely to change. If wished. which are based on familial and tribal bonds of a nation and its level of civilization and knowl. which are usually intended to improve the belong and the level of civilization of these societ- state of affairs but are immediately turned around to ies. Some Asians even believe a way of life for an individual. These traits are present among emerging societ- This total interdependence between the traditions ies. it does not guar- also elevated. status of women is inseparably tied to the status of a Westerners. and when the status of a nation her achieve freedom. it has left husband. and for men to gratify themselves of free women on earth. or advanced from the low status to which they have unless their intellectual level increases or decreases. These discrepancies daily observation of the laws and programs of our reflect the different societies to which these women nation. The use of country more than any other power. are human beings and that they deserve freedom. Christianity her life. and that tradi. with women with no legal bonds or numerical lim- peans also need to be considered in this context. reflecting the progress and civilization curate.

women are con. unchallenged by any other opinion. and obliged to follow justice and avoid injustice. Knowledge in these countries appropriate and fit environment for the development had not developed to the point of giving women the of desirable virtues. without which marriage is meaning. his superiority began to despise woman in her weak- mary. having expe- What a pity! Unacceptable customs. regard- Islamic law favors men in one area only—po. whether important or unimportant. and that the village chief. Every Egyptian The most significant factor that accounts for the who has lived under despotic rule in the not-very- perpetuation of these traditions. and that he place in human society. In sum. stipulated the governments continually took on a despotic nature. existing situation is contrary to the law. In was the norm for Islamic countries. Rulers adminis- fact. but they are in- unlike some Western laws. thority. oppressed nation is that of depravity. counsel. rulers. one would assume that a person who ex- originally women in Islam were granted an equal periences injustice would love justice. This topic too will be addressed later. trusteeship. yet they demonstrate unsupervised by any formal structure. and they admin- a time when women occupied the lowest status in all istered the affairs of their citizens without these societies. spits his spirit into every powerful person. traditions. At various ten Egyptian pounds. its impact erence to men with regard to societal rights. the tendency to equate men's tral to the ideology of the supreme ruler. even in the context continues to flow from him to those around him. There ing in household and child-rearing expenses. ing and freed them from the obligation of participat. and that granted to the ruled revenge upon a hundred peasants! the right to demand that the rulers stop at the limits The natural implication of this situation is that established for them by the shari'a. reclaims a hundred pounds from times and places. Thus they ruled however they wished. however. quite often they even tampered with religion. dominates a weaker one. This is are a few exceptions to this pattern. As a result. This will be discussed later. since it is cen- Within the shari'a. These despotic systems have also influenced issue of lineage. that an oppressed nation does not contain an this beautiful religion. Observation indicates. their human beings respect only force and are deterred . When despotism prevails in a country. the shari 'a. Islamic societies have been stripped his villagers. our legal system went so far in its kindness to tered these nations poorly and were excessive in their women that it rid them of the burden of earning a liv. The only plant that grows in an status already given them by the shari'a.64 Qasim Amin The Islamic legal system. According to Islamic law. distant past knows that the village mayor. Despotism and women's rights is obvious. or supervision. unhindered by requirements of ence demonstrates. attitude pervades the life of all individuals. sidered to possess the same legal capabilities in all civil Yes. erners and some Muslims imagine or believe. The of a country ruled by a despot. which equate men and significant in contrast to the majority of cases. the relationships between men and women—man in less. Islam has created for women mechanisms they in turn influence their subordinates. a temptation for abuse. that unlimited power is permission from either their father or their husband. A despot worthy of consideration and contrary to what West. capricious tampering with the affairs of their subjects. rienced the suffering resulting from the catastrophes and superstitions inherited from the countries in which have befallen him. because Initially. nothing in the laws of Islam or in its intentions ness. less of the approval or disapproval of the supreme lygamy. corrupt morals became the first sign can account for the low status of Muslim women. giving pref. is not limited to individual cases only. equality of women and men before any other legal with their sultan and his assistants having total au- system. In fact. women only with regard to their duties. how- which Islam spread have been allowed to permeate ever. These whenever possible. Islam declared women's freedom and eman. especially when it is unac- These advantages have not yet been attained by some countable. having any say. donating. This explains that respect for women and for their equality with men why for so many centuries absolute and autocratic rule were basic to the principles of the liberal shari'a. struck with one of the political structures that delineated the rights hundred lashes. and granted women all human rights during out restraint. The reason is obvious and is related to the ruler. would be inclined toward compassion. who. are cases pertaining to buying. and of divorce. with- cipation. upon his return to the village takes his of the ruler and the ruled. Experi- disposal of goods. robbed of cession over us of despotic governments. however. is the suc. and contemporary Western women.

sat. order to take the fresh air and to see the works of the ing in the universe except that which she concealed Sublime Creator. observed. tion. In reality. This is a new kind of respect mind and she had simple-mindedness. he dent in their women and have no worries regarding had knowledge and she had ignorance. or a servant supervised. and threw her into the road whenever he ture. and stomped on their personality. Thus a eunuch. thoughts which they be- . and wife gathered after he was done to eat what was left over. tempt. of the poor state of their social order. a man announced that she When Egyptians saw the good life that Westerners was unworthy of trust and honesty. Were women's socialization effected in isfying himself with any of them whenever his pas. he had Yet we cannot claim that this change removes the absolute authority and she had only obedience and need for criticism. need to improve it. a man sat alone at the din- ing table. that they quite often go to public parks in self in the person of the man. A man used her as an object of delight trips to other countries. She specialized in ig. He had freedom and she had bondage. while his mother. which required good intentions in most Islamic schools of belief. was ignored. This change is a consequence of the increased the family as wife. Egyptians have. This has occurred among men who are confi- wished. and felt the the house and boasted about her permanent restric. the Situation of Women in Egypt ian to protect her chastity. mans. many women norance and secluded herself with the curtains of now accompany their husbands during their business darkness. and had no legitimate of their rulers. She was submissive to a man because he present have more freedom to look after their own was a man and she a woman. sisters. and she had no arose among them who competed with each other to patriotic pride or religious feelings. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 65 only by fear. She was allowed noth. as well as certain other advantages from public life and kept her from involvement in anything which they themselves were forbidden—but without except female or personal issues. many of them. he had a their trustworthiness. mother. a legal guardian. then these criticisms for his actions arid justice in his dealings. When women were weak. would be dropped and our country would benefit Despising the woman. enjoyed. and learned about the West's progress. the causes of criticism patience. She was of intellectual development of men. Everything in existence belonged to him. are not change but the conditions surrounding it. Despising the woman. and women alike. become aware companied her wherever she went. A woman had no which life has no value—a desire spread among them opinions on business. their widespread influence and their indisput- Despising the woman. he had light for women. or doctrinal issues. the arts. She obliterated her. a man divorced her with. or daughter. the status of women in Egypt until the past few years. from the active participation of all its citizens. He ignored the prescribed were the use of the veil terminated at limits familiar religious obligations. Despising the woman. spent time with ried in her coffin to the grave. a man appointed a guard. and she was part of that totality of which he took Among the most important of these are the firmly possession. amused himself with her whenever given women a special status within the family struc- he wished. Likewise. We have observed that women at opinions. a man imprisoned her in to show signs of dissatisfaction with it. a man filled his home with of the population. The Current State of Thinking about Despising the woman. men crushed I do not exaggerate when I say that this has been their rights. and sion and lust drove him. political movements. disseminate new thoughts. regardless of her position in men. to keep up with the West and its blessings. many men have and pleasure. displayed for the eyes of all hu- in the corners of her home. and ac. have intermingled with Westerners. accordance with religious and moral principles. They have begun Despising the woman. and the moderation no importance. Leaders public affairs. In fact. A woman when we have witnessed a decrease in the power of had a very low status. established tradition of veiling among the majority Despising the woman. men out reason. white or black. and space and she had darkness and prison. or with numerous wives. over the last few years. despised them. affairs. whether male or female. and the inadequate socialization slaves. They have heard about the West. treated them with con. which was lifted only when she was to be car. a man secluded her from able word. of women.

They will not have any liberation is not. Such sents human perfection. Liberation of Women. as well their homes and their families become a proper en. morals. In their But one factor escaped the attention of these lead. they were even so deluded as to say that the ers: these ideas. until along the lines that it is now practiced. nor are they the things that will trans. and so on. see chapter 3]. to consist merely of a government order They have no more perfect method than to leave us issued to spur the masses to action. any possible sources of discord. 1. and that any Muslim who supports women's understand their meanings. and a become a vibrant community. even if they do lamic law] courts. or how much ten about the benefits of change. This is the indisputable truth. and for the rejection of Legal scholars decided that it was an offense to Islam. 1899]. A saw it as an exaggerated imitation of the West.66 Qasim Amin lieved would guide the community down the road to its publication last year [in the author's book The success. These are delu- influence if women are not favorably disposed to sions that the simple-minded are inclined toward and them. a thin veil] between them and innate to the individual upon his birth. will find a number of matters regarding the re- dent nature. as their desire to change that practice through [the vironment for providing men with the characteristics institution] of engagement. if Egyptians want to reform their current teaching them nothing. mufti [chief religious educated and unless they participate alongside men official] of Egypt—in reforming the shari 'a [Is- in their thoughts. situation. 2. These will merely another group might try to neglect it. do not understand where their true interests lie. upon form of the Egyptian family. 3. a Muslim. that His Excellency made regarding these courts This truth. or. nothing less than increased adherence to the of them went so far as to say that it was a crime precepts of religion. or of a speech in our present situation! designed to encourage its listeners to want to change. And there 4. It such people: If the Europeans intended to destroy us. as well as that of cer- tain Egyptians—at the head of them being His is no hope that Egyptian homes and families will Excellency Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh [Egypt. or are not filled with love for them. and if women do not Islam. writings. and that there remains characteristics. The matter that is . to be a kind of lunacy. important role alongside the developed countries. A third would call for And many graduates from the madrasas [seminaries] love of the country and self-sacrifice in its service. won't have liberation of Eastern women was something that the any influence worth mentioning upon the community Christian nations were striving for in order to destroy if they do not reach women. rather than Hence. One would call for work and action. hopes and pains. Any and all find proof of the fact that our women have broken change must be the result of a confluence of virtues. and those similar to them. as was their custom. because they their children embody the perfect picture that repre. and customs which are not but a hi jab [that is. Some fourth. Anyone who sees the report not participate in all of their activities. sooner or later. such as segregation. and an. against the country and against religion. in fact. was considered by certain people. will change. in other words. just as the truth conditions. They cannot freedom. they are not the means by which people always is. away from their role as slave. The displeasure that our youth takes in marriage with a place in the world of human civilization. Anyone observing our present social situation will form a people from one state to another. Such an observer sees: be had except through training. delusions prevent them from reaching the truth. despite its simplicity and its self-evi. A decrease in the use of the hijab and its con- They must believe that there is no hope that they will comitant institutions. necessity of educating their daughters. they must begin with the roots of reform. it will be made inform a nation about the state of its deteriorating clear to everyone. such that that the ignorant delight in believing. is not enough for a reform program. and no matter how Nor can it consist merely of books and articles writ. much one group might try to hide it. A new awareness amongst the Egyptians of the they cannot be had without women. one that can play an movement toward its obsolescence. This is because no social condition can be We have but one word with which to respond to changed unless it is made the target of education. other for harmony and unity. The government's interest. become that proper environment unless women are 1849-1905. no matter what they would have only to leave us to our own devices! its target. upon which success in the world depends.

money. and if he does so before his wife's end of which he is considered divorced if he does not new husband consummates the marriage. the judge grants the wife a divorce. proclaim what she believes to be them he produced eleven stipulations. [In this state] it becomes impossible for of anyone who claims that she has no right to that men and women to respect the limits that God has trust. his wife has the right to adopted in response to such complaints. in the issue and others similar to it. and that he left no guardian to provide for her. If the Minister fails to find the for his wife despite the fact that he has a clear source lost husband. The husband has the right to remarry his Justice about their unhappy condition. If the band. either through the courts or by Stipulation One: If the husband refuses to provide means of the police. or if he left money in someone's trust. the second hus- oned and he refuses to provide for his wife. depravity continues to affect them and their money. he sets for the wife a period of four of income. the woman must then no clear source of income and continues to refuse to wait out the time of her 'idda [Qur'anic term of wait- provide for his wife. and after swearing that he. dren. These men continuously fight with their wives over Stipulation Four: If someone owed the husband expenses and over their marital rights. If he has years. [This con- dition] damages Islam and the Islamic community for by the absentee. and it is many of them take four wives. hard labor. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 67 most worthy of mention is the mufti's. If the death of the original husband is discov- period of illness or imprisonment is so long that harm ered during the wife's period of 'idda or after it and orfitna [dissension] is feared. and in response to front of the court. This year. In the case that he is absent for number of wives that poor men are marrying. he Stipulation Seven: If the absentee returns or is given a one-month grace period—no more—at the proves to be alive. ing before remarriage. then the wife is returned Stipulation Two: If the husband is ill or impris. without being able to support them. complained to the Ministry of is refutable. if he can prove incapability. If he does family member who could support them or their chil. any return to his wife is unacceptable. in line with the his fate. after swearing that she deserves to be provided placed on mankind's freedom of action. the same action. However. statement fixes a date by which he must send provisions. some have three. he is sentenced to pay alimony. left nothing behind for her provision. the judge band knew all along that the original husband was grants him a period of time after which it is assumed alive. the they will not divorce a single one of their wives and. The Ministry found itself in need of consult. apparently to clarify pater- vorce from him on the spot. or vorcing a man from his wife for not providing for her long prison terms. the judge takes she is allowed to remarry. not do both. deed. the judge died and the second husband knew of his death be- . to her original husband. in- in ways too clear to explain. proven that he has no means of providing for his wife. the wife inherits her original husband's property if Stipulation Three: If the husband is absent for a the second husband was ignorant of the first short period of time. not know- provide for his wife. or his whereabouts. in fact. If. the judge grants the before the new marriage contract is drawn or after it. If the man claims finan. it happened that the wives of men who Stipulation Five: The judge's prerogative in di- had been sentenced to life in prison. the judge grants the wife a divorce after the I am hereby raising my voice in complaint over the fixed period elapses. She also has the right to make a refutation children. believes him to be. Moreover. ing that the absentee is alive. others two. cial incapability but cannot prove it. if in fact the first husband not leave means of provision for his wife. He studied raise the issue at the Ministry of Justice. If those four years pass. the wife is also returned to her original hus- that he will be cured or released from prison. Then. wife has the right to ask to be provided for from that thus. with no means wife if he proves his sources of provision and his available for them to divorce their husbands and no willingness to support her through them. a long period or his destination is unknown. Stipulation Six: If a man is lost in an Islamic land ing the mufti about the legal recourses that could be and there is no news of him. but before his departure he did husband's death. But. She can. the Minister of Maliki madhhab [school of law]. nity]. wife a divorce. the judge grants the wife a di. Without then needing to return to the courts. If he about polygamy: does not. Indeed. which we present Justice should search for him in the areas where she below for the reader's benefit.

take her case before the Minister of Justice. following the the fighting armies. the woman then begins her period of 'idda. the case is brought to the pro. a great religious the woman's claim is proven to be true. about which you lations six and seven. Stipulation Eight: If a man dies in a conflict be. so ment lies in the fact that when we pointed out the be it. then the case is reverted to stipu. homes the changes that we work for had already able. virtue or beating or abuse without legitimate reason. in my book The Liberation of Women. We conclude as you do. and it is proved that he indeed fought project. seek our opinion. scientists. depravity. and the arbitrators have no right to make it appeared. we met with serious opposi- according to what his appointed arbitrators have tion even from those in whose selves and in whose recommended. one of them from the husband's is in need of improvement. as they are reflected in your interest in the result of a war between Muslims has the right to this venerable matter. cumbent upon the wife to prove. the judge grants the wife a divorce once which Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh. After the minister has the man searched for. then they are chosen from among people out. by legal means. solved through one of the means provided for in The sum of these facts—and then some—along the Book of God. The Shaykh of al-Azhar lent his agreement to this tween Muslims. nature of the environment in which he lives. they are neighbors. an income with which to provide for his wife. Otherwise. that herits nothing. foretells that the state of Egyptian women thy arbitrators. and his money goes to her heirs. may God keep you: of Justice searches for the man. number 19. the judge to grant her a divorce if she is harmed by If it makes no difference to us whether we spend her husband. If all Rabi'i al-thani 1318 [August 2. then it would be my opinion that there is .68 Qasim Amin fore consummating the marriage. a period of one Signed. and after the period of 'idda has passed. and sent Muhammad 'Abduh the following in said conflict. and about Otherwise. If it is difficult to find such rather. then the wife in. If after the Minister To the Mufti of Egypt. This process of setting a grace period is valid only These two issues—that of polygamy and that of in cases in which the absentee had. her husband is harmful to her. the humble found. his wife is permitted to raise the issue letter: before the Ministry of Justice. before disappear. He must then appoint two trustwor. erners. and his money is al-Azhar inherited at the end of the year. scholar and a wise jurisprudent. family and the other from the wife's. If they proof that our will does not interfere with this move- are able to settle the dispute between the couple. 1900]. and thus grant you our agreement. free- harm his wife. In this case. He is required to rule until our goals are met. 1832-1917]. they recommend divorce and bring necessity of preserving and continuing the movement the matter before the judge. just as it does not permit desertion or dom or servitude. year is set. and it cannot be lygamy and divorce in a voice that is well heeded. If that year passes and the man is not Salim al-Bishri [Egypt. then the woman can remarry if We have received your letter dated the fourth of she wishes. It is best if This movement did not result from study. There is nothing strange about this: It has always Stipulation Eleven: The wife has the right to ask been our way to follow our whims. guidelines of the Maliki madhhab. which orders that every animal follow the side of the family. It grew. We thank you for high Stipulation Nine: The wife of a man missing as aspirations. that can be proven is that the man went along with containing eleven stipulations. has called worthy of Stipulation Ten: If a dispute between a husband his interest. irrevocable. through the influence of contact with West- arbitrators from among the members of their fam. It is in. richness or poverty. He supports my suggestions about po- and wife becomes quite severe. are amongst the most important issues that I addressed or in cases in which the wife does not fear seduction. and according to the law known to natural ily. The shari'a does not permit a man to our lives in excess or lack. The The arbitrators are then sent to the couple. the divorce is revoc. Maliki Servant of knowledge and of the humble ones at She then has the right to remarry. tian homes. knowledge or ignorance. with the things that one witnesses every day in Egyp- vincial judge. granting women the right to divorce her husband— ing.

that Egyptians want to create a living. from that of men. in ignorance and inter-departmental report. we de. or a magician's magic. other. iso. But all of difficulties is the one that ends in victory and suc- these women. useful to himself. But none of these has the right them: to call his work more useful to the social order than There is a means of getting yourselves out of the the woman who gives to society the gift of a well- poor condition that you complain about. and religions. or the doctor who amputates a patient's But if what we hear and read about every day is limb in order to preserve life in other limbs. that of the judge who mediates in the disputes that civil nation. It consists of liberating your women ers say. civilization—the kind of civilization you aspire to. This means was not our brainchild." Nor are we saying. and put it to their advantage. through the preparation of young people ready French women. This took place when women were given which they see no one and encounter no one. then we have the following to say to arise between people. But just because this work is different does not mean cayed to the extent that when a woman's husband dies that it lacks importance: women's work is like that she must kill herself. We are teaching that the Take a look at the Western nations. long-term secret—one which find that the Italian woman has nothing in common is surrounded in difficulties. And you'll find French women to be to meet the requirements of a changing society. only to women from their former state of decline. to In Africa and Asia there are a number of countries in the establishment of and participation in charitable which women live entombed in their homes. Rather. tested it. advanced. from societies. Perhaps we will learn from them how to iso. goods in order to sell them. it takes place. despite differences in their regions. And useful work—different. If it independence. And once divorce her the next. Nations have used your family and your country. neer who builds a bridge in order to make transpor- late our women and hold them back even further!!!! tation easier. There is a raised man. and his way of raising yourselves up to the highest level of country. are not those of said. or that the way American women are raised. or the scribe who spends tention to these countries and ask them what the se. then let men have a number of It is this freedom that has delivered Western women. women began to daughters and sisters and grandmothers if they wish!! direct their energies. And you'll This is the natural. We aren't saying the same things to you that oth- and then some. his family. you to your goal. or a sultan's order. and their a saint's miracles. It is like that of the engi- isolation. as we've morals and habits and manners. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 69 no need for the freedom and the education that have mon ground in one matter: they enjoy freedom and been granted to Egyptian women up till now. entirely different from Russian women. long hours in some governmental bureau writing an cret to the progress of their women is. and imprison their wives and they were granted an education." or "Cleanse yourselves of the faults that have lation]. crept into your morals. . share a com. you will find changing of the self requires more than a leader's amongst their women great differences. makes no difference. But the easiest of all with the Swedish or the German woman. cess. "Serve serve no credit for its invention. so that she may not enjoy life of the merchant who spends his day bent over his without him! What else can we do but direct our at. languages. and marry a new woman every day. You'll find advice. no doubt. And the shortest path is the one that delivers nationalities. that get lost in the wind. amongst these nations there are those that have de. working alongside of men. things like "Unite and be of help to one an- from the bondage of ignorance and hijab [here." or any such slogans it before us. It is like true.

: Lynne Rienner. the symbolic and practical implications of women's garb. On Fridays she gave women's lectures at the Egyptian University and elsewhere. pp. Islam and Nation: Gender and the Badran. and rejoices in what you and men are rife. founder of the Egyptian Feminist Union. Women and Gender in Islam (New (Bahithat al-Badiya) (Cairo. I greet you as a sister who feels what you feel. Introduction 'Abd al-Muta'al Muhammad Jabri. 227. grumbling are not reform. Opening Making of Modern Egypt (Princeton. 5 Bahithat al-Badiya A Lecture in the Club of the Umma Party Malak Hifni Nasif (Egypt. 228-238. order to correct them. Egypt: Matba'at al-Muqtataf.J. In 19 18. Her eu- logy was the first feminist speech delivered by Huda Sha'rawi (1879-1947). 1886-1918). I wish to seek agreement on an approach us. Dar al-Ansar. Egypt: Society.1 Ladies. Speech Egypt (New Haven.: Yale University Press. she died of influenza. 1990). a meeting of (male) nationalists. Soha Abdel Kader. I applaud your kindness in accepting the in. who had studied at al- Azhar with Muhammad 'Abduh (see chapter 3). N. 70 . The Women's Awakening in ton: Indiana University Press. but there must be an element of truth in them. Some of the sufferings she experienced and observed were expressed in her writings. 1992). eds. and went to live with him in the Fayyum oasis west of Cairo. which she published along with feminist essays in 1910. the Saniyya School. but is a seri.: Yale University Press. while we claim it is due to men's arrogance and pride. Conn. The English and that as human beings we both succeed and fail. pp. 64-68. of my talk. Egyptian Women in a Changing Woman. remember that I am one of you. Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]. gave up teaching. There is some truth in our claims and in those of men. al-Muslima al-'asriya adapted from the same volume. "A Lecture in the Club of the Umma Party. She discovered he already had a wife—his cousin—and a daughter he expected her to tutor. I hope to son is cured by continual moaning. and to examine our shortcomings in and haphazard education. encouraged his daughter's education. delivered to hundreds of upper-class women. in the View of Bahithat al-Badiya) (Cairo. at the age of 32.: Princeton Univer- the Gates: A Century of Arab Feminist Writing (Blooming. and the need for legal change in women's status. Complaints about both women suffers what you suffer. where I seek reform. Conn. men because of the low level of agreement between ous meeting. She graduated from the first teacher training school for women in Egypt. Her life then took an abrupt turn when she married a Bedouin chief. Men blame the discord on our poor upbringing we can take. This mutual blame which Bahithat al-Badiya. says that Anyone who differs with me or wishes to make a opinions that appear erroneous to us are not totally comment is welcome to express her views at the end wrong. Beth Baron. 134. Feminists. Our meeting today is not simply for getting ac. 1995). philosopher. and addressing some of the most sensitive social issues of the day: changing gender re- lations. 1920). Bahithat al-Badiya pp. in Margot Badran and Miriam Cooke. An Arab prov- succeed. I don't believe a sick per- vitation to this talk." translated from Arabic by Ali Badran and Margot Margot Badran. The present selection was one of these lectures. 1987). 179-185.. 1976). Leila Ahmed. sity Press. Her father. where she later taught. 1994). Haven. 'inda Bahithat al-Badiya (The Contemporary Muslim 1. was born in Cairo into a literary family. At the moment there is a semi-feud between us and quainted or for displaying our finery. Which side is right? Complaints and rejoice. delivered in 1909 and first published in 1910. who used the pseudonym Bahithat al-Badiya (Seeker in the Desert). Colo. 1899-1987 (Boulder. erb says there is no smoke without fire. but if I fail. The program listed at the end of the lecture formed the ker- nel of the more extensive set of demands that she sent in 1 9 1 1 to the Egyptian Con- gress in Heliopolis. May Ziyada. pp.

A LECTURE IN THE CLUB OF THE UMMA PARTY 71 has deepened the antagonism between the sexes is isfy our needs. but at the same time pushed us out of ren or have lost their husbands or are widowed or work. crops. clean and soft. we should do the latter. and then men invented in supporting the family. argued that pregnancy causes women to leave work. or she to be breadwinners. Before. sifting flour and kneading dough. God did not are the ones who started to push us out of work. women sewed clothes for themselves and We must pursue an education in order to occupy the their households. haul crops. and create man and woman to hate each other. It might be their own hands. "You women have and knead dough? She might be weak and unable to been created for the house and we have been created trouble herself to prepare the wheat and dough. which might be far away? Is it Furthermore. to become a doctor. fields." Is this a God-given dictate? might be poor and unable to hire servants or to work How are we to know this. costing her nothing work? more than a little money. Is it right to Men say when we become educated we shall push tell a doctor he must quit his profession and become them out of work and abandon the role for which God a merchant or vice versa? No. but men invented the sewing ma. women used to ers have taken away a lot of our work. We still witness people like go to a mill instead of crushing wheat on the grind. Nor do I mean to imply that they do not sat. Would reasonable women seeing water and their support? If pregnancy impedes work out- pumped into a neighbor's house be content to fetch side the house. and the household. come lawyers or judges or railway engineers. Each has the freedom has created us. it also impedes work inside the house. Even those women merely a human creation. how many able-bodied men have not reasonable for any civilized woman seeing bread become sick from time to time and have had to stop from the bakery. vest the dates. Some women even climb palm trees to har- By what I have just said. I do not mean to deni. But if women winnowed the wheat and ground flour on any of us wish to work in such professions. We or our female servants used to sweep our divorced. Obviously. I think if men were in our place spelled it out? Political economy calls for a division they would have done what we did. In the past. we would each other and to live together so the world would only be doing what they have already done to us. Then men established bakeries employing men. Work at spinning and weaving and put women out of work. but if women enter the learned professions do all this work now. prevent us from doing under the pretext of taking and the machines themselves are made by men. to go and winnow wheat Men say to us categorically. others who are bar- gave us rest. Women in villages in both Upper and grate these useful inventions which do a lot of our Lower Egypt help their men till the land and plant work. Instead of collecting water from the river. or those whose husbands need their help houses with straw brooms. but to love that if we were to edge them out today. Is it just to prevent women men invented pipes and faucets to carry water into from doing what they believe is good for themselves houses. since no holy book has alone without help. but academic qualifications. water from the river. should we spin and to weave cloth for clothes for themselves waste our time in idleness or seek other work to oc- and their children. but that is what men wish to chine. while the women work in the they have pumps in their houses. our per- grinding stones for the bread they used to make with sonal freedom should not be infringed. If men live alone in one part of the The question of monopolizing the workplace world and women are isolated in another. No woman can of labor. another a merchant. But isn't it rather men who have to do as he wishes. The division of labor is where civilization has not arrived. be populated. Some women do the fertilizing. both will comes down to individual freedom. the Nubians whose men sew clothes for themselves ing stones. Since male inventors and work- pushed women out of work? Before. . except women in the villages it does not upset the system. but men invented machines for cupy us? Of course. The iron for these machines is mined by men. other half of the day. Then their jobs away. It is not right that they machines to clean that could be operated by a young should be forced into lowly jobs. Poor women and servants used to fetch like to become teachers or doctors with the same water for their homes or the homes of employers. These women might male servant. home now does not occupy more than half the day. They but there are unmarried women. I am not urging women men took up the profession of tailoring and began to to neglect their home and children to go out and be- make clothes for our men and children. One man wishes vanish in time. But I simply wanted to show that men something to be regretted and feared.

the Byzantines. it is you who made her maternal instinct. men can rest assured in their jobs.C. As see that their children are strong and healthy. or in whatever profession she works. I am sure she will not be prevented from doing hard work. we want respect. morals of our girls. This cannot happen in a minute as some ponents may say that their rule was carried out by might think. the more en- us weak through the path you made us follow. We We are still new at educating our daughters. Eliza. and at university unoccupied by us. and we much study. We do not want condescension. They should replace the first with who impressed 'Umar ibn al-Khattab [second caliph. She is doing that to satisfy her desire for been as strong as the man. Education has not spoiled the beth. We women are now men can relax. thing. absolute monarchies. This is dem- encouraged the French to continue fighting and val. ing. the second. Is it right that they and peasant women ignore their crying child for accuse us of being created weaker than them in mind hours? Were these women also occupied in prepar- and body? Women may not have to their credit great ing legal cases or in reading and writing? inventions. You may have observed that women in the our Oriental habits still do not allow us to pursue villages work as hard as the strongest men. long as they see seats in the schools of law. If unable to do hard work because we have not been one of us shows eagerness to complete her education accustomed to it. We must true under constitutional rule. On the contrary. Our op. engineer- Specialized work for each sex is a matter of con. which is the Cleopatra [queen of Egypt. Kindi [a companion of the Prophet. medicine. "That's enough edu. over nothing. vention. because what they fear is distant. jealousy and scorn usually come into play. selves and others. "No. When someone says some- cation. Queen of Spain [reigned 1474-1504]. educated. The problem lies with the family. and other because we are still in the first stage of education and chores. think that good upbringing means kissing the hands came queens and were adept in politics such as of women and standing with arms properly crossed. Haven't you seen ignorant women rusted and our bodies weakened. are well educated are lacking in morals. and we are vain and arrogant. Catherine. As long as we do not like her city sister? Why then is the former in better work in law or become employed by the government.]. who Learning and upbringing are two separate things— led the French army after its defeat by the English. 634-644] with her bravery and skill in fighting when Men blame any shortcomings we may have on our she went to Syria to free her brother held captive by education. It is unfair to put the blame on the their ministers. such as Khawla bint al-Azwar al. If the city woman had not been in one of these schools. spare us the burden. No matter how much a mother has been man from al-Ghuriya [a section of Cairo] in a wres. One of our shortcomings is our reluctance to take When someone says to us. Some have exceeded men in they do not wish us to work because they wish to courage and valor.72 Bahithat al-Badiya lead animals. advice from each other. health and stronger than the latter? Do you have any would our only distraction from raising children be doubt that a woman from Minufiya [a town in the reading a book or writing a letter? I think that is im- Egyptian Delta] would be able to beat the strongest possible. Some people tion. onstrated by the fact that many men and women who iantly waged war against those who fought her na. died circa 655]. Good upbringing means helping people respect them- Isabel." it discourages us and pushes us backward. Queen of England [reigned 1558-1603]. duty of the home." After lightened she becomes. not the school. While also are too quick to ridicule and criticize each other there is no fear now of our competing with men. it is not true under improve this situation. but women have excelled in learning and Nothing irritates me more than when men claim the arts and politics. but while that might be schools. . the mother of Turan Shah [reigned have to redouble our efforts to reform ourselves and 1249]. we say to them. who governed Egypt [1250-1257]. Joan of Arc [circa 1412-1431]. Isn't the country woman learning or for recognition. but poor upbringing. has done this. It is not mandatory. the young. would not cause her to forget her children nor to lose ated weak. she would have given a job. but in fact our upbringing is to blame. draw water for irrigation. only in religion are the two connected. our minds responsibilities. I am not giving examples of women who be. who are men. this tling match? If men say to us that we have been cre. reigned 51-30 B. the more aware she is of her long centuries of enslavement by men. We Shajarat al-Durr. Queen of Russia [reigned 1762-1796].

and when she goes out she added and the garment clung to the back and was wears her best clothes. Then we artfully began to shrink the women are just the opposite. But who will guarantee that we will have a point. We tied back our headgear elry. another dress? In that instance. A LECTURE IN THE CLUB OF THE UMMA PARTY 73 Men criticize the way we dress in the street. and we should avoid gossip. along with my sisters who are being edu- as I am told. and wears whatever little. I am sure that most of these purpose of the izar [long outer garment] is to cover showy women do this without bad intentions. and Imams [religious leaders] have differed on the not just put in boxes exclusively for men? But we question of hijab. and with sleeves long enough to should I opt for ignorance or for unveiling in front of reach the wrist. because advocate unveiling. cated? Nothing would force me to unveil in the pres- . that she paints various colors. and does not conform to our standards of modesty (hijab). She walks swaying like ing the hair could be seen. appearances do not indicate it? [Qur'an. because they are harmful to us. Our former garment was one of Europeans. If we had been raised from childhood to go un- mothers. The way we wear the izar now imitates the dress the more it is shortened. The woman prove of unveiling for those who want it. Not so that more than half the head. why can't he take me with him to select and the body with a dress of the kind Europeans call what I need. some women have started wearing education. They borhood shops. to cover the body right If I cannot find anyone but a man to teach me. When the woman wrapped herself in it. when Turkish women go out to neigh. conform with this pre. the road to reform but we are neither properly covered nor unveiled. I believe the best band will not choose clothes I like and bring them to practice for outdoors is to cover the head with a scarf the house. and if our men were ready for it. or at least they came more transparent than an infant's heart. It must not prevent us from gaining an cept? Moreover. do not advocate a return to the veils of our grand. the more it advances. Veiling should not prevent us from breathing fresh which has virtually become a "dress" showing the air or going out to buy what we need if no one can bosom. But the used to spend her whole life within the walls of her nation is not ready for it now. because we have exceeded the bounds not shorten it and tighten it until we transform it into of custom and propriety. waist. a wall was visible and the flowers and ribbons ornament. The wrap shrunk little by dress she has when she is outside. or let me buy what I want? cache poussiere. the fresh air that God has created for everyone. not going out into the street except when she women do not fear to mix with men. ticity in the veil. nor cause our health to deteriorate. shouldn't we go to the outskirts of the city and take est. we we have finished our work and feel restless. and if should call it a dress with a clown's cap. loads herself down with jew- worn only with a corset. This is being done now in Istanbul. . Some of our prudent house. like Europeans. If the get-ups of some women are should be prudent and not take promenades alone. But our whole body. only this. and red. We claim we are veiling. on the other hand. that man. The European woman wears the simplest figure was totally hidden. place limits on those who are less prudent. I would ap- ied alive. In front of her husband waist and lower the neck and finally two sleeves were she wears a simple tunic. In my opinion. because it can rightly be called being bur. Sura 24. correct covering. can the onlooker understand good intentions when which God has commanded us not to display. a dust coat. which in our house does not have a spacious garden. and mixing with we are quick to imitate and seldom find our authen- men. Finally. If my father or hus- covered their hair and their bodies. I would narrow in front of us. We should not saunter it would be all right if they unveiled their faces but moving our heads right and left. but we have outdone them in display piece. now they are worn by singers and dancers? while the upper half—like age. Verse 31] Does our present izar. but we have to was carried to her grave. because at least eyes are not attracted to it. not hijab. bamboo in a way that entices passersby. When it in colors—blue. but how the body as well as our dress and jewelry underneath. I do not. brown. Don't you see that diamond tiaras Nowadays the lower half of our attire is a skirt that were originally meant for queens and princesses. including the ears. the face veil be. down to the heels. veiled. I think going out without it is more mod. . but it was still wide enough to conceal the she wishes at home or when invited to soirees. and derriere. meant to be a way to leave the home without the izar. her (tabarruj). but she makes a wall out of her face. why fact it is. buy it for us. The pretend to be enticed. and pours bottles of perfume on herself.

great-granddaughter of the each other and speak together after their engagement Prophet. Some people advocate the would close the doors of work in front of our men. What is the good of education if one can- toms should not be abandoned except when they are not abandon a custom that is not rooted in religion. ficials and nobles] hidden away in "a box of aged by our silence to contaminate others. and she should wear simple clothing. women. If we are afraid Islam prescribes." If we do not solve this problem. The European woman thinks convinced this is rooted in fallacy. It is a practice in all nations. ers. to see young women without intending marriage. that person ropean woman marries an Egyptian. men and the other by women. Are we better in Islam than tion. one by happiness—the question of engagement and marriage. As for a person's past and other a better model than today's Turkish woman. What good is there for us in women and By not allowing men to see their prospective men holding each other's waists dancing. Cus. chance. She falls things. When the Eu- other. broth- wise. and friends to live near them. and the Prophet himself. well. She is a good example of decorum that immoral young men would use this opportunity and modesty. ond by our own actions. It is not improbable. should I abandon myself might protest that one or two or more meetings is not to sickness. harmful. did not do other. The woman who used to gather with 'ulama' [religious scholars] should be accompanied by her father. she becomes a does not see the faults of that person and would not spendthrift. and they except among city people. and soon they start to quarrel and the harmony Sayyida Nafisa [saintly scholar. or daugh. 762-824] and Sayyida evaporates. her I have heard that some of our high officials are guardian should probe the behavior of the man to as- teaching their girls European dancing and acting. European customs should not be taken up and that is harmful. The second will be Most sensible people in Egypt believe it is necessary worse than the first. I can remain veiled and still bene. and the like. I cannot find reckless. but I am opposed to this and am gance of their wives. It is wise. freedom of the Europeans is excessive. while she would be thrifty if she were be able to evaluate that person's morals. who otherwise would be encour. and others. or should I seek help character. sponsible. including Egypt. We have all seen family happi- by Egyptians except when they are appropriate and ness destroyed because of this old betrothal practice. because the first occurred for fiances to meet and speak with each other before against our will. However. but when someone loves another. bare bosoms in love scenes? This is contrary to Islam. but it is enough to tell if they are attracted from a doctor who could cure me? to each other. . that these wives will bring their fathers. I certain how serious he is before allowing him to see consider both despicable—a detestable crossing of his daughter or the young woman for whom he is re- boundaries and a blind imitation of Europeans. The result of this she is of a superior race to the Egyptian and bosses getting together is that they would come to love each her husband around after marriage. Some there is no woman doctor.74 Bahithat al-Badiya ence of the teacher. I would like become subject to occupation by women of the to remind you of something that causes us great un. as peace be upon him and his followers. We shall suffer double occupation. we shall On the subject of customs and veiling. neighbors. while the current in movements and repose and sense if a person is false. In my view. one should investigate by talking with acquain- between the two extremes and does not violate what tances. married on the basis of false love and without direc- fit from the teacher. the two people should see Sukayna [bint al-Husayn. wives following their engagement. died 736]—God's blessings be upon them— and before signing the marriage contract. anyone with good intuition The imprisonment in the home of the Egyptian can detect a person's moral character in the eyes and woman of the past is detrimental. The two get married to a Westerner. They marry European servants and working-class and a moral threat we must fight as much as we can. servants. thinking they would be happy with them We must show our disdain for the few Muslim women rather than daughters of pashas and beys [high of- who do these things. West. cousins. but we shall have invited the sec- their marriage. and brother. practical. European practice of allowing the engaged pair to get Most Egyptian men who have married European together for a period of time so that they can come to women suffer from the foreign habits and extrava- know each other. which might be light but could become enough for the two persons to get to know each other's complicated through neglect. or an uncle or a and poets. If illness causes me to consult a doctor. we cause Egyp- ters appearing on stage before audiences acting with tian men to seek European women in marriage.

sons to be eliminated from the blood and strength- tion. or even school education for all. it should be to the benefit. and we do not allow them under civilization grows weak and vanishes. telligent than he is. Public interest is above admira. in good the husband becomes an example for other young health and have a strong constitution. they should also Is our condition satisfactory? If it is not. Our education should also include home man- machinery that would do work rapidly. they should bring Euro. On the other hand. . When our young men go to Europe to in a man's mind that woman is weaker and less in- study modern sciences. Our youth any condition to hurt our feelings or fail to respect claim that they bring European women home because us—if we do all this. As these men get an this. By the same token. would it be right that she would leave her books about health. If to follow their views. and her courage. Providing primary and secondary school edu- superstition. How does wife travels to Europe and sees the children there with the woman who knows how to read occupy her lei- better complexions and more beautiful than children sure time? Only in reading novels. despite the care lavished on them by their to respect those among them who deserve respect. as much as possible. with whatever is foreign. A LECTURE IN THE CLUB OF THE UMMA PARTY 75 If the man thinks the upper-class Egyptian wife devils. why doesn't the husband gently guide his wife? neighbor and the jewelry of her friend and the furni- Husband and wife should do their utmost to please ture of a bride? This is added to the notion imprinted each other. it means we think our condition is satisfactory. because immodest behavior on the street and prove to our hus- if he does he will endanger his own good product. sensible man respect a woman who believes in magic. shall we be content with her when she more intelligent children. Teaching girls the Qur' an and the correct sunna of the lesser respect that men accord us. almost all of them. not merely acquire national manufacturer of silk visits the factories of the trappings of a foreign language and rudiments of Europe and admires their efficiency. If a We should get a sound education. They should bring better it in the eyes of men? Good upbringing and to their country that which will profit it and dispense sound education would elevate us in the eyes of men. Our beliefs and actions have been a great cause 1. and a nation that has lost its human than they are. Has she read in Egypt. and compulsory preparatory allows women peddlers and washerwomen. and who cation for girls. Let them show us what they want. and the blessing of the dead. 2. I would decree: do not do injustice to us nor trespass on our rights. bands through good behavior and fulfilment of du- If we pursue everything Western we shall destroy ties that we are human beings with feelings. or books through which she can children and replace them with Western children. If we eliminate introduce the same European-made product. and child care. How can a [practice of the Prophet]. but parents. no less our own civilization. to have authority over her? Can he respect a is deficient and lacking in what her Western sister woman who speaks only about the clothes of her has. Work causes poi- good of the nation. At a first glance. it would have been better for women. men. The superior to our own. while most men? I am the first to admire the activities of the of the children of the elite are sick or frail and prone Western woman. one can see that the work- Western woman marrying an Egyptian is disowned ing classes have better health and more energy and by her family. how can a just man despise us? they find them more sophisticated than Egyptian As for the unjust man. education and profit themselves. The reasoning is the same. What work of most of us at home is lounging on cushions would be the result if this happens? If an Egyptian all day or going out to visit other women. lower-class children are respect for others should not make us overlook the greatly neglected by their parents. health care. rather than agement. and I am the first to illness. pean students and workers to Egypt because they are We shall advance when we give up idleness. of Egypt. We have to find work to do at she admired in those other children? If the lowliest home. and and lower classes are. us not to accept marriage to him. We are ready Now I shall turn to the path we should follow. If we fail to do something about not the detriment. The children of the middle also takes the place of one of our best women. on condition that their views I had the right to legislate. he should buy music. In many of our ways we follow the views of our ens the muscles and gives energy. how can we bring benefit to their compatriots. or profit herself and others? Being given over to idle- would she do her best to make them beautiful and ness or luxury has given us weak constitutions and make them resemble as much as possible that which pale complexions.

. Bringing up girls from infancy stressing pa. and childcare. to implement this program. 10. subjects they wish without restriction. and not permitting of Egypt. honesty. cation so they can serve the women of Egypt. Making it incumbent upon our brothers. Allowing women to study any other advanced ish women of Istanbul. the men ing betrothal and marriage. first aid. Setting a quota for females in medicine and edu. work. Adopting the veil and outdoor dress of the Turk- 5.76 Bahithat al-Badiya 3. health. ing each other in the presence of the father or 4. Adhering to the shari'a [Islamic law] concern. Instructing girls on the theory and practice of any woman and man to marry without first meet- home economics. 7. much as possible. and other virtues. 8. male relative of the bride. Maintaining the best interests of the country and 6. dispensing with foreign goods and people as tience. 9.

He advocated return to the original sources of Islam and the re interpretation of the Qur'an to meet modern demands. Doctor Mansur Fahmi [1886-1959]. Rida's monthly periodical. Muhammad 'Abduh (London: Oxford University Press. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age: 1798-1939 volume 32. The Society of the Oriental League has entrusted me tute of Geography at the invitation of the Society of to deliver a lecture tonight on the issue of "Renewal. Egypt. Muhammad Rashid Rida. Rida was greatly influenced by the reformist message of Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad 'Abduh (chapter 3). I appeal to you to ing students of the high schools. Rashid Rida 1.1 Part I In the Name of God. outstand. as well as some eminent European an introduction of the topic and what needs to be Orientalists. science. the Merciful This is a lecture the publisher of this periodical [al- Manar." My colleague in its board 1348 [early 1930]. and Renewers). while studying also the works of Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali (1058-1 I I I ) and Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328). 49-60. kindly mentioned its title to you. They were asked for their opinion after explained and examined. has writers. Cairo. and Renewers Muhammad Rashid Rida (Lebanon-Egypt. 1933). volume 31. and virtuous women overlook and forgive any shortcoming. Hourani. disseminating the ideas of Islamic reform throughout the Islamic world. al-Manar (The Beacon}. He rejected the growing attempts to subordinate Islam to modernity and Westernization and in his later years tilted toward religious conservatism. reflects Rida's vision of Islamic renewal and his con- cerns about the increased secularization of Muslim society. pp. Charles C. which reinforced his reformist and antimystical tendencies. Renewing. or The Beacon} delivered at the Royal Insti. pp. and modernity. and Renewers. Born in Tripoli. Rida attended a school established by Shaykh Husayn al-Jisr (Lebanon. delivering it and attested to its moderation. Al-Sayyid Rashid Rida wa ikha' mujaddidun" (Renewal. July 1931. pp. students of al-Azhar [University]. Syria: Matba'at Ibn Zaydun. Emad Eldin Shahin. March 1932. Islam and Modernism in Egypt: A and the West (Herndon. which he published from 1898 to 1935. number 3. 1865-1935) was a prolific writer and one of the most important figures in Islamic modernism. A large audience of scholars. number 1. Va. Renewing. Rida believed in the compatibil- ity of Islam and reason. 1845-1909). 1937). from late in his life. 222-244. the Beneficent. al-Manar arba'ina sana (Rashid Rida and Forty Years of Fraternity) (The Beacon). 6 Muhammad Rashid Rida Renewal. who believed in the need to combine religious and modern education. Through Muslim Eyes: M. Adams. number 10. was widely read and highly influential. and he moved to Egypt in 1897 to join 'Abduh. the Oriental League on a Ramadan night in the year Renewing. of directors. from Arabic and introduction by Emad Eldin Shahin.: International Institute of Islamic Study of the Modern Reform Movement Inaugurated by Thought. Shakib Arslan. Rida therefore acquired a fair knowledge of modern sciences and European languages. 1993). (Damascus. Translation (London: Oxford University Press. becoming one of'Abduh's closest disciples and his biog- rapher. "al-Tajdid wa al-tajaddud wa al. volume 32. 226-231. Albert pp. 77 . I begin with attended it. Yet Rida was critical of some of 'Abduh's disciples who took modernist ideas to secular and liberal conclusions. 1970). The speech translated here. 770-777. Like Afghani and 'Abduh. October 1931.

regain our with the history of Athens and Rome and other capi- independence. even zation. and when they disobey. we have worn out and depreciated. voked and corroded. good traditions. the Great [ruler of Egypt. military. and politi. and We destroy the harm later. to do so. Verse 35] our . and its national charac. wickedness". need of reform to renew the guidance of religion. the concepts of renewal. ily We shall annihilate these wicked people". vast sultanate. and renewers have become widely spread necessary efforts. in a time that is threatened by women's independently during the reign of Muhammad 'Ali revolution. they defied our order and pursued disobedience and We need an independent renewal like that of depravity. and imitation of Western civilization. which ended in the disintegration of its In a time that is afflicted by ideological. All of our historical origins. then turned tegration of the family. and would have been charged with the In such a time. the violation of marital vows. laws. such as Muhammad the novel and borrow the modern we have only clung 'Abduh [Egyptian scholar. "We would never have de- become a dignified umma [Islamic community] and stroyed cities if their inhabitants were not given to a strong state. "Shall culture. and promote 1936] who demonstrates the willingness to do so. [Sura 14. Verse 16] [This in this nation complain about both and propose one means:] We order them with obedience and virtue. and values. ing of the eastern part of Africa and the western part and origins. and renewers abandoned and forgotten. as us in the paths of civic advancement has been re. and Bolshevik upheavals. to exert the renewing. not new. any perish but the ungodly?". Iranian pan-Islamic it fully. Verse 59] our statement. laxity and profligacy. dress. intellectual. It is still qualified which you know even better. as well as attacks on the nation's reli. 1849-1905. 1838-1897. We need renewers of civili- empire. [There is] Introductory Note on Our Need for no need for an imitative renewal like that of the Ot- Renewal in All Aspects toman state. Sura 17." [Qur'an. everyone knows. and its customs. have erupted. see chapter 11]—not the renewal shell of imitation. the We need this glorious renewal. and to achieve it with a worthy leader. What we have of the old and the modern is a activist. and fulfill all our interests. Egypt would have become a great sultanate consist- gion. which started cial chaos. and values. Truly. and commercial wealth. as known to those who are familiar need of reform to renew our civilization. literary. our blossoming civilization. civilization. With this renewal we shall Verse 13] our statement. [Sura 28. interest. while preserving our nation's religion. They weakened their states ruption of education and socialization in them in.78 Muhammad Rashid Rida ter of dress. like the shell of an almond or a of heresy and promiscuity. see chapter 3] to the fringes and have never been able to reproduce and Jamal al-Din [al-Afghani. one that combines true religion. Anything that could preserve our na. and leadership of the Muslim umma. Therefore they deserved our statement. then in its termination and eradication political. it is pousing depravity in the name of the liberal arts [lit- useless in itself and cannot preserve the core. Nor [do we need] a a time that is strained by religious. tals of the ancient peoples. the disin. in from the world geographic atlas. es- walnut that lies under the outer wooden layer. we are in a dire need for renewal ripe. The cor. and the bonds of kinship. renewal like that of the Egyptian state. We send Our command to (warn) complaint against defects in the religious institu. Communist. erally "naked arts"] and discouraging virtue under the If our al-Azhar and religious institutions are in pretext of freedom. 1805-1849]. In our attempts to acquire of knowledge and wisdom. like Muhammad 'Ali the Great. People of vision and understanding them utterly. throne today there is a king [Fu'ad. in to imitation and ended with occupation and the loss a time in which heresy and unfettered promiscuity of independence. its people living a life of ease. nothing remains stable to raise our of Asia. On the and renewers. All that it needs is to prepare. and great the modern and the old. and so. and eroded their independence. but reform after the other. Our stroy a population. and language. industrial. and we will explain the sentence against them is justified. If it had adhered to its initial plan. liberation of the Oriental woman. All these vices our public and private schools are in even greater are old. "Ver- cal interests and develop our agricultural. [Sura 46. language. tions is almost entirely negative. "And when We de- cludes two dimensions: positive and negative. to seek this goal when the time is amongst us. reigned 1922- tional character and religious heritage. which I have described briefly. preferring their own lust over the public Japan to promote our economic. It would have restored the glory of Arab youths and teach them respect.

and traditions. (I seek forgiveness from God because restor- was inconceivable before [the umma] became ready ing the nation's glory. ter. Advice and requests. for truth has no sanctity for them. and achieving glorious accom. form well what God has created her for. and its product in . AND RENEWERS 79 statement. and social reform of' Abduh and Afghani are no dens of pregnancy and labor.. destructive individuals have assumed the despise those who call for that. swimming. the garb of his officials and that of the stu. It is quite sufficient preclude them from engaging in modernization. leading land and naval armies. They criticize woman. destroying all the cornerstones of free- it her utmost concern in life to prepare herself to per.) leadership of renewal and monopolized the title of All their wares in this marketplace are but chat- renewers. 1919-1929] lost his throne and shed the blood is old. guidance or group. and must be abandoned and despised just because it stan. take off the apparel of virtue. speech. and work—[the very freedoms] that are glori- ing her over man: that is. dence. marine and air nobility of Muhammad 'Ali's family. if the nation so soldiers blindly obedient to their leaders. distinguish. They engage in flagrant slander. donning the [European] hat. home of whoever she likes without [her husband's] when they are righteous in their deeds. The umma has seen the bril. fleets. siders her as an angel in goodly pavilions. [proof] of moral degradation and intellectual decay viving the sciences. Sa'd Pasha Zaghlul [Egyptian nationalist leader. "Your Lord would not surely destroy com." [Sura tice her to disobey and disregard him. urge her not to consider such impediments as the bur- cal. not correct evi- women and men in dancing [halls].2 which glory. Verse 117] This means that He [God] will not ever she pleases to enter his home. and to deride those who would preserve [the of his people in his attempts at imitative renewal by past] by calling them reactionary. Muhammad 'Ali's folded turban. and an zation whom they claim to be following. RENEWING. these heretic calls to destroy [the government's] re- ligion. It 1927]. are the stron. 1857. None. seated on the throne ing. cessiveness of the Turkish heretics is not novel. His Majesty. [. as well as the princes and the ing. and the religious. audacity in mixing right with wrong. ance of religion.] gest basis for the military and civilizational renewal They also entice youths with heresy and praise the of the nation and the state. capable of following their footsteps and pro. dom: freedom of religion. They urge the nation to abandon the guid. virtue. and reformist excellence in knowledge or wisdom. or restoring its liance of one of them in political leadership. ating practices useful to the umma in preserving its ing to respond to them. developing its wealth. these pretenders would not have dared to voice palace. his wide preaching are useless once they have deviated from garment. trying to turn them and women into nation's components and character. Some even say that she is fit for wars and fight- of Muhammad 'Ali. even if he con. not for have [formed] a scientific. an affectionate and educating mother. They also tempt her with The modernizing reforms of Muhammad ' Ali the positions in the government and attorneys' offices. values. who makes behind them. while preserving the pursuit of lust. began with an earlier generation. to allow whom- 11. re. Had it not organized and frugal head of the household. with its conquests and civili- to rise up with him and acknowledge his stature. writing. Their praise of the ex- 2. No advice can be heard during the pursuit dents on his scientific missions [to Europe]. politi. and to enter the destroy them because of transgression on His part.. and the husband her jailer. permission and approval. take and insolence in criticizing their opponents or crit- pride in the donning of the hat. and travel. But Amanullah Khan [ruler of Afghani. zation. and they sion. dress. even if it is like a garden ment. not for initi- ceeding with their reforms insofar as the umma is will. seclu. did not of moral chaos and whims. is considered by them as reactionary. to be a good and virtuous fied by the leaders of knowledge and modern civili- spouse. RENEWAL. religion. None of them deserves this title. and A horde of heretics in this great country are at shaving the beards of his statesmen! present attempting to assume this honorable title [of Jamal al-Din [al-Afghani] and Muhammad 'Abduh renewer]. They en- munities so long as the people are righteous. praise the extremist Turks who have tossed Islam fulness that follow. permit drinking and all types of sin. to concede [to their claim] that the old is repulsive plishments. rational. adorning his wife. allow the mixture of ics. opinion. breast-feeding and nurs- longer unknown. true nature. and they theless. and Great have become known. sophistry. They call been for the excessiveness of the Egyptian govern- the household her prison. or in revealing unknown truths.

They which its enemies scorned and accused of transgres- should have combined religious renewal and earthly sions against women. which it condemns. it would much blood was shed in the conflict between the free- have been accomplished in a short time. which was the greatest sultanate in of the umma. no inclination for [building] schools. The false renewers here do not consider existing Recently. Mahmud 'Azmi [1889-1954]. and civilization than the king. Now [Turks] want [Egypt] to follow [the Turkish state's] footsteps—its heresy and disavowal The Alleged Renewal of the Heretics of the guidance of religion—so that [Egypt] will not Constitutes a New Division of the Nation be able to replace [Turkey] in what it is now quali- fied to do. Afghanistan. There has been no real renewal in tors. less in number. scholars. industry. [This party.3 Similarly. [The Turks] have not the necessity of equality between men and women. casting doubt on the doctrines of religion. they would dom of Egypt. Doctor Fakhri Faraj Mikhail al-Qibti. This so-called renewal is almost becoming a real lion Muslims [around the world]. He was forced to flee and constitute the majority of the nation. and Africa. The presence of a new party ap- they showered him with praise for unveiling women pears to complete the roster of divisions. Egypt preceded the Turks in this earthly renewal. undermining its audience and his own admission. This blind imitation has made them disincline [people from re- 3. Further. nor [opposed] the posi. an obstacle that must be removed just Europe. poor republic.80 Muhammad Rashid Rida this generation has been the extinction of the Otto. pity Islam They were imitators. and the authority of religion and church on the other. explain later. Had it been carried out by both sides. Had they called for except for a small. in the mosque where I pray. unanimously criticized such nonsense. reigned 1880-1901]. a to declare their hostility and resistance to it.] and forcing his people to wear hats. is hostile to religion and despises the devout. because they imitate the heretics of Eu- rope in their hostility to religious scholars.] because renewal was carried out by one Europeans. sultanate. and writers urge people to respond to this party. during which side. accusing its 'ulama' [religious scholars] 5. lecture which he published and distributed. the Turks have embarked influence of someone who declared unheard-of rights on all the earthly renewal that the heretics called for. 'Abd al-Rahman [Khan. and the like. His Highness 'Umar Pasha Tusun [1872-1944]. the imitators among the clerical scholars. His heretical re. 'Ulama'. as I will dom of knowledge and government on the one hand. though this and elites are forced to call upon the government to process started in the last century during the reign of prevent members of this party from pronouncing evil. argued tive aspects. and so on. notables5 renounced that lecture and the newspapers gious reformation and modernization. Asia. in imitation of the heretics of Europe and its liber- newal ignited fires of revolution in his country against als. which it requires. claiming that science and philosophy have 4. of political parties. Mr. assume the leadership of 400 mil. like Japan. they clashed with and urge the fasting worshipers to defend the Qur'an. which were the worst centuries for process. whom we defeated ligion]. therefore. pursued an independent path of renewal. the same way Europe has done with reli. to judge by the support of the criticizing its rules and regulations. . for women at the University of Egypt. prayer speaker. ora- abdicate his rule. This sort of strife occurred in Europe during the The clerical scholars neither opposed nor helped [the Middle Ages. someone at the American University [in Cairo]. after some of the renewal. of being an insurmountable obstacle to the progress man sultanate. This took place precisely as a result of the negative Since the last century. Islam has neither prevented the evils of re. renewal of divisive strife. that is. This could be worse than When similarly false renewers deceived Amanullah the divisions of ethnic and national extremisms and Khan. and. in a newal. who him and his government. annulled it. knowledge. which was once a province of this have been justified. There was a dark sedition. and he tried to imitate the present Turkish state. found resistance from religious scholars. Leaders military system. a similar situation took place in Afghani- conditions. and then affluence. Nothing remained of it as dirt is removed from the road.4 I heard the Friday which preserved its religious and national character. in debate at the University. even in divorce and inheritance. practical reform in the name of renewal.

. to selected creatures whose holy fore it escalates. [. . may be appropri. and the tendency for discovery and the nature of things and their type. on coeducational schools. [.. We must repel this se." [Qur'an. progress through the stages of civilization and ascend ferent from that of Europe during these centuries and on the paths of science and knowledge. with His grace. thing outside it. died 678]. such as the economy. Each has its place. They operate [today] just as they operated truth and certitude. Some people by na- Part of renewal in human action is achieved by the ture tilt more to one or the other. and every new one will become old. and religious renewal is neces. [. appropriateness. which is opposite of imitation. provided that each is put in its place with no neglect The true statement on this topic is that humans at all or excess. has advanced along with lecture. As a Naysaburi. . The absolute original is the someone who renews its religion. or their reluctance in up- thou find in God's way (of dealing): No turning off holding it and following its rules in managing the in- wilt thou find in God's way (of dealing). [. ] This is the meaning of renewal and What I stated in the introduction to a previous renewing.. humans would be similar preferred.. in accordance with the rule of logic. and others from the hadith of Abu Hurayra common people cannot approach." Narrated by Abu Creator. to its usefulness and utility. It is counterweighed by the The True and Decisive Statement on preservation of the old. and it leads us [to conclude] that both the new lecture. I see it as the greatest task that I can perform the nature of human societies in their progress from one before the Society of the Oriental League. and the old have their place. Da'ud [al-Sijistani. new and old are relative. in accordance with instinct of independence. However. 933-1014] in his Mustadrak [Supplement]. folk proverb says: "Whoever does not have a past [Ahmad ibn al-Husayn] al-Bayhaqi [994-1066] in al- will not have a future. said. except by children to flocks of birds. RENEWAL. renewal is part of nature and habit. and it is a matter of igno- ate to state here as a summary: rance to prefer one over the other in absolute terms. This is exactly what I seek with this souls He prepared to receive it. their dwellings would not be more and those women and men who are at their level. In each there is good and ill. tional and independent people do not shun the old and turn to the new unless there is a reason making it pref- erable. benefit and harm. refuting the innovations and extrem- for our parents and grandparents. Rarely is the new invention. [Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah] al-Hakim [al- once new. . . terests of humans and the laws of society and Sura 35. I see the condition of Egypt as dif.] civilization. . [companion of the Prophet. "No change will ism that its followers accrue. AND RENEWERS 81 stan. [ . . Without them. Despite this completion. RENEWING. Ra- advanced than bee hives and ant hills.] Renewing is a law of social association. They enable societies to patriotism. .. religion. [Jalal al-Din] al- Renewal and renewing of the universe are among Suyuti [1445-1505] referred in his al-Jami' al-saghir the divine general laws. The Wisdom of the Collected the knowledgeable may understand in senses that the Hadith]. in accordance with their na. and nationalism. Every old creature was lection}. God. until it was completed by Islam when of dear Egypt and the entire Orient.] A Types of Renewal and Their Necessity rational person may prefer the new for a reason related Social. which is based on the revelation of the wise dition before it spreads. died 889] in his Sunan [Hadith Col- ated. generating order in our world [The Lesser Collection] to its correctness. political. ture and level of readiness. because of its newness. the narrators of hadith [ac- counts of the Prophet] tell us that [Muhammad. peace be upon them all.] times need both the old and the new. to prevent this conflict be." This is a wise proverb that Ma'rifa [al-sunan.] the Seal Part 2 of the Prophets. Verse 43]. either in itself or for some- sary for human societies.] they reached the stage of maturity and independence. Among the cre. civic. The renewal and change and transformation in the phase of our of religion means renewing its guidance. "God sends to this nation at the beginning of every century All of creation is new. [. clarifying its existence. Even divine that of present-day Afghans. There is New and Old no contradiction or opposition between them. . most glorified and exalted. for the sake stage to another.

[. accepted its judgment. the Mus- industries. political. we must abandon ciples. They prefer their own The contempt of the false renewers for us. faithful to their kind and devoted to their nation. especially their language and religion. inheritance. [. so Preferring all that is national. a better one for that purpose." nation of the religious scholars and its negative im- Similarly. allowing the eldest son to acquire the gave as the reason [for its unavailability] that it was entire inherited estate of his parents. In . letter to his governor in Persia.] statements by two Turks. [. most exalted. When 'Umar arrived in Syria wearing his patched garment and riding his camel." 'Umar re. see chapter 23]. I had to substi. and other components and lims in this country. Part of heresy.. style.] The Arabs were able to preserve their Preferring the National to the Foreign national character in the provinces they conquered. The heretical false renewers try to medication I usually carry during travel and keep back convince us to abandon all that. in which the British differ from the laws of all it is French. Commander of the Faith. Mu'awiyya observed: "O. muftis [religious officials] between the two types of 644]. ..] [a later caliph. all vibrant nations. not the Germans. the Their Religion peoples of the West. either new or old. "It is French.]! include [. ['Umar's] instructed his governors in pact on rulers and seekers of political and social re- foreign provinces to observe Arab garb. of the sharl 'a in such and such cases of the penal tions deduced through ijtihad [interpretation] by our code and finances. God bless his soul. 'Utba ibn Farqad. and Islam's perspective and encouragement. The for- to investigate means of prevention. the Muslims in Urging Them to Abandon With this kind of nationalism and patriotism. is a long as they obeyed these instructions and maintained cornerstone of economic." The Arab descendants of Ma'add are like the 1858-1920. particu- pharmacies in Berlin and Munich about a French larly the British. newal. They formed several associations features were assimilated into other peoples. and that we remained silent and leading scholars on the basis of our laws and prin. They preserve the regulations of the old schools urging us to abandon our religion and our British judges and their legal decisions more than we entire shari'a. Ma'add ibn 'Adnan [patriarch of the northern Arab [The first scholar] is the Shaykh al-Islam [chief tribes] in his toughness. There is no difference for these renewing between 'Umar [ibn al-Khattab. He wrote a form.82 Muhammad Rashid Rida Spartans. [. Part 3 ful. 634. [Other] nations assimilated into them and were came appalled by the spread of cheap German prod. .] The answer I received was. 661-680]. second caliph.. . and harsh life Ottoman religious official] Musa Kazim [Turkey.. Had an Egyptian or Arab medication The Contempt of the Heretics and Copts for existed. who be. Therefore.. perseverance. Arabized and Islamized. over that which belongs heretics and Copts have spoken at podiums and to others. tance. the people of Syria are accustomed to seeing their rulers in splendid clothes. Those who abandoned these ucts in their country. and di- early years of Islam. while the rest of made by the French. commerce. and literary life in their character. An example is what happened vorce. let alone the regula. even rules of inheri- home. They do not fear anyone In clarifying the need for religious and earthly re- who is simple in attire and appearance. . not just the rules of inheritance. particularly the British. I would have preferred it. sponded. for. not I need to begin with a brief introduction on the stag- to learn from them how they rule. tute that medication with a German one. "We came to teach them how we rule. I inquired in some eigners imitated our ancestors in this respect. I then mention a statement of the wise man of what he said in the letter: "follow your grandfather of the Orient [Afghani] about them. all the rest of God's regulations regarding the per- ing pride in their legislature and other matters in the sonal status code. [the first] by one of the most enlightened scholars of bidding [Muslims] to wear the dress of the Persians Islam and [the second] by an outspoken proponent and ordering them to preserve their Arab customs. They maintain the regulations that we believe to have been argue that the government has abandoned the rules revealed by God. and Mu'awiyya regulations. but only other nations. have advanced.. may God be pleased with him. his siblings receive nothing. Our ancestors preceded the foreigners in tak." They never denied its existence. has reached such an extent that characteristics of the nation. laws. marriage.

" He responded. 1858-1913]. who can serve as while we follow the ideas of those people. I suggested to him. commercial court to specialize in reviewing the cases and where is this progress? When did they put up such related to foreigners and Jews. because it is impossible for us to progress gelize for your religion (Islam). but what can we do with the official tance of the 'ulama' and the approval of the Commit- scholars of fatwas [religious rulings]?" tee of Union and Progress. I see with your approach in religious reform." [General] Mahmud § evket Pasha fatwas—is that they do not issue fatwas in accor. who view us as one and the same. I guarantee you that I can deduce from the al-Da'wa wa al-irshad to [Ottoman] Prime Minister vast Islamic shari 'a all the rulings that the sultanate Huseyin Hilmi Pasha [1855-1922].] [The second scholar] is Doctor 'Abdullah Bey The Statement of Sayyid jomal al-Din Cevdet [Turkey. I see that you do not do the of Fatih and Sulaymaniyya [historic mosques in same. evangelizing their religion because of the reli- He explained. I will speak to the Shaykh He means that the Islamic clerical scholars al-Islam to convince the scholars. or Rational Interpretation] that he used to publish in Egypt before the [re. The 'ulama' of Egypt Yemen. . It included the Shaykh al- to wish to serve Islam under your auspices.] Islam and the minister of education. I would like you to send us preachers to evan- Istanbul]. God bless his soul. me in Istanbul with the project of al-Da 'wa wa al. helped 1867-1912] sent a letter to Sultan Abdiilhamid [II. all of which conforms to shari'a. and an Islamic college. reigned This man. which came During the time [Jamal al-Din] was at Istanbul. concerns the fol- the Ottoman state. . God bless his dance with the rules of the [Ottoman] Mecelle-i soul. RENEWAL. and there are similar ones by because he was persecuted and not allowed to enter him regarding the Muslim 'ulama'. to power in the Ottoman Empire in 1908]. Among the things convince the Central Committee of the CUP. and it that Rida established in Egypt in 1912]. which I refer to here. But the an implicit moral link between you and us. the two minis- . ligious scholars. RENEWING. I would be the first Palace for consultation. because it country (Iraq) do not have such an influence. 1860-1940] to state would oppose [such reforms]. [. reigned 1876-1909] seeking his friendship and say- irshad [Propagation and Guidance. editor [al-Afghani] on the Turkish Scholars of a magazine [ictihad. and about the Shaykh al. a practical resistance that the government feared [to "If you agree not to commit yourselves to Hanafi make reforms]? When I presented the project of doctrine. He is one of the founders of the lowing incident: Committee of Union and Progress [CUP. and then said: "The scholars in my 1876]." The understanding of Rashid [Rida] Efendi and Shaykh sultan was interested in this letter and ordered the Muhammad 'Abduh of the religion of Islam helps formation of a committee of his advisors in Yildiz progress and benefits the state." I responded. the emperor of Japan [Mutsuhito Meiji. an elite school ing that "each one of us is an Oriental king. He informed is in our interest and the interests of our people to me that "if you succeed in this effort and establish get acquainted. also told me of the influence of the Turkish re- Ahkam-i 'Adliye [Compendium of Legal Statutes. who publicly declares heresy. . What contains rules that contradict established statements is their status in Egypt?" of Hanafi doctrine. while you oppose religion?" try. The statement of al-Sayyid Jamal al-Din [al-Afghani]. [He also planned] to establish a unified how can they be accused of blocking civic progress. Its implementation depends on the accep- is possible. [Ottoman prime minister." [. the Western people send missionaries to our coun- "How is that possible. see chapter 21]. he was explaining The 'ulama' of Istanbul had a great influence on to me his plan for the reform of the government of the nation and the government. 1869-1932. to establish friendly relations. and so on. "I oppose the religion of the shaykhs gious freedom we have.. and to [Colonel charged with the issuance of official fatwas for the Mehmed] Sadik Bey [§ehrekustii. promulgation of the Ottoman] Constitution [in 1908]. "I realize that this the state. AND RENEWERS 83 his home in a suburb of Istanbul. do my utmost to persuade them to use their influence Islam—who is restricted by them in the issuance of on this matter. I will I learned about them. needs and that address the conditions of the present he told me: "This is a great project and necessary to time. I will volunteer to teach there and to promote cooperation vis-a-vis the Western states deliver my health and science lessons in accordance and peoples. He formulated all its laws in accordance with do not enjoy the slightest share of such an influence— the shari'a.

he would be required to bear the burden like that appropriate gift. ligion. and others. The Lawgiver [God] has recommended Majesty. Islamic teachings in the world. prohibiting inno- spects." The sultan adopted this view. and say that you theirs being diminished in any respect. [." Narrated by will look into its implementation in a satisfactory Muslim [ibn al-Hajjaj. as stipu- from the schools of Istanbul to be sent to Japan. century someone who renews its religion. said and speech. Its interests differ in accordance to changes Shaykh al-Islam and the minister of education sug." Narrated by Muslim from the according to scientific methods. mention to him that his suggestion of the one who followed this (evil practice). it is in even more need of renewal in earthly Yildiz Palace and the discussion started. in it was in the beginning. I have mentioned the hadith on religious renewal: on which depend the defense of the country and the "God sends to this nation at the beginning of every protection of the umma from aggression. He One relates to the public interest and our need for said what may be summarized as follows: "Your legislation. died implementing the suggestion of special education 640]. may peace be upon him. to justify individual ijtihad. evident] text. The Prophet. your earthly affairs. orphanages. lated in the books offiqh [jurisprudence]. without their rewards being diminished in them to fulfill this duty in the present age. directed his gaze at him and asked his opinion. The shari'a prohibits ijtihad revealed text's meaning is] self-evident." The The legislation connected with this renewal is words of this text are [directly] related to our topic. from Islam. The gested the formation of a delegation of scholars shari 'a has taken all that into consideration. along with an ers). the spread of education and socialization. in time. "You are more knowledgeable about styles. And he who introduced some evil prac- suffice for the time being. They met with the sultan at vation. without a divisive extremism that turns the relates to matters of livelihood.84 Muhammad Rashid Rida ters officially concerned with this issue. which God has perfected. wife of . he would be assured of reward like the one who fol- vide them with a special education that qualifies lowed it. such as military affairs. The shari'a has left this to the experience of the vival of the Arabic language. may peace be upon him. The objective of this hadith focuses on the loosen and bind]. and hos- pitals. prior to disunity and dis. The sultan There are two kinds of this renewal in this regard. without has received the highest approval. these scholars turn even Muslims away this type of renewal in the statement of the Prophet. How could they be charged with con. most qualified in all re.. entrusted in Islam to those in charge and to the group We have explained its meaning at the outset of the known as ahl al-hal wa al-'aqd [the people who lecture. trade. nation into factions and mutually hostile groups. the writing of books in easy modern in this regard. Among these general practices are the founda- for Islamic evangelists. and governments. and all human legislation in the presence of a [self- tify those who engage in taqlid [imitation]. Some the Two Renewals are particular to government. place. for His Majesty to send tice in Islam that was subsequently followed (by oth- a courteous letter to the emperor. is to develop a cadre of intelligent persons and pro. according cord. . servant of the Prophet. "He who introduced some vincing the Japanese to adopt Islam? [My] opinion good practice in Islam and was followed (by people). follow. Sayyid If the nation needs renewal in maintaining its re- Jamal al-Din al-Afghani. Some of the means for this renewal include the re. but without Jarir ibn 'Abdullah [companion of the Prophet. and to jus. to reunify the Muslims issues that are not stipulated as self-evident in God's around their commonality. The affairs. revelation or the practice of the Prophet. Sayyid Jamal al-Din remained silent. groups. circa 612-709] and 'A'isha [bint Abi Bakr. people. in vocabulary. and the spread of hadith of Anas [ibn Malik. and the condition of the people. died 875] from the hadith of manner. It might any respect.] industry. and the issue of harmless practices. except where [the to recognized criteria. They approve the legislation on the return to the simplicity and guidance of religion as basis of consultation and the exercise of reason. writing. such as agriculture. ing the doctrine or the scholar whose knowledge they The second type [of renewal in earthly affairs] trust. tion of the principles of useful sciences and arts and the establishment of schools. Everyone is equally [responsible] for this re- A Conclusion on the Objective behind newal: individuals.

780-855]. legitimate renewal includes all that interest from them). He commented on its meaning: "Whatever entire umma sins when it neglects them. you are restrictions are to avoid inflicting or generating harm more knowledgeable about. and mili. RENEWING. circa 614-678]. does not restrict the umma in pursuing them. tary systems. tion of the financially needy by collecting usurious In conclusion. naval. such as the sciences. impermissible. RENEWAL. and the with her. administrative. principle according to which "Necessity permits the arts. to observe the [jurisprudential] the umma and the state hold dear. and air installations. financial." to assess the extent of this necessity. and industries. may God be pleased these are considered a collective duty in Islam. . All and to follow truth and justice. The only and whatever relates to your earthly affairs. The shari 'a concerns the affairs of your religion is referred to me. land. AND RENEWERS 85 the Prophet." Narrated by Ahmad and transgression (for example. exploiting the condi- [ibn Hanbal.

lation from Swahili and introduction by Randall L. 1989). 86 . Farsy. 45-48. Nothing has survived of those journals except for twenty-seven essays that he later collected into a little booklet. We also have wanted to follow them in their ex- ther this nor that. and not only in ways that are good because of dissimilarities people have in their cities. which had immigrated to Mombasa. it does not benefit us row. is the specific construction he gave to the singular historical character of Swahili Islamic society. Uwongozi (Advice) Press. Trans. Randall L. 59- 1. their hold fast to these roots and habits and customs be. pp. pp. ever] in [other] things of ours. however. I say this because every day we see ourselves its which are not like those of other people. we have left all Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui. nations. England: Cambridge University Karthala. He was very aware of the nature of this debate as it was being discussed outside East Africa. 97-124. "Sheikh al Amin bin Ali al Thanks to Professor Thomas Hinnebusch for his valuable help Mazrui: un reformiste modeme au Kenya" (Shaykh al-Amin with this translation. 1987). 1830-1970 1955). He appears to have read the teachings and writings of contemporary authors such as Muhammad Abduh (chap- ter 3) and Rashid Rida (chapter 6). ed. like their pastimes. ertions. Pouwels. In the 1880s and 1890s. Salim. (Madison. Kenya. Ahmed I. an existence which was nei. Horn and Crescent: Cultural 71 in Fran9ois Constantin. 1987). from which these excerpts are taken. pp. 1890-1947) was the scion of a long line of religious scholars from the large Mazrui clan. To address these issues. music. and other things like these. Shaykh Abdallah Salih (Mombasa. Al-Amin sought to explain what appeared to him to be a topsy- turvy world. The Shaft'i Ulama of East Africa. whose identity was lost to him yet who could to mimic them. and then [if we do so. Les votes de I 'Islam en Afrique Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast. their solidarity. Arab colonial power in Kenya and Mombasa was replaced by British rule. 201-202. and to find direction for a future he felt was being lost. pp. and [if we choose to change we have taken to: to the contrary. Kenya: East African Muslim Welfare Society. been in their entertainment like football. we artisanry as they do. What is especially interesting about al-Amin. as well as the localized dilemmas in which it found itself during Mazrui's lifetime. 120-122. and religions. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. [it seems] people know their way is their nationality. not in things like working or studying except in an emergency. 7 Shaykh al-Amin bin 'All al-Mazrui Advice Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali Mazrui (Kenya. we should do so] only in ways that are good and which do not violate our religion. Mazrui wrote two short-lived newspapers in Arabic and Swahili in the early 1930s. toms to those of others who do not get along with us and dance. For this and dressing as they do. from Oman during the 1700s. ways of [conducting] meetings. This is mimicking whites. [how- lost its way and [took to] imitating that of the spar. their love of coun- cause they fear becoming like the blackbird which try. and which do not contradict our religion. ca. golf. 6-8. bin 'Ali al-Mazrui: A Modern Reformist in Kenya). All people of the world have their customs and hab. And the foundation by which We have imitated them in their habits. Pouwels. orientate (The Paths of Islam in East Africa) (Paris: Editions 800-1900 (Cambridge. These are not the sorts of things do so] only for the good.1 How Do We Imitate the Europeans? to their ways. What we have observed of their exertions has We must take care that we do not change our cus. First published in 1931-1932.. not become a sparrow. from we have only seized upon [things like] drinking wine which they derive their habits and customs. I say [we should follow them reason intelligent people in every tribe customarily only] in their good customs.

and We have tried to imitate the Europeans in how we among these are many Muslims who are the most expect our women to act to the point that we expect humiliated of all peoples. the Praise the Lord! Is it only in bad things that we Taita. For example. And in the whole of Kenya there manners. which requires [of [even] see the difference between [genuine] knowl. the new skills and ideas cites all the time in his daily and nighttime prayers. . single [Muslim] newspaper except this work and crafts and cooking. We don't consider them to be poor in wealth. They are poor in learning. [These ethnic groups were neighbors of the coastal and—God forbid!—leaves at a barely mature age.—Trans. them to be like theirs. me great sorrow that Goans have their own school. and with good customs and Muslims have none. rather as fools who belong whom there are great differences. we have never regarded wretched little one of ours which is so little. they are the ones who do radio like scavenger beetles becoming offended only by a and electrical work." all [of them] speak the language of the whites worst] enemies. as if the European language Advice for Today's Muslims itself is all the knowledge we need.000 people. and [something] to make our while we have not one school in all our communi- women go around in circles. Mombasa has 75. They learned quickly about the new forms of em. to the lowest order [of society]. Muslims these days are of the Europeans who work as coolies and cooks and in [such] a state of division that they are their [own "boys. Fatiha [opening verses of the Qur'an]. [the form of which] we have taken to be is worthless. they are the ones who make an good scent. and the Kamba. and Muslims among taken to be scholars? No.2 They are the ones see ways of following the whites' example? It seems who do mechanical and railway work: they are the we have become like flies. and made happy by a stench. searching effort to learn the work of lighting and craftsmanship for filth. These casual employees themselves of all that is base. and the ability they have in [doing] handy exists not one. dissension in Mombasa concerns the Banyan com- pean women have in fixing up their houses and mak. nor know its meaning. It has gotten so that people think there is no need for knowledge of These quarrels in which Muslims are involved these [practical affairs like] business. and his father Swahili and other Muslims found themselves to be minori- ties in their own city. One hardly sees a city anywhere even more than our own. The So he finishes at the Qur'an school. thousands of people from the up- country crowded into the city seeking work and the excite- Qur'an. Show us what knowledge. and We have tried to follow the whites' ideas about charge us with the vigor to follow it. Swahili. poor even in fearing the people who proper women if they don't cut their hair [as white lead them. O Prophet! Show us the truth. ties [Swahili towns of East Africa] except these Qur'an schools which a seven-year-old child enters 2. or telephone workers. ["Fot-fot yes" in the original. When the British made Mombasa the principal port hardly knowing anything except how to read the city of their Kenyan colony. poor in everything.] takes him and he goes and pushes him into the fire 3. and arm us with the strength to pre- [merely] a twisting of the tongue when we say "yes. needed to land jobs in light industry and transport. ADVICE 87 meaningful forms of employment to the Chaga. even learning salutations like "good morning" or "thank you. or days reduce them to a contemptuous and humiliat- other things! ing condition that accomplishes nothing for them Poor people of Mombasa! These days we cannot except to debase their religion. One source of great women do] or wear frocks. the Kikuyu. which he re- ployment and mastered English. Or the knowledge Euro. and rearing their they have two daily newspapers. agriculture. even that of the represent. building only in sores. and other modern forms of employment. munity—who number only a few people—and [yet] ing them comfortable and neat. while Mombasa children in a healthy way." which are how you greet or thank some- one in their language. work. And [even this] he is hardly able to read ment of the new possibilities that the new order seemed to properly.] misfortune [for him]. Are these ones [now] to be where there are not Muslims. It is a stinking mess."3 vent it. them] their best and [demands that they] cleanse edge and [mere] language. It brings this twaddle as something that makes them civilized. I implore you. I am unable to identify pit of the missionary school where there is great this reference.—Trans.

nor between the damned and that we need and to teach our children everything they the devout. nor between master and servant. Because of this . it enjoins every Muslim to be a brother to another. saves their religiosity. [The meaning is unclear: either that the Qur'an pro- vides evidence of the great things Mazrui desires for Mus- army. nor between Arab and Kikuyu." And the essence of this brother- will cause them anxieties. and teaches them excellent manners and erous] people donate three shillings annually so our great strength of character. not in [creating] divisions between be no problem that the money will be available. by open. I ask God Al- This respect cannot be realized except. and Shurahbil ibn Hasana [circa 570-639] lims. number around 12. reigned 632-634]. to others. eliciting lims. and many among them are Mus. tribe and tribe. that is Arabs and Swahili.000. Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan [died 683] and his 4. nor between one year. lifts them into the ex. So if we require every person among us to donate three not to [create] differences between Indian and shillings a year.000.—Trans. one defends only its own interests and causes harm Every day we complain that our education is de. all the people require is a plan. Thus we. so then there will their community.88 Shaykh al-Amin bin 'All al-Mazrui Our advice to today's Muslims is to [encourage same as the Indians. they cling to government to improve it. afterward particular city to participate in the reconciliation of they ought to make a great effort. nor between religion and religion. otherwise gen- alted ranks. they do not see like you that [there is anything wrong ing children from the temptations of the mission in] teaching their children knowledge of the world. Even clining and that it is total nonsense to expect the though their intention is to be united. twenty shillings more than the Poll Tax they pay. This will be sufficient to build the madrasas European and Javanese. The Community of Islam This is the true way of advancing Muslims to a condition of pride and sublimation. or that the Qur'an provides the wisdom by which Mus. with money! Do we think that great education will Look at the armies of Islam which set out to con- happen without a little application and with a lot of quer the cities of Iran in the time of our lord Abu complaining? Bakr [first caliph. for example. God forbid. of brotherhood by His word. Rather. ing the way needed to accomplish this. mighty to help us to fulfill it. [Yet] have we thought even for them to] build their madrasas [seminaries] to teach a day of wanting to do as they do in giving as they their children what is in the shari 'a [religious law] and do to educate their children? Indians each donate what they need to know about life in this world as well. So why cannot we hospitable [that is. since all Muslims want very much to This is my plan and I place it before the eyes of be respected. Abu 'Ubayda [ibn al-Jarra circa 581-639] and his army. But where is the money to build these which makes [many] people into one.4 our community for consideration. They were in We always want the government to treat us the four groups: 'Amr ibn al-'Asi [died 663] and his army. each favoring only themselves. encourage all Muslims to be one family. as And [it is the purpose of] the Muslim community to I have already stated. lims can achieve great things. [and] then they should are a family which encourages people who live in a resolve to do this with their whole hearts. No doubt all of these shared one goal. as God Almighty showed in the Qur'an. first. and This madrasa itself [provides] a stratagem for protect. which stated that "Mus- People suffering misfortune will say that this [plan] lims are brothers. part in a certain matter. nor is there any other means except through education that combines [matters of] Religion and the World. need to know to benefit them in this world and in the God Almighty has arranged all Muslims in a form Hereafter. the reason for "Jama 'a" in the Arabic language means something lifting them up. school. [all] having a madrasas? I say the money is not lacking. We believe that Muslims number about half. Confrontation saps people's strength. we are stingy their differences. This will [ward off] dis. Countrymen. children can learn about religion and worldly mat- grace and will encourage them to desire better things ters too? of themselves. we will collect 36.] but their enmity was well known. and his army. the abolition of different factions where every resolve. and harmony from their religion and avoiding harm. The people of Mombasa number about 75.000 shillings in just Swahili. but I say this must be and hood is in the fundamental objective of achieving that we can do what is necessary to improve our unity.

stopping them from bringing harm to oth- the enemy. just as the Prophet said. the whole is seized by Wild hold fast to our Islamic comradeship. the whole thing: and follow what the Prophet told us? Should we not and if one [part] is sick. These [examples] show that tearing from rescuing a neighbor from a fearful danger in at each other does not strengthen people even though order that they might be like each other in vigor? they intend to be harmonized. it will dis- brought all four armies together. 5.5 Furthermore. body. And when. like the parts of our Lord. which is when they defeated bonds. ADVICE 89 estrangement they were unable to defeat the Irani. creating one army courage some from organizing their own [exclusive] under his command. Do we think we should distance ourselves from the A function of the Community of Islam is [to see] bigotry of people when they were in the kind of that all Muslims are like the connecting parts of a ignorance [that existed] before the Prophet came. But when rich person do harm when he tries to help his com- they joined together under the command of General panion to be a rich man like him? Also. It will permit them Allies in the Great War [World War I] were afraid to help their brothers so they might bring about the of defeating their enemies so long as each country desired harmony.] . thus saving Cardamom Fever. what is desirable each other? A Muslim is the brother of a fellow is that it be like this between Muslims. and leaving [them] only [with] the duty a Likewise. ers. for example. [Matungu fever is a very painful sickness that is com- mon in East Africa. the community] in respect to every other part. If the ans until Khalid ibn Walid [died 642] went and Community of Islam becomes this way. how bad [Ferdinand] Foche [of France]. each part [of Muslim.—Trans. not many days passed does it appear to be when a person stops himself without victory. does a had its armies under its own commanders. we have seen [how] the armies of the brother in religion owes another.

E. Mogamed Tasleem Ajam. Despite the imposition of suf- frage restrictions on nonwhites. would give the same answer. his father studied theology at al-Azhar in Cairo. in the mid-1930s. Coloured Identity in South Africa (Cape Town. 48. 1880-1985 (Cape Town. City Council. drunk. A. 198-204. who arrived in Durban last week as a which arises from ideas and wishes of the people. pp.1 Dr. Abdurahman's pater- nal grandfather was a former slave who founded a successful business in Cape Town. The highest aim auspices of the Young Muslim Debating Society. who chose as his subject "Demo. that the that his soul may be saved and he found happiness doctor was a member of the Provincial Council and there. As to what was meant by democracy. pp. There were introducing the speaker. "is an ideal C[ouncil]. who espoused communism and secular nationalism. the Ismail. and most interesting as well as a most difficult subject. Dr. under the scribed as something in one's mind. 1870-1940) was the pre-eminent political leader of South Asians in South Africa in the first half of the twentieth century. However. He acted as leader to the South Afri- can Indian deputation that went to India in 1929. Abdurahman was elected to the Cape Town City Council and the Cape Provincial Council. Queen Street. Democracy can be de- ing at the Muslim Institute. perhaps because many of the South Asians and Africans whom he rep- resented were not Muslim. 1990. Introduction by Charles tween the Wire and the Wall: A History of South African Kurzman. Abdurahman soon entered politics. provided a man did not seek happiness in such a man- "Dr. volume 17. Gavin Lewis. Ian Golden." said that it was a world should have equal right to pursue happiness. by contrast. helping to found the African People's Organisation and serving as its president from 1905 until his death in 1940. Abdurahman. 4." Indian Views." said the learned speaker. and established a medical practice on his return to Cape Town in 1895. said the chairman. went to Scotland to study medicine. M[ember of] Provincial] "Democracy. Apartheid: A Study of Political Movements among the 58. Mr. no two people was accorded a public welcome last Sunday morn. Aburahman. 1. E. Maskew Miller Longman. the religious man spent his time in prayers so Most of them were aware. "Dr Abdullah Abdurahman." member of the Coloured Fact Finding Commission. 8 Abdullah Abdurahman Democratic Institutions in South Africa Abdullah Abdurahman (South Africa. 1935. 'Coloured' Politics (New York: St. p. Be- South Africa. said that the doctor needed no introduction drunkard regarded it as the height of happiness to get and described him as the father of non-Europeans. 1987). South Africa: South Africa: Tafelberg. Van der Ross. the chairman. In of any human being was to be happy. Martin's Press. 33^40. Abdurahman on Democracy. R. Abdurahman's reformism was already losing favor with younger militants. By the time of this speech. H. running on a platform of unity among nonwhite peoples and a demand for equal civil and political rights with whites. given to the Young Muslim Debating Society in Durban—he allowed him- self passing references that linked his faith with his political beliefs. 1987). Making Race: The Politics and Economics of Coloured People of South Africa. For instance. then there was the individual that found hap- also occupied an important position on the Capetown piness in pursuing his vocation. It was the aim of democracy that every man in this cratic Institutions in South Africa. in front of a Muslim audience—as in the speech described here. 1986)." pp. 90 . Durban. Abdurahman's speeches rarely referred to Islam. As a leader of the non-Europeans in South Africa he was The Aim of Democracy second to none. The Rise and Decline of Kronos: Journal of Cape History. different conceptions of happiness. July 19. Abdurahman.

ideas for him. no obstacles should by its parents. equal before God and man. and no restric- tions are placed on him. pressed upon the Europeans of South Africa. and the vast majority of un- would find himself in a lunatic asylum. which also teaches us that we citizenship. which reserves skilled labour for the privileged classes. but this did not already a number of Europeans who have realized imply that we were not equal. There were tion. for him. here. the latter inherit the restrictions and pov- are all equal. which must be developed to its fullest ex. he is The Vote and the Franchise differentiated against. We have the pose of God in creating the difference. They had then a democratic institu- also true that he had made us different. There are different races and different colours. Our Present System can declaration of rights that every man was born free. A man. Immediately [as] you begin to given to man was skill. If he did so he who are in a minority. The greatest gift that God had because of his birth. From its birth.C. but only for the privileged classes. we had no right to do gard himself superior than those of a different colour. there is no such thing as a democratic institu. If we study the history of the world. but he should be prevented. It is impressed upon the white child to re- tion between man and man. can be compared with the system which prevailed tially. meant that we were all equal. The Native is now aspiring for something is also true that there was such a thing as custom and higher. so. It will be years before the democratic ideals are im- try. We must not expect the Euro- soning. Man. it ever. If there was a democratic institution in South Africa. a child's character is molded becoming greater. As the oppressed classes consoli- . DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA 91 ner as to disturb or injure others. The tradition we have in South Africa self by playing music in his own home. white labour or the civilized labour policy. Not because he went out in the street disturbing others with his music. however. The privileged classes cannot continue to oppress the different classes for- While it is true that man is born free in this world. Though God had made us all equal. There must be a pur. The vote was merely an instrument to put your ideals into We can divide the population of South Africa into operation. and as tion. The Prophet of Islam had said that reasoning comes out of a mold where the character is molded lighted the torch to heaven. ideas that pass through his mind. And until we are regarded as equal in this coun. "Democracy had nothing to do with the vote or the franchise. there should is that the white man inherits certain rights immedi- be nothing preventing him from doing so. Custom and Tradition this would not be the case. has any more intelligence than any one of us. and is of a different colour. and this leads us to While the former inherit all the privileges of free our religion. If God made no distinc. God has given us the power of rea. It required skill to follow a treat a man in a privileged manner irrespective of his trade or profession and it was the greatest sin in the intelligence or character. Islam. that the system is wrong and unjust. In a democratic institution a man is free. we find long as we have different groups we shall have no that there were no democratic institutions until a few democratic institutions. pean in this country to be a democrat. and that is what we have here following his trade or vocation. and the pressure of the privileged classes is tradition. you are departing from the world to prevent a man from exercising his skill by ideals of democracy. but if he ately [as] he comes into this world. cannot follow all the two groups. erty of their parents. hundred years ago." said the doctor. is judged by something for which he is not responsible. because he tent. Democracy privileged classes known as the non-Europeans. If you admit this doctrine of everyone being The system of government in South Africa today equal. This was something that The Two Groups you can use to put your ideas into practice. in South Africa. Because he belongs to a different race. If a lover of music enjoyed him. it was 400 years B. The privileged classes or the Europeans. It was stated in the Ameri. you cannot treat a class of people differen. and custom and tradition mold his be placed in his way.

. he agreed that there should be cooperation between solidate our forces? We cannot achieve our ideal of the different groups. Badat proposed a vote democratic institution in a day or a week. concluded compel the Europeans to accede to at least some of the doctor.92 Abdullah Abdurahman date themselves and show a united front. but come it must. M. the Coloured. We have seen that the group system At the conclusion of the speech questions were leads to destruction. which was carried. Mr. By consolidating the Native. We may of thanks. Mr. S. Afbdulla] I[smail] Kajee [1896-1947] thanked The fear of physical force is driving the Boer and the doctor for the very interesting lecture and said that the Briton into one people. their demands. Why should we not con. and the Indian. they will not see it in our time. invited and satisfactorily answered by the speaker. we can gain much.

1987). 1978)." in John L. to a prominent Berber family and received religious education. which he held responsible for the repression and injustice of Muslim societies. Kuwait: Dar al-Qalam. Turki Rabih. he established the Association of Algerian Scholars to promote Algerian identity and Islamic reform and to combat the Sufi orders and the assimilationists. education. Tajriba fi al-islah: Ibn Badis haraka al-islamiyya fi al-jaza'ir al-mu'asira (Ibn Badis: (A Case in Reform: Ibn Badis) (Tunis. Algeria. Tunisia: Dar al-Raya Pioneer of the Islamic Movement in Contemporary Algeria) li al-Nashr. and prepared Algerians for independence from the French. number 11. After graduation. and nationalism. Shahin. 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis: Ra'id al- 1. disunity. ed. The Association opened hundreds of free Arabic and Quranic schools. January 1938. Salah al-Din al-Jurshi. al-Shaykh 'Abd al-Hamid (Kuwait City. right path. until I get them their due. he joined the Zaytuna mosque in Tunis. Ibn Badis formulated a program that asserted the Arab and Islamic identity of Algerians. al-Shihab (The Meteor). Emad Eldin May God Be Pleased with Him). Algeria: al-Sharika al- erning in Islam. and correct me when you see me going cended the pulpit and addressed the people with a astray. In 1908. Translation from Arabic and introduction by York: Oxford University Press. "Usul al-wilayat fi al-islam. Constantine. Esposito. 1889-1940) was an Islamic reformer. 161- Emad Eldin Shahin. The powerful among you This is the text of Abu Bakr's speech: are weak [in my eyes] until I take away from them O People. I was entrusted as your ruler. 93 .. 9 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis The Principles of Governing in Islam From the Speech of [Abu Bakr] al-Siddiq 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis (Algeria. Ibn Badis returned to Algeria in 1 9 1 3 to devote his career to Islamic re- form. If I disobey Him. volume 13. he proposed a modernist interpretation of the Quran that attributed the decline of Islamic society to mystical practices. where he was exposed to the reformist ideas of Sayyid Jamal al-Din Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad 'Abduh (chapter 3). In response to the alienating policies of the French and the Francophile tendencies of the Algerian "evolues" (assimilationists). These principles have only recently been achieved The weak among you are powerful [in my eyes] by some nations. 162. In 1 9 3 1 . nationalist leader. Wataniyya li al-Nashr wa al-Tawzi'. volume 2. Ibn Badis: Ra'id al-islah wa al-tarbiyah fi al-jaza'ir 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis. speech that included the principles of governance. 468-471. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World (New pp. In addition. 1995). and com- bated practices that it viewed as corrupt. From the Speech of [Abu Bakr] the Upright. 1969). Ibn Badis was born in Constantine. stressed Arabic and Islamic education. Obey me as long as I observe God in your affairs. although I what is due to others. Ibn Badis articulated his views in several books and in his news- papers al-Muntaqid (The Critic) and al-Shihab (The Meteor). min (Shaykh 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis: Pioneer of Reform and khutba al-Siddiq (Allah ta'ali 'anhu)" (The Principles of Gov. am not better than any one of you. and founder of the Association of Algerian Scholars. "Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis. pp. intellectual stagnation. albeit with inconsistency. he as. you owe me no obedience. and political despotism. Algeria.1 When Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (may God be pleased with Support me as long as you see me following the him) was sworn in as caliph [in the year 632]. The article presented here reflects Ibn Badis's nonconventional response to the abolition of the Ottoman caliphate. advocated cultural and social reform. Fathi 'Uthman. Education in Algeria) (Algiers.

If Abu Bakr was better. The Fifth Principle siderations. and that in offering assistance to him as long as they see him is "you. "Support me as long as you see me following the right path. 'Umar [ibn al-Khattab. He also appointed Usama ibn Zayd [died result of the people's right to hold the rulers account- circa 673] as a commander of an army that included able and correct them when they are convinced that Abu Bakr and 'Umar. It is the people that have the right to delegate preserve the right to appoint or depose them. is derived from the state- The Second Principle ment. In this case.94 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis I say that and seek God's forgiveness for myself the statement. so that the was not due to his rule over them but because of his people become aware of and agree to it. "although I am not better than any one and for you. This principle is based on the state- cumstance and the position. He is not deeds and stances. because they are the source of their authority and sent. who follow the choice of the nation. Rule cannot be bequeathed nor be based on personal con. "I was entrusted as your ruler. this declare the plan he is going to follow. and can- statement. of you. authority to the leaders and depose them." The Third Principle The Eighth Principle Assuming the affairs of the people does not make the ruler better than anyone else. as they share with him the responsibility. "although I am not better than any one of not convince the people otherwise. They must support him. qualification varies with the cir- if he misbehaves. I was entrusted by others. died 644]. the Prophet appointed 'Amr ibn al-'Asi [died 663] to lead the army of Dhat al-Salasil and supported The people have the right to question the rulers." The First Principle The Fourth Principle No one has the right to assume any of the affairs of The people have the right to monitor those in charge the umma [Muslim community] without their con. "correct me when you see me going astray." following the righteous path. This is derived you. "correct me when you see me going astray. If two persons share good behavior and qualifications." He who manages an affair of the Muslim community should be the most qualified in this matter and not the The Sixth Principle best in behavior. This prin- ciple. hold him with Abu Bakr. This principle is based on the the rulers are not following the right path. On this The Seventh Principle basis. though they were better people have the final word. but as they . The people must correct him matter." The responsibility of the people toward the ruler lies In other words. them accountable for their actions. not the rulers. Undoubtedly. he should be entrusted with that post. This is a than him. Preference is achieved Any one who assumes an affair of the people should through merit and deeds. but one is better in good behavior The responsibility of the people also lies in advising and the other is more qualified for this matter." form the statement. This principle is also derived from allowed to lead the people as he pleases. The were all under his command. as the previous one. Someone might be quali- ment." fied in a specific matter and position for possessing the characteristics suitable for that position. not their own. This principle is derived from [Abu Bakr's] statement. No one can rule without the consent of the people. and make them and Abu 'Ubayda ibn al-Jarra [circa 581-639]. the one and guiding the ruler and pointing the righteous path who is better qualified should be entrusted with this to him when he deviates.

Were these principles known to or practiced by other nations then? No. myself and for you. weak without leniency for their weakness. the law that realizes their interest. He addressed the Muslims at that strength or weakness. The ruler is delegated by them from God. The derived from the statement. The rights of the weak The Ninth Principle should be granted to them without favor due to their weakness. regardless of their inspired by Islam. suffering The Eleventh Principle the chains of humiliation and enslavement under monarchical and clerical rule. be no salvation. they bility of the ruler and the ruled in reforming society. We pray to God to rescue should not be forsaken because of their weakness. The powerful among you are weak [in my is imposed on them by any other authority. They should always feel the need to continue work- lowing the law that He has revealed and that they have ing strenuously and seriously. the als and groups in society. This is based on the to apply this law to everyone. had he done strong without any fear of their strength and to the otherwise. "I say that and seek God's forgiveness for fore. so that they do not transgress against The people will not be governed except by the law they others. who obey you are powerful [in my eyes] until I get them their the law because it emanates from them. . These principles were [The state] should protect the rights of the individu. they would not have accepted his speech. he forsakes their obedience. not devised by men but were revealed by God. This principle is derived from the statement." Thus. The law should apply to the time with what they already knew. including himself. The Twelfth Principle "Obey me as long as I observe God in your affairs. us and all of humanity and grant us success in re- and the strong should not usurp the right of anyone turning to these principles. The dues should be fairly taken from the strong without trans- gression or weakening them. This makes the people feel free others. statement. Are the civi- The Tenth Principle lized nations close to this today? Was Abu Bakr making these statements on his own? No. be it of an eyes] until I take away from them what is due to individual or of a group. "Obey me as long as I observe God in your affairs. without which there can because of their strength. There. Everyone in soci- ety will share this feeling." His plan is the obedience of God. The rights of the weak All-Knowing and Wise. not because it due. but they obey God by fol. you owe me no obedience. do not obey the ruler per se. THE PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNING IN ISLAM 95 please." This is what the first caliph in Islam stated and implemented fourteen centuries ago. If I There should be a realization of a mutual responsi- disobey Him. he was All are equal before the law. The people knew [The state] should maintain a balance in society what the obedience of God in Islam entailed. if he deviates. Freedom and sovereignty are a natural and legitimate right of every individual in The Thirteenth Principle society. This principle is based on the statement. This principle and the two previous ones are voluntarily adopt. who oversees them. nations were immersed in the darkness of ignorance and deterioration. "The weak among rulers only implement the will of the people. when protecting the rights of its members. and seek forgiveness accepted for themselves." to manage their affairs on their own.

Imperialism and Nationalism tics and Islam in Contemporary Sudan (New York: St. to prefer the conventions attend to the ideal life. 1899-1956 (Oxford. 1908-1976) was a lawyer. blood. England: Clarendon Press. judge. 96 . distinguished individu. from the beginning of creation were it not for the appearance of a handful of talented. (Khartoum." Mahjub left a political legacy that included repression of leftists and southerners. Martin's in the Sudan: A Study in Constitutional and Political Press. 226-227. and to resist all change in ideas and visions: material life and intellectual life each have action. This identity. Jr. Every aspect of life and each cultural ide. pp. Mahjub pushed to radicalize the Sudanese nationalist movement and helped write the Sudan's constitution and declaration of independence. their place. Abdel Salam Sidahmed. His final imprisonment and exile followed two terms as prime minister. Factional Nahwa al-ghad (Toward Tomorrow) (Khartoum. Muddathir Abdel-Rahim. Richard A. both as that their followers among the masses perceive as dif. common goals. 2d ed. because the nature of human beings is to fear travails. 1996). and politician. Sudan: Conflict in the Sudanese Nationalist Movement. Scarecrow Press. Historical Dictionary of the Sudan. Afaf Abdel Majid Abu Hasabu. in 1969).J. was affiliated closely with the Arab Islamic world. Trained in colonial schools. Mahjub and others in this movement sought to build a modern Sudanese identity by downplaying the sectarian and regional distinctions that divided the colony. humans' goals have be- come deeply interconnected. in addition to fervent defense of democracy. 233-234. 1918-1948 Jami'at al-Khurtum. 109-117. In the 1940s and 1950s. In recent times. Carolyn pp. making the prosperity Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub. 10 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub The Intellectual Movement in the Sudan: Which Direction Should It Take? Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub (Sudan. 35-41. literature and the arts would never gion. al-Fajr (The Down). Sudan: University of Khartoum. reli- sincere idealists. and John Obert Voll. pp. do everything within their power to achieve outcomes The ideal life is important for humans. dedicated advocates who ultimate victory. and lifestyle is improved to insist that the goal they envision is necessary for them- attain it. Perhaps the universe would inevitably stagnate. poet. They is harnessed to achieve it.. he participated as a young man in the Sudanese intellectual reform movement that came to be known by the name of its jour- nal. as Mahjub argued in the essay translated here. This ideal gives people a greater purpose for selves and others. "al-Haraka al-fikriyya fi al- Sudan: 'Ila 'ayna yajib 'an tatajih" (The Intellectual Move. notwithstanding the large number of non- Muslim non-Arabs in the south of the colony. and the power of faith that makes them trust in ology has its own sincere. 1992). to this day and on to eternity. 209-211. to attain. anticolonial activist. and shared advance. Poli- 1. Human effort achieved by talented people like themselves. If it were not for these have relationships based on nationality. if not impossible. Qism al-Ta'lif wa al-Nashr. They have the patience. Lobban. individuals and as part of a group with whom they ficult. Known as "the Boss. (Metuchen. 1970). 215-217. sincere. in 1941. as democratic governments were suc- ceeded by military ones. Translation from Arabic by Hager El Hadidi. and dedicated idealists who blow the trum- als and those with true culture have thought and will pet and encourage people toward a goal that has to be always think about realizing the ideal. Intro. p. Over the following two decades. in all its branches and subdi- of their parents. ience. public celebrations. he was by turns a top government official and a political prisoner. founded in 1934. Individuals and groups should recognize and dangers and to avoid them.: duction by Charles Kurzman. First published Fluehr-Lobban. N. ment in the Sudan: Which Direction Should It Take?).' In all places and times. the resil- existence. 1985). Development. 133.

That is an honor I cannot claim. enlightenment without discriminating between tion cannot be achieved unless the individuals. A evaporate when faced with loyal. and secrets of the universe. the opinions rectify what time has spoiled? There is also a class of and actions that it requires. who don't join try. this cutthroat competition does not and period is spent seeking common ordinary pleasures. ies die. gators of the ideal. THE INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENT IN THE SUDAN 97 of an individual not only in contradiction with that people in every time and place. recalcitrance must be confronted. family. where they enjoy creating ideal visions and chain where the living depart. A piece of candy in the hands of an oblivi. the exchange of trust and respect. as are That is why the propagators of reform and the wor- activities to achieve it. victory in the battle between light and darkness. justice. individuals. An ideal does not know mediocrity. However. This abominable contradiction is even more ap. and races. depend on the singing bird. Reformists must do away with such lack offspring to rectify my mistakes and reform my . clothing. but the ideal is continuously rejuvenated. They spread science and of culture. and who lay out the tru- regressive and rigid people who do not accept inno. with the intention of celebrat. hang on to the wealth derived from this power. cannot find a lowly shack. and enables the culture. how. cannot exist. propagators of rigidity and dissent. and in every branch of others but also with the prosperity and security of of material and intellectual life. or because of their intellectual movements. tion. and humanity through novel findings and innovative people who see that life is worthless when its short opinions. who then look far into the evil that has overtaken them. in every place and time. If I am successful. Their self-interested the group. nations. na. For some people do not benefit don't pretend to be one of those talented people to from education. But this situa. classes. And this is not imaginary. and personal pleasures. who peek wasted—either because of the ignorance and stupid. If I fail. the and falseness. I will be satisfied. and to see as the ideal. I degree of nobility. Generation follows genera. progress and annihilation. and to study the past and present of the nations are also those self-interested individuals who have I have known. But I am going a caravan unless they can maintain the idea that they to attempt to study the past and present of this na- are crossing the desert of life unaccompanied. drink. let on their innovativeness against the obstinacy of the alone a luxurious abode. Such are the loyal reformists. and all effort to reform them is whom the secrets of the era are revealed. science. take it as their life mission to shower their differences and misunderstandings. This is good news for human beings. are not to be blamed for wanting to join them for a But the teachings and generosity of a select elite moment to formulate an ideal for the intellectual are fruitless unless all people have reached a high movement that we desire for this growing country. let my solace be that this nation will never ever unethical. and are thus able to shape competition between individuals and groups. intellectual. I will try to direct the been blinded by their desire to preserve the status quo. it requires parent in the relationship among nations than among perfection. their vanishing bod- rising to achieve them. How is it possible to the future and reveal what it portends. intellectual movement in our nation toward what I in order to retain power. and races whom God has granted the privilege and enlightenment weakens fanatic loyalties and of intellect and morality. erases the future. in mental activities that elevate food. not a mirage. And we als of humanity. est ideals for the intellectual movement in their coun- vative opinions even if they are right. This struggle and ultimate furniture. and They can find happiness in the world of culture and a stupidity that cannot imagine life as a continuous intellect. and individual has an equal share as long as life continues. and status. into the past of nations and understand the fate of ity bequeathed from past generations. comfort. lacking in generosity. nation. idiocy. and wealth upon their neighbors. in the world of culture and the This is a conflict between people who care only about universe of intellect. and material ide. The progress of science tions. however illegitimate. Recalcitrance will ous child means the deprivation of his sad friend. and their riches remain for future generations. the selfless propa- ing the highest ethical. Following that. seekers and the weak. is inhabited by an obtuse and insipid char. There tion. shipers of the ideal formulate plans that cannot be It is easy to imagine a situation in which every accomplished in their lifetime but must be pursued race. truth acter. selfless visionaries beautifully designed house. whereas the poet. the lyre player who nearly discovers the zeal and integrity of the leaders of the renaissance. Such [hedonism] is born out of ignorance. with cozy and luxurious struggling for perfection.

they revolted against the corrupt. you would doubtless Arab blood has become the majority among its popu. [circa 1847-1919]. and of upper Nubia in It is no wonder that the language of the people of the year 1505 A. The liv.. people of the Sudan inclining toward [the classical The influence of Islam in this country is clear and genres of] hamasa [heroic] andfakhr [vainglorious] tangible. and they a recent example. ing care of their neighbors. or 642 A. ing envy the dead. both because order] entitled "Insan al-kamal" (The Perfect Hu- of the spread of Islam among its people.D. and took over governance. Husayn al-Zahra' [died 1895]. or to hear its narration. and you can feel it in every action of the people have great passion for all kinds of horsemanship. of this country. As a result. lectuals among us.] in 1898. hamasa. Most of their poems were [in the not tolerate opinions that have atheistic tendencies or genres] of al-mada 'ih al-nabawaiyya [praise of the break the norms of conventional morality. with the da 'wa [propagation] not taught in schools. If it had not been ture in this country is most apparent in the legacy of for religion. and this was after the conquest back to the year 22 A. Since language was not the official state language. or at least wear. seeking nei. In every place where Islam has spread. beautiful and harmo- . They find meanness con- ing the garb of religion. despite its originality. sources of this language. They goings. this literature is wonder- Muslims are very keen to come to understand and ful. would not stain him- gious da 'wa. the Turkish invade Nubia at the head of 20. is the closest to the religion of the majority of the population of this classical Arabic. accepted by the people in the name of self with the humiliation of begging. In fact. but are also the purest has given us. 1805- [ibn Sa'd] ibn Abi Sarh [died 656] was appointed to 1849] in the year 1820. and the history of sincere actions. delicate ghazal [love poetry] in the manner of the and the noble hadith [sayings of the Prophet] are not ancient Arabs. and al-hath 'ala al-jihad [inspiring sacred ture and culture has [also] spread. far from the influence of European languages.98 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub errors. Any man among them. And even then. If you had the good fortune to its precepts. [. Arab litera. who have won the honor of mar. especially in the desert. and because man). The story of the Mahdiyya is temptible. Thus Islam prevailed and became the Sudan. find it a wonderful literature. They do not accept humiliation. whether in their songs or their poetry. Until recently. also included some poetry [in the genres] offakhr. stoop to relinquish public duty. regardless of how poor he is. anticolonial leader.D. under. extending protection to their guests and tak- unless it was a religious movement. they also left a genre of literature that. ers [the colonial regime]. The Sudan has remained. has been ignored by the intel- stand.. when 'Abdullah of Muhammad 'Ali [Ottoman ruler of Egypt. The da 'wa of al-Mahdi [Muhammad are not happy with defeat. A nation with such religious fervor can. Shaykh al-Darir. and to become closer to the of the mulid [birth] of the noble Prophet which are spirit of religion by studying its roots and following read in zikr circles. until the last conquest work together to achieve. to present us with the ideal that we will all lation. and Shaykh [Muhammad 'Umar] al-Banna' the elder tyrdom.000 warriors. expelled them from their And the impact of Islamic religion and Arab cul- country. but was only spoken by the strengthening in this country until the Arab conquest Turkish rulers among themselves. This is not all the previous generation only in the Arabic language. and unique within its genre. It is necessary to learn. and the Prophet's conquests and victories. The Scripture of struggle].H. Each one of these poems begins with a God. you can see it in your [daily] comings and verse. zikr shama'il al-rasul [remembrance of nothing from its intellectuals but honest words and the qualities of the Messenger]. the sunna [sacred precedent] of His Messenger. and would not religion. It accepts Prophet]. you would not have seen people dying for the past generation—literary figures such as Shaykh the sake of God and acting so bravely. . That is why the Sudan was fortunate that read the mulid by the leaders of the Tijaniyya [Sufi the Arabic language spread in its lands. ther fortune nor prestige nor worldly position. and appreciate them in their original language.. And it is no wonder that we find the country. Islam spread. of lower Nubia in 1318 A. Their verse honorable intentions. virtue of the tongue and the hand. 1844-1885] was a reli. Shaykh Abu'l-Qasim Ahmad Hashim [died 1934].D. and was that era. there were no non-Arab languages heard in it except The history of Islam in this country [the Sudan] dates the Turkish language. Ahmad. I refer to the stories appreciate this legacy. no movement could They are noted for their generosity and openhand- be successful in transforming or changing conditions edness.

the conditions required to achieve this [1355-1418]. and visionary offspring to take up the bur- culture. it still affects fort of giants and the work of generations. and to bic encyclopedias such as [Kitab] al-aghani [Book of direct the movement toward the goal desired by its Songs] by Abu Faraj al-Isfahani [897-967]. and to grasp the subject matter. so as to be armed with the strongest weapon on the intellectual movement. ideal does not know mediocrity. Both will be subject to the climate of Maybe someone will ask me: And what is the way this country and to ideas and imagination inspired by to learn this Arab Islamic heritage and become inspired its geography and its nature. the true reli. fication} by al-Jahiz [circa 776-869]. social. Greats} by the judge Ibn Khallikan [1211-1282]. Wafayatal-a 'yan [Late Such has been the intellectual movement in our coun. This influence warrants at Christian poet and philologist. selfless. Bayan wa al-tabyin [Rhetoric and Clari- spect the religious practices of Islam. And those among us who wish to country. And I state with increasing companions. piece of rhetoric in its expressions.] 1800-1871) and his least a brief discussion. This country shall not lack dutiful. and intellectual. to be dedicated to the service of the language and the customs. despite its periodic tendencies to return to the den of its renaissance. In this way they will come to be Arab in language and taste. This effort awaiting when we are attempting to direct the intellectual us is unlike that of Shaykh Nasif al-Yaziji ([Lebanese movement in this county. criticism.. THE INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENT IN THE SUDAN 99 nious narratives with fine examples of rhetoric and ary movement will eventually be transformed into a metaphor. too gion. That is why we need to by it? So I will say that learning involves only dedi- speak first about the effect of Western culture in our cation and study. it may seem remote. and hard to achieve. Let us make our ideal clear and draw the path with Egypt since the last invasion. mad] al-Mubarrad [died 898]. the country—political. [. devoted offspring. On the surface. Mu'jam loyal. All that we need to do is devote ourselves to as long as this country exists. as it appears to Subh al-a'sha [Daybreakfor the Sufferer of Night- us through this exploration of the past and present Blindness] by [Shihabuddin Ahmad] al-Qalqashandi of this country. and second about the country's climate. [828-889]. and dispositions of its of the ancestors. The subject matter comprises the different subjects . and This ideal is the goal of the intellectual movement meaning. Kamil [fi al-adab] [Literary Perfection] by [Muham- So what is the ideal that this intellectual move. because Egypt to reach it. establishing a proper national literature. This liter. and as long as it has the study of this Arab Islamic heritage—a detailed culture and intellectual movement. we must It is necessary for us to attend to this influence grasp the Arab Islamic heritage. making use of its nature erature. All of these are examples of the influence in this country. and the effect of all of these from it. structure. loyal. And this is its future. of Islamic religion and Arab literature on our life. itself is under the sway of Islamic religion and Arab educated. Adah al-katib [The An ment must follow? And how can it be reached? The of the Scribe] by [Abu Muhammad] Ibn Qutayba ideal intellectual movement in this country will re. It will many to enumerate. it calls for the ef- This influence is strong and ongoing. pharaohs or to cling to the fringes of the West. this study based on scrutiny. And they need also to embark upon the desired intellectual movement. prohibitive. and to draw the best conclusions geography.. and interconnected impact will undoubtedly be subject to interaction comparisons so that we get the full benefit of this with the modern opinions and Western ideas that we heritage. and the implications study of the fundamentals of Arabic literature such as of its ideal.] al-udaba' [Literary Biographies] by Yaqut [al-Rumi] al-Hamawi [circa 1179-1229]. need to embark upon the study of the Ara- draft the ideal of the intellectual movement. and nature. it requires perfec- Such influence has also increased through contact tion. revive this legacy. The late Shaykh Muhammad Hashim political movement that leads to the independence of wrote an introduction to the mulid that is a master. and others. We are attempting to possible. elevated by all of these toward the goal of erature in its entirety is but subject matter and style. traditions. and will work under its right guidance. readers and writers alike. To complete our intellectual movement. are acquiring. Lit- people. and try up to now. However. because the writings of the Arab Islamic certainty that the impact of Islamic religion and Arab heritage have already been published in Egypt and culture will remain part of our intellectual movement Syria. inspired by the past comprehend gradually the spirit of Arabic Islamic lit- and present of this country. But an people's minds.

the true religion. Let the loyal. and all work that is not has to follow is for this country to have an Arab Is. The goal we would not exchange for any other. that composes its verse and ap. lamic culture backed by an acquired Western culture. its fertile valleys. The feelings of the people. eternal dream and the work of ages. along with the try—politically. so that the movement may its people were exposed. socially. And we have seen that this be transformed from a literary renaissance to a po- country and its people are the result of [different] blood litical one. beliefs adopted by its offspring. Let us work to achieve it. and the artistic narrative from the dispositions of its people generation after us will work to realize it. Come along! O youth of this generation. which differ according to the silver moon in its deserts. The ideal vision country from ancient times until today. country in a way that instills patriotism in its youth tions that this nation has undergone and the creeds and and a sense of duty toward the land of the ancestors. and its They should be mutually supportive in creating a opinion leaders. Let us die. And erance. are the sources for music. a widened intellectual horizon. Turkish and the Abyssinian. This is our ideal. It remains for us to are striding toward is our independence—political.100 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub treated by literary figures. and are born out of [an This is our ideal: to protect our Islamic religion amalgam of] civilizations.] sources for its artistic imagery. which it because it is grows out of our essence. and hold fast to our Arab heritage with complete tol- the ancient and modern Arab. aimed at independence is worthless. adopted Islam. and an eager- we have seen that they [the people of this country] ness to study other cultures. dutiful. so to adopted Christianity for a long period of time. see which ideal the intellectual movement needs to social. peals to the sensitivity of this nation's offspring by selfless. . And the style is the way these subjects the gazelles of its dunes. and visionary offspring of this coun- describing the scenery of its jungles. and intellectually. some Negroid and some Arab. follow in this country. the shining of try work toward this ideal.. and finds in these the are treated.. as its creed. among them the Pharaonic. and time and place. and intellectual. let us work together to establish this proper national literature that takes the subject of its ideal. All these will revive our worshiped the gods of the ancient Egyptians and national literature and arouse patriotic feelings. We have seen the The propagators of this literature should circulate cultures to which the nation was introduced. to which useful political research. Such is the and their traditions. We must stride toward it and The ideal vision that the intellectual movement work together to achieve it. [. their sensitivities. their movements and si- We have followed the intellectual movement in this lences. and the Western. and then build a political movement that cannot be refused. resulting in the independence of this coun- groups. and we have gives attention to the writing of the history of this seen the various states and the succession of civiliza.

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and from Allow me to express my pleasure that so many In. Keddie. and Christians in the second—offer Jamal al-Din's view that Muslims can and must adopt modern science as a means of civilizational survival. Imperialism: Political and Religious Writings of Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani. . he will see that the "Code offspring of India. These youths are also the sons of a land that was tainments. from the four vedas. Afghani and 'Abduh: An Essay- ture delivered in 1882. 1966). (London: Cass. the second piece was first published on Religious Unbelief and Political Activism in Modem Islam in 1883. and Answer to Renan Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (Iran. for example. after yet another expulsion. and later in Russia. Jamal al-Din reinvented his political positions when necessary—supporting and opposing absolute monarchy. was to revive the power and image of the Islamic world through modern-style reforms. The first selection was a lec. since they are the offshoots of that Remain. Note how Indian numer- als were transferred from here to the Arabs. then studied modern sciences in India before coming to prominence as a royal adviser in Afghanistan in the late 1860s. was taken India that was the cradle of humanity. pp. dian youths are here. Keddie (Berkeley: University of California Press. translated from Persian and French 1. 1838-1897) was perhaps the most famous propo- nent of modernist Islam. II Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Lecture on Teaching and Learnin. Introduction by Charles Kurzman. Sayyid Jamal ad-Din "al-Afghani": by Nikki R. all adorned with virtue and at. in the first selection.] of arithmetic and geometry. there to Europe. Human val. As with his name. One of these pupils. circle was first determined. He was educated at seminar- ies in Iran and Iraq. 181-187. where he published the famous journal al-'Urwa al-wuthqa (The Strongest Link) with Muhammad 'Abduh (see chapter 3). Born in Asadabad in northwestern Iran. Elie Kedourie. . Press. His final years were spent as a would-be adviser to the rulers of Iran and.1 Lecture on Teaching and Learning knows that the determination of these two circles is impossible until perfection in geometry is achieved. They are from the same Pythagoras [Greek mathematician." the mother of all Western codes. He spent much of the 1880s in Eu- rope—in Paris. 1972). 101-108. A Political Biography (Berkeley: University of California 1968). These were the pupils of the Indians in literary ideas. and has enjoyed the stablest popularity of all modernists in the century since his death. The Greeks ues spread out from India to the whole world. His consistent aim. Jamal al-Din then spent a decade associated with academic reform—briefly in Istanbul. however. the Ottoman Empire. Everyone B. Certainly I must be happy to see such one observes closely. and lofty thoughts. Upon his expulsion. and the shastras.C. though both monarchs were suspicious of his loyalty and piety. The texts presented here—addressed to Hindus. spread sciences and wisdom in Greece and reached such a height that his word was accepted Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani. circa 569-475 realm that first understood the zodiac. An Islamic Response to without proof as an inspiration from heaven. before being expelled yet again. he said: [. he adopted the name "Afghani" in order to distance himself from his Shi'i origins. Thus we can say that the Indians were the inventors Calcutta. November 8 [1882]. and all making great efforts to acquire the source of all the laws and rules of the world. 103 . in Albert Hall. Nikki R. and denouncing and offering to assist the British Empire. lim- youths are from the very land where the meridian pid poetry. If knowledge. On Thursday. then for almost a decade in Cairo.].

Spain. There science. There are no riches in the world Now I would like to speak of science. The bene. In sum.C. industry. the loss called Sosestris. Plant science. one thousand. sovereignty has never left the regard to analysis and composition. if a ruler neglects the dissemi- ing to some and India according to others—it was not nation of the sciences among his subjects. What advantage is who. to tend it according to the laws of agronomy. will revert to him. and sciences. must strive for the dissemination of the The Egyptians who increased their realm. other than science. if we study the riches larly the other sciences. is. Assyrian queen. so. and Greece—in reality barefoot. If science were removed from thoughts cannot encompass what is infinite. to disseminate knowledge.] never came to India or conquered the Indians. mathematics. Despite this. and there is no wealth in the world and learning. ready expressed their thoughts to explain science and Since it is thus. ject and deals with nothing but the necessities and stan. or abode of science. ties. and will be no ruler in the world but science. one hundred. this true ruler. the French have seized Tunisia." fixes only plants as the subject of its dis- science.C. we now wish to say some words about the rather what conquered the Indians was science. which is "botany. The Europeans have now put their hands on every You must know that each science has a special sub- part of the world. aggression. commerce. and conquest have not come ics treats the special features of bodies that exist in from the French or the English. a long sleep. is continually changing capitals. meaning that the world fits of science are immeasurable.104 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani [The Indians] reached the highest level in philo. In reality. and agriculture. and ten not to explain its virtues. own benefit. just so rulers. and commerce is based on agriculture So I am very happy that they. try. the chemistry. More than this. thousand persons. for his own profit. without science. teaching. Portugal. teaching.]. and present here are fruits of the same earth and climate. The Phoenicians will revert to that government. in the world. if the owner of an orchard neglects Ramses II [Egyptian king. and geometry. and does not enter into other matters that are Ignorance had no alternative to prostrating itself necessary to the human world. Just as an individual who ramis [Sammu-ramat. nature does not permit me strength of ten. None of these sciences deals of the world. gradually made colonies of the there to a Zulu king from ruling a society poor and British Isles. How difficult it is to speak about sci. geometry. Alexander [Macedonian king. Rather it is science the external world. which so expanded government? their power. In reality this accidents of that special subject. the ground and improve its trees and plants accord- the true conquerors were not the Chaldeans but sci. Agriculture is If we observe well. clarified. The acquisitions of men for them- Thus I say: If someone looks deeply into the ques. mechanics. the human sphere. and how can one call such a government a it was science. we learn that wealth is the result of with matters outside its own subject. who reached Mesopotamia accord." speaks of the special features of bodies with mission. for their ence and knowledge.]. 356-323 As the nobility of science has been somewhat B. manity is an industrial world. Industry is produced only air of India is the same air. ing to the laws of agronomy. Thus. the harm the Egyptians but science that did it. ninth century has an orchard must. and other times from geometry with interconnected quantities. Kimiya. chemistry. There is no end or limit to science. The English have reached Afghani. and with its own special quali- that everywhere manifests its greatness and power. who reached the borders of Tatary and India. phys- usurpation. achieved only with agricultural science. result of science. he will see that science rules the world. ruled 1279-1213 B. no man would continue to remain thousands of eloquent speakers and sages have al. For example.C. having awakened after and industry. like Semi. However. and learning. are reclaiming their inheritance and Thus it is evident that all wealth and riches are the gathering the fruits of their own tree. every government for its own benefit was. The soil of India is the same soil. and these youths who are with physics. Besides. with their ships. the whole world of hu- ence. science makes one man have the its nobility. work to level B. Arithmetic deals with separate quantities and it has moved from East to West. not the Phoenicians. selves and their governments are proportional to their tion. Sometimes cussion. and simi- West to East. botanical sophic thought. must strive to lay the foundation of the sciences and If we look at the Chaldean conquerors. relations between science. Just as. or "chemis- humbly before science and acknowledging its sub. and these finite is a world of science. we will learn that each one .

nor would it remain stable. arts. It is philosophy that shows man the Muslims these days do not see any benefit from human prerequisites. sciences. It shows the sciences what is their education. I say that ject is universal.—Trans. or "philosophy. that is headed toward decline is in the philosophic istence. they would not send their and requisites. That community without the Arabic. by Mahmud Jawnpuri not have one of those sciences whose subject is par- ticular. The first defect appearing in any nation for all the sciences. but. and their causes. or understand is. undoubtedly their philosophic spirit would 2. The Ottoman Government and the Khedivate of and poet. Persian. now they have not received any benefit from those Logic. cord with science. that ishing they are unable to speak. It employs each of the sciences in its and the purpose of grammar is that someone who has proper place. philosophy and the sciences has been explained. explains human nobility. they the ideas of the masses of the bazaar.] . like the relation time all the sciences with particular subjects that they of arithmetic to geometry. speaker. necessities. so that it can preserve their ex. Thus. apply each of them in its proper place. progress would It is philosophy that makes man understandable not be achieved in it. deficiencies spread into the other become the cause of the progress of each one of those sciences. al-Ma'mun (caliph. [In fact. a philosophic spirit arose among can maintain its existence individually and sepa. a hundred years. needs. and until ing their everyday speech. Also. ing and learning among the Muslims. After that. them. For long years they expend philo- sciences with particular subjects. Not one of them the Islamic religion. lim logicians are full of every superstition and van- Undoubtedly. However. and no difference exists between their ideas and those schools during this period of sixty years. should make sciences. For the existence of each one of these sci." because its sub. the main translations were done later under call for the acquisition of all the sciences. As the relationship between the preeminence of The science that has the position of a comprehen. or and they would not invite teachers from there to their Explanation of "Guidance. Shark al. reasons. The Rising Sun. everyone who acquires it capable of distinguishing cal sciences was impossible in those schools. TEACHING AND LEARNING AND ANSWER TO RENAN 105 of these sciences whose subject is a special matter The first Muslims had no science. and shows man the a science is needed to be the comprehensive soul proper road. and every truth from falsehood and every right from because of the nonexistence of philosophy. they study grammar. The Muslims now make grammar a the individuals of that community were learned in the goal in itself. and all ing and writing. which they call "literature. we sive soul and the rank of a preserving force is the now wish to say something about the quality of teach- science offalsafa. Thus sur Davanaqi [caliph. I may say that if the spirit of philosophy were 1640] and Shams al-bari'a [probably Shams al- found in a community.Hidaya. scholars] read Sadra [that is. independent of the European countries. 1571- schools. and after fin- could not last in that community for a century." is the sci- from these sciences. we see these days that after Egypt have been opening schools for the teaching of studying that science they are incapable of correct- the new sciences for a period of sixty years. acquired the Arabic language be capable of speak- If a community did not have philosophy. and Greek into This need of one science for other sciences can. translated from the Syriac. 754-775]. themselves. spirit of philosophy could not deduce conclusions Rhetoric. and associations. which is the balance for ideas. Philosophy is the science that deals with the state would have striven to reform their kingdoms in ac. This was why they acquired in a short ences is related to another science. no fruit wrong. 813-833). the Arabic language at the time of [Abu Ja'far] Man- not be understood from the one science itself. However. It is strange that our 'ulama' [religious sons each year to European countries for education. we see that the minds of our Mus- was obtained from those sciences that are like limbs. and owing to that philosophic spirit they began rately. those sciences sophic thought on grammar to no avail.2 it is that if that science were isolated. of external beings. if the spirit of philosophy had been in ity. For example. thanks to is like a limb of the body of science. even if that community did bazigha." by Mulla Sadra. write. and spirit. or be the cause of benefit for the human to discuss the general affairs of the world and human world. ence that enables a man to become a writer. Thus to man. The reason is that teaching the philosophi. necessary.

The father and mother of science is proof. and despite this they cannot distinguish any nation. he says in explained the truth regarding right and wrong.] with the greatest delight. the rules of civili. and they do not once consider why if pher. 1642-1727]. heretics and enemies of Islam. and they do not itself. sophical demonstrations. much smoke comes out if Aristotle were one of the pillars of the Muslims. Thus a person where there is proof. if the discussion relates to Galileo [Italian Shame on such a philosopher. does not know where its beginning and end are. they consider them not one who travels along a road like a blind man who infidels. if a scholar is a scholar he must shed education. on top of which is a very has inevitably passed judgment on the falsity of his small flame that neither lights its surroundings nor religion. one will understand this truth. ture. . not science to men. tions are self-evident truths. as we remove its glass cover. philo- be capable of establishing laws and enforcing civili. or his home. geometric proofs. died 1652] and vaingloriously call them. and Jurisprudence among the Muslims includes all proof is neither Aristotle nor Galileo. whereas we see our jurisconsults religion. However. 1571-1630]. What kind Hence we can say that reform will never be achieved of scholar is it who does not enlighten even his own by the Muslims except if the leaders of our religion home? first reform themselves and gather the fruits of their The strangest thing of all is that our 'ulama' these science and knowledge. gives light to others. A scholar is a true light if he is The first education obtained by man was religious a scholar. The harm of this igno- science among the Muslims are deprived of under. the foundation of the Islamic faith. The truth is domestic. science is that noble thing that has no connection with selves sages. at least it should light up his and is able to understand proofs and demonstrations. rant friend to Islam is greater than the harm of the standing of the benefits of laws. and philosophic demonstra- Since the state of these 'ulama' has been demon. region. and railroads. benefit the book Munqidh min al-dalal (The Deliverer from and loss. and state laws. strated. circa 384-322 B. and [Johannes] Kepler [Ger- is stimulated by all the events and parts of the world. that the ruin and corruption we have experienced first Because of this they forbid others to teach some of reached our 'ulama' and religious leaders. Rather. municipal. One they If one considers. The science of principles consists of the philoso. from early evening until morning How very strange it is that the Muslims study those they study the Shams al-bari'a with a lamp placed sciences that are ascribed to Aristotle [Greek philoso- before them. ing the Islamic religion are really the enemies of that sador of the state. The Islamic religion is the closest of reli- after studying this science unable to manage their gions to science and knowledge. man astronomer. or "philosophy of law. and when we leave the glass. Even stranger. and one European science. days have divided science into two parts. related to science. and is not distinguished by anything but their left hand from their right hand. the steam. Men must be boat. we can say that our 'ulama' at this time are "My religion is inconsistent with self-evident truths. becomes renowned through science. and every nation that becomes renowned They never ask the causes of electricity. and the laws of nature is zation. and then the useful sciences. his city. although they are proud of their compatibility between science and knowledge and own foolishness. and the reform of the world. and shame on such astronomer. and if his light does not obtained by a society that has studied some science reach the whole world. we see that those who study this an ignorant friend of Islam. someone who says. Thus." In it are 1111]. and those who forbid science who has studied jurisprudence profoundly is worthy and knowledge in the belief that they are safeguard- of being prime minister of the realm or chief ambas. For the laws of na- zation. As for [Abu Hamid Muhammad] Ghazzali [1058- phy of the shari 'a. and there is no in- own households. since philosophical education can only be light on the whole world. everything that is known is known by ask: Who are we and what is right and proper for us? science.106 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Faruqi. his village. call Muslim science. 1564-1642]. of it. However. a person who studies this science should ligion is incompatible with geometric proofs. Error) that someone who claims that the Islamic re- Certainly. there is no smoke. They have not understood that penetrated the rest of the community." like a very narrow wick. and the causes for the promulgation of laws. Thus.C. [Isaac] Newton [English philosophy! A philosopher is someone whose mind physicist. who was called the Proof of Islam.

and that the Arab people. not having. their hands as if burnt up by the breath of the desert wind. a poet who loved philosophy obedience was imposed in the name of the supreme wrote several centuries ago to a high personage Being to whom the educators attributed all events. other who." he said to without permitting men to discuss its utility or its him. lation of this talk. This pre- cious plant. at its origin. the principal caused this talk to be de. do not force me disadvantages. as well as to those who study the perhaps be the most profitable for it. This Mutanabbi [915-965]. in citing cer. in these circumstances. by their nature. I could have penetrated better of its desires. Since this speech time that kept Monsieur Renan from elucidating these suggested to me some observations. TEACHING AND LEARNING AND ANSWER TO RENAN 107 I now wish to excuse myself. but the harm is no less for that. do not like ei- Answer of Jamal ad-Din to Renan ther metaphysical sciences or philosophy. from the great thinker of our time. did not know the salutation as an homage that is due him and as causes of the events that passed under its eyes and the sincere expression of my admiration. we believe. I of reason. since. finally. This is no doubt for man one of the to bestow on you the praises that you merit. whose actions he celebrated: "Receive. at least an unlimited field for its hopes. incapable of distinguishing good from evil. power to force humanity to follow the inspirations ceptions. . a peaceful ognize that Monsieur Renan has acquitted himself corner where its tormented conscience could find marvelously of this very difficult task. points. dried in Sir. it is that may be somewhat troubling for those who ven. repose. This lacuna means that it cannot be led either by ing historical truth and making it known to those who force or persuasion to practice the actions that would do not know it. points. 1823-1892]. look outside itself for a place of refuge. contrary to Monsieur Renan's talk covered two principal his promise. it was perforce led to follow the to him. and an indescribable charm. proving that the Muslim religion was by its very es- sence opposed to the development of science. But after reading this talk one cannot refrain I have read in your estimable journal of last March from asking oneself if these obstacles come uniquely 29 [1883] a talk on Islam and Science. the ideas of this great thinker. indicate the remedy. and is harmful. since humanity. The eminent philosopher applied himself to livered only in an abbreviated form. a light reason. the necessary I find in his talk remarkable observations. as I recognize." heaviest and most humiliating yokes. He receives my humble And. new per. I will say that no nation at its history of the Arabs which had remained unclear until origin is capable of letting itself be guided by pure now and to throw a live light on their past. to destroy the glory of the Arabs. "the praises that I can give you. It does not know. given in the from the Muslim religion itself or from the manner Sorbonne before a distinguished audience by the in which it was propagated in the world. hurled it into the unknown and opened to have under my eyes only a more or less faithful trans. which might be the unfailing source of its unhap- pied in the world. However. advice of its teachers and the orders they gave. of distin- erate these people. as I said above. though one cannot say that he has guishing that which could make it happy from that usurped the place and rank that they formerly occu. If I had had the opportunity to read and where it found. I took the lib. and if it is erty of formulating them in this letter. Haunted by terrors that it cannot escape. piness and misfortune. or of those on whose nations whose renown has filled the West and penetrated into it was imposed by force. It was then that there arose some educator or tain facts that have passed unnoticed until this time. and aptitudes of the peoples who [Ernest] Renan [French Orientalist. I would say the secrets of things. what al. Monsieur Renan has not at all tried. It is no doubt the lack of the farthest countries of the East. in a word. the illustrious M[onsieur] character. or to avoid what influence of religions in the history of nations. manners. which either how to trace back causes or to discern effects. it vast horizons where the imagination was pleased. Monsieur Renan seems to say. It was therefore necessary that humanity in particular in that of civilization. it is even more difficult to accommodate it in your columns. I hasten to rec. Monsieur Renan wanted to clarify a point of the As to the first point. he has applied himself to discover. if not the complete satisfaction it in the French text. is indestructible. adopted this religion. which I have difficult to determine its causes in a precise manner the honor of addressing to you with a request that you and by irrefutable proofs.

Realizing. self from the tutelage of religion. however. No.108 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani but one cannot deny that it is by this religious edu. Convinced. besides. religion he practices and not in another? Wherefore gions? All religions are intolerant. A similar attempt. full of have just alluded. including gion in the world by many centuries. like an ox to the plow. was not at all an invincible ob. the Greeks and Romans walked with assurance over tion. for which the Christian faith. took up what had been abandoned by slave he is. that had developed slowly during several centuries In truth. if I am not mistaken. people. go beyond. that have for their object scientific truth. and their most precious books were relegated to ion accepted at least by some people in Europe. while still in the state of barbarism. he must walk eternally in the furrow that the civilized nations. Is not this the index and proof of their contains in itself all morality and all sciences. studies on The monuments they had built to science collapsed. A true however. to surmount to achieve the same degree of civiliza. They continue to fight energetically philosophical sciences. at a later age. Having I know all the difficulties that the Muslims will have followed for several centuries the path of civilization. and burning hearth of all human knowledge. I must recognize. that all nations have emerged from barbarism and Why should he exhaust himself in vain attempts? marched toward a more advanced civilization. developed them and gave them a brilliance they ers of the law. who would thus be condemned to assimilated almost all the Greek and Persian sciences live in barbarism and ignorance. I cannot admit that this hope be denied to into the road of intellectual and scientific progress Islam. was made astonishing progress among the Arabs and in made by the Christian religion. I plead here with Monsieur Renan not the cause with a rapidity only equaled by the speed of its con- of the Muslim religion. ences. and in turning minds from the search for scientific One might say that in all this period the sciences truth. not only by fire and blood. which all truth must depend. whether it be Muslim. becomes "a fanatic. can one affirm that this the day when he has lost his faith. rushed stacle. or pagan. and the venerated all the countries under their domination. someday in breaking its bonds and marching resolutely I am led here to speak of the second point that in the path of civilization after the manner of Western Monsieur Renan treated in his lecture with an incon- society. It has thus succeeded tion from the Arabian peninsula up to the mountains in halting the philosophical or intellectual movement of the Himalaya and the summit of the Pyrenees. despite its rig. in fact. its passage in the world. access to the truth with the help of philosophic the vast field of science and philosophy. Rome and leaders of the Catholic church have not yet disarmed Byzantium were then the seats of theological and so far as I know. foolish pride in possessing what he believes to be it seems to advance rapidly on the road of progress and absolute truth. ignorant and barbaric as they Yoked. There came. a time when their researches were aban- believer must. but that of several hundreds quests. according to an opin. rekindled the extinguished sci- has been traced for him in advance by the interpret. I know all this. he despises science. the Muslim religion has tried to stifle on their native soil. oblivion. and scientific methods being forbidden them. he at. just as it extended its domina- science and stop its progress. I cannot keep philosophy (with which. The Arabs. but I know The Christian religion (I mean the society that follows equally that this Muslim and Arab child whose por- its inspirations and its teachings and is formed in its trait Monsieur Renan traces in such vigorous terms image) has emerged from the first period to which I and who. taches himself resolutely to it and makes no effort to cation. turn from the path of studies doned and their studies interrupted. it acquired and of millions of men. whereas Muslim society has not yet freed it. since in the space of a century.'" belongs to a race that has marked science. for all the sciences. as well as the shining center against what they call the spirit of vertigo and error. What would be the benefit of seeking truth when he If it is true that the Muslim religion is an obstacle believes he possesses it all? Will he be happier on to the development of sciences. testable authority. Christian. each one in its way. to the dogma whose were in origin. but by brilliant and fruitful achievements that prove that the Christian religion preceded the Muslim reli. its taste for science. natural love for sciences? It is true that the Arabs took . that his religion had never had. it was from hoping that Muhammadan society will succeed unable to live happily for long). thenceforth free and independent. the day when he obstacle will not disappear someday? How does the has stopped believing that all perfections are in the Muslim religion differ on this point from other reli. No one denies that the Arab ors and intolerance.

The Syrian priests were Persians of what made their fame in antiquity. they remained Arabs. extended. rare precision and exactitude. He rec. does not mean they should be considered would come to say to France that neither [Cardinal . Ibn Rushd (Averroes) [Andalusia-Morocco. like Iraq and Andalusia. but they did not arms in the service of the Muslim religion. circa 1110-1185]. a new scope. thus. but we that is to say during about 500 years. which they usurped by right of con. and wherever of the intellectual superiority of the Arabs and of their they established themselves. Italy Sabaeanism. peoples would then regain their moral autonomy and ity. The Arabs who put their who had emigrated and become Arab. they have Muslim countries very distinguished scholars and among themselves enough celebrated scholars and thinkers. the French. circa 1106- completed. The Europeans welcomed Aristotle. The expansion of Islam gave it. they developed. whose capital was say that they are not just as Arab as [Abu Yusuf Baghdad. in penetrat- the fall of the Arab kingdom in the Orient as in the ing the conquered countries with the violence that is Occident. we followed step by step world. one would find that the Middle Ages was not due to the Arab people who ruled Arabic language was not then entirely unknown to at that time. perfected. known. they preserved it for natural attachment to philosophy? It is true that after them with a jealous care. that fructified and developed these germs. No doubt Islam. They made no effort in this direction willing to consider that human races are only distin- until Arab civilization lit up with its reflections the guished by their language. TEACHING AND LEARNING AND ANSWER TO RENAN 109 from the Greeks their philosophy as they stripped the foreign to the Arab nationality. Persian scholars. it Monsieur Renan does do them this justice. and the English were not so far from Rome [Andalusia-Morocco. no doubt. did not bor. What would happen if. and the Persian scholars con- ognizes that the Arabs conserved and maintained for verted to the Muhammadan faith thought it an honor centuries the hearth of science. but it is cism. ters of science. Iran is an example. were simultaneously warriors and apostles. its manners. forget their diverse origins. but one cannot conclude from this sad spectacle possible that in going back to the centuries preced- that the scientific and philosophic progress of the ing the appearance of Islam. and [Abu Bakr Muhammad] Ibn Tufayl Germans. there were in believe that they do not need this claim. What nobler mission to write their books in the language of the Qur'an. Ya'qub] al-Kindi [Arabia. glory that renders these writers illustrious. As for Ibn Bajja [Andalusia-Morocco. Is there not in this another proof. 775 to near the middle of the thirteenth century. clarified. but permit me to say that the peoples other virtues or merits than those that flow Harranians were Arabs and that the Arabs in occupy. Thus. Several centuries before would attribute to themselves all glory. and these countries could not thence- ignorance and became the center of religious fanati. and who think of him at all when he was Greek and their neigh. no less evident. nations would not take long to on the Occident. but also for the most part Ghassanian Arabs converted to these sciences. and coordinated with a perfect taste and a 1138]. no part of Islam the Arabic language was that of the Harranians. Christianity. who became famous in this period were mostly from and if. Monsieur Renan has said that the philosophers the first group from which was formed this conquer- of the first centuries of Islam as well as the statesmen ing people who spread their power over the world. impose their language on the defeated. I do not wish to deny the great quali. eliminating everything that is outside this Harran [in Anatolia]. is true. and that if this distinction summits of the Pyrenees and poured its light and riches should disappear. the countries that had become the great cen. the 1126-1198]. group and its descendants. claim for themselves the A. going back to the first was superior in intellectual culture to the Christian period of Arab domination. and from Iran. forth avoid influence. circa 801-866] because ploit the scientific treasures that were buried in these they were not born in Arabia. no longer to recognize in conquering in the Arab world. transplanted there its language. It was therefore easier for the former to ex. from Andalusia. from the material fact of conquest? All conquered ing Spain and Andalusia did not lose their national. one cannot and Byzantium as were the Arabs. quest. we did not take into ac- There were also among them Transoxianan and count either the influence it exercised on minds or Syrian priests. fell again into and its doctrine. Besides. and that during this period the Muslim world writers. the impulse it gave to the sciences? Would we not ties of the Persian scholars nor the role that they played be led. especially if one is two great cities. which could be legitimately claimed by the power The fact that they preserved their former religion. for a people! But while recognizing that from about The Arabs cannot.D.

why this torch has not been relit since. How could one therefore hope that they ous families who. The French. cause the masses dislike reason. between re- [Jalal al-Din] al-Suyuti [Egyptian scholar. after having been thrown in such science and philosophy. and inexplicable mysteries of the Trinity. philosophy. and its teachings are phers in order to destroy sciences in the Muslim only understood by some intelligences of the elite. When- darkness. Religions. It is clear that wherever it nate philosophy.000 philoso. would claim for its belief. also. . Europeans belong to the same stock. it re. one can with entered Athens and Alexandria. 10 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Jules] Mazarin [1602-1661] nor [Emperor Napoleon] find in the past of the Christian religion analogous Bonaparte [1769-1821] belonged to her. Religion imposes on man its faith and nown. it will elimi- gion appears complete. countries down to their roots. on their side. It will always be thus. philosophy. a desperate struggle in which. And if all religion. trying to stifle both under a live light on the world. the Incarnation. and it was marvelously served in its designs long as humanity exists. after becoming solidly es-tablished in It is permissible. whereas philosophy frees him of it totally themselves the glory of the offspring of those illustri. this religion tried to stifle the is philosophy that reigns as sovereign mistress. which were. why the Arab world still remains buried in profound and Transubstantiation. So sciences. and it is a bloody stain for the history of tant regions that the philosophers and scholars can a religion. 1505] tells that the Caliph [Musa] al-Hadi [reigned I fear. I could neither perceive nor explore. belong equally to the great Arab family. between dogma and free investigation. the two principal centers of science and are Semites. however. however beautiful it is. or in part. as it is for the history of a people. under the most modest and seductive forms. No agreement and no recon- ing come to France. the bushes of theological discussions. to ask oneself why these two cities its first concern was to put aside real Arab civilization. to explain the guished. be- 785-786] put to death in Baghdad 5. science. suddenly became extin. all resemble each other. ligion and philosophy. which thirsts mains nonetheless established that this persecution for the ideal and which likes to exist in dark and dis- took place. made its professorships illustri. Germany or facts. the triumph will not be for free thought. and the contrary happens when it became established. as every- justice claim that the Harranians and the Syrians. after [the revocation of] the edict of would agree with each other? When the Christian Nantes [in 1685]. emigrated to all Europe. England would in turn claim the scholars who. does not completely satisfy humanity. the struggle will not cease by despotism. ciliation are possible between these religions and ous and enhanced the brilliance of its scientific re. Here the responsibility of the Muslim reli. by whatever names they are called. who one knows. historian exaggerated the number of victims. ever religion will have the upper hand. 1445. hav. Admitting that this and because.

then what difference is there between the state! Why don't you tell the shah.1 O intimate members of the royal household. including the necessity of conspiracy to promote the rule of Law. unfortunately. next to Isfahan. 12 Mirza Malkum Khan The Law Mirza Malkum Khan (Iran." according to the British ambassador. plundered. which campaigned on behalf of constitutionalism. The Press Matbu'ati-i Safi'alishah. rising to the post of ambassador in London. as ambassador to Italy. Iran: Bungah-i sity of California Press. yet Malkum played no direct role in that movement. And if. O dignitaries of the of the state. Hamid Algar. including the purported letters to the editor—demonstrates Malkum's vivid prose and some of his characteristic themes. You see the ruthlessness with many thrones have toppled. circa 1890. Born in the Armenian town of Julfa. alternately served and agitated against the Iranian monarchy. in 1899. Malkum devoted himself to a journal called Qanun (The Low). Edward G. Malkum was educated in France on a govern- ment scholarship. Isma'il Ra'in. 1833-1908) was an activist and pamphleteer who. You know how ambassadors and all the All these calamities would not have occurred. these terrifying accounts would force you You say you are afraid that such words will displease to speak out instantly. but retained certain Christian practices. 1914). aforementioned and cowardly traitors? tinctly. Then what is the meaning of loyalty to the not have enough manly candor to say openly how things really are. clearly and dis. as he had ceased his oppositional activities upon reappointment to diplomatic service. A decade later. Translation from Persian and introduction by Charles Kurzman. Brown. bridge University Press. 1971). you do the shah. 1973). Mirza Malkum Khan (Berkeley: Univer. appearing periodically in forty-two issues over a decade. A thousand times you minute from the manacles of their sycophancy. England. Malkum and his father converted to Islam. and see how know how much the servants and subjects are subject many regimes are being overthrown in this age of to harassment. but for Westerners trample on our rights. Qanun (The Law). have enough sense at least not to Malkum Khan. have a speck of honesty and justice in service to your So why haven't you told the shah of these matters? benefactor. Mirza Malkum 1. the Dar al-Funun (House of Sciences). where its popularity threw the shah into "paroxysms of irritation and alarm. and returned to Iran to teach at the country's first modern-style school. No. How many monarchs are forced to flee. England: Cam- assistance. How inces have been reduced. When he was fired in 1889 in a scandal over a proposed Iranian lottery. The journal inspired the makers of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906. Thanks to Mahmoud Sadri for translation and Poetry of Modern Persia (Cambridge. 111 . Khan (Prince Malkum Khan) (Tehran. in different periods of his life. If you have confided to one another that this cannot continue. 10. who extent the existence of the state and the health of the would not permit their meek rulers to be freed for one monarchy are being shaken. You know the level to which the prov. how things really are? You who know what anger has gathered in the hearts of the people. O exalted state? If you place personal safety over the interests courtiers of the shah! O ministers. You Look about you for a moment or two. You know to what the ruthlessness of the traitorous courtiers. was smuggled into Iran. he was exiled for organizing se- cret societies devoted to freedom and equality—then hired the following year in the Iranian diplomatic service. Issue number 10 of Qanun. London. how many dear souls which the income of the state and the nation is being have been dragged through the dirt of degradation. This journal. ours. translated here in its entirety—probably writ- ten entirely by Malkum.

allow— killed thus-and-such a minister. what foolish oppressor would dare to touch the important Shi'i Muslim shrine]: rights of your Humanity? Nothing remains in this life for me. yourself Men. vancement of Humanity. who have become in spirit greater devotees of Hu- O dear brother. this wise shah. after a thou. this oppressed shah. My property is gone. Why our kingdom is being ru- ties the emperor of the people of Iran. their conversation refuge with. and moral pleasures for your enjoyment! less masses to the royal court without your taunting blows. Now that we have stumbled onto the in the service of Humanity. Ever since the sound of The Law has rung out. the that moment the broken-hearted people of Iran have people of Iran. Now that I have reached here. were destroyed. My reputation is gone. I see no head that this state. as a sort of taqiya [the Shi'i Muslim tra- plaint and despair? Thousands were oppressed like dition of pious dissimulation]. not only can you save yourself. have become great supporters of Humanity. all of these calamities and bitternesses manity than we. With the talents and abili. whimpered. spend one noblewomen—in proportion with the intellect and prudence that they have developed far more than the men of our age—have perceived the meaning and vir- 2. you who number more than 10 million? If you had the sense to consider A noble and wise officer. his imperial holiness why the state authorities have as leader of a group of enslaved beggars. My servant's wages A prince with good sense. But strangest of all is the rush of women toward For the thousand sacrifices that you foolishly made the advent of Humanity. What good is com. who believed in Humanity less than any- not tasted. now in Iraq.12 Mirza Malkum Khan deny our words. There is no scoundrel who has not afflicted is not full of enthusiasm for the Law. and to understand the nificent state for almost 40 years. from His imperial highness would reply that you. It happens that most of our in devotion to the oppressors of the age. allow us to present the grievances of the speech. the shah. writes from glori. and on the other hand they have ignorant ministers of mine be able to rule over you gladdened us with support and useful information. Some weak-willed friends. ness of his. as worthy of someone speaks ill of Humanity and the founders better than this standing. I don't know which unbeliever to seek Whenever they find a safe spot. who has served this mu. how would this handful of titions of grievance. such stupid hypocrisies." in addition to denoting all people who tues of Humanity far better than the men. they have drowned us with pe. one. if you had as much perception and zeal as other journal. who has really become crazy in her enthusiasm for journal Qanun. Now. poisons of misfortune change into tangible comforts alty. but you have the power to revive a whole country. has started a secret riot along with sev- . refers specifically to members of the Society of Humanity. If you their plan quickly came to light. dered these houses. out of insanity or loy. My brothers and kin. at least as well as some animals ous Karbala [an Ottoman city. the shah. writes: folk have all perished in the misfortune of service to You have lit an unusual fire. the people of Iran. have lately taken to slandering that you recognize as your personal portion are the Humanity as much as they can in the presence of lot of most of the people of Iran. Why our nation has been bound to such ab- ject servility. On one hand. a secret organization that ter than our non-men. My aunt—al-Saltana. All the royal me. so harshly and so confidently. meaning of unity. We. who belongs to the rank are gone. that is. countries' women have. If you were understood that they have invisible champions in this Men. of intimate courtiers of his royal majesty. in the name of God the arena of The Law. immediately recognizes the purpose of ties that you have. deserve this servility. There is no humiliation whose bitterness I have servants. as others do. with that cleverness and sly- of Humanity2 awaits you. Why so-and-so plun- allow—us to make the bearer of these eminent quali. sand troubles. ["Humanity. Then you will see the path of nationalist martyrdom. But the depravity of you. Unless you want to maintain this good. whenever truly think of yourself as having rights. site of an do.—Trans. so that I may be released from the grasp is all praise and acclaim and yearning for the ad- of these man-eating oppressors. ined so.] this endeavor. bet- have achieved enlightenment. My family is gone. in particu- Malkum Khan founded around 1890 in conjunction with his lar. do not have the right to ask natured shah. and left.

On the contrary. and that of our government not worth a sence of the Iranians has appeared in this way. you do not reveal how and where you re- dren abroad for education? ceived it. The cause Why have we become such deniers of science and of this despair is their own idleness. millions. you who wish to have the We sincerely regret that we cannot respond person- right to live in this world—for the defense of this right ally to every one of the friends who have written on and the proof of your Humanity. the pre-Islamic your family in the street. we can only allude to some of are you awaiting. they region of the earth who are more thirsty for progress say. and useless. do. . Why were this kingdom's concessions not given to the subjects of the kingdom? A. inconsequential. and when the zeal of the nation. j. It makes no sense for a man to be as fearful Because we have decided that our subjects should as you are. numb and useless. what further rights of the nation to any foreigner who wants them. without waiting for others Become a human being and demand the Law. Now that divine beneficence has opened That which plunders its subjects at will. The truth dawns where it is least expected. and say. as and plucks out your eyes whenever it pleases. on condition that for the time Why are the people not allowed to send their chil. A youth educated at the Academy of Sciences and M. muses say that they despair of this people. "We are not animals. because the signature school in Iran] requests that we publish these ques- of our government is no longer worth anything. Here. what fresh disgrace these subjects. Why is the signature of other governments worth Why should there be any surprise that the natural es. especially Because we want our subjects to be as ignorant and among the highest ranks. not any defect in enemies of wisdom? Because science opens the people's eyes." And recent struggles of this kingdom have been fruitless. the harsh blows of these times? Nobody said that the spits on its pacts and contracts. "Let us wait and see what the others and slits your stomach open. M. come to an end. you who call yourself a human being. obstacles. People of in- from others? telligence will easily identify their specific answer in these words that we set out. s. and which "What is unlawful government?" path to take. A. alone. we will defend our rights as Men. Soon nobody will lack strength. Show [me] the people of any the people find their voice and their courage." Soon everyone of good sense will take on the What should we do to change this? duties of Humanity. brazenly denies its obligations and pacts. throws in the time of Ignorance [that is. under single coin? Because our government. being. confiscates your property. the cause of this is that none of the knowledgeable authorities divining the heavenly secrets have yet seen An individual from Isfahan writes. and that the sun of enlightenment will Why are uneducated and untalented individuals pre- breathe a new spirit into this blessed land. we want to be Men like and fit for work than Iranians. remain as poor as possible. what hesitations remain for the flowing wastes the kingdom's treasures on any base whim. this is certainly against the rules. ferred to others? Because we want the name and practice of science Some ignorant old people and some shameless ignora. sells the the gates of Humanity in all directions. to act. I will send it. what miracles are you expecting their statements in summary fashion. blind as possible. a thousand times a day. and not allowed his sons to go once in forty years? gious authorities and the masters of perspicacity have Because it was decided that our princes should re- told us repeatedly that these times of misfortune will main ignorant. the reli. and art to fall into complete disuse in Iran. period]. that defies description. Although the various others. You who read these words. D. tions and answers here. currents of this nation's forces? Soon the rays of the shamelessly exploits the salaries and claims of its sun of Humanity shall leave no stone in this kingdom employees. The concession that you want to take from Technology in Tehran [the leading modern-style the government is useless. N. THE LAW 113 eral of her friends in the royal quarters. nation of this great race would remain buried forever Why has the king himself gone to Europe three times in this graveyard of misery. fit to show clearly where the destination is.

take to witness the divine intention of religious duty and great care that all members of Humanity give ma- the honor of erudition as the greatest of the 'ulama' terial aid. lightenment? We proclaim from first to last that we The office of The Law has relocated from its Lon. words. s. would never and in no way pretend to make a higher don address. eras have been the best proponents of the advance- ties of this dear homeland. The state and our entire ex. even among the tradesmen and soldiers and others whom O wise one of an exalted nature! What need is there no one counts among men of note. Why are you waiting training. we tell all people to Baghdad. Everyone can for me to specify your noble name in these pages? A advance into this arena of Humanity. On the contrary. From now on. the learned ones. Among the largest services that nity of your destiny. and readily offer you the glad tidings that people up and prevent this terrible tragedy through from this moment on. make themselves a manifestation of Humanity. to make offerings to us. how ate way to whatever places and people you see fit. four following items. Your mission in the world is the spirit of Humanity expects from that noble per- far loftier than the fanciful dreams that have ren. We are pre- perceptive mind will have no trouble recognizing pared to give ourselves in service to them. The remedy is just as you specified. what right do you have these pages [that is. if only one dinar a month. life and immediately that my words are meant for you. liverance. as the means of saving mate means. the you are appointed to the absolute trusteeship of noble child of the homeland. Fourth. The correspondence bureau has moved claim. Why go this far? You who are reading these You know the truth. from among the 'ulama'. we draw your lofty attention specifically to the dered your true being useless. The numerous prac. D. particularly higher knowledge. to your being for this great purpose? A thousand Third. Islam is the collection of divine laws. like those other non. with sufficient you for service to this nation. we accord you a higher meaning and We in the societies of Men are shouting to wake position. what wretch could call into question possessions during their service to Humanity. equity and manly duty demand that you what type of sacrifices in this alliance of mutual strive to lend them assistance and relief to the ex- support? You will soon be astonished and ecstatic tent of your powers of generosity. For years you have ment of truth. To light this path of de- Humanity is the observance of these laws. bers of this respected half of the nation. as master of their sex and instigators of this kingdom. bring the copies of The Law in an appropri- individuals who hold high offices in the world. to especially [religious scholars] of Islam take up the leadership needy trustees. Bombay. please send all materi. whatever meaning name and position may istence have tumbled over a frightening precipice. Those First. of your exalted soul. son. and the purity of Humanity? What need have I to tell in fact have become spiritual martyrs for these you what sort of zealous disciples have undergone truths. the grace of the strength of Humanity. by all legiti- ity. your veins will testify that God created whatever person you deem deserving. "What's it to me?" Rest assured that up to this devoted entirely to the knowledge and competence day. which was entrusted and distinguished Men. appoint the trusteeship of Humanity to your heart. come and recognize us. commanded by divine decree. you have been unaware of the reality and dig.144 Mirza Malkum Khan A. or Ashkabad. Now that incumbent upon you to appoint good and pure mem- divine will has appointed the rising sun of Human. and of this army of prosperity. in this widespread crisis to say. We have not told and will not tell anyone to closer to Iran. Islamic authorities? To fortify the hearts of the weak. or als to one of the correspondents of The Law in to obey us. what better torch than the science of the Q. because women in every kingdom and all times you have wept bloody tears over the calami. limb. in a manifest miracle. . tical difficulties have nothing to do with this. have for you. why do you hesitate to take up this popular zeal. it is wished for an opportunity for service. because some agents have lost all their what heathen. timeless mission? What are you afraid of? After this. Furthermore. what better reasoning than this word of en- To all of the friends of The Law. of the journal]. to express your intrinsic nature. The performance of this great mission is to be men. are they better than you? If you would only look into Second. You.

THE LAW 115 What more can we say that your intellect and zeal at this point. God is great. at this very moment. . the spirit of Hu- have not already recognized? Beyond this. by letter or in person? With all whispers in the ear of your intelligence the words: respect. and to complete this essay you of these things. kisses have we to impose on your noble time by reminding your chosen forehead. and utmost pity. what need manity takes flight in the world of conscience. we urge you to take note if.

until the Day of Judgment. Iran (Leiden. 48- i Intishar. (Tehran. Tanbih al-umma wa tanzih al. famously—though possibly apocryphally—urging that all copies of his trea- tise be thrown into the Tigris River. Chishm-andaz (Perspective). J. Na'ini even supported the rise of the Pahlavi dicta- torship in the 1920s. practical reason. This was due either to the lack regression of the people of Islam and their subju- of such knowledge in their divine parchments or to gation at the hands of unbelievers [the Mongol con- adulteration of their heavenly books. querors] resulted in such a state that Muslims gradu- ful event [the Crusades]. which was part of the Ottoman Empire until 1918. Muhammad cessor of the Prophet] and other early leaders of and his pure progeny. pp. So they appro. those nations attributed ally forgot the principles of their own historical their defeat to their lack of access to civilizational origins and even supposed that abject subordination sciences and their general ignorance. 1988. number 5. Na'ini later came to reject political involvement. Brill. 16 . 1960). Its biting criti- cism of both monarchical and clerical despotism has remained common knowledge among educated Iranians and a thorn in the side of successive dynasties in Iran. is a necessity of Islamic life. 13 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini Government in the Islamic Perspective Muhammad Husayn Na'ini (Iran. as they have admitted that learn- ing such principles and sciences conducive to such And then. Shi'ism and Constitutionalism in milla ya hukumat az nazar-i islam (Exhortation of the Faith. they equated Islam with priated the principles of civilization and politics slavery and savagery. Na'ini was the assistant to one of the leading scholars of Najaf. Muhammad Husayn Na'ini. Netherlands: E. interpretation. ful and Purification of the Nation. 6th ed. and justice—the fountainhead lover who seeks after the beloved. reason. Christian nations and the Europeans were deprived Therefore the progress and perseverance of the West not only of all the varieties of natural sciences but in translation. Tawfiq Sayf. Na'ini expanded on this theme in a treatise defending constitutional limits on power in Islamic terms—the introductory section of which is presented in this chapter. Iran: Shirkat-i Sahami. or Government from the "Nigahi bih nazariyyat-i Na'ini" (A Look at Na'ini's Theo- Perspective of Islam). 1977). and implicit in the Islamic holy books and traditions. earlier histories. Therefore they thought sidered curing this mother of all ailments as the that the commandments of Islam are contrary to greatest of their goals and pursued knowledge as a civilization. the would be impossible for unaided human reason. Translation from 77. Abdul-Hadi Hairi. First published in 1909. ries). 1999). as well as the Islamic Republic. principles on the one hand. Yet his text survived long after its author's disavowal. and damnation is deserved for Islam. (Beirut. Lord of the two worlds. whom he helped in arranging an influen- tial fatwa (religious ruling) issued in support of the constitutionalists.1 Thanks are due to God. When the constitutional movement took power in Iran in 1906. Baqir Parham. as they have justly acknowledged in their all of their foes. Didda al-istibdad (Against Dictatorship) Persian and introduction by Mahmoud Sadri. 1860-1936) was an Iranian religious scholar who lived for decades at Shi'i seminary cities in Iraq. of progress—and as such. Lebanon: al-Markaz al-thaqafi al-'arabi. This trea- tise was widely distributed in Iran and provided theological support for the constitution- alists in the face of monarchist and clerical opposition. those aware of the history of the world spectacular advances in such a short period of time have come to realize that prior to the Crusades. and the concomitant and political axioms. salutations are due to the noblest of the earliest and and in the edicts of ' Ali [son-in-law and fourth suc- the latest and the seal of the prophets. Thus they con. and application of these also of the sciences of civilization. 1. After that fate. Three years later.

thus making it unnecessary for and the subsequent edicts of the elders of Istanbul others to undertake such a task." [Qur'an. Finding no better pretext for this than religion. thus silencing critical tongues. Conditionally4 of Sura 40. Muslims have hazarded oceans of fire. and an introduction. Thus they have endeavored to free them. of them.] constitutional revolution to be in accordance with the spirit 4." [Sura 30. even in God's lution of 1906. 2 divine approbation. "And I have no suc- [Sunni Islam] who unanimously declared the strug. I the issue. tice. is contrary to the duty. yet they declared it un-Islamic support. for they may change your religion. who extolled "those who prefer noble and to reveal the incongruity of this apostasy with death to the abject life of servitude. to render this service. The Muslim com. Iran and revived the atrocities of Zahhak [a mythi." I will organize it in sustain the polluted tree of injustice. and fail- faced martyrdom and spilled their pure blood in order ure to support the holy religion in repelling such a to achieve the great privilege of national salvation mischief and injustice. I repent and take refuge in him. grave affront to the prophet of Islam. Using such phrases in Persian texts is the equivalent ayatullahs in Najaf. with God's benevolent belongs only to God. [The term "conditionally" (mashrutiyat) also was used of Islam. Nature of Tyranny.1 . [The author is referring to the joint edicts of three grand Qur' an. Achieving a Constitution Thus they allied themselves with the pharaoh of and a Consultative Assembly of the People. So this lowliest of servants followed the utterance of the prince of the oppressed. It is my hope that The momentous edicts of the leaders of the with God's blessed succor this offering will achieve Ja'fari religion [Shi'i Islam] in the city of Najaf. Absolute power 3. Shi'i Islam]. Him. They have of such an outrage and derision of religion. Mongol ruler. creation. the retrogressive trajectory of the Islamic to struggle against the absolute power of earthly ty- world has been halted and slavery under the imperi."3 Islam from acquiescing to such tyrannical and irra. and possibly also to the Ottoman sovereign domain. and an Explanation of the Meaning of cal Iranian tyrant] and Genghis [Khan.—Trans. Verily God spoke the truth in the holy soning of its clerical leaders. become aware of the Qur'an: "Therefore evil was the end of those who did true requirements of its religion and its God-given evil. Verse 26] the Government. Verse 10] selves from the pharaohs of the time. from will be upon them. they turned to the pharaonic declaration: "I fear for Introduction: An Analysis of the you. and called it religion."—Trans. and and prosperity. [This phrase is in Arabic but is not quoted from the 2. declaring the Iranian of using Latin phrases in English texts. This is the extent of their injus- Young Turk Revolution of 1908]. Since the aim of this essay is to admonish the tional rules. thanks to the superb guidance and rea. And he is the tionalism] as a necessity of religion." Accordingly. silence in the face which they have emerged as a phoenix. They dared to contaminate this sublime reli- ous passions of dictatorial rulers has been terminated gion with such an insult. they dared to commit this [the reference is to the Iranian Constitutional Revo. that they at once affronted the Creator and His munity has. and in this holy project they have even abets the injustice. for they denied the signs of God and made fun freedoms.] to mean "constitutionalism. In their struggle to break the bent upon the knowledgeable to reveal their knowl- chains of slavery and in claiming their legitimate edge. and if they fail in doing so God's damnation rights. cess except in God. five chapters. the plunder of the lives and property of the Mus- lims. rants. exonerated ultimate guide toward righteousness. These were clear historical documents faithful concerning the necessities of the religion and concerning the position of the Islamic leadership on to cleanse the nation of the apostasy [of tyranny]. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE I 17 At this juncture in history." the essential necessities of Islam. and a conclusion. But the have given it the title of "Exhortation of the Faithful man-eating pack of wolves in Iran attempted to and Purification of the Nation. I have put all my confidence in gle for these holy and legitimate goals [of constitu.—Trans. tyranny. of the illustrious religion has taken it upon himself Husayn [grandson of the Prophet and third Imam of to discharge his responsibility. in today's Iraq. and to restore An authentic hadith [tradition of the Prophet] their legitimate national rights of partnership and states: "When apostasy prevails on earth it is incum- equality in all affairs. Liberty and Equality 1206-1227].

he sells and mortgages national rights to finance his silly and hedonistic trips abroad. (A detailed explication of this issue is out. The nature of the ruler's domination. 6. and give it to his entourage. hereditary. If he providing for a defensive force. nation is like that of a farmer toward his farm.] . Also. sessor of the right to expropriate any holdings. remedy the shortcomings [of government] and to ality of every nation. their privileges."5 This is why the thy of God. Protection of the nation from foreign invasion. in terms of wise. His courtiers help him identify his pow- greatest kings and emperors of Persia and Rome were ers of tyranny. banish.—Trans. be it in religious or national af. These sages realized the necessity and about what He does. The field of practical reason consists of three sub. rights. it is necessarily true that the such duties. he adorns himself with divine titles wor- subdivision of "practical reason. domination. and anger with adamant in choosing competent sages in theoretical those of the nation. whether any system of taxation. stipulate its conditions and limitations. worldly affairs are contingent upon government.] personal trips to Europe. sages. use. or dictatori. Other. and deterring people from invading oth. He treats the nation like a stable full of animals fying Islamic government as a holy duty invested in meant to satisfy his passions and wishes. He upholds or tramples people's rights 1.6 He The shari'a canons concerning the upholding of doesn't even hesitate to give himself leave for open these two holy duties are known as political and sexual debauchery at the expense of his subjects. and tear them to pieces. whether initiated by divine prophets or by government. and this real- [Qur'an. Or to encourage his pack of wolves to spill their tionality is contingent upon self-rule. ensuring that rights are allotted to the as he sees fit. is contingent upon their own endeavors. passion. He can separate basic principles: any proprietor from his property. education of the citizenry. the extent of the exclusiveness of its rule. The pure shari'a too has endeavored to maintenance of the honor. Protection of domestic order. but they will be questioned. He considers himself the sole pos- rightful. Sura 21. legitimate or illegitimate society. in realizing his ends. One polity and government is necessary for the constitu. rent. regardless sessive" or "preservative. freely elected. speci. He does not hesitate to im- side of the scope of this essay. That is why the pure shari 'a [religious law] of in which a prince considers the nation his personal Islam has designated the protection of the "essential property to dispose of as his whims and desires dic- constitution" of Islam as the highest of duties." legitimacy of discharging such duties. They help him to arrogate to and practical disciplines for the management of so- himself God's attribute: "He cannot be questioned cietal affairs. progressive. despite their abhorrence of tyrannical rule. or to exact any taxes for his personal private 2. gestion. Verse 23] 5. independence. tate." of how wealthy. and feed them to his hounds. management of society or cessions to foreign corporations in order to finance lavish politics. or give away any part of the nation or its of government. If not. and nation. His attempt to maintain order and to defend the neutralizing the typical maneuvers in such cases. torture.—Trans. fairs. and early twentieth century shahs who sold exorbitant con- divisions: purification of the soul. On the slightest sug- tection of the essential constitution" of Islam. obsequious bunch around him. [This jab is meant particularly for the late nineteenth losophy. to ers' rights—these are among the internal duties sell. and civilized they may The possessive form of government is the case be. can only the integrity of their country. based upon two blood and plunder their property. he gives it away to the are what the experts in terminology call the "pro. can even surmise that the reason for any government." in Islamic phi. and so on—these wishes.) It is evident that all prison. the honor of their religion. He rewards the institution of the imamate [Shi'i religious leader. he keeps it. was to uphold these principles and discharge ally imposed. tion of the society and the life of humankind. [As distinct from "theoretical reason. or execute his opponents. or punishes people insofar as they aid or impede him ship]. and home economics. that the protection of every nation's honor and na. 18 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini Be aware of the notion that all sages of Islam and of ization persuaded them to accept such responsibili- the nations of the world agree that some form of ties. civilizational laws and are considered as the second and still. and the independence be conceived of as one of two kinds: It is either "pos- of their nation will be utterly destroyed. any organization of forces in it be personal or group rule.

Govern. Everyone has equal rights. based on domi. And it is evident why each of these des- is none but the nation's ignorance of its own rights ignations would be appropriate for such a form of and the rights of its rulers. and dictatorial. watchful deliberation. Therefore. and oppressed. and a general lack of re. The citizens are partners with polytheistic religions. And insofar as they are alien. to their own life and existence. the nation is hostage to the lance. as well as the degree of the awareness of mentioned matters. tional right to question the authorities safely. and it can survive only in the absence of and conditional to the same extent. gallant. crops for the farmer. and tyrants. they should be and arbitrary. this relation- trodden. they may be called "children" as well. and responsibility. This kind of government princes. Its power will be limited to the extent to which is punishable by law. ship is like the relationship of creation to the Creator. It is clear why of a slave to his master—even lower than that! It is each of these titles would be appropriate for such a the relationship of the farm animal to the farmer. In short. none other than the principle of accountability. having infallible rulers. The rule is ab. government. Everyone's relationship with the ruler is that enslaving. as happened safe in doing so. responsible and just rulers." They in turn treat their subordinates as petty is called limited. rule does not belong to an absolute arbiter. emancipated. and its interference in its citizen's nations of their rights and the rights of their rulers. down. And according to the government bear the yoke of servitude of the sover- old adage: "People follow the religion of their eign prince or his courtiers. imperious. The head of such a form of is even lower than that: it is the relation of the crop government is known as an absolute ruler. the au- tributes and rational faculties of the princes and their thority of the government is limited to the above- courtiers. Nor does anyone protesting the under the rule of the pharaohs. If they expropriated who partakes of the exalted status of an infallible . (For this affects the leave they government in the ownership of the nation's powers give to their rulers to lord over them as the sole arbi. They are not responsible ernment will not betray the trust of the nation in any to anyone for what they do.) The legitimate responsibilities. If they killed same principle that we Shi'is consider as a principle someone but didn't mutilate him and feed him to their of our religion. It is a limited form of nature of this government is analogous to loaning and government. insofar as their use for their rulers is like the use of upholding domestic order. service. just. And all citizens share the na- those subject to such a rule resist it.) The most extreme administrators are all stewards. That which pro- These two forms of government are distinct both tects this form of government and prevents it from in their true nature and in their effects. It form of government. is known as possessive. and the slightest infraction God. affairs is conditional upon the necessity of reaching and the degree of their devotion to monotheistic or those [national] goals. It is necessarily evident that anyone hounds. National resources are at the The most exalted means of ensuring that a gov- mercy of the ruling group. so whatever they refrain way. and so on. of course. and are solute if the citizens acquiesce to it. the nature and essence of the lat- orphans. responsible. not to government varies according to the personal at. they should be thanked. usurpation and violations of trust. The root of this sprawling. "owner to the crop owner. conditional. like little On the other hand. Those in charge of such a government sponsibility. and the ruler's authority is rule-bound delegating. tyrannical. accountability. it is evident why each ment is based on discharging the aforementioned of these designations apply to such a nation. and protecting the nation. thanked. just arbiters. guardians. and alive. ated from their own resources and wealth. Their only value is to sate the of the yokes. The nation that is blessed The second form of government is that in which by such a government is called pious. and and checks and balances. they may be called "vegetative"! This form of government is committed to using the The degrees of dictatorship exerted by this form of nation's resources to meet the nation's needs. And ter form of government are stewardship. because it is autocratic property but didn't rape the women. satiate the passions of the rulers. in all its manifestations. and resources." dictator. whims of the leaders. Because the degenerating into an absolute and arbitrary rule is former is. are called protectors. This is the from doing deserves profuse thanks. and the ter and proprietor of their rights. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 119 This form of government. (And again. degenerate tree delegated. They have no independent right subject to such rule should be called servile. not owners. vigi- nation and possession. is. The nation that is needs of their owner. They are form of tyranny is where the ruler declares himself responsible to the nation.

preventing violation and wrongdoing. ac. and the freedoms and clude some of the experts in religious law or be com- rights of all classes of the people are formally guar. not a rule. There should the devastation and atrocities in Iran. in history. Due to divine protection. external affairs. as you have learned. which relies on the con- likeness of such a rule only under two conditions: tractual powers of the umma [the Muslim commu- First. possession of the nation.120 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini leader will be innocent of base passions. this is a status "whose true nature is incom. government." representatives are comprised of such individuals and However. by imposing the aforementioned limits so nity]. to every individual in the nation. as we shall.7 seldom does it happen that the king is just Consultation. But according to Shi'i Islam. wisdom. explain later. rests in the principle of the supervision of the "the fering in affairs in which it has no right to interfere. went into occultation in 874. Thus in the absence the elected legislative assembly rests conclusively on of divine leadership and the exceedingly rare inci. tive branch. and need for explanation after exhibition!" the points that must be observed in order to maintain The foundation of the second [constitutional] the integrity of the constitution will be mentioned form of government. is of this sort.8 Thus the legislature should either in- stipulated in degree and kind. and ligious scholar]. inequality of the citizens with the government. such a leader is wishers of the nation.] . blessed with Second. God willing. king tive branch is under the supervision of the legisla- of Iran. except in areas of conflict with religious land. with no ruined religion. Slackening either countability. this legitimacy that the government will strictly refrain from inter. and the legislative branch is responsible jumihr a long time ago. all that has be no doubt about its universal application. 8.—Trans.] lic representatives. It is indeed rarer than the case. reigned 531-579] and [his vizier] Buzar. ages to adjudicate on their behalf. stitutional government to absolutism in the first tion. other penal measures applicable to betrayal of trust. The correction and Violating the trust of the nation on either side and in confirmation of the representative assembly's deci- any form. Other considerations concerning this issue. [In Shi'i Islam. the will of the nation's selection. according to the dents of just kingship. The people's prehensible for ordinary human beings. From what we have explained so far it is clear that Since the written document concerning political and the foundation of the first form of government [tyr- civil affairs of the nation is analogous to "practical anny] is absolute power. and complete responsibility by ap- (whose explanation falls beyond the scope of this pointing a supervisory assembly of the wise. and to oligarchic autocracy of the legislature rarest of jewels. [The last of the infallible Imams. according to Shi'i that time. And all of these stem for exceeding them. God willing. knowing no limits. and honesty of the people and the govern. sions by the grand experts in religious law will suf- able by permanent termination of the service and fice. prised of people who are given leave by such person- anteed. All of constitutional law or the constitution. so they can discharge their duties in In short. is limited later. and the nation in that conditions. It is impossible to expect it to hap. in the second. treatises" [compendia of ritual duties issued by a re. The legitimacy of the supervision of pen with frequency in history. in that it sets limits and the penalty irresponsibility of the leaders." True accountability and responsibil- and virtuous and happens to choose a perfectly wise ity will preserve the limits on power and prevent the and chaste supervisor of the affairs of the state. governmental powers are his occultation. Since 7. those knowledgeable in religion serve as his "pub- theology. as return of possessive government only if the execu- happened in the case of Nushirvan [Khosrow. "There is no laws. of these two responsibilities will lead to the deterio- equality. given a lack of access to such divine their formal seat is called "the Assembly of National leaders. and the experts in internal and immune even to the slightest oversight and neglect. The level of vigilance. ration of the limits on power and reversion of con- ment achieved under Nushirvan's rule was an excep. the well- essay). such a document is called the from a disregard of the above two principles. nations may attempt a pale principles of Sunni Islam. and responsibility and the partnership. in accordance to the requirements of religion. is punish. public representatives" of the Hidden Imam during Under these conditions. strengthening the principle of vigilance. the Hidden Imam had "specific repre- sentatives" for the first seventy years of his occultation. whether by excess or penury. and endowed with many moral attributes accountability."—Trans.

the Pharaoh says. badi. 634-644] was publically rebuked for wearing an ex. On another occasion. All these.] the author of Majma' al-Bahrain [The Still. this government is based on pitality even though you have enslaved the Israel- partnership. the Prophet of Islam. God does not change the state of a people til they reach 30. In one verse [Sura 26. "whose people are our slaves. although they did expounded on the meaning of slavery: "then they not worship him as the Egyptians did." In the same sermon 'Ali explained the reign of the leaders of Iran and 9. tected. the hands of the Pharaoh and his people in a ser- For example. The noblest of all. subjected them to the worst tortures and made them mented and imprisoned in Egypt and prevented drink the poisonous cup drop by drop. so long as other nations too were enslaved in Bahrain Collection}. case in Egypt." Similarly. kings of Iran and Rome were their second garment was his. to whom rants to idolatry. elabo- guided Muslims to free their necks from the yoke of rated on the sufferings of the children of Israel at wretchedness. "Ver. "servant" in this context to "serfs" and "subordi- gressive government. and as "slave. still another verse [Sura 7. and that he had willingly given it to his father." This generalization is further confirmed in would prosper and that the Islamic nation would the blessed verse [Sura 6." He then ruled over the children of Israel. has stated from the second to the first form. may peace be upon him." In another sermon. [Muhammad ibn Ya'qub Firuza- Islam continued to enjoy a measure of stability de. the text of the holy they would begin to transform the form of Islamic Qur'an and traditions of the holy infallible ones have government from stewardship to tyrannical posses- on several occasions likened the servitude of the ty. the situation changed. when everyone had received only one garment. after a few complaints of . as well. generalized the meaning of the word other nations realized the natural foundations of pro.9 These two we shall subjugate them. not connected to deification of the kings. nothing much changed. including the right to ites?" In another blessed verse [Sura 23. he was reminded by his audience that he could be around the Sea of Iraq toward arid areas of the in- straightened by the sword if he diverged from the straight path. the Qur'an tells that the Pharaoh mon: "the pharaohs took them as slaves. Verse 11] people as slaves.] the author of Qamus [The spite its tyrannical leaders. and Islamic government did not degenerate greetings be to him and his pure progeny. worse. and were tor. They have is due the highest of prayers and salutations. the commander of the faithful. they will alter God's religion and take change themselves. the pace of the in the authentic and frequently quoted tradition: expansion of Islam was mind-boggling. when he asked to be corrected masters. The Prophet designated this num- At any rate. After "When the children of al-'As reach 30 in number. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 121 to delegation in affairs beneficial to the nation. circa 1329-1414. So long as they were pro. since the basis of the former is ber of wrongdoers as a critical threshold at which thralldom and of the latter liberty." In trators. circa 1571- their diametrical opposites. nonetheless 'Ali treated it similarly: He had to send for his son 'Abdullah to testify that his father's "In those days. hadith of the Prophet of Islam concludes that once even plants. banishing them from the lush arable lands if he erred. sion. Con. They couldn't find any way to refuse or defend themselves. Arabs]. In the first days of Islam. They con- from leaving for the holy land. are the results of the ap. as soon as the Concordance]. take the servants of God as their own servants." The prescient pre-Islamic savagery and ignorance. in the degree of their servitude. "and plication of the above two principles. Verse 127] he says. the number of the fruits of the evil tree of tyranny ily. ' Ali." [Qur'an. tinued to languish in this state of abject ruin and de- Verse 22] Moses. these two principles were Rome over the children of Israel and Isma'il [the applied so completely that the second caliph ['Umar ibn al. like animals. it was inevitable that they nates. land. Mu'awiyya [reigned 661-680] and the children of they shall turn the religion of God upside down and al-'As came to power. "You consider me indebted to your hos- trary to the first form. as was the tra garment. liberty. tells the feated subjugation. Verse 94]: "you have left become their inferiors and. 1674." It is evident that the sla- principles and their corollaries were constituted by very of the Israelites is an expression of this subju- the founder of the religion. be returned to the behind your servants [upon death]. Pharaoh. Although in these cases the domination was Khattab. and all the principles and cor. gation. interpreted the word "servant" tyrannies of their own. the opposite of liberty. and rights. However." ollaries of Islamic government were transformed into [Hadith scholar Fakhr al-Din Turayhi. Sura 13. Verse 47] financial accountability and supervision of adminis.

You shall live as a free and heroic further explicated in the discussion of the methods soul. We can conclude that obedience to the autocratic ised to make those of you who believe and do right. This to tyrants is likened here to polytheism. according to the explicit . The difference between the two to us. confederated. to They will worship Me and not associate any one with human beings. endowments granted by God. and his family. Me. also leads us to from us to accept servitude. And far be it ambitious and hedonist hypocrites. The acquiescence of the umma the word "master" instead of "steward" here. in which he robates. which are among the greatest chosen for them. ing resistance to the former form of tyranny as well. his property." Likewise. The difference leads us tude. In order trol of hearts. to cleanse its body of the gious kinds. Husayn. But those who disbelieve after this will be rep- bellion of the inhabitants of Iraq. Taqlid [imitation] of reli- "We have descended upon you by order of your gious leaders who pretend to present true religion is cousin. orders of the rebellious tyrants of the umma and the leaders in the land. tyranny and slavery. who have made simi. He made racy of the argument of some of the experts of this this generous sacrifice for the liberation of the com. verse [Sura 24. The prince of the oppressed. They consider them as interrelated and impurities of hedonistic passions. peace be upon him and all those who The dismal condition of us Iranians is living tes- were martyred with him." This verse as well as the closing clauses of warned them that as a result of this behavior they the "Promulgation" prayer [a prominent piece of the will be deprived of his leadership and become slaves Shi'i liturgy] refer to the return of his holiness the of Umayyad rule [661-750]. God willing. as He had made those before bandits of the nation is not only an injustice to one's them." younger son] Husayn. means "free"]. This is why all mutually protective of each other! It is also evident others in the history of Islam who have followed that uprooting this evil tree and liberation from this Husayn's blessed precedent. and will establish their faith which He has own life and liberty. popes and their courtiers. and to His Messenger. and to the faithful. to preserve his freedom and monotheism. science who divide tyranny into political and reli- munity of the faithful.122 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini his blessed heart concerning the hypocrisy and re." Also. The two are allied and mutually fected from the enemy and stood [with Husayn]. and to on naked force. thus complicat- vast ocean of resistance and freedom-seeking." He echoed his father's words: "How can a to believe that. interpretations of the blessed verse. the former is based on the head bent before God be made to bend to any control of bodies while the latter stems from the con- other?" Thus Husayn refused to acquiesce. he said: "And they will twelfth Imam. in this world as well as the next. Thus the difficulty of getting rid of ready to be martyred in his blessed stirrups: "You are political tyranny is rooted in religious tyranny's sup- the free one. This will be. himself stated. God has forbidden it the same conclusion. Verse 55] declares: "God has prom. In reply to the and Christians'] unquestioning obedience toward coarse and rude bunch of Kufans who had declared. and to the proud souls. after Hurr had de. he offered This argument confirms the astuteness and accu- up his life. the of resisting the forces of absolutism. The above verse that allegiance to you as a slave. they are all grain pick. Ei- of allegiance as an inferior. in the case of political tyranny and extremely diffi- ers of this abundant harvest and dew drinkers of this cult in the case of religious tyranny. You have limited my rebukes imitation of the ill-intentioned clergy and options to two: death and servitude. holy be His names. the awaited Messiah—may our lives find the Umayyads evil masters after me." he replied: "I shall not give you my hand no different from obedience to political tyrants. addressed Hurr ibn Yazid timony to the mutual support of these two forms of Riyahi [a Kufan military officer]. As Husayn is in agreement with scores of other traditions con. nor shall I confess my ther one is a form of idolatry. ['Ali's "They consider their rabbis and monks as lords. in truth. and change their fear into security. abject slavery—possible only through the heedful- lar sacrifices. in early Islam. while religious tyranny is based on all those who prefer noble death to a life of servi. Verse 31] hold that the verse refers to [Jews' Umayyad leaders with abject slavery. and forms of obedience is that political tyranny is based to the pure of heart. "I hold no allegiance to any tyrant of cerning the conversion of the form of government my time. In addition. are called "resisters of injustice" and ness and awakening of the nation—is relatively easy "heroes of freedom. equated obedience to the [Sura 9." ' Ali used be sacrificed for him. deviousness and chicanery." Truly. as your mother named you [Hurr port of the political order. Hurr.

" All they sought was to liberate the Prophet once said in public that if my only daugh- the Israelites from slavery and torture. the principle of equality in punish- from the yoke of slavery and abject servitude and ment is evident in [the Prophet's] last sermon. died Rome]." principle of equality. had inherited from her mother Khadija [the Prophet's essary. lib. It was for the revival of such a blessed tradition agement" [of the devil]). peace be upon them accidentally touched his shoulder during of the cam- and upon our Prophet. The dent in which [Muhammad's step-]daughter Zaynab story of 'Ali's refusal to provide for his needy brother [died 629] came to Medina and offered an heirloom from the treasury. laws and obligations and the great efforts of the They preferred earlier Muslims such as the "Emi- Prophet. and in order to abrogate the apostasy persecution of the Israelites led to the drowning of of discrimination in the distribution of favors. argued that one of the advantages of bances during his rule. in every case. Third. status into the realm of noble humanity. Also. not oppress them. her punishment to the holy land. dent in the case in which [the Prophet] did not dis- eration from such an abject servitude not only re. and to the Pharaoh and his troops and the liberation of the reverse the endowment of fiefs. Pharaoh's refusal and his of leadership. after the statements we have ful 'Ali encountered so many enmities and distur- quoted above. All of these are among His holy attributes. 658] and the others. his sharp rebuke of one of his . the principle of equality in decrees is evi- transgressor to His inviolate realm. and to uphold the Israelites. may peace be upon her. greetings to him. He alone can be free of responsibility in what wife. So they would ask for favors [from 'Ali] principle of equality in property is evident in the inci. died 619]. it is tantamount to idolatry. died 652]. The Prophet of Islam bared his shoulder and holy Qur'an. to establish grants" [who accompanied Muhammad to Medina in this principle. had been used to the practice of From the Prophet's biography. But the man raoh thus: "So let the Israelites come with us and do was satisfied to kiss [the Prophet's] shoulder. a non-Muslim who had associates with God. asked the man to retaliate if he wished. an ornament that she unquestionable authority in whatever He deems nec. In his holy "sermon of disparagement. and approached with the heirloom. peace be upon him. [Sura 20. First. and take them ter Fatima ever commits a crime. when they one closer to monotheism and the worship of God were brought in front of him. according to the text of the paigns. prophets. the Prophet He does. infallible ones. thus guaranteeing the well-being of the 622] and the warriors of the battle of Badr [in 624] umma. God's greetings be upon him. Someone claimed that [the Prophet's] riding crop had Moses and his brother Aaron. according to ment before he returned the heirloom [to Zaynab]. Even senior disciples. even in the binding of their hands is why liberating the imprisoned and usurped nations and arms. a pretender to the divine mantle and a Second. been emphasized in ['Ali's] holy "sermon of dispar. Yet he was careful to ask whether usurps this status is not only a tyrant and a usurper all the Muslims would forego their share of the pay- of the station of stewardship. peace be upon them. but also. They were given no and His true and exclusive names and attributes. and would. Verse 47] addressed the Pha. was as 'Abdullah [Ibn] 'Abbas [an early Islamic scholar. been captured by the Muslims in battle]. hear harsh rebukes. it also brings died circa 670]. That special privileges. They even guaranteed Pharaoh's would not differ in the slightest from the punishment continued reign and authority in his own land (as has of any other wrong-doer. the like Iranians. over later Muslims and newly converted Muslims Let us cite an example for each case. holy texts. criminate between his uncle 'Abbas [ibn 'Abd al- leases the soul from its vegetative state and animal Muttalib. when leading them to their God-given rights and liberties he asked all the faithful to exercise their right of just has been among the most significant goals of the retribution if he has unfairly injured any of them. When she tributes of ultimate possession of the creation. his cousin 'Aqil [ibn Abi Talib. that the commander of the faith- 'Ali. such the mission of the Prophet. for God only deserves the at. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 123 text of the worthy Qur'an and the traditions of the in order to purchase the freedom of her husband. and other prisoners of war. taking Abu'l-'Asi [ibn al-Rabi'. one recognizes the giving and accepting favors and discriminating based equality of a nation's people with their leaders in all on the closeness of association [with the Prophet]. liberation from the yokes [of the kings of Iran and 619-686] and Malik Ashtar [a great warrior. Conversely. wept and announced that he would free her husband He who arrogates these attributes for himself and without payment.

and so forth.124 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini daughters who wanted to borrow a necklace from the the outward appearance of women in the West (al- treasury for one night. sane and stewards. know full well that this essay knows such liberation to be the goal of all spreading corruption. (The reader of these depreciators of the shari'a. nor the Nile forms of corruption and prevent the dominion of the delta dammed with shovels.) The but to help their masters by committing these heinous proponents of religious despotism went farther and acts. they attached to the essence of this are being terminated. and that it denies ample of the praiseworthy prophets and their trusted any difference between children and adults. ' Ali was martyred. The leaders of the Ja'fari reli- its best to describe the life-sustaining principles of gion. they mischaracterized the principle of equality similar stories are examples of the justice and equal. and debauchery can prophets and their just successors. They even attributed downtrodden Shi'is than the cursed troops of Yazid . the the Ja'fari [Shi'i] religion have resolved to free the able and the disabled." [Sura 2. abso- Islamic government. businessmen—would not have risen in order lash. They have no other objective in mind tree of autocracy planted by the family of al-'As. and the brave. It was with a similar Muslims and non-Muslims in affairs such as inheri- motivation. The Iranian nation—no infidels over the country. and earnest attempt to erty and equality—at least understands this much: Its bring about the end of absolutism and to replace it sages and brave compatriots—be they clergymen. They do not realize that states. clutches of unjust tyrants as illusory. which are far- picious age—which is. which the reader has learned ity in Islam that put all other proponents of these from this essay to have been the practice of the virtues to shame. that this principle will erase all differences between bility of leadership in Islam. Mu'awiyya solutism to constitutionalism. though this is as irrele- [who would soon found the Umayyad dynasty] weep vant to constitutional government as could be. marriage. Because the salvation and prosperity of the nation. as was his son Husayn. did freedom and equality. and the origin of only strengthen the position of irresponsible. and in order to follow the glorious ex. which was distorted by the evil lutist autocrats. "He who can't accom. except to protect the essence true. of rights and powers. the delegative form will protect against most the sun cannot be covered over with mud. rights and duties. While the possessive form has caused government. Prophet of Islam and his just successors. movement with such explicit edicts and orders. healthy and sick. the free and coerced. regardless of how unaware it may tect the essence of Islam. had no motivation in authenticating this limited and responsible government in the most gro. with limited government. is contin- vert the form of government from possessive back gent upon the limitation and responsibility of the to delegative. They know very well what we mean when we declared this struggle a denial of all moral limits and say that these so-called clerics "do more harm to the an attempt to spread apostasy. and hide the truth knowingly. and the preservation of its essential rights. sober. in conformity to achieve that which the proponents of religious with its ancient and ongoing duty to protect the evil despotism attribute to constitutionalism. in terms of their faithful from the servitude of the tyrants in this aus. tance. Recognition of the need for be of the evils of slavery and the advantages of lib- change. Verse of Islam and the integrity of the Islamic countries. and his refusal to allow his lowed by Christianity in places such as Russia. own son to borrow some honey from the public France. too. 42] It portrayed the liberation of the nation from the This bunch of tyrants and oppressors of the umma. with God's help. or Britain) to the political change from ab- stock—which made even his enemy. the age in ther from the quest for constitutionalism than the sky which the enslavement and decline of the Muslims is from the earth. it is imagined to be. They said tral pillar of Islam and discharge the great responsi." they ought to con. and tesque and reprehensible disguises—contrary to the in calling its enemies the enemies of the Imam of the Qur'an's warning: "Do not mix the false with the age [the Hidden Imam]. The religious form of absolutism. even penal law. All of these issues. that the godly jurisconsults and leaders of insane. has clearly sparked a back. Fur- and extol his virtue as a leader—and countless other ther. but to attain tree of tyranny in the name of protecting religion. They have resolved as well that noble endeavor. In this path [the religious matter how ignorant of the requirements of religion leaders] have engaged in a struggle needed to pro. heroes. anarchy. plish all should not abandon all. they have mobilized to cloak this divine the ruin of Islamic societies and the decline of Islamic beneficence with ugliness. for which All these endeavors served to preserve this cen. in accordance with the maxim.

compounded injustice. but how whose rule has been usurped [by mortals]." [Sura 33. rectness and legitimacy of the process of electing gion of Islam and in other religions. and the Hidden Imam]. They recognize that the blessed verse of former [absolutist] form is among the apostasies of the Qur'an [Sura 3. the sages responsibilities. We shall bring the intro. to describe this scan. to reduce the degree of injustice and usurpation? tion. nate—that is. even proconstitutional clergy will suffer]. remember when God took a promise from the people Second: During this period of the occultation [of of the Book. Should wretched the bargain that they made. can one argue any change in God's tradition. Devolution to the with tyrants. peace be upon him"! of yore and thinkers of today. is none other than the They know how much we are hurt by their alliance second [constitutional] form." They must one allow the former form of government to domi- realize that in this world and in the Hereafter. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 125 [circa 642-683] did to Husayn. Third: Based on the above-mentioned necessity tion among those before you. as stated in the Qur'an: "Such was God's tradi. summary of the five ensuing chapters: Fifth: Explication of the conditions for the cor- First: The foundation of government in the reli. and a summary of their cogitations of nonreligious philosophers. as well as in the the nation's representatives. and you will not find to limit [the powers of] government. We shall swer and free of further limitations? postpone revealing their fallacies to appropriate sec. Verse 187] speaks of them: "And tyrannical rebels of all times and periods of history. based on the two principles of limitation of powers dal no further. pledge] and sold it away for a little gain. they set aside [the stewardship and [the Imam's] public representatives. temptations and fallacies adduced against constitu- duction to an end at this juncture with the following tional government. Fourth: Discussion and dispelling of some of the tions in our five chapters. for it is sure to affect its own kind [that and responsibility of government—is the right an- is. and usurpation ing but scandal and damnation will result from their upon usurpation—or is it incumbent upon Muslims support of tyranny. . This is God's unchanging tradi. the umma is deprived of divine not keep back any part of it. noth. Verse 62 ] that the present form of constitutional government— It is time to rein in our pen. to make it known to humankind.

volume 29. Sobir Orientale. tionalism and Journalism in Afghanistan. tive civil war inflamed the dynasty. 1969). pp. from each of whom would be born at public education. form- ing the foundation of modem education in Afghanistan. Shalkut. just as Tarzi's model for education policy was later adopted by the state.—Trans. By con- cies. mostly in Damascus. No thought. Tarzi's account of Afghan history is sketchy and not always factual. [Tarzi's sponsor. 1865-1933) was Afghanistan's foremost proponent of mod- ernization and reform within an Islamic context. 1979). One was the practice ity and total affluence. once again the would instill discord in their children from their early plague of disunity afflicted his sons and a destruc. 119-159. 1911-1919) multitude of wives and concubines in his harem. least one child. Because of his break from ornate literary styles. 1911-1919 Nasharat-i Ittihadiyya-i Zhurnalistan. Central Asia. Chih Bayad Kard? (What Is to Be Done?) "Literature as Politics: The Case of Mahmud Tarzi. whose birthplace is claimed by both Afghanistan and Iran. 1912). (Dushanbe. and other territories were lost. pp. reflecting the version that en- joyed state sponsorship at the time. (The Literary and Educational Activity of Mahmud Tarzi 2. only be allowed under specified conditions. the male attendants. and the nurses would also rein- shed ravaged the country." Afghani- (Kabul. It was at this time that force the discord. All dependencies became at.: Stanford University Press. the bimonthly periodical that became the cornerstone of modem Afghan journalism. Great efforts were exerted of marrying a multitude of wives. Tajikistan: Izd-vo "Irfon. Mahmud Tani-yi Mirzoev. 1880-1946 ul-akhbar (1911-1918) (Naples. Chaos and blood.2 We do not call it for internal reform. and iden- tity—Afghan. nationalism. He returned to Afghanistan in 1905. 1988). days. 63-72. there was a lack of proper Baluchistan. Translation from Dari and introduction by Helena Malikyar. 1976. Neither was anything done in the area of forty wives. It is likely that Tarzi was one of the main architects of this version. We must say that there were two main reasons for reigned 1826-1839. and assumed editorship of Siraj al-akhbar (The Lamp of the News). however. The son of a famed poet whose outspokenness led the family into exile. or policy. Vartan Gregorian. Tarzi spent more than 20 years in the Ot- toman Empire. Ashraf Ghani. mak. Rivalries and antagonism among the nannies. Tarzi is sometimes referred to as the father of modem prose in Afghanistan. He used this publication as a forum to spread his message of modernization. number 3. was given to foreign trast.1 The reign of the Great Amir [Dust Muhammad Khan." 1973). Tarzi studied with Afghani for seven months in Istanbul. Italy: Istituto Universitario (Stanford. taught history and geography at a military school. stan. Afghanistan: muda Tarzi i Ego Gazeta Siradzh-ul'-Akhbar. Afghanistan: Siraj al-Akhbar.] 126 . polygamy. also had a and his Newspaper. by the shari'a [Islamic law] of four wives that can ing Afghanistan a strong state with many dependen. and also had intellectual contact with reformers in the Levant. such a civil war and fratricide. and Islamic—among the elite of Afghanistan and neighboring Mus- lim states. Calif. as the latter term signifies the number set tached to the central administration of Kabul. Second. 1842-1863] passed in tranquil. Amir Habibullah Khan. Eastern. a multitude of wives means twenty. Mahmud Tarzi. The Emergence of Modern Afghani. after Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (chap- ter I I). 14 Mahmud Tarzi What Is to Be Done? Mahmud Tarzi (Afghanistan. good or wicked! The rival wives After the death of the Great Amir. 'Abd al-Bashir Shur. Afghanistan at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century: Na- 1. the Diras. Literaturno-prosvetitel'skaia Deiatel'nost' Makh. May Schinasi. and India. Peshawar. opened a translation office. Afghani (Mahmud Tarzi the Afghan) (Kabul. The Lamp of the News. A Study of Seraj stan: Politics of Reform and Modernization. The specimen of Tarzi's work presented here is drawn from a book presented to subscribers of Siraj al-akhbar in September 1912. thirty.

The esteemed English state employed a prudent litical error in that he was deceived by the con. This ushered in an era of renewal for Afghanistan. however. and enlightened majesty. it will not be an exaggeration if we ment resulted in the killing of [British official Louis] say that because of this incident. at such a sensitive time. and pernicious agreement with the English. approximately 300. the esteemed English Cavagnari [in 1879] and the imprisonment and sub. as it be mentioned with damnation in the pages of Afghan has not yet been forgotten from our memories.000 had been imprisoned by his father for many years. and writing decrees and orders. carcass of worldly gains and committed all sorts of We will not discuss all the work and progress that contemptible indecencies. it was Amir Shir 'Ali Khan [reigned If the Afghan nation could bring such calamity on the 1863-1865. though. men. WHAT IS TO BE DONE? 127 education and discipline for the princes. and died in Mazar-i Sharif. the imprisonment. Their names forever will was made during the tenure of his late majesty. ascended from the regular army were ready to serve him. lack of education. or twenty innocent Afghans on a daily basis. The misery and destruction that had previ- speaking. Their scientific education would. In the end. Therefore. After the demise of that founder of the kingdom. crossed the Amu River [from his exile in Central Asia]. the beacon of the nation and . They would be un. who Charikar district of Kuhistan. ernment can also assert that it saved their troops from ten. he was defeated. 1869-1879] who captured the throne of English without having a king or a military leader. Here. gitimacy of the Afghan government. state became greatly indebted to his majesty the late sequent exile to India of the amir himself. for had he chosen. brave king. Like hungry lions. In history. rose against the English. added to the ill intentions of some English troops left Afghanistan in safety. Amir Shir 'Ali Khan made a po. re. He raised an be handed to the enemy when such a valiant com- army of about sixty to seventy thousand soldiers. leadership Afghanistan became a mighty and power- Mullas [religious scholars] everywhere declared jihad ful state. and the con- royal advisors and an incompetent entourage. In Qandahar too. Women. policy and preemptively sent a delegation to the late spiracy of the Russian state and declared war on the amir. This agree. The chaos of an uprising began to challenge the En. the English army was sur- pleasure. remain limited to reading books in Persian ously befallen the English was threatening them again. the garri. armed civilians of the region and a number of soldiers was released and. Afghanistan. A certain annihilation. his great glish. intelligent. He also brought people. At this precise moment the aware of news from the outside world. Consequently. before the latter set out for Kabul. From their son that the late Amir Shir 'Ali Khan had built as an birth. The delega- English state. which was signed at Zima. who mander and chivalrous amir would lead such brave received modern military training. because of ignorance. if the famous General [Frederick] Roberts [1832-1914]. generally rounded. who could hold a weapon marched to the battlefield. His son. anyone lish and build a great Islamic state in Asia. once again religiosity. they would be addressed with royal titles and excellent stronghold for the national army of Afghani- would spend their days playing games and seeking stan. sold out their faith in religion for the vile the independent state of Afghanistan was established. good English state claims that it has approved the le- under the pretext of avenging Cavagnari. and once more the entire country was imagine what kind of pandemonium and tumult could unified under one central command. In blood of the enemies of their homeland! the end. and ignorance of patriotism and as after a period of foreign domination. Such innate news also struck like thunder that his late majesty Amir ignorance and lack of education was so prevalent that 'Abd al-Rahman Khan [reigned 1880-1901] had no one could escape from its effects. they were thirsty for the a number of reforms in the civil administration. The much misery upon the English army. we will just mention that under his majesty's Most inhabitants. The En. with all the aptitude and potential to estab- [holy struggle]. Their army was besieged at Shirpur. the amir could have brought glish occupied Afghanistan for the second time. trol of the affairs of Afghanistan was passed on to the sulted in the new amir signing a most damaging and capable and strong hands of the wise. old and young. number of treacherous people. the exalted gov- lows in Kabul and began ordering the deaths of five. but this time in manifold. His unbalanced state of mind after a long result of the agreement. When his majesty arrived in the Muhammad Ya'qub Khan [reigned 1879-1880]. As a the throne. amir. came the turn of his eldest and wisest son. set up gal. fled to tion carried a confidential letter containing an offer for Turkistan. short. Amir peace and negotiation.

them. This sovereign's ever-increasing innate talent lims have reserved that life-giving holy book for our and capability has caused continuous growth and dead. with the help of science and is to be done?" Some say that even if we so desired. They must think and deliberate on their state upon us are from our ignorance of the Qur'an. Our Qur'an expresses and If we carefully study questions such as "What explains to us that all things in the universe are were we and what have we become?" and "What conquerable. Time is very limited. The only reason for this dark. and read from it only for the souls of departed advancement. sent to heal and ghanistan has gained such an important place in the bless the inhabitants of the earth. but one that covers the . we read our Qur'an this case. In norance darkness. we have done nothing more than obey the ions of the Prophet [the first four caliphs] ended with commands of our Qur'an. age entails a month of lagging behind. mountains. Regrettably. and direct all of humankind. We consider that great book. Alas. We must move fast and wake up at the truth in a different light. the just. our Muslim brothers! We have much urgent ac- minds have become. however. Whatever we do. One moment of negli. The Holy Qur'an is a sacred and steadfast book so that Muslims learn that this is not just a book for and a venerable right path that has been sent to guide the afterlife and for the dead. One day of dam. Amir Habibullah Khan [reigned 1901. The serenity. ones. We do not apply this effective weapon to "It is useless to have regrets later.300 years ago. Muslims must ask this question of one an. and the righteous morality of the four compan. and ness. All of the miseries and adversities that have come other. Therefore. as it appeared 1. if we put into practice that have they done?" we will arrive at the issue of "What which is taught to us. stones. We must then publish the translations abun- distanced ourselves from that light. sky. All our destitution and impoverish- gence results in a day of damage. that knowledge is light and ig- year of retardation is an entire lifetime of regret. More than in any other place. One month The Holy Qur'an has shown us that knowledge is life of lagging behind means a year of retardation. We see must do it fast. make its glorious commands our guide for this world Were that light limited to a particular time period. as a book for the continent of Asia that it would be appropriate to call dead. we for all time. In those gatherings. all and the next. That kind of light will not First. and memorize it too quickly without pondering its and space would recite in unison: meaning. The farther we have come from the bril- liant sunshine of that era. We do not attribute our once. oceans. Yes. most of us Mus- 1919]. knowledge. ment is a result of ignorance and lack of education. and the world. deserts. it would be impossible to return to the state of affairs and put them to use for ourselves and our countries. or else we will soon be hunted in our sleep. tion to take and very little time. the darker our hearts and O. But scholars. we hear recita- it the beam of the scale of justice and equality in Asia. dantly and distribute them to the entire Islamic world. keeping them in clear Urgent Actions conscience. we must read carefully our Holy Qur'an and distance itself from us until the day of judgment. mines. all the trees. the living "What is to be done at this time?" should also read it to improve their own lives. withdrawal of that light. rivers. scientists. we We. and specialists of Islam in each we believe that light shines over the entire world and and every Muslim country. for in that golden time of happiness the rays of the light of that brightest of moons were still shin- ing in the hearts of people. and of being. We must organize large gatherings of would have ended at the close of that golden age. So much so that at this moment Af. beneficial passages into all languages that Muslims ness and this abject baseness of ours is that we have speak. tions of the Holy Qur'an in cemeteries and before It is precisely for this reason that one is compelled corpses! This is not to say that we must not recite the to pose the question: Qur'an for the souls of the dead—rather. The whole world will be enlightened by must carefully study the sacred book and translate its it until the end of days. One and ignorance death." the needs of our time. consider this a lame excuse. we can achieve the conquest of all things.128 Mahmud Tarzi the religion. If we dominate our mountains. as backwardness and the darkness of our age to the happened to so many of us before. and the opportunity of our duties toward ourselves and toward humanity for attack will soon be lost.

In bestowing that preserve their right to their own resources. and schools must be because they have the knowledge and we do not. both free and needy. and bloodshed that obviously prevails among its Curiously. example. The nation that does not take responsibil- be to commit an atrocious crime. To grounds gather. especially remain deprived of thousands of things. associations. The more we delay. for resentment and envy by inventing lies and false ac. the Ottoman Empire struggling in an abyss cusations. these and many other unmentionable acts. in the esteemed Ottoman Empire every use the unification of Islam against Christianity. and Islamic uplift. WHAT IS TO BE DONE? 129 entire universe and all its creatures. however. He has bestowed the universe and its to God. without exception. This is simply Societies. Europe] has a great dren to schools. progress. entire world. we must consider science and industry as those vile acts are proscribed. The Holy It is because we are ignorant of the Qur'an that Qur'an commands unity. as the Holy Qur'an dictates. also capable of industrial production. should become . their mines. In addition to natural resources. while Af- pathy and cooperation. We established all over the Islamic world. Such people will surely be punished in this the task of protecting the Qur'an. and upon reaching the age of twenty-one. especially at the elemen- not to form a union and then confront the Christians. there is only one remedy for Iran and principles of survival. European states. while such acts [as in the field of the Islamic world. We commit. and the like] unsettle the foundations collect its fortuitous fruits. knowledge to their brothers. It is therefore incum- our sins when we bow in prayer a couple of times or bent upon Muslims to draw strength from their ab- recite a few passages of the Holy Qur'an. Together with other Muslims they should forces does not mean that the entire population of try to reach the levels of education and sciences that Afghanistan must simultaneously take up arms. to provoke the Muslims of India. they are will require great sacrifice. The purpose of their ity for protecting its nationhood and its statehood by unity would be to replace malice and hypocrisy with participating in its country's armed forces has evaded benevolence. effort. we but rather to unite for the purpose of our own may see results in 10 years. We cause meaning of the Qur'anic ordinances. and races. clans. tion. This unification must be based on the achieve this. improvement. and Afghan states. and perseverance. we must such as the Ottoman. They should then spread their means that each and every citizen. If Muslims are not yet there. colleges. ghanistan also suffers due to the animosity. slander. civiliza. Praise be book on us. we feel that we have been absolved of all many tribes. and seek it aggressively. is tries for scientific education. hypocrisy. not this harmony and oneness. We find. This is learned from our Qur'an. Just as prayer is prescribed in the Qur'an. and world and the next. Iran is an even worse case. day by day we witness an increasing incli- creatures on us. and bigotry. and harmony. Minerals are but one example. no cure except to build an infrastructure in our coun- ever. This task. so that they may bribery. For citizen has become a soldier [in the Balkan Wars]. solute faith in the Qur' an and sow the seeds of unity prayers benefit only one's self. it is because of their lack of understanding of the falsehood. the community's advancement. We destroy any chance of brotherly sym. Afghanistan. In fact. we commit such vile and immoral acts as bribery. acquired them. and workshops. where Muslims of different back. greater loss we will have to face. rivalry. Third. example. and cooperation. nation toward such unity among Muslims. It would be a terrible crime to Fourth. of disunity. to all the tribes and clans only exploit their own mines but also those of the of the various Islamic nations. rights. especially recommended for independent countries Second. It their rulers possess. of Islam. the faith. for lack of during the time of pilgrimage to the holy shrines of knowledge. lies. if we truly a depreciated asset. adopt unity as the very foundation of our principles. that is. we would act differently. and that is to send and expose our chil- The land of the Franks [that is. clubs. If we start work today. Concurrently its obligation toward its homeland and national and jointly they should preoccupy themselves with honor. friendship. There is and uncontrollable fear of this Islamic unity. Therefore. which unfortunately make no use of their minerals. China. with much cer. Let us begin with individuals. or The same practice must be enforced in Iran and Af- Turkistan against their respective ruling states would ghanistan. our aim and indeed the aim of all of Islam. To suggest that all join the armed morality. then spread this unity. by contrast. while others with the knowledge have Medina and Mecca. tary and secondary levels. Iranian. How. titude.

the issue of all saying or writing anything. My courage came from the conviction that military with the knowledge of military basics. at this moment I will limit my humble sugges. progress. shortcoming that they may find in this humble work. No doubt the present becoming soldiers will have been resolved. this hum- to do. I hope ocean has written this small and inadequate essay. In this speaking out and writing are always better than not manner. It is therefore hoped that scholars and intel- lectuals who believe in the progress of Islam through Epilogue and Apology such means will produce writings of their precious This humblest of creatures of the Creator of land and and beneficial thoughts and suggestions. I pray to the Almighty. in His sublime of the first year. Despite the fact that better-written greatness. "What is to be done?" However. at the end of which they will leave the this piece. fourth issue of my newspaper. The duration of their training should be Islamic press. I ignored my shortcomings and wrote two years.130 Mahmud Tarzi a conscript. and in provoking thought and debate. that our generous readers will forgive any error or and has presented it to readers along with the twenty. which is the last issue In conclusion. and en- essays on this topic have appeared many times in the lightenment upon all Muslim brothers. Also. in a matter of a few years. to bestow prosperity. ble essay will serve in opening the door for more tions to the above four items. writings of this sort. work will not adequately and entirely answer the Although there are many more things that we need question. .

SECTION 3 Ottoman Empire .

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he was impressed by the material progress achieved in the West. His espousal of the scientific-rationalist approach and his criticism of blind imitation (tacj/id) were consolidated in the form of mystical visions after his release. Transla. if to [the reputation of] people. If a statement blood is defiling in and of itself. for the Visitor of the History of Algeria and Amir 'Abd al.] 133 . Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri. ever a statement is ascribed to a person they believe sured according to the truth. even if erroneous. Michel Chodkiewicz. 81-89. often into glass cups. 2. The lowest level of intelligent the person according to the truth. This circle adopted the modernist ideology of the Salafiyya. 'Abd al-Qadir dedicated himself to the mission of creating and guiding an elect circle of disciples toward the spiritual regeneration of the Muslim world. Intelligent persons recognize that rather than the person who is stating it. pp. Taste of 1. and there is no need to feel averse toward from bulbs. during five years of captivity in France. tual Writings of Amir 'Abd al-Kader (Albany: State Univer- tion from Arabic and introduction by Itzchak Weismann. not the truth according to be good. and antidotes from snakes. 2000). rather than commoner or notable. 15 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri Reminding the Intelligent. [An old medical technique involved the removal of Qadir) (Beirut. The goal of the intelli. Among them is not to feel disgust at honey even if it is found in a The intelligent person must consider the statement bleeder's glass. The selections translated here come from a book—completed just before 'Abd al-Qadir's arrival in Damascus. They always to receive it from whomever possesses it. a mystic scholar who strove to adapt Islam to the modern era through a re interpretation of the teaching of the medieval mystic. when he settled in Damascus. Lebanon: Dar al-Yaqzaal-'Arabiyya. ing. Holmes and Meier. When- picked from among thorns. circa 1807-1883) was an antico- lonial military leader and. 1977). 1964). the narcissus make it so. For gold is derived from dust. even if correct. Salafiyya. 33-38. being within a vessel used for blood does not hood. he went through an acute spiritual crisis. Modernity: Sufism. Born into a prominent Sufi family in western Algeria. But. The rose is it. 1995). and he is prepared be bad. 'Abd al-Qadir and the Algerians: Resis- wa tanbih al-ghafil (Reminding the Intelligent and Notifying tance to the French and Internal Consolidation (New York: the Unmindful) (Beirut. one should accept it. Dhikra al-'aqil Raphael Danziger. and Arabism in Late Ottoman za'irfi ta'rikh al-jaza'ir wa al-amir 'Abd al-Qadir (The Gift Damascus (Leiden. blood. sity of New York Press. and first pub- lished in French translation—stressingthe compatibility of the scientific-rationalist approach with Muslim faith. the statement is ascribed to someone they believe to gent person is a word of wisdom. Tuhfa al. in contrast to the Islamic populist policies of Otto- man Sultan Abdulhamid II (reigned 1876-1909). Netherlands: Brill. they accept it. Itzchak Weismann. in addition to his efforts to prevent the anti-Christian riots of I860. they reject it. Ibn 'Arabi (I 165- 1240).2 Since honey is not defil- person is known to be a person of truth or of false. Lebanon: Dar al-Yaqza al-'Arabiyya. First published in 1855. whether this because it is in this glass. There. This is the utmost persons is to be distinguished from the common in ignorance and decadence. Following his surrender in 1847. People should be mea. Most people yield to this false impression. 'Abd al-Qadir was chosen to lead the resistance to French occupation of the country in 1832. be they measure the truth according to the person. A person who needs an 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhyi al-Din al-Jaza'iri. later. Notifying the Unmindful 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhyi al-Din al-jaza'iri (Algeria-Syria.—Ed.1 On Knowledge and Ignorance people's level in certain things. The Spiri- 1966). it is not defiling proves to be true. At the same time.

is the blind following of books. and that it deprives him of the desired bene. there are odd paths that are even cause concerns the impurity of worldly concerns and more oblique to the goal than the example of the . he re- perfect. the only a pair of horses. Such things do not confuse them. would clear and purify the mind. Third comes its fit. his head will be reflected in the mirror directed to- ing the forms of all phenomena. as in the case of Similarly. which makes first one remains in front of his eyes. Such a person measures the tional beliefs that have become deeply rooted in their truth according to the evidence rather than accept. copulation of male and female animals. They imitate the opinions and beliefs of their without referring to the relevant sciences. but ceiving truth. of per. One is deficiency in the mind itself. and of the na- appear on its face one after the other. to the reality of things two specific sources. however. It Knowledge that is not self-evident can be caught is better to follow a beast than an imitator. Minds may be de. only with the net of the acquired sciences. Seekers cannot attain a thing ers. facing the eyes. tion that the man imbibed in his youth by way of ions. before it If he places the mirror in front of his face. people. in the correct direction. combined in a specific way. the mind is a mirror capable of reflect. between true The fourth cause regards barriers (hijab). Similarly. which prevents most people from types. These include a deficiency in location. The Fifth is the ignorance of the direction in which the other type is destructive of themselves and of oth. souls and stiffen their minds. he cannot was given its round shape and polish. one cannot use an ass and a camel. The blind cannot lead the blind. This person of the mind. the seat of knowledge. He needs placed between the mirror and the form. They must fathers and ancestors while neglecting their own refer to them and arrange them in the specific way judgment. direct it to reflect the back of his head. in seeking knowledge and striving to a child's mind. These are the marks of the ignorant. every piece of knowledge can be deduced only from vout are often contradictory and conflicting. and between worthy and repugnant lect immersed in contemplating a certain truth may deeds. Their combination brings a third piece grounds for doing so is unjustified. The relation of the mind [literally. like the offspring produced from the tered by equally valid arguments. as it can be coun. iron [from which mirrors used to be made]. One is the knowledgeable. while the as to the location of the desired figure. and this will be reflected in the other mirror void of knowledge because of these same five causes. The endeavor to uncover the reality of should be made aware that such aversion is pure ig. norance. inaccurate direction of the mirror toward the moves it from his eyes and can see neither the mir- objects. In this way they may find [imitation]. and the reality of the object more reprehensible and unsatisfactory than imitating will be revealed to their minds. An intel- and vain beliefs. For knowledgeable people it is easy to distinguish turning away from the direction of the desired truth. and calls others to do the same. even if its shape is it behind his head. and if he places tion and corrosion of the mirror. Observing the it difficult to turn the mirror toward it. This is a for- People whom others follow are divided into two midable obstacle. the poor condi. Thus. this is like ignorance of the figure's reflected in the mirror. and the avoidance of distracting occupations. Such people are veiled by tradi- themselves and others. duce a horse. which is still incomplete. The opin. who help both attaining the truth. things. to pro- Every human being is capable. by nature. Even the necessary direction. between correct and false statements. there ture of their combination. uncritical acceptance and good faith. of knowledge. As are hindrances that may prevent the forms from being we mentioned. ions of the 'ulama' [religious scholars] and the de. It is true. ing it blindly. since two antecedents. and call upon others to engage in taqlid defined by the scholars. appropriate position of the two mirrors. harmonized and combined in a defi- preferring [one opinion to others] without any nite manner. and ignorance another mirror to be put behind his head. hinders that perception. This is exemplified in the case of a person the mirror's form deriving from the substance of the who wants to see the back of his head in the mirror. object is to be found. ward it. as when they are behind it. Moreover. and they do nonetheless miss it because of a [false] preconcep- not follow others by imitating their beliefs and opin. a barrier that is ror nor the back of his head reflected in it. is like the relation of a mirror to colored forms that Lack of knowledge of these sources. A second understand things. the back of Similarly. every perception has "heart"].134 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri antidote but shrinks from taking it upon learning that the resulting wickedness that accumulates on the face it is extracted from snakes is ignorant.

I mean. revealed. rate from the information brought by the prophets that Thus the rational sciences. just as the senses are separate from by divine providence. the stage of the in. which enabled them to perceive part of the fied with rationality at the expense of the revealed creation. the Psalms. Acquired knowledge is that obtained by plain the reality of things. as we Torah. Therefore. most exalted. Those who perceptible in any of the preceding levels. inference. the level ment for them but the medications prepared by the of the intellect in which one perceives matters im. By this [revelational knowledge] the intel- quire it. And like the looking eye that cannot This. someone else. those who call on neither voices nor colors. insofar as they could go beyond the tan. He then gave hu. intellect is the only means for comprehending such which only He can comprehend. knowledge after it is learned. to perceive such realities. which allowed them to perceive additional minds of all creatures are sick. Beyond are satisfied with rational knowledge will be harmed the intellect is a further level involving other matters by it like the sick person who is harmed by food. Like intellectual perception. prophets. The intellect cannot do mankind the sense of touch to discern tangible things without the revealed sciences. submitting to their commandments. and reflection. it is capable of perceiving insufficient to ensure our welfare. is inherent in the nature of the mind and Qur'an]. happens to some. so the mind will not perceive the nal knowledge we mean that which is naturally com- reality of things if it does not move from concept to manded by the intellect. is divided into self-evident and acquired see without light. namely the duties of worship. are one is ordered to follow. the Gospels. a person who cannot see what stands in front of him The sciences located in the mind are divided into without moving the pupils of his eyes a great deal two types: rational and revealed. is human- cannot perceive realities correctly without the lights kind's knowledge that a single item cannot be in two of success and guidance from God. and there is no treat- things. there remains knowledge learning. the tellect. Nevertheless. or that a thing cannot be both existent and nonexistent. to know the particulars of medicine and remedies by The proof that there are suprarational sciences is learning them from doctors. and the Criterion [the have said. Similarly. the of any knowledge about His innumerable creatures. Humans need ing its content once they make it known to them. Normally. by food if they neglect their medicine. which it can. so the mind knowledge. since the intellect alone that God. as from which the intellect is separated. The sciences of the prophets are tained by studying the revealed books such as the superior to intellectual knowledge. just as the intellect it. places at the same time. in turn. each mind is able. sciences are deluded. and these cannot do of all types. that which. people to adopt pure imitative knowledge and avoid kind as if nonexistent. In the following stage He accorded them the of those groups but to combine them! The rational faculty of discernment to recognize abstract realities sciences are like nourishment and the revealed sci- beyond the tangible things. It is said: a discerning person who . Beware not to belong to either gible. they remained to human. Another type of that it can neither achieve nor be guided to. God created human rationality are ignorant. lect is perfected and delivered from illness. Then one progresses to another level. for example. but since humans could as yet grasp without the intellect. such as that of the sun. contemplation. Nevertheless. created humankind devoid is incapable of arriving at them. By understanding their concepts. the most exalted. they do not recognize the ultimate cause [of their knowledge]—that it is of Know—may God give you success—that although course God who created it and guided them to that the intellect attained eminence and an ability to ex. but is knowledge located in the mind is revealed knowl- obtained only by trusting and obeying the prophets edge. although the intellect is sepa. These are the causes that prevent minds from not obtain by itself but rather requires [the aid of] recognizing realities. which is apart from indirect concept. while those who are satis- sight. It is ob- and their successors. although necessary. People find such knowledge in themselves and recognize it without knowing Validating Revealed Knowledge where it comes from. is insufficient to preserve bodily health. which is received from the prophets. and approv. knowledge. Self-evident. The sick may be harmed proceeded to yet another stage. By the term ratio- from side to side. REMINDING THE INTELLIGENT 135 mirror. they are which one finds when turning one's attention to ac. These movements are called thinking and knowledge (taqlid) and revealed knowledge (sama'). From there humankind ences are like medication. Thereafter.

"This is unacceptable. For this reason God created gold and silver. because every person has many needs. reply. tainly take place between these two. the need for an adequate medium to decide between rives from the intellect's own shortcomings. since their behavior is like that of a person . There is also no Be careful not to assume that the revealed sciences correlation between wheat and horses to allow ex- are contradictory or incompatible with the rational changing them for a similar weight or shape. I worked hard to gather If he is in need of food. it will confirm that hoard- behind God's creation of gold and silver is their use ing gold and silver is an act of oppression and will for the sustenance of the world. He entrusted the living of the poor to the ward off neither heat nor cold. the thwart the underlying reason [of their creation]. in relation to all commodities. A person may lack necessities and pos. act- world would be ruined and the public interest impeded. Therefore. unless God permits. is like possessing everything. Nonetheless everybody needs them. or else they will be burnt in hell. Undoubtedly. if the It should be explained to them that the wisdom intellect understands that. to have no form. they would again have said. to understood the method behind the stipulation. Consequently. a tellect would have recognized that this is the truth. but to circulate among all ishment for such things and requires explanation. the owner of a or else they would be burnt in hell. people felt by the prophets that the intellect rejects. An example from Islamic law (shar'} involves the Regulation by gold and silver is possible precisely rulings concerning gold and silver. Thus. God did not create gold and silver especially their intellect is incapable of understanding the pun. Thus one sciences. it over for just any amount of wheat. but this de. for example. necessary to assess the relative value [of these com- edge. bearing an equal relation to the various com- would similarly reply: "This is unacceptable. and a certain which one should not abandon. Had it them. in this example and its like. The law forbids because they have no purpose in themselves. whoever uses them contrary to were told not to sell gold and silver for profit or else divine wisdom will be punished in the Hereafter. if people were told to give part of them to the poor. he may find that the one who them. God their accumulation without giving part to the poor and created them only to circulate among the people and needy. humankind's felicity corresponds to its knowl. serve as a standard in all transactions. They are sess unneeded things. This is deprived them of the rights accorded them by God. everything the Prophet doesn't know how to assess the value of a horse in ordained is in full harmony with sound reason. modities]. since people. Why should I be punished for making use of my purpose in themselves. Gold and silver have no it. they cance. On the contrary. Those who hoard gold and sil- "I buy and sell with the mutual consent of myself and ver without setting aside a certain amount for the poor my business partners. ing like one who imprisons a judge and prevents him This is irrational!" from arbitrating and resolving disputes among the They are right [to say that it is irrational].136 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri grasps all of intelligible knowledge and affirms that owns a horse but needs wheat. An exchange will cer- the world has a creator has attained absolute perfec. amount of wheat has the same value. they would burn in hell. God most high creates nothing are merely two metals which have no utility. the in. Without buying and selling. and possessing them Yet. it prohibits the use of dishes and cups made out serve as means of exchange. while a friend silver]. Their value is unified of them. true that there are certain details in the laws brought would become impossible. Accordingly. For example. since the owner of the horse would not hand One's intellect brings one to this felicity. so why should I now give them to people who has it prefers to buy a garment rather than a horse. but actually has an overall signifi- ver table utensils. They in vain. and its distress corresponds to its ignorance. I will do modities. and it would be tion. nor do they nourish the wealthy. It is wheat. horse may be worth a hundred dinars. it bans the sale of gold or silver for profit. but they are means for all property? This is unreasonable!" And if these people purposes. It resembles a mirror. they would surely horse. for one person or another. It were sleeping and resting? This is unreasonable!" If is therefore necessary to have something that seems they were told not to eat and drink from golden or sil. owns only that particular horse. for nourishment We therefore say: people who make dishes and and clothing. but the wealthy have oppressed the poor and body. and transactions. In themselves these justify punishment. in the case of one worse than those who hoard and amass [gold and who owns wheat but needs a horse. of them and serve as a standard. which has no color with my property what I want and no one can dispute but reflects all the colors. cups out of gold and silver are oppressors.

it undoubtedly year. mony. thus obstructing God or the reason. Copper. holding food and drink. to facilitate the attain- clay. though for some Prophet from conveying necessities to others is an [rules] the human intellect alone is not a sufficient act of oppression. However. we say that the foundation of society and the would not hesitate to approve of [this prohibition] basis of all religions are to promote love and har- and to punish those who transgress it. thereby period thus preserves the utility of loans. rather than gold and silver. when it is properly guided. The intelligent person is com- ways they help satisfy the necessities of life. on for a fixed period for profit [as a form of interest- the other hand. should be used for ment of other commodities. An owner tor and believe in his kindness. mutual assistance and cooperation. lead. They will regard aid of cloth. [Gold and silver] are means to an among the noblest ends. it real- and silver for their own sake is to hoard them. Those who We also claim that selling gold and silver for are in need and find someone who will give them profit. Like the skilled physician who when the intellect understands this [role] it approves commands the secrets of various treatments that the both the prohibition and the punishment for trans. Prohib- not be able to exchange food for cloth. and its intended function. ible with reason. a butcher—any job that could be performed various needs. Nevertheless. and izes and complies. or knowledge the intellect is unable to obtain save vice versa. and lead. the effect is as if they were dictions of the prophets intend to be harmonious with hoarded. so are the prophets. is permissible. . turning them into objects of commerce in their credit can assume the good-heartedness of their credi- own right. after inquiring into their truth. buying gold with silver. These [chosen substances] Consequently. namely. he is there. is contrary to divine wisdom. such as selling at 10 to get back 20 after a silver. to those who sell silver or gold can hold liquids. who wants to buy food might and support [of the creditor] as requirements. ignorant think farfetched. which is obtaining his goal. REMINDING THE INTELLIGENT 137 who turns the judge of the city into a hatmaker. iting the sale of gold and silver at a profit over a fixed fore permitted to buy it with gold or silver. a being more abundant and more easily divided among tailor. None of them contradicts it. silver pelled to accept them. The only purpose of buying gold guide. because by remaining re. silver who want to trade them for gold or silver are make it clear that the revealed law is not incompat- prevented from doing so. from all that might be cited. end and not ends themselves. iron. for instance. copper. If the intellect knows this. whose gressing it. but clay. What is prohibited is interfering with by the meanest member of society. But owners of gold or These few examples. All the commandments and inter- stricted from circulation. cannot fulfill the task of gold and making]. Moreover. since they differ in the through instruction.

and Khalid's arrival at Bahan's tent with approximately a democracy (government by the people. Some of kings. in your prophet the Companions [of the Prophet Muhammad] with Jesus. 1. pp. 138 . 1994). When Bahan began his speech with these words. Turkey: Iletis. In the following months. Suavi served as a court librarian. and later the director of the Galatasaray Lycee. pp.: number 18. and in all the prophets. Tanzimat's Two Extremes: Munif Pasa and Ali Suavi) mocracy: Government by the People.000. Khalid could not bear it and interrupted. Upon (sultanate). engaged in a battle with Muhammad (peace be upon him). 1991). 360-384. equality). In London and then Paris. Trained both in religious and secular schools. the form of gov. Ulum (Istanbul. 1870. influenced by conservative European thinkers. Tanzimatm iki Ucu: Mtinif Pasa ve Ali Suavi (The [Ali Suavi]. sultan. and who made our ruler. Turkey: lz Yaymcilik. who made our ernment was democracy. and in 1876 he appealed to Sultan Abdiilhamid II (reigned 1876-1909) to be allowed to return to Istanbul. hoping to replace him with his elder brother. the latter rose and made During the early days of Islam. reigned 610-641].000 [in one account] or 700. 1962). volume 2. Suavi published the journals Muhbir (The Reporter) and Ulum Gazetesi (Journal of the Sciences). Suavi launched an unsuccessful uprising against the sultan. but rather equality. Equality Ali Suavi (Turkey. a teacher of young princes. Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought (Princeton. he began to criticize constitutionalism. calling for constitutionalism in the Ottoman Empire. 1083-1107. Paris. who made us believers in emperor." died 642] (may God be pleased with him) will suf. but his revolutionary sentiments had not disappeared. 1839-1878) was a leading figure in the Young Ottoman political reform movement and in the search for Islamic justifications of constitutionalism. N. one of the first Ottoman works to use the term "democracy.2 Bahan invited Khalid ibn al-Walid to his tent on the pretext of discussing the terms of an armi. His pamphlets and sermons in the §ehzade Mosque in Istanbul—introducing modern political terminology. troops numbering 600. France. criticizing the government. [acting on behalf of] Heraclius [Byzantine Thanks be to God. the forms of government are monarchy slice. and our [Christian] community the most words of Khalid ibn al-Walid [Muslim commander. who was more sympathetic to constitutionalism. Ismail Dogan.J. Equality). May 17. §iikrii Hanioglu. §erif Mardin. whence he fled to Europe. Turkish and introduction by M. 2. "Demokrasi: Hiikumet-i Halk. or king. but in reality to seize him by trickery. Suavi was killed during this attempt. Upon his pardon and return. The article from Ulum Gazetesi pre- sented here. known as the Ciragan incident1 As is known. launching It so happened that a Byzantine commander named into an oration to refute the words of Bahan: Bahan. there was no Lord Jesus the best of the prophets. Huseyin £elik. fice to explain the [nature of] the Islamic government. Translation from Princeton University Press. He was dismissed from Galatasaray in December 1877. Suavi held a van'ety of administrative positions before em- barking on a career as a public intellectual in his mid-twenties. In the 1870s. aristocracy (government of notables). The Gazetesi (Journal of the Sciences).im Yaymlan. our king the best sultanate. 16 All Suavi Democracy: Government by the People.000 in another. and commenting on foreign relations—made him famous and led to his banishment to the provinces. Miisavat" (De. hundred courageous warriors." maintains that Islamic precedent requires institutions of democratic consultation. a speech in Arabic: "Thanks be to God. At that battle the number of Muslim troops was 41. excellent of communities. That is to say. Ali Suavi ve Donemi (Ali Suavi and His Time) (Istanbul.

they had no institutions (tanzimat) other than depose him. government and reckoned to have miraculous powers. the Commander of the lished a newspaper to deny the existence of God in Faithful. Thus you must have received a bigger piece gale that can sing loudly only in the rose garden of than us to be able to make such a robe. DEMOCRACY: GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE I 39 whom we ourselves chose to charge with our affairs. a woman and controls his desire will be pointed out Now that the meaning of democracy. loyal. and Kabul. a democracy. The in any way superior to us. and so on. north. three days and nights. it does not possess an overpowering force to restrain "Why?" The Companion responded. freedom is tantamount to saying The following incident likewise throws light on whatever comes to one's mind and doing whatever one the matter. fore. We have reached such a position tinue to listen to 'Umar. they did as they wanted. received the same share as everybody else. What will be the future of this nation that lacks a when one of the Companions arose and said. pit to encourage them to jihad [religious struggle]. we would immediately God. But they do not have men of God among about the Commander of the Faithful. Cairo. and pub- the Companions. traordinary event that "[Mehmed] Ebussu'ud Efendi lished in a place and among a people [that were alike [Turkish religious leader. wanted to make himself and south. In their language. pious than us. now see on you cannot have been made from that Democracy. answer this man. wants to Europeans recognized kings. That is to say. wants without any impediment. they will one day cause trouble even in a robe from the cloth that he had received as his share. morality limiting liberties within the community if from now on we will not listen to you. reality in their time. Istanbul. 634-644].C. a single united. we can go repeat in conversations and in our books as an ex- on to say that this form of government was estab. a man may stay with a woman for ond caliph. and by-day in the name of freedom and equality. We would never think that our ruler was good morals. and equality is understood. observant. In this way good morality. they do not have an overpower- means is that at that time the Islamic government was ing force in their hearts such as fear of God. Tehran. [that is to say] equality. let us take a glance at these lands of ours. "Because you freedom and license in such a shameless country? have privileged yourself instead of remaining equal Undoubtedly this beautiful Paris. west. Do we not by the people. they resort to against those who believe in God. we will con. At that time the ruler was 'Umar ibn al-Khattab [sec. which has been growing day- Thus at a time when Byzantines. Com. The robe that we be ruined in a year or two. There- but it was not enough. thought this way cratic system." Then Morality in our big cities is worse than in those the objecting Companion said. Thus an idea came to When cloth from the Yemen was divided among some Frenchmen." and sat down. wearing a robe made from this know well the improper and shameless language that cloth. They had no fear other than the a man like us—so much so that if our ruler were to fear of God. and in the same room with a girl one night but controlled his desire and did not touch her." 'Umar asked. early May in Paris.] had merely imagined became a the virtue of piety required by the principle of Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong. Bukhara." Upon hearing these sing in such a dunghill of [corrupt] hearts? words. There was equality. So I gave my own share. '"Umar. Now a French party. 1490-1574] found himself extraordinary]. this prosperous with us. he possesses circa 427-347 B. is a nightin- piece. the seminated through the press to the east. they had no work other than serving claim to be a king over us. "If so. of the Europeans.3 What this them—that is to say. Those who read this newspaper One day 'Umar. and it may not even occur to . unless it be that he is more system of equality that Plato [Greek philosopher. that a man who spends two hours in the company of May God be pleased with all of them. bining the two pieces produced such a robe. Armenians. '"Abdullah." 3. 'Umar turned to his son 'Abdullah [died 693] Since French ideas on democracy have not re- and said. was addressing the Companions from the pul. In Europe. Would such a beloved nightingale you have become privileged. Because during the division of the Yemeni France that the entire world strives to imitate. in sum they were men of God. pious community." Thereupon mained confined to their country but are being dis- 'Abdullah rose and answered the man: '"Umar. 'Umar. the men of God. will cloth you too received your share. that is annihilate the monarchy and create equality in a demo- to say Khalid and the Companions. Commander of the Faithful.

He replied. what would he under the 'Umayyad caliphate. This superior force is the They once proposed the principle of democracy monarchy. and verily an evil friend. Those were It is not just Hajjaj who says this." to socialize with men. All our situa. in short. It heard the rumblings in Samarqand. tured." women to war along with men. This is such a people that they litical Science}. Rather they look for a 'Umar is wanted. can this be. tism. he encouraged in the name of patriotism and freedom tions and acts are similar to this matter of sexual and whom he made prisoners in the fortresses of desire. how- commander. You yourself even dispatched "Verily an evil patron. For when the morals? term "sound" is used in Muslim jurisprudence and Mustafa Fazil Pasha [1829-1875. Rhodes. 1813-1893]. whether it is possible to establish democracy in this erhood and equality among a people with such place or not? Here lies the problem. Verse 13] "Those women. Egyptian political science. so many people in the name of freedom and patrio- havior. Unfortunately. and util- . sufficiently ma- jump over it [a leading Tanzimat statesman and Ot. [1815-1893] states (p. and I'll then be 'Umar "Women too are human beings. Let us. They have the right for you. This nevertheless is con. each Answer: What a nice idea! What a sound conclu- of them wants to announce his leadership and become sion! There is no doubt that this is so. Tashkent. A government is required that will not only sat- The present disposition of the peoples of our isfy the material needs but also see to the moral needs countries does not simply expect the government to of such an immoral and leprous people. those men were not you. 'Ali [ibn Abi Talib. and Khalid. they start playing a game the rights of man. Monsieur [Felix Esquirou de] Parieu did not even feel the loss of a vast territory like Al. practicability. This way of govern- quito. suppose someone got up and said: ion of the Prophet. erly statesmen gather in the name of patriotism. says: "If there exist men of God. whether attributed to increased sexual de. that is to say the sultanate. If a ruler like regulate their material needs. one of the ablest governors Today if even 'Umar came to us. It bent down so low that 39 Ali Pashas could ment. move from theory to practice. 1712-1778] form of egalitarian government and the most in ac. to Hajjaj [ibn Yusuf. the people of erned by democracy. refining our morals. 1815-1871]. achieve? "You be Abu Dharr [al-Ghifari. one which will instill good morals in people fourth caliph. and Acre. the proper form of government is in which one of them becomes sultan and bestows the one that guarantees these rights. the meaning of this phrase cannot prince and Ottoman statesmen who financed the be separated from feasibility. through superior force. 644-656]." Istanbul are not all like the shaykh of Gumiishane In a book published this very year. however. or to the passion Council of Ministers." 'Umar would reply: [Qur'an. a devout compan- For example. has been silenced with a membership in the sire due to the warmer climate. This form of high offices upon the others. died 653]. It is necessary for us to educate ourselves by Cyprus. the democratic way of government is excellent for and Bukhara as if they were the buzzing of a mos. 656-661]. Young Ottoman movement]." thinkers of modern Europe say the same. then one must have men of God like government that will also satisfy their moral needs— 'Uthman [third caliph. who until yesterday led sidered an indecent act.140 Ali Suavi him [to have sex with her]. ever. must be ripened. 660-714]. they should be gov- cord with the holy law. Sura 22." We have become such a nation that when four of Question: Since freedom and equality are among our school children gather. be brought under control with good est degree by the sighs of all those believers whom morals or not? There lies the problem. and extremely well organized through the per- toman grand vizier. entitled [Ahmed Ziyaeddin Giimiishanevi. despite the fact that he is as rich aroused by veiling in the cities—no such impatience as Croesus and not in need of any high offices or im- being observed among nomads and peasants—or to perial favors. fect education of times and obstacles. In our country. government is democracy. Jean- Everybody knows that democracy is the highest Jacques Rousseau [French philosopher. but you are not. 382): "In civilized societies geria. The political decent people. Let us consider What market can there be for the values of broth. When four of our eld. the well-being of the majority. He has not been affected in the slight- whatever cause. Halidiyye Sufi Principes de la science politique [Principles of Po- leader.

of a senate and a house of representatives. counties. It only administers the coun- It is." cause the form of government was not uniform: three Is the only reason for the inapplicability of democ. Something else that has to be said is that in truth There the republic is nothing other than a federation democracy is an illusion. This federation has a government in the city towns are suited by their situations to be governed of Washington. 386). prac. where then was spoken about morals as an example. indeed they may administratively into states. years. it is a form being in the world up to now. tions of 600. Previously. The federal The biggest republic in Europe is Switzerland. The Ameri- the way of democracy and equality. French). Territories.000 people Marino. A region with a population of 600. of government suitable to that region and to the cus- amples to show that equality can be put into practice toms and circumstances of that region. do we not? That republic is composed of no is called a state. Liibeck has a population of 30. they provide no ex. means people and kratos government. these coun. The basic idea dition that it would retain its autonomy and admin. The Christians in Switzerland are extremely istrative system of the United States of America. there is no other religion but Chris. each of which joined on condition of pre- Is there anything remarkable about the fact that serving its administrative independence and privi- these and similar countries that resemble our small leges. and its size are all obstacles in cannot provide any model for our world. rather indicate the contrary. come a federation divided into twenty-two cantons.000 individuals. The fact that the equality? country is divided between various continents. There are need to be made or decisions taken—just as in the only 4.000 Jews in a population of two and a half days of the [early] caliphate people congregated in million people. For instance. and utility" (p. how could this work in a Catholics and Protestants are not mixed. The same idea is expressed in the rule put for. There is also a vice-president. the opinion based on sound doctrine that is no longer term "republic" was just an empty title. the truth cannot be separated from feasibility. While it may be possible to govern a tianity. that is to say. for in politics there. that Yes.] . not like in France. and Dis- Where do we currently find democracy? In San tricts. for all that they consti. Townships are governed from the nearest place. This federal government is made up by a republican regime? What is more. There are only six places in the twenty- two cantons where Catholics and Protestants are 4. of the states. Moreover. six cantons were democracies. trative independence and special privileges. the United States of America. custom. of government by the people is that the people gather istration.—Trans. Its popu. and that a federal government was set up in Bern to ward by our own jurists: "One must not issue a legal have oversight [of federal affairs]. [All Suavi must have garbled his source on the admin- mixed. government does not intervene in the administration which is the size of our Danube Province. This country. DEMOCRACY: GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE 141 ity. It is divided in a place like the Ottoman country. What we have there is a federation where and decide in consultation on whatever regulations only two tongues exist (German. and religion. it was only recently that Switzerland be- ticability. however. extremely suitable for its present ties. larger state? How could the individuals composing tons are exclusively Catholic. ering and consultation. For is not its literal mean- of various states with each other. one hears of a big republic in the New World. Every state preserves its adminis- more than 8. The presi- tries have been living under the protection of [larger] dent of the federal government is elected for four powers.000 each. it is not the truth. Monsieur Parieu says: "If the truth in question is pious and devout. Nine can. can government was created by the federation and However many republics may have come into union of various independent provinces. each state is populated by one or little state with a small population through such gath- another of the various Christian sects.000. known respectively as Cities. and townships. the regions with popula- lation is only two and a half million people. cantons were aristocracies administered by aristo- racy in the Ottoman country bad morals? We have crats. This means that there is morality not ripe and mature. the mosque. There are tute a nation. 35 states. however.4 system of government because of its circumstances. That is to say. in ing government by the people? In Greek demos Switzerland each state joined the federation on con. Finally. it is inhabited by many peoples differing in language. and seven exclusively such a population congregate? Doesn't everybody Protestant. This is be- practiced.

and the ministers should it possesses the spirit of a republican form of gov. and tongues be gathered and united? if the majority vote turns out to be against the conduct Could a federation be formed as in the case of of policy by the ministers. however tyrannical they may be. speak about democracy. while the republicans in England and France that in the republics which exist today. And religions. The point we have to grasp is that the Ottoman With the measures we have proposed. She their needs? compelled the Ottoman state to enter into extremely We can therefore judge with certainty that it is harmful alliances with England and Russia. whether or not they pre- experience has shown everywhere that one has to fer their own rulers. Bringing provinces under control requires over- lican regimes were established in France and England. let us again consider how democracy and tion it.142 All Suavi have work to do? How and when would they satisfy republic assaulted the Orient as her initial act. then they leave office. In our own opinion. deputies. since unanimity in chambers com. Anatolia. the gather. principle of consultation—the form which France has Having dwelt upon this matter. Only long- can it actually accomplish in France. must be a state in conformity with state would establish its state power on a strong foun- its geographical location. There is no chance of this. equality. so that it has to be a sultanate. cultural. lems. the time has they became a source of corruption for the peoples of passed for the state in Istanbul to acquire such over- the world. majority of votes. adopted]. be held accountable. dation in the specific regions of Rumelia and lation. time? Would the state be able to impose its author- or Bulgaria in Eastern Europe forming one with Tu. ity over the provinces in this huge country? nisia in Arab Africa—what a fantasy! Answer: These are entirely different questions. and freedom. for example. High Council [of Reforms] (Meclis-i Ali-i [Tanzimat]) tice. Does this not mean that the votes of 20. deputy. or Algeria. The accountability of ministers ernment as far as is practicable. for example. a chamber of deputies elected by discussion: "If a state accepts a chamber of deputies. who have absolutely matter of fact. The French whelming force. circumstances. no ethnic. the Ottoman state. or geographical affin- posed of many deputies is virtually impossible. That's it. In the end. go by the majority opinion. all the while participate in the chamber through electing a seeking world domination like Caesar. What in differentiating the concepts of "soundness" and is the relevance of this method for us? In essence. they ing of the people has given way to the gathering of have no wish to relinquish their hold over Canada. we have succeeded adopted this method in this very year 1870 A. religious. our "political truth" at both the levels of theory and prac. . Yet a conclusion has been reached from this should be enlarged. it should not. England. chamber of deputies. and the ministers respond. Indeed the current rule to the French republic? is to go by the majority of the deputies actually Question: Should the administration in Istanbul present in the chamber. if the equality can be achieved in. and inimical to its good order. When repub. Just look how those Frenchmen talk is that of Switzerland. How could these many different ethnicities. and popu. The chamber of deputies that works best India. the Ottoman majority of the deputies give their approval with a lands. The members examine and ques- derstood. remain as it is now? Under these circumstances. what and conscript soldiers directly. would the alliance is to believe in the possibility of Serbia in treasury be able to raise money in a short period of Europe forming a federation with Egypt in Africa. America? To believe in the possibility of such an Question: Under the circumstances. It is because of this impossibility enough. There every 20.D. is it not meaningless Answer: No. the people should be opened. sects. term policies will provide a remedy for fiscal prob- where else? We have to look at practice. the ministers keep their offices. ity with them [the French]." means that their conduct of policy is discussed in the If all these points about democracy have been un. that is to say government based upon the such are the limits of feasibility and practicality. whelming force.000 people pretentiously about freedom and equality.000 If there is going to be freedom and equality. let individuals are subsumed under this contract? As a them ask the Algerian Arabs. or any. What should be done? to call the opinion of the majority of the deputies The parliamentary [form of government should be present the opinion of the people? Unfortunately. Yet how not possible to establish a real democracy based on long-lasting these republics were to prove! Strangely this conception. where it currently is able to collect taxes However much republicanism puffs itself up.

mention for this in the history books. Istanbul could only lodge a pro. then it will have found itself a great ally in the Africa. they will establish the best and the most adopts a policy of attempting to create a unified Af- enduring Muslim state in the world. But if Istanbul and unite. God knows best what is right. DEMOCRACY: GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE 143 As far as Africa is concerned. If not. and henceforth favors the birth of such a the overwhelming power of Europe will conquer state. there is no remedy for it. in Barbary. if Tunisia. and Egypt can come to their senses That is to say. then rican state. That's it. And until the Day of Judg- In that event. . cause of its own survival. Tripoli For those who share our views. this is inevitable. ment the Ottoman dynasty will be given honorable test as strong as the one it made regarding Algeria.

Mithat Cemal Kitabevi. Kemal returned to Istanbul and founded the newspaper Ibret (The Moral). the service rendered by society in individuals as a whole. and was banished from Istanbul through appointment as assistant governor of Erzurum. Turkey: Remzi Universitesi Edebiyat Fakiiltesi. man is naturally obliged sovereignty. Mill! Egitim Basimevi. Kemal fled to Europe to publish an opposition journal. General freedom is ment of right and the suppression of wrong. dom. 1971). and consequently in every this world is the creation of a preponderant force.Verse 159] Namik Kemal (Turkey. in eastern Anatolia. 144 . he studied Sufism." Islam Ansiklo. Kemal Ozon. A shar' [religious law] proof of this claim is the ity is dependent. Tur. Therefore. The following year. public. Kemal was banished to the islands of Rhodes and Chios—now in Greece—where he continued to write. Omer Faruk Aktin. individual forces. 1938). volume 9 (Istanbul. Pardoned after three years. The 1. of another individual. 1944-1957). pp. Mustafa key: Maarif Matbaasi. defending Islam against Eu- ropeans' accusations of backwardness. 17 Namik Kemal And SeekTheir Counsel in the Matter [Quran. In the 1860s. England. 1840-1888) was a leading advocate of constitutionalism and a famous poet and playwright He received little formal education and spent much of his childhood accompanying his grandfather. and worked on the commission preparing the Ottoman constitution. Hurriyet (Liberty). Turkey: Maarif Matbaasi and and introduction by M. Bulgaria—then an Ottoman province—he learned Arabic and Persian. Translation from Turkish Kemal). Namik Kemal ve Ibret Gazetesi (Namik Kemal Namik Kemal (Namik Kemal) (Istanbul. "Namik Kemal. "Wa shawirhum fi'l-amr" (And Seek Their Kuntay. pp. He penned most of the journal's articles—including the one translated here—explaining constitutionalism in an Islamic context and attempting to reconcile shari'a (Islamic law) with European theories of law. Sura 3.: pedisi (Encyclopedia of Islam). so too conjoined powers naturally belong to all Accordingly. Namik Kemal Devrinin Insanlan ve Olaylari Counsel in the Matter). 1948). the sultan turned against con- stitutionalism and had its proponents arrested. he began writing newspaper articles on literature and social problems. N. just as all individuals vidual from the fear of the aggression on the part have the natural right to exercise their own power. In 1870. force that comes into being from the conjunction of duce a preponderant force to safeguard the indi. is that protected within society because society can pro. Hurriyet (Liberty). until performance of his patriotic play Vatan yahud Silistre (Homeland orSilistria) prompted public demonstrations. and he was exiled to Cyprus. §iikrii Hanioglu. 283-336. 1962). London. July 20. Arasmda (Personalities and Events from the Time of Namik number 4. Mehmed Kaplan. 1^. Thus the constitutive element of following legal rule: Namik Kemal. which is charged with the establish- to benefit from this divine gift. He also joined a constitutionalist group later known as the Young Ottomans Soci- ety. Turkey: Istanbul and the Newspaper "The Moral") (Istanbul.1 Being created free by God. 2 volumes (Istanbul. while working at the government Translation Bureau. upon which the continued existence of human. and produced his first poetry. Kemal was appointed to the Council of the State. a government official who served in various regions of the Ottoman Empire. §erif Mardin. society the right to sovereignty belongs to the absolutely indispensable for the protection of free. In Kars. 54-72. In Sofia. Princeton University Press. pp. Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought (Princeton.J. 1868. especially women's educa- tion.

because an individual has no right to Since the rights of man are determined by reason wrong himself. given that sovereignty belongs stood to commend a willingness on the part of someone in high office to perform small private services for his inferiors to the people. so the appointment of an never be saved from the unfettered exercise of will." and in some others many super- stowing legislative authority upon a [single] indi. people of a town gathered and pledged allegiance to The second is the method of consultation. no society can have the authority to choose superfluities should be pruned. The apt saying in the hadith [tradition of imperial speech [of 1868. imam [leader] and the establishment of a government Thus the necessity for a council of the umma arises are indispensable. judicial authority would the domain of implicit interpretations and to make still belong to the qadi appointed by the state because them public. laws] is its actions. em- principle by such actions as appointing one of its bodied in such phrases as "without reaching the de- members permanently as an absolute ruler. through publication.2 described as fundamental principles can be deduced Each umma can delegate command to a greater or from the general character of these documents by tak- lesser degree. That is. and circum. because the imamate is a right of the umma laws is tantamount to its will. which someone for the sultanate or caliphate." Furthermore. the requisite freedom for everyone to scrutinize the state and criti- cize the actions of the government.Here Namik Kemal uses it principles should be issued to ensure that the admin- rather to present rulership as a public service. either verbally or 2. these two principles into conformity. fully proceed. their obscurities a way of acting that would harm those who come should be clarified. Yet none of these documents has ernance that. while the members of the government. gree of freedom. and denials that jurisdiction is a right of the government. the judicial activity of this the fundamental principles of the administration from person could not be valid. the aforementioned imperial it is a consequence of natural law that the circum. since civilization is evident. administration. than society's delegating the performance of the Let us glance at the fundamental regulations of our aforementioned duties to some of its members. neither does the public have the right and tradition. state authority should be realized in the way for the administration of a civilized state. As long as both of these are held The public cannot perform the duties attached to in the same hands. the clarity and methodical structure to constitute a base stance. cavils.—Trans. the Rescript of Reform [Ottoman decree of in the form of allegiance [bay'a]. Today we are in possession of the cordingly. After this. "regardless of time. previous sultan or caliph would retain no authority The state is a moral personality. monarchs have no right to govern other Rescript of Gulhane [Ottoman reform program of than the authorization granted to them by the umma 1839]. place. including a liberal critique the Prophet] "the leader of the tribe is its servant" of the Ottoman legal system]. ing the real and essential meaning of certain phrases It is nevertheless one of the basic principles of gov. a rescript of fundamental (as opposed to "pulling rank"). and the recently delivered monarchs. or be. Ac. which will least limit the freedom of the individual. Some rules that may be hints at this. Even if it wishes to do so. fluities regarding the details of administration are vidual. The making of whatever. it could not right. no umma would wish to infringe this limitations denying the freedom of the people. found. this person takes the legislative power out of the hands of the would [indeed] become sultan or caliph.] istration of the Ottoman state is indeed based upon . and the present state of affairs of our to violate the rights of individuals. and the authoriza. The first is to emancipate cases arising among them. The excuses. This is obviously nothing other from this. Furthermore. But if the may emanate from the state would thus be checked. into consideration. according to its exigencies and ethics. and the execution [of [the Islamic community]. and the necessary principles after it. [Traditionally this saying of the Prophet was under. the actions of the government can this right for themselves. should be formulated—for example. AND SEEK THEIR COUNSEL IN THE MATTER 145 If the people of a town gathered and appointed There are two major means to keep the state someone as qadi [judge] over themselves to judge within the limits of justice. their erations. rescripts and decrees must be corrected by bringing stances of one generation affect the succeeding gen. some of these documents contain For example. 1856 guaranteeing equal rights for members of all tion granted to ministers through appointment by religious communities].

Then it will be nize the rules and make the ministers accountable enjoy order?" and "Can a man be free without being 3. because those fa- state. been attempting to accomplish her goal by provok. This is because the fun. in fact."—Trans. this idea does not collective European guarantee as a constitutional enjoy much currency for now. ern savages [Russia]. by including these reforms in the Treaty no barrier against Russia as strong as a united Otto- of Paris. the West. us up to now. purses [1. ance [of power] against the aggression of the north- these actions may appear as a major contradiction. At first glance. However. Eu. mercial interests and safeguarding the European bal- sia has encouraged to come forward. which is the very when members of the government speak about the object of our discussion. the Crete insurrection alone) will soon reduce the ficials are not accountable. whether true or false. What will be the result of all this? The state will man Empire]. ting pressure on us. the of. every intelligent person reform the conditions of the Christian subjects in the realizes that as long as this tyrannical administration name of the sultan and granted the [European] guar. since the Europeans are accustomed to freedom. state to a condition in which it lacks the power to and there is no oversight on the part of the umma. and in the future they will However. It is true that the Western Powers have defended ing the Christian subjects of the Sublime State. or at least standing as the pro- 1867] to Istanbul [in 1853] to protect their coreli. Instead. the treasury lost three or four million in their acquisition of rights. and readily submit to the noose of oppression. would be vulnerable to separatism.146 Namik Kemal freedom and justice. At that juncture the Sublime Porte the idea of granting autonomy to each and every eth- should have succeeded in preventing all foreign in. a costly in- to the Christians to whom we have promised reform. [This saying is generally taken to mean "one judges able to criticize members of the government verbally by the mainstream. ministration. the Muslims are ignorant of the pleasure of freedom tion which is so much talked about: As is known. resist Russian invasion as well as the [Ottoman] al- For these reasons the Europeans do not believe us. The inevitable consequence of or through publication?" Another misfortune is that this is the method of consultation. Then the Europeans will be compelled regardless of the magnitude of the privileges granted to choose the lesser of two evils [that is. Now whenever Christians make allegations The continuation of foreign intervention (as is against the state. stopped. they No means other than the method of consultation say. In any case. there is no consultation. however. tector of rebels. can be found to dispel these troubles. nic group in the Ottoman lands and thereby creating terventions and securing our future existence by cor. and there can be Furthermore. because they do not want to leave gionists [and the Crimean War broke out]. "Could a country that lacks deputies to scruti. ignoring exceptional cases. Europeans to follow this course. tervention to defend the Ottomans or a costly accep- and despite all the talk about their prosperity. Europeans conclude that Let us first consider the truth of this Eastern Ques. Russia alone in its intervention. Russia wants to annihilate the Sublime State [Otto.5 or 2 billion Ottoman piasters] because of damentals of the administration are corrupt. for the sake of protecting their com- rope has been helping the complainants whom Rus. lies could do. they [Ottoman statesmen] both promised to man state. ceit. At the end of the conflict.] . the Western Powers cannot refrain from put- Sergeyevich] Menshikov [Russian general. In spite of this. 1787. This is an era in era Powers sacrificed their resources and the lives of which nobody can resist public opinion. foreign interventions cannot be antor states a right of supervision in this matter. these result well known. The claim their men along with us in order to resist Russian that "rule belongs to the victor"3 cannot be applied intervention. And tance of Russian domination of the region]. the Sublime Porte mollified Europe by mously shrewd European states know that this policy granting certain privileges to the Christians alone. Yet given these [Christian] complaints of victim- When the Russians sent [Knyaz Aleksandr ization. prevails in the state. while Russia has absolutism. contentedness of the people. And yet. a confederation like Germany has been debated in recting the fundamentals of the state and obtaining a Europe for a long time. they unless concealed behind a thousand curtains of de- proposed to us the reformation of our tyrannical ad. it is our state that compels the continue to do so as much as they can. even if a clear preponderance exists. while the Western states prevent her undoubtedly sink if it does not modify its present from carrying this out.

we should not forget the fact that our esty the sultan is heir to the esteemed Ottoman dy- people harbor a deep hatred and mistrust toward the nasty. they responded: "Nothing good can [Qur'an.5 million [liras]? Would the [tax] regu. not "owner not a matter of experience that trying what has al. for the same reason: the rotten- 4. tobacco. Just as a physician can only To begin with. as is now the case. In fact. it is asked how a people speaking seventy- Many persons who had the confidence of the public two different tongues could be convened in one assem- came to occupy high office. ity to declare that the value of the consolidated long. It was thanks to this fact that the [Ottoman declarations as attempts at disinformation. in reality these have no basis. Sura 40. His Imperial Maj- Second. even the ministers cannot deny that help individuals regain health with the support of today the nation is faced with the threat of extinc. almost all responded by saying: "We cannot commit suicide by external threats toward the state will be eliminated. a title reserved for God ready been tried can only lead to regret? in the Qur'an. but they could not ac- complish anything. is the adoption of the method of con- liras have been raised to 40 million through consoli. so long as our and the principles of freedom. personages. the opinion of the public is not a poison the matter: but an elixir of health. Then Europe will treat the government unless they themselves supervise the us as a civilized nation. Verse 16]4 come from the state. personality. [Namik Kemal appears to have deliberately omitted a ness of the foundations. His title is "one administration maintains its present character? Is it charged with kingship" [sahib al-mulk]. instead of regarding us as a administration? Furthermore. tion. the Sublime Porte to justify their claim to Europe. their organs. The to its present level if we had already adopted the only measure that will eliminate the present oppres- method of consultation and established an assembly sion and profligacy. depend upon the assistance of the people ings and other expenses have plunged the treasury who are the constituent elements of the state. when it was calculated stem from the adoption of the method of consulta- as less than 26. In the gatherings of highly important caused harm because the foundations are corrupt. Is there any possibility that word—al-yawma—that shows that the verse refers to the Day in the future people will have a warm affection for of Judgment. As for the imagined detrimental effects that would term debt was 29 million liras. and road construction. Verse 26]. when they have depu. All consultation]. the One. the right of the sultan in our coun- we assume that the future actions of the government try is to govern on the basis of the will of the people will not conform to its past habits. which established its state by protecting reli- present administration. AND SEEK THEIR COUNSEL IN THE MATTER 147 known that everyone is free." heterogeneity of the Ottoman lands and the ignorance And how could people not be mistrustful? A hun. and put an end to the mistrust of the people? Could the internal debt of 22 million of the people. it is said that lations for salt. this claim. Therefore. have been put into effect? On what basis can our introduction. sultan] became the cynosure of the people and the even when the government distributed cotton seed caliph of Islam. state] in the incontrovertible verse: "Whose is the When asked the reason for their rejection of this kingdom today? God's." munificence. sultation. One of the major reasons for this is that the to reform the character of the state. the absolutist claim to outright ownership [of the can Civil War. As was made clear in regions." Let us now glance at the internal dimensions of In fact. Sura 3. when a while ago the scarecrow planted against Russia. whose the establishment of a council of the people would thousand harms caused the destruction of so many violate the rights of the sultan. what has been said above proves dation? Would [the government] have had the audac. which is a moral country's wealth is in sharp decline. Everybody views official gion.—Trans. The religion of Muhammad rejects to the provinces free of charge because of the Ameri. of the people are reasons against this [the adoption of dred thousand policies have been put into effect. so also the administration's measures tion.] . drinking so lethal a poison as public opinion. French emperor used the occasion of the Cretan cri- Then if the people of a province resort to arms under sis to advise the Sublime Porte that it should seek the the pretext of being oppressed. some farmers refused to accept it. they will be unable regarding the necessary reforms. In fact. Would build. the Omnipotent. it is argued that the religious and cultural there may be? We would not dare to accept it. First. of kingship" [malik al-mulk. public opinion of the people of Turkistan [Turkey] ties in the council of the nation. Who knows what hidden agenda Second.

method of consultation. who achieved. we could not find people to become deputies. and whose administration is not based on any to the dangerous situation in which the nation finds rules? Once the fundamental principles and the inter. Members from all denominations serve in age of majority. While doing so. take into consideration nal regulations of the assembly are issued. Give serious thought pendent. let us acquired real estate valued several times more? be fervent in advancing this meritorious policy. when we can find people in the these councils. like the rebels of Crete. Montene. itself today. O Ottoman liberals! Do not give any credit to tious assembly whose members are absolutely inde. . whose O my God! In all provinces there are provincial only necessary qualification will be attaining the councils. or raised an objection to appropriations for than even the savages of Montenegro? Can it be that holy sites and pious foundations. such deceptive superstitions. It will be obvious that the salvation of the desire to separate themselves from the integral nation? state today is dependent upon the adoption of the Who would dare to say a word about [Islamic] reli. and upon continuing the op- gious expenditures [purchasing non-Muslim land]. who would the accomplishments that the opposition has already dare to protect those. and all of them debate issues in the provinces to become members of the State Coun- official language [Turkish]. Why should [our people's] ignorance pre- of] the deputies to be convened opposed dispatching vent us [from having a council].148 Namik Kemal bly. membership in which is dependent upon pos- of linguistic heterogeneity in light of this obvious fact? sessing perfected political skills? Is it supposed that a council of the people is a sedi. How can anybody speak cil. Let Let us come to the matter of ignorance. us be fervent so that we can move forward without gro. Serbia. If we have any love for the nation. if it did not pre- troops to Crete because they wished to protect the vent these lands? Are we at a lower level of culture Greeks. and what kind of response would be given if [some people. in position aimed at achieving this method of admin- return for which [non-Muslim communities] have istration. and Egypt each have councils of the delay.

he was asked to conduct his studies at home and lived his last years under virtual house arrest. and linguist One of seven children in a prominent Albanian family. He also established a series called the "Pocket Library" to publish short essays for the general public. hav- pean civilization those ancient civilizations—for all ing recourse to these ancient works.and beacons. those old civilizations have already been de.1 As may be understood from our previous articles on of Islamic civilization—the latest of the ancient civi- [Europe's] history and state. along with his participation in Albanian cultural activities. and then the press bureau of the Sublime Porte in Istanbul. Ottoman Empire: Kasbar Matbaasi. 1126- stroyed. Ismail Hakki. In addi. or contenting that the later ones were always more perfect than the oneself with them. he was granted an imperial pardon and returned to newspaper work in Istanbul. dealing with them is a duty reserved to his. These publications.]: §emseddin lation from Turkish and introduction by M. in North Africa.M. Trans.C.B. he published his own articles and plays. At the same time. although civilization lizations—and of its predecessor Greek civilization passed through many hands before reaching those of are extant. whose number is increasing daily. Islamic Peoples). he learned European languages at a Greek high school and Middle Eastern languages from special lessons at Islamic schools. 1. §emseddin Sami was the author of the first modern geographical and histori- cal dictionary of the Ottoman Empire. Many works them in high esteem.1198] as two great mentors of civilization and hold tory and to the science of archaeology. Hikmet Turhan Daglioglu. 1850-1904) was a leading Ottoman intel- lectual. 149 . The following year. Istanbul. pp. §emsettin Sami Bey: Hay an 1895). journalist. number 4. It seems that he suppressed his more radical opinions in these pamphlets—on the Islamic roots of European civilization. Ottoman Em. is tantamount to trying to benefit earlier—are like mere drawings made on a wall with from the wick of an oil lamp in the presence of sun- coal by a child in comparison to a painting by the light. which resulted in his banishment through appointment as editor of the official gazette of Tripoli. for example. and the veiling of women. yet in today's schools they do not teach Aristotle's History of Animals or The §emseddin Sami Frasheri. Sami Bey) (Istanbul. but given the existence of [modern] works the Europeans. Gune§ (The Sun).] and Ibn Rushd [Andalusia-Morocco. volume 1. Thus the scholars and philosophers of present- famous artist Raphael [Italy. Turkey: Turk Dil Kurumu Tanitma Yaymlan. his at- tempt to translate the Quran into Turkish was frustrated by the authorities. 179-184. caused the government to treat §emseddin Sami as suspect. 18 §emseddin Sami Frasheri Transferring the New Civilization to the Islamic Peoples §emseddin Sami Frasheri (Albania-Turkey. he worked for the gover- nor of loannina. 1969). and many other lexicons. 1934). Following graduation.day civilization consider Aristotle [Greece. Furthermore. 384-322 tion. in comparison to modern-day Euro. Agah Sim Levend. §tikru Hanioglu. 1883-1884. 1483-1520]. Turkey: Resimli Ay Matbaasi. On Dorduncu Asnn Turk Muharrirleri: §emseddin Sami Bey pire. his newspaper ar- ticles—including the one translated here—were outspoken in promoting positivism and modernization. §emsettin Sami (§emseddin Sami) ve Eserleri (§emseddin Sami Bey: His Life and Works) (Ankara. (Turkish Authors of the Fourteenth Century [A. "Medeniyet-i cedidenin umem-i islamiyeye nakli" (Transferring the New Civilization to the (Istanbul. Although he was appointed to official positions. and he was compelled to destroy the parts he had completed. Meanwhile.

nor use the us. we must make and incompatible with Islam has decreased. This effort of these people contingent upon this alone. and an imitation. To go be. some of our literary figures who are un- tion flooded the world. the wisdom of Ibn creates a new one. thanks the same effort and go to the same expense to put into to the efforts of these preachers of civilization. the people. 980-1037]. so a new idea has arisen from this Rushd. and the chemistry of Jahiz [Iraq. Europe borrowed a seed of which prevents Muslim nations from becoming civi. sciences and pave the way to transfer contemporary naticism in front of the light of the sun. civilization while maintaining that the true civiliza- dom of Ibn Sina. things in their hands today is something that was bor- We can affirm that it is not the religion of Islam rowed from our ancestors. This effort has gone to ex- son and wisdom should overcome any such feeling. For this reason. acquired this new fanaticism: The Europeans bor- tian nations. and that most of science and technology which ous person who loves his religious community and we see in the hands of the Europeans today is made fatherland. Yet circulation among us the best scientific works of our as a result of their exaggerations. and to found schools pean civilization as a product of unbelief contrary to and colleges devoted to teaching them. also done some harm. however. and thus ancestors or more precisely our coreligionists who deem distancing themselves from it and guarding lived eight or ten centuries ago. if we wish to be. to publish them.150 § emseddin Sami Frasheri Canon of Medicine by Ibn Sina [Iran. rather the cause is the religious difference and seed. one senses be content with the lamp which he knows to have that alongside the good they have done. present-day civilization is in the hands of the Chris- ness of ignorance. But because there is as much It is true that religious zeal would impel a man to exaggeration as truth in what they assert. and planted that lized. The num- of libraries and translate them into the various Mus. and leave the study of the works of Islamic fanaticism is a most weighty duty for those who want scholars to the students of history and antiquity. however much effort and expense is required large dose of medicine intended to cure an illness to revive the medicine of Ibn Sina. At last the sun rose. pamphlets. tian nations. and to con. they have been lit by his ancestors. civilization to the Islamic nations. the light of educa. exaggeration. since the survival and glory of Islam are up of Muslim discoveries. circa 776. and so to make them warm to the new yond this and to draw a curtain of ignorance and fa. of the people. so we can neither ing European civilization as something stolen from operate a railroad engine or steamship. sheer folly. and although it is less detrimental than 869]. and insulting that telegraph. imperfect. we must do so by borrowing science This new fanaticism is like an illness arising from and technology from the contemporary civilization an overzealous physician's treatment. The duty we owe to those happy with this situation have attempted to make lamps today is simply to cherish and respect them for European civilization seem less loathsome in the eyes their role in getting us out the darkness. with the chemistry of Jahiz and the wis. civilization from the Islamic world. For just as we cannot cure even malaria people who have acquired a new fanaticism—view- with the medicine of Ibn Sina. tion. This It is a regrettable circumstance that. its harmfulness cannot be denied. yet it is essential that rea. tremes by exceeding the limits of necessity. In order to achieve tent ourselves with the weak light of those lamps. finding the way with the help of To avoid such fanatical reactions on the part of their lamps. ignorant masses of our own nation take rowed many things from us. ment of darkness. sermons. It is natural that a seed should decompose in the . is a most worthy one. the number of those own century. that is to say from our it to be a symbol or requisite of Christianity. that European civilization was borrowed from the rance and once again bringing them to civilization Muslims. is this goal. they each civilized nations—in other words. saving the Muslim peoples from igno. they used newspapers. conflict which exists between the Muslim and the They rendered great services to humanity. tion is ours—has correspondingly increased. Just as a Today. none of the themselves against it to be a religious duty. come civilized. Shattering this of Europe. ber of people among the Muslims who view Euro- lim languages. because today duty compels us to say the following to those who have civilization seems to belong exclusively to the Chris. and all available means to spread the view Therefore. Gradually people left this environ. to extract their books from underneath the dust the first. that Islam is no obstacle to true civiliza- are among the most important priorities of any zeal. the fact that lit a lamp in gloomy centuries enveloped in the dark. books. to be of service in civilizing the Muslim nations.

tation of. fanaticism was often an obstacle darkness of ignorance which surrounded her. and to elimi- because. But because fanati- go out. with the result pean people of the book [Christians and Jews] more that its very genus has changed. . and a mere imi. and just as within a short time rust eats up and destroys zation of which we are so proud today have materi. The knowledge that profligate in their religion than the ancient Greek Europe derived from the scholars of Islam was very pagans." thereby preferring to re. for fanaticism is the rust of religion. There is no alternative. Why then do so that the light of knowledge and true religion may we not want to benefit from European civilization. civilization. and had ceased to cism must be removed from religion so it shines with exist. pagans contradicted Islam. order to achieve progress in civilization and save the [caliph] Harun al-Rashid [reigned 786-809]. The rust of fanati- an ongoing enterprise at that time. and its future is secured. for all intents the caliphate on the ruins of Babylon. and only then did civiliza- Had the pioneers of Islamic civilization such as tion begin to move forward. away. in whose footsteps they proudly followed. but by Companions of the Prophet who had the honor of present-day standards it is nothing. so also fanaticism stains even the alized? Although Greek civilization was no longer most truthful religion and rots it. the civilization of their ancestors the Far from damaging religion." while some of us say "this is an als gathered together. in [caliph Abu] Ja'far [al-]Mansur [reigned 754-775]. That seed decomposed. she no longer needed it. Finally. and gunpow- main in darkness by closing our eyes! der. viewed Greek and purposes a war must be declared against fanati- civilization with similar contempt. or that depending on works of Greek greatly benefit it. and threw it ences were accused of heresy and severely punished. and waged a war imitation of our old lamp. would the Islamic civili. against fanaticism with axes. who established that are precipitating their annihilation. too. they demolished it. too. Islamic scholars were she had reached a bright place with the help of the light viewed as sorcerers. even the best steel. At that time she conversing with the Messenger of God? borrowed a lamp from us in order to escape from the In Europe. together illuminate and reinvigorate people's minds accusing it sometimes of blasphemy and polytheism and hearts. maintained that cism to crush it by force and thus open the road to that civilization was derived from. or are we more pious than the children of the considerable by [the standards of] the time. TRANSFERRING THE NEW CIVILIZATION 151 earth in order to bear fruit. and held Greek fanaticism as there is between light and darkness. but once on the road to civilization. after dropping this lamp and allowing it to nate fanaticism by appeasing it. of God (may God bless him and grant him salvation) There is as great a difference between religion and borrowed it in its entirety. the and sometimes of being an imitation? Are the Euro- cycle has been repeated many times. crowbars. In our society. the intellectu- just before dawn. it has brutally destroyed those who eyes. this would in fact Chaldeans. revived it. rather we should be ashamed of it. Some among us say "this is not a sun but a time have attempted to appease it. and those cultivating the sci- of that lamp. The sages. children of the Companions of the Messenger its true and essential luster. in darkness of ignorance and fanaticism must be removed high esteem and paid tribute to them. to reconcile religious texts with science. Can we wax proud of this? There is nothing here There too at first appeared some scholars who tried to be proud of. we do not even desire to benefit from a sun of cism is not the sort of monster that can be won over civilization which rises and shines before our very with kindness. and the Muslim nations from the ignorance and Bedouinism caliph Ma'mun [reigned 813-833]. hand in hand.

al-Kawakibi received a thor- ough education in the Islamic sciences and in the major Islamic languages of the region: Arabic. al-Rahhala Kaf (The Traveler K) (Cairo. Three Reformers: A Study in Modern Arabic Dirasat al-Wahda al-'Arabiyya. that is. The eminent Damascene looked at his colleague sion. to take Mecca] said. Ottoman Turkish. al-Husry." Journal of Islamic Studies. Egypt: Matbu'at al-Majlis al-'A'la. al-'Aqqad. 1966). In this process. he edited the official paper in Aleppo." [the fictional delegate from cooperate in writing down your speech. Khaldun Complete Works of Kawakibi) (Beirut.2 "In turns listening to the spoken statements and writing addition to your attention to organizing meetings and them down. al-Kawakibi decentered the primacy of the Ottoman Turks and transformed them into an internal. at which twenty-three representatives from around the Muslim world—including thirteen Arabs— assemble to discuss pan-Islamic resurgence and criticize Ottoman tyranny. volume 10. The following selection is drawn from al-Kawakibi's famous account of a fictional series of meetings in Mecca. by Joseph G. [Al-Sayyid al-Furati—probably the alter ego of the au- Reformist Ideology. after summarizing all of the opinions that the [from Alexandria]. Lebanon: Khayats. both of which were short-lived. problematic other." cause of stagnation. Arab Pan-lslamism. "Umm al-Qura" (The Mother 1999. the association requests the eminent sembled. Despite holding a number of administrative and public posts in Otto- man Syria. because. intellectually. 1. among others.1 The Seventh Gathering. In the 1870s. in keeping with the rules. marily Aleppo. 1958). Rahme.—Trans. number 2. President. First Political Thought (Beirut. and the minutes of the preceding [meeting] Damascene and the eloquent Alexandrian [fictional were read. then honorable brethren have mentioned. Born into a well-established family of notables in Aleppo. pri- Other. which is used in such to benefit from your personal views concerning the situations. 1899] in hearing. whenever they said: "We are willing to render this service. '"Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi's 2. representatives from Damascus and Alexandria] to "Mr. addressing al-Sayyid al-Furati. 19 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi Summary of the Causes of Stagnation 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (Syria. pp. "In addition. and parts of northern Iraq.] 152 . Eliezer Tauber. the association expects also ther of them knows short-hand. The Emergence of the of Towns [Mecca]). 159-177. reading. On the morning of this day. pp. His historical significance in the Islamic modernist trend of thought lay in his elaboration of an Arab pan-lslamism intended to reform the decaying Muslim world. Rahme. 358-367. AI-Kawakibi's thought was influenced by his contemporaries SayyidJamal al-Din al-Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad Abduh (chap- ter 3). who indicated his approval. Joseph G. Wednesday. He died suddenly in Cairo in 1902. privileging Arabs over non-Arabs and advocating the establishment of an Arab caliphate. have been expressed knowledgably and consistently 24 Zi'l-Qa'da 1 3 1 6 [April 5. Lebanon: Markaz S." 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi. the association as. which is the topic under discus. ch. like the rest of the brethren. 1854-1902) was one of the most influential Islamic reformist thinkers in the eastern Mediterranean at the end of the nineteenth century. 1993). leading him ultimately to settle in Egypt in 1898. writing. and the Internal thor—was the fictional representative of northern Syria. and reviewing—you are the most wide-ranging of us. nei- fulfilling editorial duties. possibly poi- soned by agents of the Ottoman sultan. al-Furat (The Euphrates). Translation from Arabic and introduction M. 'Abbas published in 1902. and Persian. al-Kawakibi experienced chronic persecution by the authorities. 1995). 5. and established two independent newspapers. in al-A 'mal al-kamila lll-Kawakibi (The Arab Movements (London: Frank Cass.

Loss of justice and equality of rights among the tive details of religious laws. judges. (D) 2. and loss of its security and aspirations. (D) 22. (F) 33. the rich and giving it to the poor. Effect of the doctrine of predestination on the not demanded. (F) deceitful 'ulama [religious scholars]. while delegat- treating it as entertainment and a game. (F) 11. (F) [causes] with the letter F and the derivative [causes] 21. Failure of practicing 'ulama' to affirm divine deliberations that this stagnation. The abandonment of religious tolerance and sponsibility. as already discussed. Penetration of manifest or hidden polytheism did not linger and plunged into his speech. (F) leniency in religious practice. 34. Requiring leaders. Confusion of the umma's beliefs due to the action. and religious offi- 12. forsaking scrip- causes. and asso- 13. and the eminent Damascene 15. [Al-Furati] ences are incompatible with religion. geomancers. (F) 26. (D) the pious early Muslims. Giving oneself over to specious ideas and arti- ficial distinctions in religion. (D) rightly-guided leaders. 27. Reversal of the practice of taking property from of the flatterers. through additions. omissions. Some scholars] and the abandonment of reflection and of these causes are fundamental. (F) turned away from the desk. (F) commanded. (F) 30. (D) plethora of conflicting opinions in the deriva. (D) ful 'ulama' and ignorant Sufis. (D) . 28. and I have little to offer. (F) The Second Kind: Political Causes 4. Belittling of religion by the exploiters of Sufism. "hearts"] ciating with flatterers and the wicked. political and the opinions of recent writers. Corruption of the religion by the obscurantism 31. of the association's studies. (F) 16. (D) "It can be concluded from our blessed association's 17. (D) ing service in religion to the ignorant. and moral causes. He said: into the beliefs of the laity. (D) from fundamental [causes]. (D) stems from the totality of numerous causes. Alienation of Muslim minds [literally. Effect of dissension [arising] from debates about religious beliefs. rulers give preferment to the elite. (D) ries from the index list that I extracted from the 20. Denial of a livelihood and honor to practicing and harmful innovations into the religion by 'ulama' and seekers of knowledge. distinguishing the fundamental Friday [prayer]. Religious severity by later legists in contrast to political parties. of magic and humbug. unity. Obstinacy in denouncing religious freedom in with the letter D. Requiring what would not be required if one The First Kind: Religious Causes sought guidance from the Book [the Qur'an] and the sunna [practice of the Prophet]. tures and the path of the pious early Muslims. Policymaking is divorced from power and re- 5. and some are derived the quest for guidance. I will read to you summa. (F) 24. (D) 3. (D) 9. religion there are secret matters and that knowl- my speech is feeble." Then he edge is a veil. (D) of the dead and their shrines. Denial of the umma's freedom of speech and 7. (D) 32. Undue allegiance to madhhabs [schools of law] reduced to three categories: religious causes. Yet all of them can be 19. as follows. Honoring knowledge by stipends through which 10. Inability to relate statements to practices in re. fables. (D) umma's [social] strata. (F) and fanciful interpretations. Neglecting the wisdom of the community. Fragmentation of the umma into factions and 6. (D) 8. (F) 25. Coercion and mistreatment of high-minded. Banishing noble and liberal leaders. and of the hajj [pilgrimage] assembly. The surrender to taqlid [imitation of previous one or a few causes that can easily be resisted. and beauty of life. (D) 23. Introduction of innumerable superstitions into cials [to implement] matters that destroy their the public sphere by deceivers and worshipers religion. Introduction of scriptural borrowings. and belittling of that which is ideas of the umma [Muslim community]." ignorance of its merits. The leaders' natural inclination toward deceit- ligion due to adulteration and severity. work. (F) through the threats of astrologers. Effect of asceticism on effort. not from 18. 29. Burdening Muslims with that which God has 1. Belief that the philosophical and rational sci- and eloquent Alexandrian took his place. SUMMARY OF THE CAUSES OF STAGNATION 153 Al-Sayyid al-Furati said: "[I shall comply] out of 14. Deceit of liars and flatterers [who state] that in affection and obedience though I am really incapable.

Loss of religious and moral education. administrative leadership should reside in those distant parts [so as to Then al-Sayyid al-Furati said: "These summarize know] the situations and the particular features the causes of stagnation that the brethren of the as. Inattention to the avoidance of polytheism and istration despite the distance of certain parts its evil portents. (F) self and persisting in his autocratic policies. I therefore add the following ers on despotism. (F) cussion of public affairs. Loss of the power of public opinion through sociation have set forth. general stagnation. [in the Tanzimat reforms of the mid-19th century]." 51. sermonizing. "As for the rest of the Islamic kingdoms and emir- product of their continued existence. it damaged its ancient foundations and did 42. Were I to give de- 39. (D) itants in terms of [their] races and customs. Furthermore. Adherence to the principle of centralized admin- 56. they too share some of these fundamental prob- 48. (F) cially in the last 20 years. (D) doing so. Loss of the strength of associations and the by. Enmity toward the higher sciences because of 58. (D) . due causes I wish to discuss in summary form are the to cowardice and fear of disappointment. disregarding repetitions. it would take too long and the military.154 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi 35. Delusion that religious knowledge is found 57. Preference for earning a living in the military The Policy and Administration and in government service. Immersion in ignorance and acquiescence to It has experienced most of these disorders in the last it. as suppression and division. (D) one would suppose. Lingering in apathy as a way of comforting the not improve either taqlid nor its blameworthy bida' self. (F) 5 9. (D) governments has an important role in producing the 37. (D) headings of the problem only. (D) 52. (D) the sultan's power for the sake of preserving his noble 46. Loss of mutual counseling and giving free rein [innovations]. and the confu- the comfort of ignorance and abasement. traditional religious laws despite differences in the characteristics of scholars] and in everything that is recorded the empire's parts and differences in the inhab- in the Book. (F) sion of the judiciary in [dealing with] analogous 55. enumerating them by means of the other than ostentation and wealth. (F) 60 years. The dominance of flattery' s fabrications. 40. Heterogeneity of juridical laws. exists in the fundamental administration of Islamic tence in unwise policies. Submersion of leaders in luxury and carnal ap- petites. the causes that I will mention are the fundamental origins of the disorder in the current poli- The Third Kind: Moral Causes cies and administration of the Ottoman empire. (D) 43. The 50. Corruption of teaching. this most powerful state whose affairs concern all Muslims. during which time two thirds 44. (F) harmful and bitter conditions whose exposition and 49. more the neglect of zakat [alms tax]. and their avoidance of any kind of glory guished brethren. (F) destroyed. (D) causes to the ones already discussed by my distin- 38. that is. 47. Restriction of political concern to taxation and tails and explain them. In cessful in religious and worldly affairs. rather than indus. "Moreover. orating. (D) following. Among the factors determining the ruin of 45. and lowliness. Abandoning action because of low expecta- tions. Descent into alienation by those who are suc. Foolishness of most leaders and their persis. of the kingdom was lost and the remaining third was bility. (F) ates. Inasmuch as the disorder that 36. Estrangement from engagement with and dis. Neglecting the demand for general rights. cases. Dissolution of the bonds of religious responsi. of their inhabitants. the state was the loss of men and the squandering of and giving spiritual guidance. (F) from the capital. (D) 53. (D) thorough examination would take too long. espe- to hatred of God. (F) 54. Standardization of administrative and penal among turbans [that is. they suffer from other. Stubborn and arrogant insistence of most lead. servil- ity. of the Ottomans try. after it rushed to reorganize its affairs 41. (F) we would digress from the aim of our gathering. so that its condition deteriorated. Loss of collective financial strength because of lems.

though the suppression ees. despite the enmity and hatred that God planted 69. Suppression of awakened thought in an effort the kingdom in order to satisfy them. Administration of property in a centralized man- races regarding subsidies and penalties. (F) empire became mortgaged to foreigners with 64. ministration expends all of that on its neighbors such as erecting rules that conflict with religious so that they will turn a blind eye to the [country's] law. them to intermix and secure the administration. sovereignty. but with no at. needs of the times. force of [secular] laws. Gross discrimination among various subject 7 6. tencies in the hiring of [government] employ. Then al-Sayyid al-Furati said: "Some of these ministration being methodical in name but ar. the progress of the inhabitants. without any supervision. are their superiors. among all the races and nationalities found in 72. their morals. Permissiveness in reward and reproof due to in. Loss of the sanctity of religious law and the among them till the Day of Resurrection. 67. and then flatterers. ner. development. as inhabitants and rendering it impractical for well as hatred toward the administration. and com. Failure to attend to the customs of the inhabit- leadership and governors are never held ac. with the aim of complicating understand. and they will put up concern. [all this] so that and damage without any accounting. silencing experts who know of its defects. needlessly em. and [to sup- 62. in the absence of some compelling policy destructive. not just outward obedience. or when there is need. Adhering to [the practice of] racial inconsis. rules. and the Euphrates— 74. ally know. of natural growth is utterly futile. with the rotten stink of their rule. extravagance without reprimand. ants. Iraq. 73. Carelessness in the selection of [government] so as to prevent their divulging what they re- employees and [civil] officials. tries would have no means to exert pressure. there would be a great uprising. bribery. the challenge of events. Adhering to a policy of customarily giving spe. and their welfare. capitulations. Administration of important political and civil- Minister of Defense. by not abiding by and executing [religious law]. Administrative confusion resulting from inat. favorites. (D) their affection. as if the empire had no master. tribes of the Hijaz. and insisting on ad. purchasing with- result. and in education. Preferential treatment of those base in descent. lest the public learn the truth of the ploying too many of them with the purpose matter. blood. and habitual speak. The state must select them from of concern for the future. 65. Shaykh al-Islam [chief religious official] or the 75. 77. like the of] territory. 71. (D) free persons and have authority over those who 63. until the they will not ally with him against the state. it would act. as a ner. governors. and is detested by them. and the [government's] refusal to discuss the leader and the led will not agree on any im. their merits and defects. so as to gain countable for their actions. rights. vince them and satisfy their concerns. through seeking to con. Administration of external affairs through attention to whether administrative matters are bootlicking. the governor enrages those whom he out budgeting. 61. the neighboring coun- their indulgence for it. the ad- 68. them—even though its damage in every act of portant matter. (D) omission and commission was well known. and if it spoke. Obtuseness toward or willful neglect of the tention to the integration of morals with proce. who hold sway over policy impossible. (D) to forbid its growth. Adhering to the principle that administrative 70. press] inquiry into administrative activities. Adhering to the practice of appointing to par. Inattention to fostering religious requirements. SUMMARY OF THE CAUSES OF STAGNATION 155 60. people despised by their ian interests without consultation of the sub- colleagues in the 'ulama' or the army. If the public were to learn it would of sustaining cliques. heavy debts that are being paid with [the loss ticular positions in certain professions. due to a of lack manders. painful sights. appeasement. so that jects. Administration of the treasury in a loose man- who are incapable of administering them. 66. the compromise of done well or badly. Were it not for tention to explaining to the umma and seeking those sights and smells. causes I have mentioned are old maladies inseparable bitrary in practice. and money. and rights. this neglect of matters by cial authority to certain families—like the those who are responsible for them leads nec- rulership of Mecca and the rulership of the large essarily to the debasing of the administration. from the administration of the Ottoman government . temptation ing between the employees and the [local] and [corrupting] inducements are the result. and dures among ministers. this makes agreement upon administrative in morals.

' a camel's head on the body of a bull. general apathy. their great feats except through sincere determina. of Egypt. Heedlessness or negligence in organizing the 1130-1269]. North African dynasty. Mongol ruler.' meaning 'rude tion. the shepherds and the subjects. —their saying about the Arabs of Syria: 'Ne §am'm It is only this congruence that makes the umma con. the contemporary ones are be- [Ayyubid sultan.1517]. the Muwahhidun [Almohads. at least until it suc- Miscellaneous Causes ceeds in attracting them to its language. Weakness of character. 634-644] and Salah al-Din to become Arabized. take pride successful kings and conquerors—such as Alexander in preserving the otherness of their subjects. 1805-1849. or the reverse. Genghis [Khan.' that is. and as the European colonial states matters of daily life. the greatest and most that is. sul and emperor.tional cause for such [behavior] except their intense 1227].C. or for centuries. Charles V of Germany [Holy Roman proverbs about Arabs that flow from their tongues: Emperor. not like Arab. circa 1149-1215]. with the disappearance of their producers. so that [Macedonian king.' for Arabs of the Hijaz.who. 'Kibti so that they were truly heads to those bodies. 'Arab Gypsy'. and the descendants of Muhammad 'Ali [ruler able status to their husbands].exception in this regard was the Turkish Moghuls— nize the histories of nations. and to unite with few miscellaneous causes that I shall examine after them in habits and tastes. second caliph. just as the Tatar Moghuls [that is. the Ottomans. may God be pleased coming Frenchified or Germanified. The least a foreign government should do is conform to the subjects' characters. 1038-1194]. Peter the Great [Russian tsar. without resentment or [the need for] them are temporary manifestations that will disappear coercion. Abandoning attention to educating women. on the contrary.' . Success can not be had in any other way. Perhaps as the wise al-Mutanabbi [classical Arab poet. as was indicated by the president in his first "There is no disagreement about the fact that one remarks. with their subjects and armies in morals and instincts. Withdrawal from life and apathy. even if the habits are not enumerating them in summary fashion. They intermingled with them and became part "As to the incongruence of morals between the of them. 79. Inattention to the fitness of wives [that is. and [Napoleon] Bonaparte [French con. Mongols] became Persians and Indians." good in themselves. 1799-1815]—did not accomplish 'Arab beggar. Saljuqs [Turkish dynasty. so that it gives itself ting up with the Arabs for the sweets of Damascus. would like to do in the present era. Differences in the natures of the subjects and [reigned 661-750]. 84. Heedlessness of the need to apportion labor and the non-Arabs who established states in the Islamic time. 1062]. —their use of the phrase 'kor fellah. 915- one could be patient with them. 1519-1558].' that is. 82.]. 'Egyptian Gypsy. —their use of the phrase 'dilenci Arab. will danger has come close—may God forbid it—to the Arabs succeed with 'ajam [non-Arab] kings?' heart. even if the commitment be temporary.' for Egyptians. as did the Umayyads 78." of the most important maxims of governments is to Then he said: "Connected to these causes are a adopt the characters of the subjects. 932- 81. world. Heedlessness of balancing [military] power and Ayyubids [Kurdish dynasty. hatred toward the Arabs. were it not that the 965] said: The people exist only through kings. all of 80. nor do they agree Khattab. —'Arab fingenesi. and some of wholeheartedly. then to its nationality.' that is. [Afghan dynasty. and the shepherds.they do not seek their Turkification. They had a genuine and complete congruence peasant. of Albanian-Turkish origin] 85. such as the Buyids [Turkish dynasty. Arabized and molded by the characteristics of the Arabs. that is. Similarly. it has a great significance. Ghurids preparedness. 336-323 B. 1206. so that it was not long until they become 86. Heedlessness of [the need to] yield to expertise. acculturated. as follows. 1169-1193]. 1696-1725]. as can be proved by the 1451-1481]. the [probably the Mamluk dynasty in Egypt. 'It is worth put- sider its leader to be its head. 'Umar [ibn al. 1250- development of qualities that make them of suit. There is no ra- with them. §ekeri ve ne Arab'in yiizii. [Mehmed] the Conqueror [Ottoman sultan.156 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi since its establishment. the 'Abbasids [750-1258]. Circassians 83.' that is. 1169-1260]. The only As is apparent to those who contemplate and scruti. then to its morals.

' or excessive babble." fenesi. 'Arab taste. because he knows that I do —their saying. 'Arab jawbone. and the research to which he pointed deserves much tion of suspicion about their Islamic faith. even these would —their use of the term 'Arab' for slaves and black not have been established.' necessity. in fear of astrological misfortune. except sincere counselor is the one who makes you weep. nerde tambura. Turks. animals. the Arabs do not reciprocate." about them: 'Three were created for oppression and Mr.' to their grandees. 'filthy Arab. The cause discussion. they joined Islam in blind obedience —their saying. "Moreover. Then al-Sayyid al-Furati said: —their saying. which added greatly to tabiati. 'Where there is an Arab. 'Arab mind.'] names mentioned from the pulpits. if the Exalted Master permits. 'Nerde Arab. But today our time has drawn to a close.' or corrupt. with two expressions.' that is. For [it is said that] the "To all that.' or small. I would not have spoken so clearly and openly. President said: "Our brother al-Sayyid al- decay: lice.' that "I beg pardon from al-Maula al-Rumi [the fic- is.' that not exaggerate. expression: calling [Turks] 'Byzantines. and the plague. and therefore we adjourn till our appointment tomor- except for the establishment of a few mosques—and row." . and if it were not for the religious is.' an indica.' that is. nor the if it were not for their rulers wanting to have their face of the Arab.' that is. of which he is aware.' that is. there is a lute. 'Bunu yaparsam Arab olayim.' And the second Furati is a well-spoken orator and a worldly knight. 'pis Arab. 'Arab and in respect for fire-pits. The first is the Arab saying not the one who makes you laugh. may I become an Arab. 'If I do that. 'Arab existing superstitions.' tional Turkish delegate]. of this suspicion is that the Turks did not serve Islam. SUMMARY OF THE CAUSES OF STAGNATION 157 [Literally: 'Neither the sweets of Damascus. —'Arab akh.

[al-Nabhani] continued. he taught in several Baghdad mosques and seminaries. on Him I depend. Translation from Arabic Shukri al-Alusi wa-bulugh al. stirring up the dust of contro. After a traditional religious education. Introduction and the Rise of the Arabs) (Beirut. al-Sayyid Mahmud pp." I made this discussion racecourse of debate. I cited on this 1932] wrote. claim ijtihad in this age in my book Hujjat Allah 'ala [Yusuf] al-Nabhani [Palestine-Lebanon. issue statements of religious scholars such as the on the termination of al-ijtihad al-mutlaq [unre. "The first section of the introduction. he began to criticize popular veneration of saints' tombs and the inclusion of music and dance in Sufi rituals. In 1902. After the Ottoman Young Turk Revolution of 1908." He also stated. 1992). he addressed such controversial religious issues as independent reasoning (ijtihad} in Islamic law and innovations in worship. the Imam [Abu'l-'Abbas] Ibn pretation]—a capability claimed. and others. on a scholar who objected to ijtihad. 158 . for God is [Wahhabis] and others. 'Arabiyya. Muhammad Bahjat al-Athari. Jami'iyya li'1-Dirasat wa'1-Nashr wa'1-Tawzi'. the author of a major exegesis of the Quran. Egypt: 'Abd al-Qadir al-Tilimsani. A prolific writer. It should be ignored. which heretics from various Islamic madhhabs [legal 1. I will achieve false.' The time has come for the pen to gallop along the schools] who admire them. 20 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi Ijtihad and the Refutation of Nabhani Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi (Iraq. Sha'rani [1492-1565]. This se- lection is excerpted from a polemical attack. Commins. Ibrahim Samarra'i. al. 1850. Alusi gathered a small num- ber of religious students who continued to pursue Islamic reform in Iraq. His modernist inclination appears in ar- guments for the harmony of modern scientific views. the most famous of whom was his grandfather. by the Hajar al-Haytami [1504-1567]. falsely. Ghayat al-amani fi'l-radd 'ala wa-ara 'uhu al-lughawiyya (Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi and his al-Nabhani (The Utmost Desire.'arab (Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi by Hager El Hadidi. but their effort failed. Egypt: Jami'at al-Duwal al- (Cairo. volume 1. like heliocentrism. into a separate treatise. and should not be relied success only through Him.'alamin [God's Proof to Mankind]. conservative scholars plotted to remove him from Baghdad for allegedly spreading Wahhabi ideas. and he won a prize from the Stockholm Ori- ental Languages Academy for his three-volume history of the pre-lslamic Arabs. li-ashab al-da 'awi al-kadhiba [Arrows that Strike who has mounted the steed of obstinacy. "I responded to those who Him I turn in repentance. 1907). Imam ['Abd al- Wahhabi [scripturalist] group and other ignorant Ra'uf] al-Munawi [1545-1621]. and to upon. After presenting the the Exalted. 1958). First published in 1903. I ask God. He also contributed to the reform movement by searching for and publishing the works of earlier scholars like Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328). Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi. Lebanon: al-Mu'assasa al- by David D. not to allow the tip of my pen to descend prologue of that treatise. with the Quran. 44-60. no matter how learned—is the Protection and Refuge from all ills. Those Who Make False Claims]. but to safeguard me against hold that the claim of ijtihad in this age—by wrongdoing and lapses in word and deed. He is also no- table for attracting the attention of European scholars. a Refutation of Nabhani) Views on Language) (Cairo. entitled al-Siham al-sa 'ibah versy in the face of the most intractable opponent. He befriended the great French Orientalist Louis Massignon (1883-1962). Alusi came from a long line of prominent religious scholars. 1857-1924) was the foremost proponent of religious re- form in late Ottoman Iraq. Imam [leading scholar] ['Abd al-Wahhab] al- stricted or absolute freedom of Islamic legal inter. edited by Devin Stewart. "I into false accusation. published anonymously. his publishers wrote Alusi's name by hand on each copy of the book. Around 1890.

Shaykh Muhammad of the Islamic jurisprudence to the effect that." [Al-Nabhani] by those of defective mind and religion. [Ibn Hajar] to the following points: said. the year I [al-Nabhani] wrote the may God be pleased with him. "If all of al-Shafi'i's texts were lost. he would be too ashamed before God to claim it for Al-Nabhani's thesis will be addressed according any person of these times. unless it is said. as follows..D.. his con. 'If there through wilaya [here. ions [wujuh. by Ibn Hajar. since he lived in the sixth century [A.D. This senseless jabber continues until levels of ijtihad. Al-Suyuti." If such great scholars a particular legal school]—then he should explain the are not qualified for ijtihad al-madhhab [the ability opinion he considered most acceptable in this regard. 1181-1245] and his followers stated that [ijtihad] had terminated about 300 years before their time. falseness of his claim. IJTIHAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 159 should serve to persuade every person endowed with the era of [Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad] al-Shafi'i common sense and sound understanding. 1240]. the author of al- proposed two different rulings considered equally Bahr [The Sea].H. deed. ijtihad al-fatwa [the ability ment. with respect to the era of Ibn Hajar. after stated this explicitly in many of his treatises. for we are in the der against them. which al-Munawi Hujjat al-Islam [the Proof of Islam] [Abu Hamid also quoted in the beginning of his large commen.' Moreover. and Ibn The First Point al-Salah was about 300 years ago. that of unrestricted ijtihad! himself. that he was not among those who valid. randomly.' Ibn Then [al-Nabhani] quoted a number of statements by Hajar said. his bankruptcy of all knowledge. singular wajh] within the Shafi'i legal temporaries attacked him and criticized him en school. Muhammad] al-Ghazzali [1058-1111] are among tary on this book: "[Ibn Hajar] said. [1703-1787]—is a false accusation. 1028-1085] and Small Compendium]. "Ibn al-Salah cited a scholar on theology and articles of faith. a lie. To mention all the fallacies turbed. They wrote him a petition presenting a num. 'Contemplate the difficulty of this level. those who have produced authoritative variant opin- Din] al-Suyuti [1445-1505] claimed ijtihad. and the stricted ijtihad—is addlepated and his thinking dis. has been a longstanding debate among leading schol- cial status or closeness to God]. the leading scholars said about [Abu'l- ber of legal questions on which Shafi'i jurists had Mahasin] al-Ruyani [13th century]. who lived in beliefs of Shaykh Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab the tenth century. to interpret within a particular legal school].H. adopting his opinions book Hujjat Allah 'ala al. '[Taqi al-Din] Ibn al-Salah [al-Shahrazuri. saying that he was busy with other concerns Glory be to You. it is not claimed today except [independent interpreter of the law]. and it will become apparent to you the end of his discussion of this topic. and excused to claim a higher level. and a slan- tinued for about a thousand years. "Then Shihab al-Din Ibn Hajar said. conceive mentally of the level of unrestricted ijtihad. Imam al-Haramayn [the Imam of Mecca and Medina. which is the lowest of all the discontinued. sent back the part of their expressions correctly allow themselves petition without writing any answer. or 12th century A. So [ijtihad] has now been discon.'alamin. like someone who rides blindly and strikes included in his discussion would take a long time. He did . scholars corroborating his view that ijtihad had been I mean ijtihad al-fatwa.]. an outstanding mystic's spe. and not in its details." Then he quoted al-Jami' al-saghir [The that is." on the individual points of law and agreeing with him [Al-Nabhani] said. as was stated by the ars of the legal tradition concerning whether or not great Shaykh Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-'Arabi [1165. 'When Jalal [al.' [Ibn Hajar] said. O God! This is great slander!'" that prevented him from looking into the matter. They demanded that if he had even the lowest produced wujuh—this despite [al-Ruyani's] state- level of ijtihad—that is. or school of the Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal [780-855]. All the people of Najd follow the seventeenth year of the fourteenth century [A. indicating his that anyone who claims it—let alone claims unre. "As for ijtihad. so as of To attribute the call for ijtihad to the Wahhabiyya— today it has been discontinued for 600 years'—that the term [al-Nabhani] uses for those who share the is. however." Then he [767-820]. what then might you think about others? In- masse. how then and provide the appropriate evidence according to the could those who cannot even understand the greater rules of ijtihad.]. there has not been a mujtahid mustaqil said. ignorance. I could to select among the legal opinions proposed within dictate them from memory. Abu'l-Ma'ali al-Juwayni. 1899-1900 A. 'Even if someone could so instead we will criticize his argument in general.

The scholars have de. the occasions of Revelation. even that it actually occurs. the Hour of Judgment. the the particular case at hand alone. an innate. It is preferred that he designating the Shaykh should be al-Muhammadiyya be able to search for contradictory evidence. This aptitude claim that the gate of ijtihad is closed. for the schol. and returned to the one who upholds it. [A mujtahid] must also attain supported by any evidence. Despite that. This is good for you ity and invalidity. who supported the articles of faith. [unrestricted interpreter]. lieve in God and the Last Day. is an ters of hadith science and theology. In addition. abrogating and abrogated scriptural of Najd and those who follow the sunna [the prac. [For technical mat- [people of the sunna. the full requirements for someone to act ditions they laid down for ijtihad are not impossible as an official witness in court cases]. the scholars of ju- risprudence mentioned numerous issues under this The topic of ijtihad has been exhausted. He did. who becomes thor- oughly versed in the law and able to perform tarjih [demonstrating the preponderance of one alternative The Second Point ruling over another].] it is sufficient for injustice and an aggression. it is a false and slander. said: "O you who believe. God willing. nor was it indicated by a knowledge of the law as a whole. Verse the legal craft. thing. among you. This ability is the foundation of and the best of settlements. refer it to God and the Messenger. To associate the people consensus exists. "A group of my nation will continue sup- clared that ijtihad is the utmost exertion of effort on porting the truth until God's command arrives"— the part of a jurist in order to arrive at a probable that is. You have also learned from necessary for adoption by others of a mujtahid's our summary of their statements that they did not verdict in a court case—and aptitude. single and multiple chains of transmis- tice of the Prophet] with the Shaykh and to consider sion. . prooftexts. so to call stu. Conditions [permitting This is a summary of the jurisprudents' discus- such interpretation] are legal capacity—and not pro. Even more odd is that the adjective perts and leading theologians. Sunni Muslims]. nor was this involves the rational capacity for acquiring necessary implied by their argument. and Reconciliations] by Ibrahim ibn Musa al-Shatibi. the mujtahid to rely on the assessments of hadith ex- ous accusation. posed within a single school]. Others held that it is not died 1388]. eponymous founder of the school of law to which dents and supporters of the Shaykh Wahhabiyya is he belongs]. Some held that it is permissible. The rank [and not al-Wahhabiyya]. God. however. and if you are at variance over some- dence. and the condition them a sect of Muslims apart from the ahl al-sunna of hadith transmitters and texts. if you be- erly analyze cause and effect. be familiar with legal issues on which good and forbid doing evil. be learned in the Qur'anic espouses it. both of which are preter restricted to the legal opinions already pro- clearly wrong. keen under. some relevant issues should permissible. Below this is mujtahid al-futya [inter- either plain ignorance or an insult. enjoin doing legal content. citing as evidence the hadith [of the be mentioned here in brief.160 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi not claim ijtihad. who is able to not his father. Prophet]. derive legal rulings from the texts of his Imam [the commanding good and forbidding evil. the Exalted. sions of the topic. is mujtahid restricted to a madhhab. and it was the Shaykh. and recognize valid. nor did he call on anybody to adopt verses and hadiths [narratives of the Prophet] with him as an authority. rubric that we need not relate. so that obey God and the Messenger and those in authority he might be able to deduce legal rules from evi. or knowledge of scriptural prooftext from the Qur'an or the sunna. which is only but may exist in any era." [Qur'an. standing of the intended meanings of speech. references to which we must turn in cases of disagree- visible. it should be a mid-level [or higher] expertise in the Arabic lan. particularly in the book al-Muwafaqat [The a mujtahid. prop. therefore. [Such cases] involve a mujtahid al-mutlaq discussed below. ment. since 'Abd al-Wahhab is lower than that of absolute or unrestricted mujtahid Shaykh Muhammad's father. Sura 4. ijtihad being di. dismissed. and you have learned that the con- bity [that is. thrown back in the face of the person who guage and theology. that is. recognize similar and dissimilar cases. and mental acuity. whether it is permissible for an age to be devoid of sively. then disagreed on ars of Islamic jurisprudence have discussed it exten. Stupid or incompetent people are 59] The opinion that ijtihad has terminated is not incapable of ijtihad. This issue will be ruling.

al-Qaffal [Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ' Ali al. while you forbid selection of what has been diverse opinions. an instance of consensus or erence unclear] and others. such as Abu'l. other- statements of His Messenger.D. If the authority agrees with what correctness] have flouted God's decree and His law is contained in the Qur'an and the sunna. the jurist with a false judgment that openly contradicts the gives a verdict or legal opinion accordingly. have reached the utmost existed since the early eras of Islam. and Sura 53. the world is devoid cording to you or others. He will continue to al-Awza'i [707-774].' sure the completion of His Light and make manifest This is the opinion of many Hanafi jurists. No one is allowed any longer to examine God's The hadith expert [Muhammad] Ibn al-Qayyim [al. that a group among His umma [the been able to choose between legal rulings since the Muslim community] shall remain faithful to the year A. and the authority [a reference to the Qur'an. none of which has God granted any demonstrated in the Scripture. Verse 23]. to extract the rulings of the ion [that ijtihad has been terminated]: "Muqallids Sacred Law. and al-Hasan Ibn Ziyad al-Lu'lu'i [734-819].H.tire Muslim community to follow him. and the sunna of His Messenger as sources for the Muhammad ibn al-Hasan [al-Shaybani. peace be upon him. 200 [816 A. Sura 12. who could produce a wajh that others of lesser do you forbid a man from choosing positions that status could adopt in their judgements and rulings. whether a scriptural prooftext from the neither wujuh nor ihtimalat. send to this umma someone to renew its faith.form this selection.lowed to choose between rulings after those you have lowers of al-Shafi'i disagreed about whose opinions mentioned. has been able to select rulings after ['Abd al-Rahman] and that every hundred years. They also disagreed about legal analogy. [muqallids] said.H. and consider him more acceptable for 1111]. 7th particular [mujtahid]. the rejection of [circa 699-767] and [his students] Abu Yusuf [Ya'qub God's proofs. These opinions [about the closing of the God's proofs for Him and stating that no scholar has door of ijtihad]. and contradiction. or the adoption of an ion without considering the statement of the one he authority's opinion without independent proof of its imitates and follows.taqlid than others? What gives you the right to per- erable variant rulings] but not wujuh. [Another] group said that to object to those who uphold them: If no one is al- nobody could choose rulings after al-Shafi'i. Sufyan al-Thawri [716-778].ger. They divided [legal scholars] into three Scripture of God and the sunna of His Messenger? levels: a first group who produced wujuh. IJT/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 161 The Third Point who speak with knowledge have vanished from the earth.Qur'an or the sunna.] 200. it is not permissible to of those who uphold God's proofs for Him. which is not supported by any Ma'ali [al-Juwayni]. and Abu Hamid [al-Ghazzali. wise. it is sufficient ibn al-Mubarak [736-797]. Waki' ibn al-Jarrah [died circa 812]. however. in response to this opin. Bakr [Abu the truth of the saying of His Messenger that the earth al-Fadl ibn Muhammad] ibn 'Ala' al-Din al-Qushayri. such as Ibn How do you allow yourselves to choose taqlid of a Shurayh [possibly Shurayh ibn al-Harith al-Kindi. as you see. 1292-1350] said. how do you . ac- "According to these scholars. died 976]. shall never be devoid of those who uphold God's the Maliki jurist [died 955]. "One should also object to this opponent: If. forbid taqlid Shashi. such as Ibn Hamid [ref. stated that nobody has proof for Him. and 'Abdullah "Concerning these invalid opinions. falsehood. will en- 805]. he rejects the scriptural evidence and does not thereby emptying the earth of people who uphold accept it. Verse statements of the Companions? 40. died of others. in agreement with the who could not. and how do you force the en- century]. The fol. and the abandonment of the Qur'an al-Kufi. by what right can you choose to adopt should be relied upon among those associated with certain scholars as authorities and not others? How him. No one should rule or give a legal opin- [those who engage in taqlid. upholding many Prophet. and a third group who produced evidence. Zufar ibn al-Hudhayl [died 775].rulings of the Sacred Law. Others have said that nobody genuine Truth that He revealed through [the Prophet].]. circa 750. One group of level of invalidity. a second group who produced ihtimalat [pref. died 798]. those choose between rulings after [A. or a statement of a companion of the when the gate of ijtihad was closed. peace be upon him. God. and ijtihad leads him to adopt. 'No jurist has the right to choose They represent the espousal of religious positions between alternative legal rulings after Abu Hanifa without any basis in knowledge.Scripture [the Qur'an] or the sunna of His Messen- Jawziyya. the sunna.

How can one compare the follow- the month of Muharram in the year 201 appeared and ers of ['Abdullah] Ibn 'Abbas [619-686]. against themselves. and other opinions of Companions and Successors who were jurists of the same rank would have been able to earlier. while you deny the sors. and blessed with more numerous and more il- month of the year 200. rather status of their followers. ibn 'Abd Allah ibn 'Utba. and the closest to the texts of scripture. Mujahid [ibn Jabr al-Makki]. and Abu Bakr examination [of texts]. or the follow- choosing what they had been free to choose before. you mentioned the capa. 634-644] "One should object to the others: Is it not one of and 'Ali [ibn Abi Talib. or the vast number and illustrious 710-796. 'Abbas? Where among the followers of [later] imams nity concerning the Scripture of God. more knowledgeable. Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh [circa 778-853]. to express died 678]. their precise Zayd. al-Aswad [ibn of the sunna. adhering to a contradiction—forces you to leave aside Faraj [died 838]. 'Ikrima. both Companions and Succes- personal judgment and analogy.' They stated this explicitly and testified to it "Though each group of them argues for the pref. died find the likes of the two Sa'ids. unmatched by those of other than those of Companions [of the Prophet] who were scholars—the other groups can argue as much or even more knowledgeable than he. the Companions—such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal. piety. and elevated status pre- refuse to grant them this status. an opinion about the religion of God on the basis of 'Eight hundred men. their these [earlier figures] with their followers? It is true analogies were the most accurate. al. Masruq. for their status did not allow them erence of the particular [mujtahid] whom they accept to derive religious learning directly from the Qur'an as an authority on the basis of some type of superi. in order to hold water—if you insist on Mutarrif ibn 'Abdullah [died 835]. their efforts to record later imams] are the likes of Nafi'. and the tremendous respect accorded to them lims] were too lofty for us. 656-661]. ars did not meet. and Shurayh? Where among the followers [of from inauthentic hadith reports. and the sunna.162 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi permit yourself—you who were not born until sixty ority—precedence in time. one of the companions of 'Abdullah Ibn of Islam—the most learned of the Muslim commu. that the latter enjoyed the status of their era. al. or later jurists? these points or others. more pious. Salim. ['Amir ibn Sharahil] 884]. and their ingenious use of ibn 'Abd al-Rahman [al-Makhzumi]? What made evidence? When those among them who upheld the [later] imams more fortunate with their followers than validity of legal analogy used this method.' What of Zayd capability of selection and ijtihad to the protectors ibn Thabit. asceticism. [the Maliki jurists] all of these contending groups as follows: This opin- Ashhab [died 819]. It is also possible to object to According to this position. and the sayings and legal opinions of scholars] 'Ata' [ibn Abi Rabah]. despite their wide knowledge al-Sha'bi. their ability to distinguish authentic Yazid]. ion of yours. the God-given affection of the faithful towards as if [the later scholars] had said: 'These [early Mus- them. tus? What of Abu Hurayra [companion of the Prophet. so per- able. ['Abdullah] the sun disappeared. more as- choose between rulings to until the end of the last cetic. founder of the Maliki madhhab]. Ibn al-Majishun [died 829]. Sulayman ibn Yasar [al-Hilali]. for example. acquain- years after the year 200 [apparently a reference to al. to engage in ijtihad. both scholars and the masses. in numbers and revered sta- you grant only the imam?. about whom al-Bukhari wrote. fame. the sunna of can one find the likes of [the 7th and 8th century His Prophet. Asbagh ibn al. and we are in no way their by the Muslims. tance with teachers and authorities whom later schol- Qushayri]—to select the opinion of Malik [ibn Anas. bility to select rulings. Tawus [ibn Kaysan]. [Yet you haps their greatness. transmitted knowledge from him. Zayd ibn Thabit [died would have been prohibited—all of a sudden—from 665] and Mu'adh ibn Jabal [died 627]. 'Alqama [al-Kufi]. and Jabir ibn Zayd? And Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Bukhari [810-870]. ers of 'Umar [ibn al-Khattab. 'Ubayd Allah Shafi'i. Kharijaibn [the following generation of Muslims].] despite their extreme vented later scholars from following their example. but when the new moon of lustrious followers. the opinion of your chosen authority in favor of the Ahmad Ibn al-Mu'adhdhal [ninth century]. with the great catastrophes and wonders of the world that followers of later imams. They would say: 'We are not capable . and their likes. the least question. 'Urwa [ibn al-Zubayr]. where among the followers [of later imams] can one Dawud ibn 'Ali [founder of the Zahiri madhhab. al-Qasim the sayings of the Companions and the Successors [ibn Muhammad]. 816] they Ibn Mas'ud [died circa 652]. fourth caliph. on that night [July 30. piety. equals. Sahnun ibn Sa'id [777-855]. or jurists from the more for their own chosen authority's superiority on major cities who are equal to him. second caliph.

' (Sura 43. 'My na.] . why do you deny it to those who have reached it could be said to have been sealed by so-and-so. since only one who is more ignorant than the and sunna] than we are. "Muhammad is not the father of any live in your era. 'O Kumayl ibn Ziyad. [He] 'raised among the Meccans a messenger from however. 'That is the bounty of God. put in its place!' I am that brick. who quotes the Prophet. but they say. Verse 32) is also supported by rational proofs such as the per- "The Prophet. In the Sahih [Collection of Sound Hadiths]. God is master of great bounty. would uphold his "One should object to them: Why do you blame thesis. legal rulings for all ages and times. before me are like the following example: A man one else of lesser stature. God. without any side in Heaven) are 'a multitude of those of old. but because of our own incapacity and defects. The Fourth Point Indicating the Invalidity and hold up scholars' statements to them for com. peace be upon him.' (Sura 62. also informed us that Seal [Muhammad]. al- censured those who opposed the prophecy [of Bukhari cites Abu Hurayra. glory be to Him. while being the most moderate of faiths. one does not know which is better. glory be to Him. texts from the Qur'an and the sunna which God's bounty. a few of those of later time. and bankruptcy in the fields of knowledge. peace be upon him." The fact that prophecy has been sealed are better than what they amass. or even in the say- the Law. we have seen no evidence of its termina- amongst them. said. formed us that the foremost believers (who will re. All of this indicates that prophecy ended with the 14) God. God bestows gifts upon whom He of the prophets." (Sura 33. as saying. Ijtihad is not like a prophecy so that grapes. saying: 'Are they the ones builds a fine and beautiful house. He is scholars shall continue until the Hour of Reckoning. Verse 40) wishes among his worshipers. then said. and teaches them the Scripture and Messenger. grow up with you. accepting statements that agree with [these sources] and rejecting those that contradict them? Any knowledge which has no evidence to indicate it Just because you have not yet reached this bunch of is unacceptable. may God be pleased with him. except for a single who dispense the favor of your Lord? It is He who corner brick. [In Iraq. 'Would that this brick be this world. He gives whosoever He '"Ali ibn Abi Talib. glory be to Him. and its miracu- its beginning or its end. please. either in the Book of God or the sunna of His reforms them.—Ed. the tion cannot fathom. When we reached the desert he began to pert Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya in his book I'lam al. in. has made broad? Even if jurists Exalted. and exaggeration or shortcoming. For ijtihad. The people walk around it and wonder apportions the means of livelihood among them in at its beauty.' (Sura 62. we have seen evi- (Sura 62.' ings of the Companions. people's hearts muwaqqi'in [The Notification of Court Clerks]. Verse 2) He also said. cemetery.' (Sura 56. fection of the shari'a [sacred law]. who recites His revelations to them. As it and tasted its sweetness? Why do you limit that for prophecy. and have a close man among you. not because of defects in the Qur'an or the deviant predecessors—are evidence of his ignorance sunna. and raises some in position over others. Ibn Qayyim's passage makes it perfectly clear that 2. those who follow the teachings of [the Qur'an and sunna]. 'And for others dence indicating that the science of shari 'a and its among them who have not joined them yet. took my hand and brought me out with him near the Verse 4)" This ends the statement of the hadith ex. Verse 3) Then He related. lous preservation from change and modification. giving it to some. in both We have therefore made do with [the opinions of] their subsidiary topics and their fundamental theo- someone who is more knowledgeable of [the Qur'an ries. Muhammad] by arguing that He had denied it to peace be upon him. bring their suits to them for a verdict. its inclusion of tion is like rain. tion. The favors of your Lord the Prophets. "I and the prophets prominent men and town leaders. the owl is held to be the epitome of igno- the statements made by al-Nabhani—following his rance. mighty and wise. that human reason or imagina. said.' son of an owl. Verses 13. for before him they were clearly in error. sigh. of the Ignoramus al-Nabhani's Thesis parison.' God.2 such as himself. but a messenger of God and the seal kinship with you. and I am the last of to make some submissive. provide evidence that it has been sealed. peace be upon him. God. Kumayl ibn Ziyad al-Nakha'i [died circa 778] said. make [these scriptural texts] the arbiters of their disputes. //I/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI I 63 of this. Rather.

peace be upon him: 'A might be lost. [In pre-Islamic Arabia. you Knowledge is better than wealth. while their the student who learns as a means to salvation. so that the outstanding features had born a large number of offspring or as the result of a vow of the faith might not be erased and its signposts not on the part of the owner. the best nation ever brought to the people. so that they were [always] led Verse 103) Alusi's point here is that scholars who do not pass by prophets. yet their statements are were no mujtahid to uphold God's proofs in the last great in the eyes of God. ['All] pointed to his chest.'" [Al-Tirmidhi] said: "This is a reliable but of delights. and were exempted from most labor. trying to gain power citing Qutayba. remain impervious to the light religion. on the authority of devoid of those who uphold God's proofs. These are the repre- the riffraff rabble. died 657] and 'Abdullah ibn proofs and pronouncements come to nought. Knowledge guards may leave. The hoarders of money die. This and related customs are rejected in the Qur'an. 948-1038] in Hilyat al-awliya' [The Adorn- more you give away'"—or according to another ver. the best among them are those that are ality. pas.164 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi are vessels. and they welcome that which frightens the There are three types of people: the divine scholar.3 Their knowledge dies with the death of its "[Hammad] is one of our shaykhs [respected teach- bearers. Among the Israelites. Knowledge brings them near the truth of re. follow the people of truth. prophets continually ture. they shall remain so. If you wish. They were allowed to roam. Though they themselves thentic hadith of the Prophet. Look. Oh. but the effect of wealth disappears about 'Ali's statement. or obsessed with uncommon hadith. Miftah dar al-sa 'ada scholar obedience during his lifetime and fine praise [The Key to the Abode of Happiness]. succeeded one another. vanish. or merely Prophet]. without any insight in their peace be upon him said: 'My nation is like rain: one bosom. how I long to meet them! I ask God's of knowledge. Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya has interpreted this edge is a creed to adhere to. one of the best in letter and in spirit. ment of the Saints] and by other authors. Hammad ibn Yahya al-Abahh. or be bent on the pursuit end. They are most like sa 'iba al-Abahh a trustworthy transmitter. Such people are not ibn Mahdi [died 813] considered Hammad ibn Yahya ones who call to the faith. who reported. 1002-1071] said. difficult. their likes shall live on in the hearts group of my community shall remain steadfast in the [of humankind]. The love of knowl. as well: . Until God's command arrives. O God! Yes.'" This was recounted by Abu Nu'aym [al- you. and drink freely." ruler and wealth is the one ruled. sentatives of God on earth and the propagators of His bend with every wind. shall not be devoid of those who uphold God's proofs while scholars live on. 'If unworthy bearers be. ignorant. Yes.—Ed. God made its scholars to applied to camels accorded an honored status because they succeed one another. "the more you put it into practice"—'"but al-Khatib [al-Baghdadi. who follow anyone who shouts. indeed. so that they find easy what the affluent find most capacious. (Sura 5." In the same chapter. "O God. forgiveness for myself and for you. Knowledge is the fine hadith. They might use the by [Abu 'Isa Muhammad] al-Tirmidhi [died 892]. camels.] prophets of the Israelites. so that doubt penetrates their heart at the first does not know which is better. they would not be described as His proofs so that they might convey them to their having such good qualities. from Anas [ibn Malik. its beginning or its sign of specious challenge. from over the Qur'an with His proofs and ascendance Thabit. easily driven by lust. Its Prophet is the seal of the prophets.'" come attracted to it. Also [the report]: "This nation is the most perfect selves. These 'Amr [died circa 680] [appears the report]: "If there [persons] are few in number. and souls ascend to divine heights. Here is knowledge! Scholars for Him": "This is confirmed by the following au- shall live on until eternity. of nations. and there will 3. indeed the earth once it is exhausted." It is related that' Abd al-Rahman gathering and piling up wealth. the scholars of this nation are like the on their knowledge cease to benefit society. and fail to resort to a solid support. here! Here is knowledge!' and Truth. the term sa'iba (unhindered) be no prophet after him. but you guard wealth. Abu Bakr sion. not affected by their tormentors or detractors. the earth will never be ers]. tool of religion for worldly gain. God defends [days] of the umma. Remember what I am telling you. companion of the over His worshipers with His blessings. He used to say." In another hadith. Knowledge gains for a hadith in detail in his book. it may end up in the hands of [This hadith] is also confirmed by the report related people who cannot be trusted. lest His 'Ammar [ibn Yasir. "This is a wealth decreases as you spend it. where he wrote after his death." peers and plant them in the hearts of people like them. "The Messenger of God. Knowledge grows the Isfahani. Through them. Their bodies live in this world.

indi- upon him. it would be devoid of seedlings of God. who are prepared to derive ing into this matter. Indeed. ". We have quoted sufficient material for the purpose at hand. IJT/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 165 "This knowledge will be passed on by the virtuous They claim that I follow Ibn Hazm [994-1064]. he is not trustworthy." or "The scholars have the collection of sound hadith?. He said in one of his poems: Verse 255) . The Have any religious scholars. mercy be or the points of law. edge can they grasp. peace be Muhyi al-Din." (Sura 2. . and the misinterpretations of the ig. We have already noted that it is not ate evidence according to the rules of ijtihad. Al- possible for an era to be devoid of a mujtahid. for but the statement of an ignorant person who has been he fabricated even greater lies than this against the struck by the touch of Satan? Then. without intellect or "When Jalal [al-Din] al-Suyuti [1445-1505] claimed discernment. 1263-1328]. unless it be through wilaya. sent back the petition without writ- Hanbali and traditionalist scholars of Islamic juris. ing any answer. They demanded that if he had even the lowest [Al-Nabhani's] statement—"As for ijtihad."—has neither mean. In addition." but I am not among those who say. and his ing of his statement: "unless it be through wilaya"! lies are apparent. ranting come from an ignorant heretic like al.. the pre. "The Prophet says. I respond that even if Ibn Hajar related the text of have defective minds and defective faith? Is this not the quotation accurately. This point will be treated ex- of scholars." is immune to the distortions of extremists. "Thus This hadith shows that Islamic religious knowledge spoke Ibn Hazm." That is my norant. The Sixth Point idity of the senseless drivel the ignoramus al. and pious works. acceptable in this regard." from the Scripture. Or anybody else. We leave this matter up to God. Why do those who fulfil the was busy with work that prevented him from look- conditions for ijtihad. . said: "God will continue to plant in this cated in these verses that he deduces legal rulings faith seedlings that serve to maintain obedience. knowledge and enlightenment. what is the mean. Shaykh al-Islam [Ibn Taymiyya. Rather. It indicates that knowledge will continue to judgment. it is not level of ijtihad—that is. there is a report of profess. saying that he prudence have stated. except what He will. and provide the appropri- ing nor effect. as the texts of his books indicate." That is my knowledge. They wrote him a petition pre- senting a number of legal questions on which Shafi'i The Fifth Point jurists have considered two disparate rulings equally valid. century after century. as Suyuti. If the earth were to become devoid and not legal analogy. "The tenses of liars.Nabhani included in the introduction to his book. the Shaykh Muhyi This has been transmitted by the Imam Abu Hanifa al-Din [Ibn al-'Arabi] is among those who claimed and others. God's mercy be upon him. and not even a little of His knowl- ijtihad al-mutlaq. my words are. experts in jurisprudence response in defense of Imam al-Suyuti. and excused himself. the ignorant injure themselves more and said in response to 36 of them. text of the Scripture avers. and reliable members of each successive generation. . haustively in the appropriate place below. be carried through the ages. according These seedlings of God are the people of knowledge to him. ever considered this term part upon him." than their enemies do. however. al-Khawlani [Abu Idris or Abu Muslim. these three alone are the sources of the law. "I don't know. of ['Abd al-Rahman agreed unanimously on the opinion I Ibn] Abi Hatim [circa 854-938]. We have learned from this [fourth] point the inval. as was he should explain the opinion he considered most stated by the great Shaykh . his contemporaries attacked him and criti- cized him en masse. and consensus." their religion [directly] from the Scripture and sunna. It is said that Imam Malik was asked 40 questions Nabhani. In Or. as will be seen in what follows. ijtihad. He is far from [Al-Nabhani] quoted Ibn Hajar al-Makki as saying. died 699 or 682] who said that the Messenger of God. ijtihad al-fatwa [the right to claimed today except by those of defective minds and choose from among alternative legal opinions]—then defective faith. sunna. is that the mujtahid need not have all the of the topic of ijtihad! But it is no wonder that such knowledge contained in the Preserved Tablet.

Adhere done. and demons that he saw fit to attack sors [the generation after the Companions]. the great scholar of primary Sunni madhhabs] forbade the blind adoption mankind. . argument of the heedless al-Nabhani has crumbled and continued for 600 years'—that is. precisely and clearly with a snake in it and so get bitten. must accept the sound hadith and forsake all state- munazzam (Strung Jewels) in the course of insulting ments by mujtahids that contradict it. whereas he wrote in his book al-Jawhar al. Ibn Hajar's argument shifts. that ijtihad had been discontinued 600 years before That is why many of the imams have stated that one his era. In al-Jawhar al. and . Al-Shafi'i said acknowledged. "I have summarized this from the teachings ijtihad of al-Subki. at the beginning of his Mukhtasar [The Abridge- See how Ibn Hajar claims a consensus here on the ment]. circa 817-889] said.. it has been dis. The poor man did not realize that differentiated between taqlid and ittiba' [critical ac- he was committing the foulest of sins. I am referring to own opinions or those of others.D. making it apparent to Hanbal] say that ittiba' means following what has any impartial judge that Ibn Hajar followed his come down from the Prophet. [Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya The Shaykh al-Islam Taqi [al-Din] al-Subki [1284. dous offense whose sinful effect will never be un. [Ibn Hajar] said: "The outrageous statements Ibn "I asked Ahmad [ibn Hanbal]. He states here it must be followed and its purport must be accepted. They do not ad- years ago. and Ibn al-Salah was about 300 cannot be used in valid arguments. undertook to refute [Ibn Taymiyya] in an someone who gathers firewood at night: he might. "The four imams [the founders of the four 1355. whose brilliance and ijtihad as well as of their own opinions and sharply censured adher- righteousness and scholarly excellence are generally ence to their statements without proof. in addition to the preceding statements. in relation to the cannot be granted any serious consideration. peace be on him until the end of time—are not surprising com. may God student] examine [al-Shafi'i's teachings] for the sake the Exalted have mercy upon him." [Ibn Hajar's ceptance].states]. a critic of Ibn Taymiyya]. Therefore. desires.deserving of being followed. As for Ibn Hajar's statement—'"Ibn al-Salah and his The point here is that the words of fanatics such as followers stated that [ijtihad] had terminated about these. "I heard [Ahmad ibn text] continues in this manner.. as of today." Isma'il ibn Yahya al-Muzani [791-878] said continue to shower him with divine mercy and favor. After these. here to the evidence. one is ing from him. soul. or Malik?' He said. but then to make them more accessible to the interested stu- cannot bring himself to admit the ijtihad of one dent. The or 12th century A. but follow the worst of paths.H.'Don't imitate either of them for your faith. but at the same time I would have him know whose lofty status neither al-Subki himself nor his that al-Shafi'i prohibited the blind adoption of his teachers could even approach. and 1066]. because he follows the same he. peace be upon him. Abu Da'ud said. however. independent work in which he presented valuable without realizing it. In the book Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyya: I'lam al-muwaqqi'in.'" Ahmad the great mujtahids. Each of the imams has stated that if a hadith is sound. so. 300 years earlier. may [the Abu'l-'Abbas Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyya. pick up a bundle of fire wood and excellent arguments.upon him. May God treat him with His justice.].of his faith and exercise caution for the sake of his munazzam. [This statement] setting forth the correct approach through brilliant is cited by [Ahmad ibn al-Husayn] al-Bayhaqi [994- proofs.of al-Shafi'i and the gist of his statements in order retical and whimsical approach and method. because they speak according to their whims. May God thank him for his effort. for he let himself be so seduced by his free to accept or reject the opinions of the Succes- whims. and his statements are inconsistent."—my response is: This state- ment is beneath consideration on account of the ar- guments of the hadith expert Ibn al-Qayyim we have The Eighth Point Indicating the Invalidity presented in the third section above and the texts and of the Ignoramus al-Nabhani's Thesis evidence of the falseness of this statement that we included there. 'Is al-Awza'i more Taymiyya made—even though they were a horren.166 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi The Seventh Point whims and chose the path of error. and a calamity whose misfortune will reflect to what has come down from the Prophet. since he lived in the sixth century [A. time of Ibn Hajar ." Abu Da'ud [al-Sijistani. and the Companions. may God bless his soul and brighten that he who seeks knowledge without proof is like his tomb.

the Mighty and Sublime. and vari- today are to be given more weight than authentic ous species [a debate raged over which sorts of pro- prophetic hadiths that contradict the opinions of the duce were subject to alms-giving requirements]. ments of his madhhab. and this is the essence of error. except God's Messenger. a generation later] except His Messenger. Taymiyya. having writ. These four "It was a transmission as reliable as that from imams. Ibrahim al-Nakha'i [666-715. 632-634]. mercy be upon them all. citing Ibrahim [al-Nakha'i]. peace be upon him [who must be obeyed]. be upon him. met with the imam of Dar al-Hijra The dim-witted al-Nabhani's opinion implies that the [Medina]. then adopted the instructed [people] to pick and choose from the words of Ibrahim. "Nobody is allowed to adopt our opin. hadiths. mujtahid. and if someone comes up with a better opinion. that a man base his exercise of religion on taqlid. Rather. the Exalted. The Ninth Point when Abu Yusuf. made obedience to Him and His Messenger. and don't imi. said: 'Obey me as long as I obey God. used to say. peace ibn al-Khattab. first caliph. used to and leave aside the hadith from al-Sahih and not rule say. in all of what he com- ten that someone related such-and-such. the most learned of Abu Hanifa's disciples. I am sometimes correct and by it. Shaykh al-Islam Abu'l-'Abbas Taqi al-Din Ibn Al-Shafi'i. peace be upon him. "It is a sign of limited understanding [Ibn Taymiyya] answered: "Praise be to God. and asked him about the statements of one who is accepted as an authority sa' measure. a religious duty for His worshipers. Malik ibn Anas. "Did they con. alms to be paid for vegetables. and consensus that God. a Hanafi ters]. O Abu 'Abdullah. peace be upon Firyabi said: "Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Dawraqi told him." Malik inquired. the words of God and His Messenger for the words Abu Bakr. or al-Awza'i. 'This is my opin- ion. Malik ibn Anas.'"" their duty. I would accept what is in the Munyat likewise. judgment.' Established reports . and [Abu Yusuf] responded. informed him what a Turkish judge say: "If I were to see a text in Munyat was indicated in the sunna concerning these [mat- al-musalli [The Wish of the Worshipper. and had my master and a hadith in Imam al-Bukhari's al-Sahih that con. citing 'Umar mands and forbids. he would have ceded tradicts this text. 'I cede to your legal text by Sadid al-Din Kashghari. I have heard Malik." Just look at this stupidity and tremendous sometimes wrong. sunna. Thus needs to repent. as was be asked to repent. for if I disobey God.' All [of the four imams] us have written books. agreed that no one is infallible.' That is why." [Ahmad ibn hadiths that contradict his madhhab! Hanbal] said. or contradicted by cept or reject the opinions of the Successors." Lord of the worlds.' madhhabs and became accomplished in it. in everything he commanded and forbade. After that. That is why several of the [four] imams such. but then He also said. warned people not Ibrahim.' Malik. draw ing to the madhhab or practice according to the from the sources that they draw from. 'I am only human. Should he practice accord- tate Malik. sider the words of 'Umar to be authentic?" I replied. 'Don't adopt your faith from men. restricted. peace ion until he knows the evidence on which it is based. "O Abu 'Abdullah! People among you owe me no obedience. for studied hadith at a later time and found authentic they are bound to make mistakes. was asked 'It is limiting to a man's knowledge to adopt the about a man who studied law according to one of the opinions of other men regarding matters of his faith. God's mercy be upon him. the best [of the of one like Ibrahim.' or words to this effect. /JT/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI I 67 from his Companions. speech of anyone except for the Messenger of God. the Ex- me that al-Haytham ibn Jamil told him: 'I said to alted. not abrogated. It is the best I can do. al-Thawri. You must compare my statements ignorance. Muslim community] after its Prophet. with the Qur'an and sunna." be upon him. which went against ele- Hanbal] also said. so what about those who abandon Siddiq al-Umma [The Truthful One of the Nation. one is free to ac. and one of them. 13th century]." Then Malik stated." [Ibn any known scriptural text. God's mercy be upon him. we will accept it. God's mercy be upon him. or one lesser than he?! Ja'far al. "Don't imitate me. Imam Abu Hanifa said. He Malik stated explicitly that anyone who abandoned did not require this nation's obedience to any particu- the words of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab for the words of lar person. It has been established in the Bishr ibn al-Walid [8th century] reported that Abu Qur'an. may God bless his pure soul. "These [people] should to adopt all of their own statements blindly. [Abu Hanifa] seen what I have. and someone else related such-and. Yusuf said.

A man might be a mujtahid in one particular reprehensible. he might follow doning practice according to certain hadiths. If someone examines an issue that has been of probity—such a case. the grounds that the clear meaning of the Qur'an. only a mere con. the clear meaning of the Qur'an does not contradict however. Ijtihad been proved clearly.' (Sura 64. said. 'When God wishes somebody well. tradicted by more convincing evidence. strated that they had some twenty reasons for aban- he is faced with two options. would be most disobedient toward God. the Exalted. tified in rejecting these hadiths for these same rea- vention contradicted by the conventions of others sons. belief that it is not authentic. and that the text of a sound hadith has priority over that there would not exist any evidence on the side the unambiguous texts of the Qur'an. knowledgeable in matters of religion. To change from lutely prohibited from taqlid. of the opposing opinion sufficient to reject the scrip. you can. This is to be dis- is allowed only when necessary. We the opinion of the later jurist. he were capable of complete ijtihad. peace be upon him. in tural evidence. If you later find that the text is con- acquiring knowledge of religion. 'So fear God as much as rulings of the shari 'a through the appropriate scrip. but says that he does not know quisition knowledge of religion is a religious duty. Our writings that appear to corroborate one of the disputed opin. he would be respect to the second person. God willing. such as when the time tinguished from insisting on an opinion unsupported allowed for producing such a proof is limited—this is by any proof. such it. legal analogy. they are only re. just because he is the have shown that they were justified in their rejection imam of the madhhab in which he studied law—but of certain hadiths for these reasons. mujtahid when his ijtihad changes. Each person's ijtihad varies according to his especially if it was narrated by a person with a record ability. then such a person would be required to reason [for rejecting the hadith] no longer holds with follow that text. but the prophetic texts remain reasons of the first person are invalid with respect to protected from violation in practice—and this is the the second person. one should respond To acquire knowledge of religion means to know the that God. if it indeed occurs.' Implicit in this "His situation would be completely different from statement is that those whom God. have knowledge of religion. are jus- this is not a legitimate legal proof. of other imams. or shifting from one opinion to is not a monolithic capability. Verse 16) Your best attempt. then the ing issue with another. his agreement with one imam implies tak. shying away from an opinion that has the most correct of these opinions. so that the ac.168 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi relate that the Prophet. your situa- quired to do what they can. He makes him and His Messenger. Others say that taqlid is one opinion to another because of some truth which allowed without restriction. the Exalted. that its transmission is Second. topic. indicates that the first opinion is more likely. To this person. Some say that anybody tion would then be like that of the independent capable of using evidence to establish proof is abso. If he did otherwise. and the deeds [of the Ansar]—then the first person's tural text. or "We have made this partial concession only be. When a muqallid [person engaging in field. topic. he may follow the opinion that seems more anonymous. or issue. however. if one person rejects a hadith in the who have studied in the madhhab?. what that proof is. legal analogy. the Mighty and that of someone who claims that the opposing opin- Sublime. or the practice of some of the Ansar cause someone might object that the speculative abil. too. in defense of the distinguished imams have demon- ions and are not contradicted by any other known texts. in view of the texts that indicate it. Whoever abandons a hadith on more correct option. might be incapable of must follow it. it becomes apparent to another person that ijtihad regarding this issue might be incomplete. so you "Some people. In son knows at the same time that this hadith is authen- this case. said. does not make knowledgeable in matters of ion is supported by proof which carries more weight religion are not wished well by Him. Those who do not know this do not terms of knowledge and understanding of the law. but not in another field. Still others say that taqlid becomes apparent is praiseworthy. but another per- likely to him. or taqlid} has heard a hadith and then abandoned it— issue. We. but may be parceled and another simply out of custom or whim—such acts are divided. First. However. If. than the scriptural text. and occur to people's minds or remain hidden to them in . Legal understandings following speculation and the dictates of whim. [early Muslims of Medina] contradicts it—and at the ity of this particular person might be limited and his same time. is not an disputed by scholars and finds scriptural prooftexts excuse to abandon the scriptural text. or some such reason. tic and that its transmitter is trustworthy.

as we have said. This is simi- equals among the other imams. be pleased with them. or some Muslims [tend to forget this. knows best. His interlocutors objected. Verse These Companions were equal to one another in de. Too holy 652]. tus among his followers as a prophet among his and-so has been contradicted on this issue by his people. In relation to with in His words. by the hadith Sufyan [caliph. monks and Christ. and you tell me that Abu Bakr and cially the case if someone abandons a hadith because 'Umar said [something else]!' When [Ibn 'Abbas] he believes that its use was abandoned by the was asked about [temporary marriage]. may God be pleased with them. Mu'adh. appealing only to the one he estimates is most knowl- riage. 31) God. person seeking afatwa engage in [a type of] ijtihad saying. If this gate is opened "Suppose someone were to challenge this peti. This is one of the implications of his false words abandoned the statements of 'Umar regarding the and worthless statements. presenting Medina] and the Ansar—the people of Medina and as contradictory evidence the statement of 'Umar.] despite their awareness that Abu who heard it from them. and no blood money due for the loss of fingers or toes. adopt. and His Messenger. even though some of them were perhaps more knowledge. the Exalted. to be gods apart from ions of the Prophet] Abu Bakr. or 'Umar?' The people don this hadith. peace be upon him. practiced in accordance with Bakr and 'Umar are more knowledgeable than Ibn it. so he remonstrated: contradicted by a preferable [hadith]. in order to choose the right mufti for consultation. peace be upon him. asking. because Imam so. 'Are you more ments of God. is He for what they ascribe to Him!' (Sura 9. faults the Christians knowledgeable than this or that imam. arguing with Ibn 'Abbas about temporary mar. But they pressed him. ness and followed a way other than that of believ- dence from the Qur'an and sunna they cited. 'This and that are equivalent. Ibn Mas'ud. to. it tioner who is seeking guidance [to whose question would be necessary to turn away from the command- Ibn Taymiyya is responding]. he declared Muhajirun [early Muslims who fled from Mecca to it permissible. may God. scholar of recognized learning has ever professed it. Debate among [later] imams is similar. the Exalted. because everyone is commanded to fear God as . One understands from the words of the dim-witted "People abandoned the statements of 'Umar and al-Nabhani that for the last thousand years Muslims. there are two schools of thought. 'Uthman [died God. said [one thing]. even though they had been enjoined to worship 656]. 661-680]. This is espe. regard. 'Stones are about to rain down on you from the already discussed: the correct opinion is that he ought sky! I tell you that the Messenger. They ers." bate. They consider their rabbis and each other. and that anyone deriving his ablutions with sand or dry ground when water is not faith from the Qur'an and sunna. 'Abu Bakr said [such-and-such] edgeable and most pious—or not? Concerning this and 'Umar said [such-and-such]!' So Ibn 'Abbas issue. and this would alter the religion. If they were at odds about something. Ibn Mas'ud. The Tenth Point able than others in certain areas. son. peace be upon him. for there is no god but He. the various imams are like [the Compan. the evidence that contradicts the scriptural text. or other such reasons which render invalid the 'Umar ['Umar's son] and Ibn 'Abbas. peace knowledgeable or is the Imam so-and-so?' This be upon him. but later hears 'Who has more right to be followed. IJTIHAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 169 a process we cannot entirely fathom. or adopting the available] on the part of someone with a major ritual opinions of others—such as a Companion or some impurity. mercy be upon him: "Must the he transmitted from the Prophet.' A certain per. said to him. You are not more lar to what God. so others—who are said not to have abandoned a hadith he showed that 'Umar had not intended what they unless they believed it to have been abrogated or claimed. similar prominent figures. [to adopting later imams as ultimate authorities]. Ubayy [ibn Ka'b. It is to be rejected. son of Mary. because of the statements expert Ibn al-Qayyim. of God. glory be to Him. and adopted the statements of Abu Musa other figure—has departed from the path of correct- al-Ash'ari [died 662] and others because of the evi. ing instead the statement of Mu'awiyya ibn Abi From the book I'lam al-muwaqqi 'in. that some of them. the Messenger that the Muhajirun and Ansar did not in fact aban. Each imam would have the same sta- would be a corrupt comparison. they de- ferred the question to God and His Messenger. 'Umar. 'Ali. Exalted. east and west. died circa only one God. and others. have had to adopt the opinions of one ing the performance of tayammum [performing ritual of the four mujtahids.

This is clarified by noting that one madhhab of an imam comparable. change. does not become so by he has adopted is the truth. or called for it? Does a single word of their [early] centuries of Islam and the early generations statements indicate it?! of Muslims came and went entirely free of such prac. the Exalted. statements of the Companions. Iraqi. peace be upon him. so he must fulfill the his mere utterance of such a statement. and one is more pious landish than this is the opinion of those who state that while the other is more knowledgeable. over them to the opinion of the imam he follows. a statement de. knowledge. or a statement the imam in behavior. With his would require that. who says he is a Shafi'i. This nor is the mufti. "The obligations imposed by God. then it would be prohibited for him to petition legal fessional secretary: one does not become such things scholars outside his adopted madhhab. or a pro. for they are higher in of his region or any other region. the Exalted. and their successors are the same obligations to. more distinguished in status. but nevertheless says. peace be upon this is the correct and undeniable opinion. the scholar should community. imposed on all who succeed them until the Day of tional inquiry and deductive reasoning and are versed Resurrection. according to this madhhab and have learned the legal place. by consensus . premise on which they are based. and God and His altogether ceased to exist. such that he would have to accept all of his obliged by the consensus of the Muslim community.170 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi much as one can. On man can properly have a madhhab. how can he properly claim to be related to such a person be required to reject the text or the him except through an empty claim. Is the those who state that one is obliged to adopt one of layperson obliged to follow one of the well-known the four madhhabs. Syr- knowledgeable of God and His Messenger than to ian. neither he nor anyone else would be under a legal opinion from any of the followers of the the obligation to follow the madhhab of an ordinary imams or others that he wishes and that he is not man. they ought not cessors. when faced with a text by the ignorance and the extreme disparity between him and Messenger of God. In addition. whether it be Hijazi. and give precedence void of all meaning? It is not imaginable that a lay. how astonishing! The madhhabs of the issue. opinions and reject the opinions of all others. Someone who is not qualified for Messenger. One is that [the layperson] is not obliged—and Companions of the Messenger of God. and His claim a madhhab. the Suc- laypeople. these ideas edge. Egyptian. a Maliki. It is as if he obligations of his belief. Even if it were the contrary. and scholarly by the [first] four caliphs that contradicts his imam. Those who consider that a layperson can this at all. learning." [Ibn al-Qayyim] states: "When impose such an obligation on the people. Religious duty does not differ or in the various madhhabs on account of this ability. degree.' and so on. and deductive reasoning. Indeed. none of the leading scholars of Islam has not be limited to the hadith transmitted by the people ever professed this opinion. and circumstance—but this is also inherent in opinions and statements of its imam. or other untenable implications of evi- that he follows this imam and adopts his path. or a Hanafi claims to his own. and more he should follow it. and all the imams of Islam. madhhabs or not? There are two opinions on this "O God. time. are entitled to the obligations imposed by God. More out- two muftis differ over an issue. Moreover. If a hadith is sound. a grammarian. the true position is that he may petition possible. because only those who possess the means of ra. to limit himself to the positions of disgraceful heresy has recently befallen the Muslim one of the four imams. which dent invalidity that indicate the invalidity of the can only be true if he takes after [the imam} in knowl. to follow the just by saying so. adopting as his faith jurists. This is him. though it might differ in terms of execution or those who have read a book on the points of law or amount according to variations in ability. have died and and His Messenger have imposed. a madhhab is not appropriate for and His Messenger upon the Companions. tices. or even preferable. Moreover. method. Even if they follow one. The noble opinion. 'I am a Shafi'i' or have a madhhab say: 'He believes that this madhhab 'I am a Hanbali. and the madhhabs of the Successors and their because there are no religious duties except what God successors. which have been presented above. or Yemeni. Has any of the leading scholars ever held this this man's opinion and no one else's. had claimed to be a jurist.' If what they say is correct. except for the madhhabs Messenger have not obliged anybody to follow the of four souls from among all the leading scholars and madhhab of an ordinary man. and even more outlandish is the opinion of this issue. which one one is obliged to follow the madhhab of a particular should be followed? There are three approaches to scholar.

in the second. of his opinions while dismissing all the opinions of by consensus. peace be upon him [that is. occurred in the fourth century [A. Had this Conclusion ignoramus [al-Nabhani] not raised the issue—even though it has nothing to do with the topic of his It should be apparent to you. in the first case. as they were termed by the Mes- remains valid. he must en. or the successors of the Successors. [the petitioner for legal opinions] may not without knowledge will realize their error. ion is that if he prays the standard prayers using it. lives. Nor did such a person exist among the Suc- departs from that of the Uthmanic codex. ting or prohibiting the taking of women. pressed blame. when those who made religious arguments However. and the muqallidun try to prove us wrong by identifying a Companions after him read. or 10th century A. madhhabs or seek out what he wishes from whatever The hadith expert Ibn al-Qayyim criticized mu- madhhab he finds to contain it. permit- other prayers. Even if one reads a version which others. no invalidating element occurred. then it is permissible to single man who followed their disastrous ways in the read according to it. who follow their he has not fulfilled his obligation. that the miserable or move our pen concerning it. and has a sound chain opinions of another Companion. of ijtihad is false and heretical. peace be upon him. one is not obliged to limit oneself to al-Nabhani's thesis concerning the closing of the gate the seven well-known variant readings of the Qur' an." refuting the arguments of the ignorant concerning the termination of ijtihad. but if he uses it in supposed authorities in everything they say. This heretical innovation. These opinions are both reliably reported for which the Messenger. without knowing whether this is right or the grounds that. it is invalid.. deavor to seek the truth as far as this is possible.]. IJTIHAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 171 of the Muslims. extensively in his book I'lam al-muwaqqi 'in.D. ex- from the Imam Ahmad [ibn Hanbal]. and other respected scholars have also written useful books on this issue. one may read and pray according to it. but which cessors. Let the the Messenger of God. We know necessar- but if the reading one adopts matches the unpointed ily that no single man during the time of the Com- text of the Uthmanic codex. the first The second opinion is that prayer performed using three centuries of Islam]. for they seek out the easiest obligations among the various did so without any justification. and cult position before God [on the Day of Resurrec- that. not dismissing any of authority. they are not invalid. are in grave danger. the requirements wrong. peace be upon him. and prayer performed using it virtuous centuries. . senger of God. and ion espoused by Abu al-Barakat Ibn Taymiyya. on property. They shall be in a diffi- for the standard prayer were not completely met. is correct in terms of panions engaged in the blind adoption of all of the Arabic grammar and usage. This is the opin. tion].H. Rather. Muqallids. from the arguments book—we would not have needed to open our mouth presented in the ten points above. The third opin. according to the most correct opinion. qallids.

later moving it to Cairo. the most cruel and treacherous of creatures is best sesses the requisites and specifics of a real work of 1." Ency- pp. and Turkish. Cevdet became increasingly open in his campaign against religiosity. Cevdet's closest associates entered parliament while he was stigmatized as a collaborator of the European Allies' occupation of Istanbul after World War I. he helped to found the Ottoman Union Committee. While Europeans considered the journal Islamist. "Ifade-i Miitercim" (Preface by the Trans. The reason for this deficiency should To put it in another way. Cevdet could not return from exile until 191 I. 21 Abdullah Cevdet Preface by the Translator Abdullah Cevdet (Turkey. whereas religion is the science of the masses." as he put it In 1889. 1869-1932) was a leading publicist and freethinker who used Islam to promote modernization and materialism. §ukru Hanioglu. and must be like that. Th. Tarih-i Islamiyet (The History of litical Thinker and His Time) (Istanbul. 1981). Despite having founded the organiza- tion that came to power in the Constitutional Revolution of 1908. '"Abd Allah Djevdet. 55-60. through the three major Islamic languages. In 1904. Netherlands: E. history is similar to a be sought mainly in the absolutism of Muslim rul- photographic plate that has not been touched up. Bir Siyasal Dusunur Olarak Doktor Abdullah Cevdet. it faced considerable opposition from Ottoman Muslims. Egypt: Matbaa-i ictihad. In subsequent years. Karl Siissheim. Brill. Supplement." He therefore argued that materialism should be promoted in Islamic terms—"stitched onto an Islamic jacket. The folly history are either negligently written works or take of Muslim tyrants who claim to be the shadow of advantage of negligence. whose opposition to Ottoman absolutism led to their exile. alia (Leiden. This translation—whose introduction is presented here—was banned. 172 . the ers. Cevdet was a devout Muslim and had even written a eulogy of the Prophet until his education at the Royal Military Academy in Istanbul turned him toward European materialism. It was necessary to bring God and whose tyranny and treachery overshadow into existence a "History of Islam" that truly pos. in effect. history. According to Cevdet. It is obvious that open eyes cannot coexist down. through reading. Persian. 3-8. Abdullah Cevdet ve Donemi (Doctor Abdullah Cevdet: A Po- lator). Other open eyes can discern oppression and freedom and books that are not like this and yet are still called will develop a desire for justice and truth. Translation from Turkish and introduction by M. a photograph exactly reflecting the original. Egypt. 1938). "science is the religion of the elite. he founded the journal ictihad (Rational Interpretation) in Geneva. one or both of these. Switzer- land. J. later called the Committee of Union and Progress. Arabic. Houtsma et §iikrii Hanioglu. Turkey: 09dal Islam) (Cairo. in Reinhart Dozy. volume 1. M. including a notorious article ridiculing prayer. and to the center of perception and verified that there is no such history [of Islam] in consideration. pp. People with Real history is like that. Nesjiyat. culminating in the unprecedentedly negative reaction to Cevdet's Turkish translation of Reinhart Dozy's controversial work on the history of Islam. and to submit it to the attention and con- mits the conditions and transformations of the world sideration of our brothers in religion. History is the most eye-opening branch of the lines and details of which are neither toned up or sciences. and all existing copies were confiscated. which we call consciousness. edited by M. I deliberately to vision. to the sense of hearing. In the Turk- ish Republic. and as a Kurdish nationalist1 History. clopedia of Islam. with absolutism and disinformation. use the words "bring into existence" because I have through listening. is like a motion picture that trans. 1908).

" We have translated this work [first this essay is the same method that we have always published in 1863]." and "One hour's search the divine magnificence of reality and truth. An ignorant." for "The author is from the Netherlands. and are already is nothing other than social relations—then it is plain doing so: how far most of us Muslims are inadequate in our re- The warring of 72 sects ignore. PREFACE BY THE TRANSLATOR 173 summarized in the awful truth embodied in the fol. none the attentive of the Prophet]. Profes- be published in French. "Religion We are of the opinion that today there is no book is social relations (mu 'amala}" [a hadith. We should demonstrate our bravery by Muslim. "Religion is social Culture and virtue will reduce all religions to one relations"—which. is a thousand times more Muslim We should possess the courage to face the truth than vagabond Hamids [a reference to the Ottoman regardless of how harsh it is and how strongly it con- sultan. and which possesses the other than preserving the textual integrity of the origi- qualities of enormous erudition and thorough re- nal. Bravery is not deeds and desires are nefarious. states that religion religion. that possesses the required qualities among the su- His massive volume "Sources of Islam. or even sacri- 1390] ficing oneself. they have question we respond in the following manner: Being been differentiated from the footnotes of the author a Muslim does not consist in [having a Muslim] by appending to them the initials "A. The best acts of Failing to find the truth. and "R. Abdiilhamid II." Every learned and virtuous person is a grief of truth. to about forty years ago. the believer's stray camel: wherever one finds it. lim. religion is nothing other than social reading of which would be a more absolute necessity. a high degree of knowledge of Islamic affairs and of the obscurities of the Islamic religion that it would be We strongly sensed the Muslims' need for a "His- appropriate to say that he has no match among the tory of Islam. whose tradicts our former beliefs and feelings." Mr. people. [Hafiz. The history of Islam during 1292]: these last forty years is reproduced from our erudite friend A. mere fables they worship are those aiming to benefit and save all God's explore." "The best of men is he who dignified dignity of our ignorant selves in the face of is the most useful to people. fasting. or even lack it altogether." We have found a "History of Islam" 'ulama' [religious scholars] of Islam. So is it Some of our observations and additions are given possible to trust what he says?" To this inevitable at the bottom of the pages as footnotes. ligion. immoral person is not a Mus- displaying a moral courage of this kind. virtuous Doctor Dozy." soon to perb works of the famous Dutch Orientalist. . beginning with one's own self. one The method that we have followed in translating appropriates it. 1184. will make it clear how tire- sor Doctor [Reinhart] Dozy [1820-1883]. We must possess the power to abandon the un- tongue people are safe.A. bless him and grant him salvation].A. which is a product of an abso- used with a religious scrupulousness. that of justice and truth. "The Muslim is one from whose hand and enemy. If we seriously lim even if he stems from the lineage of the Prophet. and of for knowledge is better than a thousand years' acts adorning ourselves with the decoration of the sublime of worship. or tradition more beneficial to the Muslims. thus a stranger to the religion [of Islam]. Learned. and performing the prayers. a non-Mus- radiallahu anh [May God be well pleased with him]. reigned 1876-1909]. relations. as we have said.C. who spent than the History of Islam. it is nothing lutely impartial good sense. Guy's article entitled "Islam in the Last Forty The distress of mind of one who seeks justice Years. consider the hadith of the Prophet. Iranian poet. into Turkish from its French version entitled to the text. He has such Can overthrow the king from his realm. It is our own Prophet only just exposing ourselves to the bullets of the who says. Guy is a young Orientalist. beneficial to them. placing them in parentheses: they are Essai sur I'histoire de I'islamisme [Essay on the "S. We have less a researcher this young Orientalist is. The times for naive or mis- his entire life in teaching and study. and who strove leading works full of silly tales and deceptions is long to enlighten the minds of God's people and to be passed thanks to the enlightenment of evolution. and what restricted ourselves to the judgment of "wisdom is an outstanding zeal for understanding he possesses." for salla'llahu alayh wa sallam [May God History of Islam]." name. A. Doctor Dozy has covered the history of Islam down lowing couplet ofShaykh Sa'di [Iranian poet. There are only four letters which we have added search. circa 1325.

] . fathers. pp. "Peace be upon those who follow right guidance!" pression prevail. If we take into consideration the fact and publishing this work is to present for the under- that the word "Muslim" is derived from the word standing of the Muslims a book the study of which "salvation. Moses and Aaron are instructed to 2. Sura 20. Here Cevdet's intention must be to exclude Mus- man Empire: Orhaniye Matbaasi. of letters.] lim fanatics but include Dozy and Guy. 17-18. cannot live in places where ignorance and op.174 Abdullah Cevdet Those ignorant pietists who are not aware of this cannot take root in places where Islam rules subtle social aspect of the exalted religion of Islam can supreme. Verse 47]3 3. for example Dilmesti-i Mevlana become a conventional nongreeting to unbelievers at the end (Rumi 's Language of Spiritual Intoxication) (Istanbul. to reach a life-giving conclusion. and they have criticize Islamic fanaticism. and that ignorance and oppression [Qur'an. [Cevdet used this couplet in other writings as well to speak these words to the Egyptian pharoah. Here then is the aim of the study of history: by lana Jalal al-Din al-Rumi [Iranian poet. and to de- He considers to be God the place of his prayer!2 rive a salutary lesson of awakening. [In the Qur'an.—Trans. 1921). 1207-1273]: examining the affairs and changes of the past and drawing on the adventure of our fathers and grand- With head on the ground and backside in the air.—Trans. True Islam cannot coexist with ignorance and We repeat and confirm that the aim of translating oppression. Otto. only confirm the truth of the famous couplet by Mau." it may be easily understood that Islam could provide such a lesson.

in Musa Kazim. world are concerned with matters of doctrine. Ottoman Empire: Matbaa-i (Istanbul. and 1917.Ricalinin Teracim-i Ahvali (Biographies of Notable Religious ciples of Consultation and Liberty in Islam) and "Kiitiib-i Scholars of the Late Ottoman Era) (Istanbul. was enjoined to communicate from God to 1. Turkey: Milli Kelamiyye'nin Ihtiyacat-i Asra Gore Islah ve Te'lifi" (Reform Gazete Yaymlari. Amire. and those concerned with this world. he became a member of the Ottoman Senate and an organizer of clerical support for the regime.' The Principles of Consultation and all mankind can be divided into two groups: those Liberty in Islam concerned with the other world. 1916). translated in the first part of this chapter. Musa Kazim: Dini. 1909. whose exalted mission happily coincided The fundamental ordinances pertaining to the next with the period of the human mind's highest devel. Son Devrin Osmanh Ulemasi ilmiye Musa Kazim. Educated in a traditional manner. 1990). 1858-1920) was a leading member of the 'ulama' (religious scholar) branch of the Committee of Union and Progress. Musa Kazim taught religious studies at seminaries and modern schools in Istanbul until the Constitutional Revolution of 1908. first to Bursa and then to Edirne. Musa Kazim published a pamphlet de- fending the Ottoman government's declaration of jihad (holy struggle)." pp. an Ottoman senator. Osmanh Ilmiye Salnamesi (Yearbook of Ottoman Shaykh al-lslam Musa Kazim: Religious and Social Essays) Religious Scholars) (Istanbul. §ukru Hanioglu and Yektan cial and Economic History of Turkey: Communications) (An- Tiirkyilmaz.kadir Altinsu. 1972). The first selection was published as a Musa Kazim Efendi's Ideas on State and Society. On the day of the revolution's tri- umph. Turkey: Ayyildiz Matbaasi. Prophet of the end of times and apostle sent to men and matters of detail. while opment. respectively. iftima'i Makaleler (Collected Works of pp. after a series of resignations and removals. Tebligler (Fifth International Congress on the So- Translations from Turkish by M. "Islamda Usul-i Mesveret ve Hiirriyet" (The Prin. Due to illness. kara. and Shaykh al- ls/am (chief religious official) of the Ottoman Empire. Milletlerarasi Tiirkiye Sosyal ve Iktisat Tarihi delivered at the §ehzade Club in Istanbul on August 20. he denied the charges in a pamphlet in 1 9 1 1 . Introduction by M. 626-628. Each of these can then be subdivided The divine ordinances that our lord Muhammad. Under the new regime. 603- manifesto on July 24. David Kushner. where he died in 1920. he was tried in a military court along with other leaders of the Committee of Union and Progress. not just Ottomans. into two groups: matters of fundamental principles. 1981). "§eyh-iil-Islam pp. Sadik Albayrak. His opponents frequently accused him of being a freemason. pp. 233-237. 243-247. Kulliyat-i §eyh'ul-islam gious Officials) (Ankara. Ottoman Empire: Evkaf-i Islamiye Matbaasi. 1908. 22 Musa Kazim The Principles of Consultation and Liberty in Islam and Reform and Review of Religious Writings Musa Kazim (Turkey. 1919). extending the duty of jihad to all Muslims. maintaining that he was a devotee of the Naqshibandiyya Sufi order. he was reappointed in 1 9 1 1 . 157-158. pp. Abdiil- and Review of Religious Writings According to the Require. he authored a thirteen-page manifesto on Islam and constitutionalism. the second piece was a speech 610 in V. 175 . the British exempted him from imprisonment on Malta and banished him instead. 1916. he was appointed Shaykh al-lslam. Kongresi. Turkey: Turk Tarihi Kurumu Basimevi. Following the Ottoman defeat. defending Islam against its Christian critics and defending constitutionalism against its Muslim critics. and genies. §iikru Hanioglu. During World War I. 289-293. Osmanh §eyhiilislamlan (Ottoman Chief Reli- ments of the Age). In 1910. volumes 4-5.

176 Musa Kazim

ordinances on details pertaining to the next world are great Messenger to men and genies who was the re-
concerned with acts of worship. In addition, the fun- cipient of God's revelation. If such a holy person,
damental ordinances pertaining to this world relate who had received God's revelation, was commanded
to the administration of the affairs of the country, to consult with his umma in every matter, then all
while ordinances on details pertaining to this world Muslims, especially the exalted caliphs, are all the
are about transactions and punishments. more obligated to consult with the umma.
Without having fundamental ordinances pertain- In the second verse, God shows that the affairs of
ing to the next world, executing ordinances on de- Muslims consist in consultation among themselves.
tails pertaining to the next world would be absolutely With this, He confirms in a categorical fashion that
useless. For example, it is self-evident that worship the order for consultation is the greatest pillar of
and acts of piety would not be of the slightest bene- Islam. Thus all those who bear the exalted title of
fit to someone who does not believe in the existence "Muslim" are under the obligation to obey this heav-
of God and His uniqueness. Similarly, it cannot be enly order and divine command.
imagined that anything will be gained from imple- In the third verse, God orders us to make judg-
menting ordinances on details pertaining to this ments between people with justice and equity, and
world unless the corresponding fundamental ordi- this reveals that rendering justice in all cases is a
nances are executed. For example, unless justice and religious duty.
equity are respected, no benefit can be expected from In the fourth verse, it is enjoined: "Be just, for this
the punishment of criminals. is the closest thing to piety."
The basic principles of the fundamental ordi- Likewise, in the fifth verse, it is enjoined: "You
nances pertaining to this world are: should not deviate from justice whenever you speak,
even if the matter concerns your closest relative."
Consulting the umma [Islamic community] in every The sixth verse tells us that "God commands you
matter. to deliver to the owners that which is held in trust with
Respecting justice and equity in every matter. you." Since the content of an order stems from some-
Entrusting the affairs of the country and the inter-
thing that is incumbent, it is absolutely clear, accord-
ests of the umma, which are a divine charge, to
qualified persons. ing to the tenor of this verse, that entrusting the affairs
of the nation and matters of the state—the greatest and
Our proofs of these are noble Qur'anic verses (and most important of all trusts—to those who are quali-
some hadiths [narratives] of the Prophet), like the fied is one of the duties incumbent on their authority.
following: God specifies those who are qualified for this
sacred trust in the noble verse: "The noblest among
And seek their counsel in the matter. [Sura 3, Verse you in the eyes of God is the most pious." [Sura 49,
159] Verse 13] It is clear from this exalted verse that the
And their affairs [are decided in] consultation foremost quality that persons undertaking the duties
among them. [Sura 42, Verse 38] of the religious community must possess is piety.
When you judge between men, you should judge Aristocratic birth and nobility play no part whatso-
justly. [Sura 4, Verse 58]
ever in this matter. Piety means avoiding the viola-
Be just; it is closer to piety. [Sura 5, Verse 8]
tion of the rights of God and humans, and it is thus
If you speak, be just even if the matter concerns
a relative. [Sura 6, Verse 152] dependent without any doubt upon knowing those
God commands you to deliver to the owners that rights. Therefore, a person who would undertake one
which is held in trust with you. [Sura 4, Verse 58] of the duties of the religious community must be
well-informed about that duty, and be one of those
In the first of these verses, God orders His Mes- powerful and capable people who are distinguished
senger to consult with the umma in every matter. by their integrity and ability.
Since, as explained in the science of jurisprudence, Accordingly our Prophet, the teacher of all beings,
an order to do something entails that its contrary is the most perfect of salutations be upon Him, person-
forbidden, it is established that according to the ex- ally always favored consulting his umma in every
alted tenor of this noble verse, failure to consult with matter of public import. During his lifetime, he en-
the umma was absolutely forbidden, even to that trusted the administration to those who were quali-

PRINCIPLES OF CONSULTATION AND REFORM AND REVIEW 177

fied for it. In this regard, he paid no attention to such What justice this was, what freedom, what equal-
considerations as kinship or friendship. All the ap- ity! A Jew comes and is tried along with a caliph. If
pointments made by the Prophet were based upon one of them sits, the other cannot be left to stand. If
competence. He never deviated from justice and eq- one of them is called by his name, the other cannot
uity in the slightest degree in any matter. be called by his honorific or title.
Integrity, competence, justice—these were the All these are uncontested facts. Here is history,
qualities that the Messenger of God wanted! These the history of humanity! Here are deeds, the deeds
are the virtues that the Prophet sought! While he was of Islam. Study them, examine them! Is it possible
alive, while he was leaving this world, his hopes were to see a sign of the smallest degree of inequality, the
always, always directed to these: Integrity, compe- smallest degree of injustice, the smallest degree of
tence, and justice! arbitrariness? Do you need proofs for the fact that
It is well known that three days prior to his de- Islam treated everyone equally, without distinction
parture to the next world, he ascended to the blessed of race, creed, religion, and nationality, and that it
pulpit and demonstrated to his umma and all his granted everyone his personal liberty and all his le-
Companions with his last breath that he was justice gitimate rights?
incarnate in these lofty words: Here is a famous trial for you! This is a trial in
which 'Ali [ibn Abi Talib, fourth successor of the
O my umma and companions! If I have taken Prophet, 656-661] is defendant and a Jew is plain-
anybody's property, here is my property, let him
tiff. The two are at law in the court of Qadi [Shurayh
come forward and take it. If I struck anybody in the
ibn al-Harith al-Kindi, judge in Kufa, 7th century].
back, here is my back, let him come forward and
strike me in the back. Hasan ['Ali's son, 624-669] comes to give evidence
in favor of his father. The judge refuses this. 'Ali
Thanks to such superior virtues of his, he left for- accepts this, and shows no sign of resentment. The
ever in the hearts of the umma an inextinguishable judge calls the Jew by his name but mentions 'AM
affection for himself, an affection that is genuine, by his honorific as "O Father of Hasan!" This angers
sincere, and free from hypocrisy of all kinds. The 'Ali. He senses a hint of inequality in this. That is
rightly guided caliphs [that is, the first four succes- what that virtuous government was like, that is what
sors of the Prophet], who were honored with that the leaders of that state were like, that is what the
sacred post after him, literally followed in the sub- justice, equality, and freedom dispensed to the sub-
lime footsteps of the august Messenger. In this way jects of that government were like.
they showed to all peoples who were lost in the dark- This is such a firmly established truth that today
ness of ignorance, and groaning under the yoke of all civilized peoples around the world are obliged to
slavery, the meaning of humanity, civilization, free- admit and acknowledge it.
dom, equality, justice, prosperity, and happiness. Thus it is clear that the fundamental principles
Thus on these firm foundations laid down by our that form the bases for humanity and civilization—
Prophet, a virtuous government, the like of which has principles such as consultation, equality, freedom,
never been seen on the face of the earth, was estab- and justice—are a legal right granted by God 1300
lished and this bright sun of truth spread the glitter years ago to Muslims and all human beings. This
of justice to all regions of the world, thanks to the right was quite simply given to us by God. Nobody
assiduous and unremitting efforts of the rightly else is entitled to claim to have conferred it. But,
guided caliphs. Within a short time, [this govern- alas, after the time of the rightly guided caliphs, the
ment] shone the light of happiness on more than a political ordinances of religion were cast in a differ-
hundred million wretched people who were longing ent mold, persons acceding to the caliphate thought
for freedom, yearning for justice, and craving for of their own personal interests. They yielded to their
equality. It was such a virtuous government that all hedonistic desires, and in order to realize their aims,
peoples who took refuge in its protection, be they they usurped these rights, this freedom, this equal-
Muslims, non-Muslims, Christians, or Jews, one and ity, this justice granted to the Muslim umma and to
all enjoyed equal rights. In the eyes of the law, the all human beings by God as a favor for which grati-
right of a Christian or a Jew was owed the same re- tude is due. Affirming that "obeying those in author-
spect as the rights of the caliph. ity is a binding duty" [paraphrase of Qur'an, Sura

178 Musa Kazim

4, Verse 59], they failed entirely to take into con- temporal realms was settled in this way. It was not
sideration the conditions that limit this obedience. deemed necessary to write books.
They wholly uprooted the firm pillar of Islam from Then in the time of Successors [to the Companions
its foundations. They set a bad example for those of the Prophet], differences emerged. As a result, to
who came after them. They spoiled the faith of ig- maintain the unity of Islam, books began to be writ-
norant people, who were ignorant of the conditions ten. Because, if there are differences of opinion, this
that prevailed at the beginning of Islam and of the could lead to conflict, and divisions might arise among
ordinances of the holy law, telling them that "Islam the Muslims. God forbid that the emergence of divi-
prevents progress." The result was that this false sions would, by weakening the power of the umma,
idea prevailed in all regions of the world until the lead to its destruction. For that reason, they began at
fortunate day of the accession to the throne His that time to prepare books in an attempt to eliminate
Royal Highness [Abdulhamid II, Ottoman sultan, conflicts and distinguish truth from error.
reigned 1876-1909]. In particular, books on the science of theology were
Since God is the true protector of this religion of written. It was said that the possessors of understand-
Islam and has promised to preserve and forever pro- ing would recognize the truth. And this worked. How-
tect the freedom-granting ordinances of the illustri- ever, in these books there was no mention of philoso-
ous shari'a [religious law] of Muhammad, our sul- phy, as the philosophical sciences had not yet been
tan immediately upon his accession to the caliphate introduced to Islam. Each issue was interpreted by
put the principle of consultation into effect and pro- reference to a verse or a hadith. This was the mode of
mulgated the constitution [in 1876], with the exalted thinking of the ancient 'ulama' [religious scholars],
intention of carrying out the duties of the caliphate because that was the need at the time.
with which he had been charged by God. Later, the philosophical sciences were introduced
However, he was unable to put the ordinances to Arabic through translation. As a result, many other
comprehended in this exalted law [the constitution] disciplines and madhhabs [schools of thought]
into effect, owing to the incitations and instigations emerged. For instance, up to that time nobody knew
of certain traitors to the religion and nation. Thank about the "Aristotelian" school, because there was
God, today such false obstacles have been entirely no mention of it. This was the first [new philosophy]
removed, and thus His Royal Majesty feels that the to appear. Similarly, nobody knew what "naturalism"
time to put this exalted law into effect has come, and meant; there was no such notion. These ideas, appear-
he has set about carrying out this sacred duty made ing along with all those [new] disciplines, also had
incumbent upon him by God. And because of this, their adherents, but they were few. Later, the
he has placed all the Islamic world and humanity at Aristotelians turned out to be the most popular, and
large in his debt. May God bless His Royal Majesty the number of its followers increased significantly.
and make him successful with His divine guidance, Consequently there emerged a need to defend reli-
and make the Islamic community and Ottoman na- gion against these people. As the need to defend re-
tion always happy and cheerful with the gift of such ligion against both polytheists and Aristotelians was
freedom. Amen. perceived, books began to be written for this purpose:
that is, philosophy was added into the science of the-
ology, because this was necessary. This is the science
Reform and Review of Religious of theology practiced by contemporary 'ulama'.
Writings According to the But how did this happen? First, the 'ulama' stud-
Requirements of the Age ied these sciences, then they defended the beliefs of
Islam against philosophy, writing books for this pur-
During the first years of Islam, the obvious meanings pose. This went on for a very long time. Later, the
of the verses [of the Qur'an] and hadith [narratives polytheist school failed to attract much support, [so]
of the Prophet] were deemed sufficient. Especially the major struggle was against the Aristotelians.
during the time of our Prophet, everyone would settle Eventually, the Aristotelians also disappeared. That
issues they were confused about by asking the is, science changed, and the Aristotelians' principles
Prophet directly. There was no need to write or read were overturned. Hence there was no longer a need
books—any issue related to either the religious or to defend against them. Since there were no adher-

PRINCIPLES OF CONSULTATION AND REFORM AND REVIEW 179

ents of these sciences and no one to support and ad- This is the argument of today's philosophy. So if
vocate these disciplines, why should we protect re- we argue against them that the heavens are not eter-
ligious rulings by articulating defenses against them? nal, but created—they will laugh at us. "What are you
After the disappearance of these philosophies, the talking about?" they will say.
"materialists" took their place. Inevitably, naturalists [We might respond:] "Then humans are not eter-
also gained in popularity. Now a need arose to de- nal, but created."
fense against these [philosophies]. Just as the promi- "Of course they are created. The earth is divided
nent 'ulama', especially the recent generation, into many layers, and humans only recently appeared
struggled against the naturalists, Aristotelians, and on the upper layer. Do you know nothing about ge-
polytheists, and succeeded [in this struggle], now a ology? This is obvious. Who says that humans are
need arises for us, too, to struggle against our con- eternal?"
temporary opponents. "I do not know, someone said it once upon a time.
"Is it appropriate for us to alter [the earlier I am arguing against that."
struggles]? Let us continue with the model of their Then they will say, "Find those people and argue
[earlier] struggles. . .." against them." So it is obvious that our current teach-
If someone makes this argument, we would reply: ing must be reformed accordingly. There is an urgent
"Very well, but against whom?" Since there is no need for the writing of books that will refute the
faction of scholars—or as they are recently called, philosophy of our era.
philosophers—pursuing this mode of thinking, why But if it is said, "We will repeat the old arguments
should we put forth these defenses? anyway"—then that is a different matter. But religion
[Aristotelians used to say:] "This universe is com- cannot be defended in this way. The Aristotelians
posed of 13 spheres. The first is earth, the second is also accept the existence of God, saying: "God ex-
water, the third is air, the fourth is light, and there ists. There must be a cause of the existence of this
are nine celestial spheres, all of which are concen- universe, and this is the prime mover (wajib al-
tric. These celestial spheres are eternal, and the type wujud). But this prime mover is necessary [that is,
and kind of the remaining spheres are also eternal. the philosophical system must assume God's exis-
Thus, the universe is eternal." tence], not autonomous [as in Islam]. For this reason,
Now nobody says such things. Therefore even if the universe is eternal, since that which emanates
we say we are defending Islam by shouting, "No, you from a necessary agent is eternal. Since God is nec-
are wrong to call [the world] eternal, it may be cre- essary, the universe is eternal, because the universe
ated," what would be the use? Today's philosophy emanated from Him, and emanated without any
agrees with us: "Yes, the earth is finite." And the cause." We used to argue against this: "No, God is
creatures on it are also finite.2 Then [they say]: "What not necessary, but rather autonomous."
we call the heavens are not nine concentric spheres, If you say this now to contemporary philosophers,
as Ptolemy [ancient astronomer, 2nd century] argued. they will laugh at us. "What are you talking about?"
Such a heaven does not exist." Even if we say it does, they will say. There is no God, according to their
who would listen [to us]? Since the adversary does theory, much less "necessary" and "autonomous."
not even accept the existence of the heavens, how can Thus, there is no use in mentioning the issues of
we convince them by saying that it is created? Phi- necessity and autonomy.
losophy currently believes that space is infinite, and The ancient authorities concluded that "God has
that the bodies in it are similarly infinite. With re- no attributes. He is the True One. Therefore it is ab-
gard to form, these bodies are finite; only the funda- surd to represent Him with certain attributes. Since
mental atomic particles are eternal. There is no form God is the prime mover, He is free of necessity. If
in this universe that is eternal—all are finite, only He had attributes, how could He be the True One?
atomic particles are eternal. Then there would be a need for attributes, but such a
need is incompatible with his being the prime mover.
He is self-existent, omniscient, almighty, all-desirous,
2. [Musa Kazim is playing with two meanings of the term
hadith, translated here as "created": in the Islamic argument,
and so on. Knowledge is identical with Him, power
it means "created by God"; in the modern scientific argument, is identical with Him, anything that we call an at-
it means cosmologically "finite."—Ed.] tribute is identical with Him."

180 Musa Kazim

The Mu'tazilites [early Muslim rationalists] also impossible to argue against them. Indeed, earlier
adhered to this [line of thinking], as they acknowl- 'ulama' did just this. First they were educated in the
edged. Perhaps one could now make a similar de- sciences of contemporaneous philosophers, then they
fense: "No, God has attributes, God is omniscient in convinced them with their words. Now if we try to
knowledge, almighty in power, immortal in life. He defend ourselves with our present level of knowl-
is all-desirous in His will, and all-speaking in His edge, we will be ridiculous. Because we do not know.
word." If you said this against our opponents, they First of all, let us be educated in those sciences. Then
would tell us, "We do not accept the basis [of your let us defend Islam on the basis of these sciences. Now
argument], much less the matter of the attributes." In it is time to recognize this need. There is no use in
brief, our opponents today, that is, the philosophers, displaying fanaticism in this respect. In fact, it would
do not accept the divine and the prophetic. Actually, be harmful. The literature shows that all of the 'ulama'
some naturalists have accepted the existence of God. in every era wrote books in accordance with the needs
However, if you investigate the matter further, what of the day. As a result, later 'ulama', in translating
they call God is Nature. philosophy into Arabic, deemed it necessary to reform
Therefore, our most pressing task is to review the the science of theology, and added many new topics
theological books in accordance with present needs. from naturalists and theologians. We have the same
And how are we to do this? First of all, we have to need. We must also reform the theological books in
know the sciences of our opponents. Otherwise, it is accordance with the needs of our era.

23 Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi

Guiding Mankind to Act on the
Basis ofTelegraphic Messages

Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (Syria, 1866-1914) was the leading proponent of Islamic mod-
ernism in early twentieth-century Damascus. His publications numbered more than two
dozen and covered religious disciplines such as Islamic law, theology, and exegesis; Mus-
lim religious customs; and Arab history. He came from a family of minor religious func-
tionaries and obtained his religious education from the city's leading religious scholars.
Qasimi emerged as a proponent of reformist ideas in the 1890s, but he was not able to
openly publish his work until the Ottoman Constitutional Revolution created a freer po-
litical climate in 1908. He was one of a handful of liberal religious scholars in Damascus
who favored constitutional government. Moreover, a younger generation of Syrians with
inclinations toward Arab nationalism drew inspiration from his call for an Arab cultural
and literary revival. His religious and political views made him the object of Ottoman
suspicions and conservative scholars' hostility. Consequently, he endured several episodes
of persecution. His religious writings focused on two themes. One exhorted Muslims to
overcome historical divisions into rival legal schools and sects by returning to the Qur'an
and the practice of the Prophet as the only bases of authority. The other emphasized the
rational character of Islamic beliefs and practices. In this passage, Qasimi seeks to dem-
onstrate that Islamic law possesses methods and principles, in particular the principle of
ijtihad (independent reasoning), that allow for the adoption of new technology. To sup-
port this view, Qasimi cites an extensive series of classical Islamic authorities and texts.1

In the name of God, the beneficent, the merciful ions of famous 'ulama' [religious scholars] on this
Praise God, lord of the worlds. Prayer and peace issue, and I shared with him both general and detailed
on our master Muhammad, seal of the prophets, and texts about it. I told him that 'ulama' of the last cen-
on his exemplary family and Companions, and on tury and current leaders of knowledge have devoted
their sincerely believing Successors until the Day of much attention to the issue of the telegraph. They
Judgment. have lent it meticulous scrutiny and have taken the
A judge asked me if he may act according to well- utmost care in understanding it. Some favor acting
established information in a telegraphic message according to it in both social transactions and reli-
from an authority, such as a governor, another judge, gious rituals; while others would act according to it
or another trusted source, announcing on the basis only in certain categories of transactions; yet others
of legally acceptable evidence the start or the end of favor using it in beginning and breaking the fast,
Ramadan [the month of dawn-to-dusk fasting], given depending on the conclusions they reach in under-
that celestial bodies rise at the two places at the same taking ijtihad [independent reasoning]. I said that I
time.21 replied to him on the basis of the legal opin- have not heard of a single major scholar who has

Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi, Kitab al-irshad al-khalq (Book of the Late Ottoman Syria (New York: Oxford University Press,
People's Guidance) (Damascus, Syria: Matba'at al-Muqtabas, 1990); Zafir Qasimi, Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi wa-'asruh
1911), pp. 2-11. Translation from Arabic and introduction (Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi and His Era) (Damascus, Syria:
by David D. Commins. Maktabat Atlas, 1965).
1. Nizar Abazah, Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (Jamal al-Din 2. [The timing is essential because Ramadan is deemed
al-Qasimi) (Damascus, Syria: Dar al-Qalam, 1997); David D. to begin and end with the appearance of a new moon.—
Commins, Islamic Reform: Politics and Social Change in Trans.]

181

182 Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi

issued a legal opinion against acting according to tele- Islam's qualities include its guidance to methods
graphic messages in all circumstances. There is no of discovering laws through extensive study and rea-
such report from any renowned scholars whose legal soning, so that experts may easily relate all benefi-
opinions are followed. What kind of scholar could fall cial inventions to Islam's stipulations, certainties,
into such confusion on this matter when he knows that generalities, and apparent meanings. Furthermore,
the telegraph is the prop of kingdoms' vital affairs? Is Islam provides for the adoption of beneficial inven-
it possible for the most perfect of all laws to neglect a tions because of its magnanimity and its agreement
matter of general public benefit, especially one of the with ease and mercy.
greatest technical advances, when the principles of the Both ancient and recent jurisprudents, mercy and
shari 'a [Islamic law] provide for every time and place? contentment be upon them, have adopted new con-
The lofty shari'«' s basic legal principles cannot invali- veniences and ways of life according to the basic
date the telegraph; rather, they connect it to similar legal principles and specific regulations of the
matters that are well known. They remove the mask shari'a. If that were not the case, then why are there
of obscurity from the face of controversy with the so many huge volumes of rulings and abundant legal
extensive study and reasoning of its profound think- opinions on various cases? Are they not for novel
ers. Because the legal opinions of the 'ulama' on this situations that have arisen in both recent and ancient
issue tend to be fairly brief, I have sought to explain times? Of course they are. Thus it is necessary to
in detail their sources. For in generality resides con- adapt to novel situations in human society on the
fusion, while in detail there is neither doubt nor con- basis of the well-known principles of the true reli-
jecture. This is what has prompted me to compose this gion. Doing so helps people in both religious and
book. I seek the assistance of the Exalted One who worldly matters, and allows them to live according
gives success in arriving at the correct conclusion. to firmly established customs.
The founders of the legal schools, God be pleased
with them, acquired their stature and are considered
Preface on Method exemplars of knowledge because they attained such
proficiency in deriving specific regulations and such
Part One: The excellence of Islam includes the ap- judiciousness in religious understanding that their
plicability of its principles to the laws of civilization. knowledge became the standard of the religious sci-
Islam's magnanimity includes the way specific regu- ences. They reached this distinction only by plunging
lations can be derived from its basic legal principles. into the details of affairs after studying the underly-
Ancient and modern generations have adapted to new ing rationales of existence, tracing every specific regu-
situations on the basis of well-known principles. lation to a basic legal principle, and adopting a stat-
Every age has men who uphold God's will with ute on the basis of that principle. A sage once said,
proofs. The basis for knowing the proper statute for "The Muslims' mujtahids [religious scholars qualified
any given case is its evidence. to perform ijtihad] have taken into consideration many
The excellence of Islam includes the applicabil- principles of their law and adapted to the customs of
ity of its basic legal principles to the laws of civili- various places and times, according to the Book [the
zations; the suitability of its principles to the needs Qur'an] and the sunna [the precedents and advice of
of every time and place; basing its rulings on bring- the Prophet]. Therefore, the Islamic legal schools,
ing benefit and preventing harm; its distinction in taken altogether, suffice for the discovery of all reli-
removing encumbrances and fetters; its opening the gious laws to regulate social transactions in all parts
doors of ease and facility; and its blocking the ways of the world, while complying with the basic principles
of anguish and difficulty. of religious rulings." He supports this opinion by re-
Its magnanimity includes the rise of the madhahib ferring to such principles of legal extension as custom
[schools of Islamic law] from its wise sources; the and the consideration of benefits.
acquisition of its principles from the luminous niche The introduction of the telegraph resembles ear-
of its lamp [the Qur'an]; and the breadth of its spe- lier innovations that did not exist in the time of the
cific regulations to allow for the adoption of neces- Companions or the Successors or the founders of the
sities and luxuries, however much inventions and legal schools, but on which contemporary legal ex-
discoveries multiply. perts have issued legal opinions—innovations such

GUIDING MANKIND TO ACT 183

as cannons and clocks used for fasting and prayer, ancestors and numerous later generations. Later gen-
and countless other matters in worship and social erations depend on earlier ones for all their scholar-
transactions. The telegraph is but a drop in the ocean ship and for the treasures they stored. But mental
of discoveries and inventions in coming ages, includ- faculties vary from one person to the next. Grasping
ing conveniences and benefits for people of all the purposes of the shari'a and the underlying ration-
classes—as the Qur'an states, "There will be created ales for deriving specific regulations, discerning the
what you do not know." [Sura 16, Verse 8] If we do kernel from the husk in various matters that are the
not adopt the telegraph according to fixed principles subject of ijtihad because they are not textually stipu-
of discovery through reasoning and analogy, then do lated—these are paths that the ancestors pursued and
we not congeal religion and block the way of ancient methods followed by prominent men to the present
and recent generations, and forever constrict what God day. Ahmad Ibn Paris [possibly al-Qazwini, religious
made wide through understanding and discovery? scholar, 10th century], God have mercy on him, said,
One of the Muslims' greatest blessings is that "Who forbade later generations from contradicting
every age has men who uphold God's will with earlier ones? Do not accept the view of whoever says,
proofs and clarify obscure issues with proper meth- 'The former left nothing for the latter.' Leave aside
ods. This is evident from the numerous religious the view of another who says, 'How much did the
judges in every place who rule on issues that were former leave for the latter?' Is this world nothing but
not stipulated in the two noble sources [the Qur'an changing times? Does not every time have its men?
and the sunna]. They extract rulings from the two Are not the sciences after the fundamental principles
sources by resorting to extensive study and reason- anything but the fruits of understanding and reason?
ing. The abundance of legal opinions and judges is Who ever restricted excellence to a particular age and
an emblem of the survival of ijtihad until the Day of stopped it at a certain time? Do not later men study,
Judgment. Every age has men who uphold the shari 'a compose, and see things like earlier men? What
with proofs. Anyone who wishes may refer to the would you say to contemporary jurisprudents if they
book, "The Virtue of the Notables," by Imam [Jalal needed to know the statute for a situation that had
al-Din] al-Suyuti [Egyptian scholar, 1445-1505], never before occurred? Do you not know that every
which contains long lists of mujtahids—and that was heart has a mind, and every mind reaches its own
in just one particular place. How many other men conclusion? Why do you constrict what is wide, for-
would be counted in all places? Indeed, it would be bid what is permitted, and block the clear way? If
a boundless ocean. people were limited to the books of the ancients, then
Some worthless fellow might suspect—and it is a great deal of knowledge would be lost, penetrat-
said that suspicion is a sin—that current advocates ing minds would go astray, articulate tongues would
of scholarly reform intend to use ijtihad to establish be blunted, and we would hear nothing but repeti-
a special legal school and to call on believers to ad- tion. Do you urge the revival of what the ages have
here exclusively to it, to deviate from the views of covered over, the renewal of what the passage of time
the founders of the madhahib, and to detract from the has worn out, the relegation to files of what contem-
nobility of earlier generations. God save us from such porary minds have created, and the denial of this era?
ignorance and misunderstanding! Whoever thinks Even so, if one sought that, he would miss the mark
this way is more lost than a herd of cattle. What rea- and you would still read of new discoveries that will
sonable person would call for an increase in sectari- thrill and delight you."
anism and divisiveness? Instead, the intention is to The jurisprudents stipulated that the mujtahid
arouse the concern of leading scholars to become must know those situations that are the subject of
familiar with issues through evidence, to research consensus [one of four bases of Islamic law, along
their sources, to explore the books of the ancestors with the Qur'an, the sunna, and analogy], so that he
and the founders of the madhahib on basic legal prin- would not give a legal opinion in opposition to con-
ciples and specific regulations, to become familiar sensus. [Abu Hamid Muhammad] al-Ghazzali [major
with the ways of extracting and discovering rulings Iranian religious scholar, 1059-1111] wrote, "The
and with the proofs of agreement and disagreement, desired end is that one know that his legal opinion is
then to aspire for the strongest evidence and to seek not opposed to consensus, either by virtue of know-
the firmest opinion, as was the custom of the upright ing that it agrees with one of the legal schools or by

gance and pride. The perceptive individual finds application larities and likenesses. "Jurisprudence includes several mean." stood to imply that he does not judge when he is in discomfort because of hunger. Second is knowledge of dence consists of cramming in one's mind shari'a combining likenesses and distinguishing between dif. shari'a ordinances falls into two categories. have mercy upon him. after the proph. The only one who has this quality is as well as its sources and its underlying rationales. "The scholar is the heir out looking at the time and place of the speaker or the of the Prophet. those who blindly imitate precedent.184 Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi knowing that this is an unprecedented occurrence of the Prophet. see chapter 3]. "The specific regulations are simpletons. every ruling and understanding the underlying ratio- tions are derived." Imam al-Suyuti wrote. then confusion are the heirs of the prophets. some of our masters have of one partisan side in a kind of battle of minds. By it the jurisprudent becomes prepared to ness in both worlds. Fifth is knowledge of the consists of perceiving the intentions of the law in principles and exact rules by which specific regula. a wicked shari'a's meanings. 1703-1762] wrote. God provided the most general. opinion. and the most laws for his servants so that they may enjoy happi- perfect. A good person. This type gets the same result for both the only if he is thoroughly acquainted with all of the believer and the unbeliever. the judicious believer who hears and hearkens to One becomes proficient at understanding it and de. or a need to urinate. For example. people endure." disappears. and it is uncon- The second meaning is called "the science of simi. not issue a decision when he is angry. 'The judge should with which the authors of consensus had no famil. ferences. rulings issued by specialists in deriving regulations. quizzes. 'To according to a text or through discovery of rulings whomever God wishes well. One type riddles. On this meaning there are so many discus. that is sufficient. tions and extract meanings. You can elimi- dence consists only of difference and likeness. ditional. Its meanings and underlying ra. fused about the meaning of jurisprudence in the ings. know- said. one who suspends the law with legal fiction. circa 1344. He gives understanding through reasoning. Third nate the confusion for such an arrogant one and re- is the discussion of knotty issues for the purpose of move his ignorance by saying. and the meaning is made clear. "It is for the basic legal principles in all eventualities. how- a great science by which one becomes thoroughly ever much people's conditions change. ignorance is removed solely by maintaining clear Zarkashi [Egyptian religious scholar. God's call with his heart and mind. On this the masters have written of religion?' One may hold the view that jurispru- extensive commentaries. God's prayer and peace be upon him. One is able to make connec