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MODERNIST ISLAM, 1840-1940

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MODERNIST ISLAM,
1840-1940
A SOURCEBOOK

Edited by CHARLES KURZMAN

OXPORD
UNIVERSITY PRESS

2002

OXFORD
UNIVERSITY PRESS
Oxford New York
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Copyright © 2002 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Published by Oxford University Press, Inc.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Modernist Islam, 1840-1940 : a sourcebook, edited by Charles Kurzman.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
ISBN 0-19-515467-3; 0-19-515468-1 (pbk.)
1. Islamic renewal—History—19th century. 2. Islamic renewal—History—20th century.
3. Islamic countries—Intellectual life—19th century. 4. Islamic countries—Intellectual
life—20th century. I. Kurzman, Charles. II. Title.
BP60 .M55 2002
297'.09'04—dc21 2002022046

The editors thank the original copyright holders for permission to re-publish the works in this
anthology. We thank the Noor Research Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for their financial support.
We thank Ihsan 'Abbas, Edward A. Allworth, Ali Badran, Margot Badran, Niyazi Berkes,
Leon Carl Brown, Kenneth Cragg, Hager El Hadidi, Raghda El Essawi, Howard L. Goodman,
Abu Bakar Hamzah, Achmad Jainuri, Erni Haryanti Kahfi, Nikki R. Keddie, Lathiful Khuluq,
Javed Majeed, Helena Malikyar, Ishaq Masa'ad, Akhmad Minhadji, Natalie Mobini-Kesheh,
Ken Petersen, Samiha Sidhom Peterson, Lisa Pollard, Christopher Shackle, Durlab Singh,
Devin Stewart, Christian W. Troll, and Yektan Tiirkyilmaz as well as our fellow editors, for
their fine translations.
We thank Butrus Abu-Manneh, Engin Akarli, Louis Brener, Daniel W. Brown,
Abdelwahab El-Affendi, Carl W. Ernst, Paulo Fernando de Moraes Farias, Thomas
Hinnebusch, Hasan Javadi, Ahmet T. Karamustafa, Enes Karic, Bruce B. Lawrence, Roman
Loimeier, Ma Haiyun, Hossein Modarressi, Ebrahim Moosa, Henry Munson, R. Sean O'Fahey,
Shantanu Phukan, Stefan Reichmuth, Saba Risaluddin, Heba Mostafa Risk, Andrew Robarts,
David W. Robinson, William R. Roff, Holly Shissler, Devin Stewart, Amin Tarzi, Mohamad
Tavakoli-Targhi, Ibrahima Thioub, Ghulam Vahed, John O. Voll, and Muhammad Qasim
Zaman for their kind advice and assistance.

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Printed in the United States of America
on acid-free paper

Contents by Region

Introduction 3 Chapter 7
Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui
Kenya, 1890-1947 86
Section I. Africa
Chapter 8
Chapter I Abdullah Abdurahman
Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi South Africa, 1870-1940 90
Egypt, 1801-1873 31
Chapter 9
'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis
Chapter 2 Algeria, 1889-1940 93
Khayr al-Din
Tunisia, 1822-1890 40 Chapter 10
Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub
Chapter 3 Sudan, 1908-1976 96
Muhammad 'Abduh
Egypt, 1849-1905 50
Section 2. Iran/Afghanistan
Chapter 4
Chapter I I
Qasim Amin
Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
Egypt, 1863-1908 61
Iran, 1838-1897 103
Chapter 5
Chapter 12
Bahithat al-Badiya
Mirza Malkum Khan
Egypt, 1886-1918 70
Iran, 1833-1908 111

Chapter 6 Chapter 13
Muhammad Rashid Rida Muhammad Husayn Na'ini
Lebanon-Egypt, 1865-1935 77 Iran, 1860-1936 116

vi Content s by Region

Chapte r 14 Chapte r 26
Mahmu d Tarzi Dz•emaluddin C•aus•evi
c•
Afghanistan , 1865-1933 126 Bosnia, 1870-1938 198

Chapter 27
Sectio n 3. Ottoman Empire 'Abd al-Qadi r al-Maghrib i
Lebanon , 1867-1956 207
Chapter 15
'Abd al-Qadi r al-Jaza'ir i Chapte r 28
Algeria-Syria , circa 1807-1883 133 Halid e Edib Adivar
Turkey, 1882-1964 215
Chapter 16
Ali Suavi
Turkey, 1839-1878 138 Sectio n 4. Russian Empire

Chapter 17 Chapter 29
Nami k Kema l Ismai l Bey Gasprinski i
Turkey, 1840-1888 144 Crimea , 1851-1914 223

Chapter 18 Chapte r 30
S•emseddin Sami Frashër i Munawwa r Qari
Albania-Turkey , 1850-1904 149 Turkistan-Uzbekistan , 1878-1931 227

Chapter 19 Chapte r 31
'Abd al-Rahma n al-Kawakib i Ahmed Aghayev
Syria, 1854-1902 152 Azerbaijan, 1869-1939 229

Chapter 20 Chapter 32
Mahmu d Shukri al-Alusi Abdullah Bubi
Iraq , 1857-1924 158 Tatarstan , 1871-1922 232

Chapte r 21 Chapter 33
Abdullah Cevdet Rizaeddi n bin Fakhreddi n
Turkey, 1869-1932 172 Tatarstan , 1858-1936 238

Chapter 22 Chapte r 34
Musa Kazim Abdurrau f Fitra t
Turkey, 1858-1920 175 Bukhara-Uzbekistan , 1886-1938 244

Chapter 23 Chapte r 35
Jama l al-Di n al-Qasim i Musa Jarullah Bigi
Syria, 1866-1914 181 Tatarstan , 1875-1949 254

Chapte r 24 Chapter 36
Mansurizad e Sa'id Mahmu d Khoja Behbudi y
Turkey, 1864-1923 188 Turkistan-Uzbekistan , 1874-1919 257

Chapte r 25 Chapter 37
Ziya Gökal p Abdulhami d Sulayma n Cholpa n
Turkey, 1876-1924 192 Turkistan-Uzbekistan , 1893-1938 264

Contents by Region vii

Section 5. South Asia Section 6. Southeast/East Asia

Chapter 38 Chapter 46
Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali Al-Imam newspaper
North India, 1837-1914 273 Singapore, 1906-1908 339

Chapter 39 Chapter 47
Chiragh 'Ali Achmad Dachlan
North India, 1844-1895 277 Java, 1868-1923 344

Chapter 48
Chapter 40
Syekh Ahmad Surkati
Sayyid Ahmad Khan
Sudan-Java, 1872-1943 349
North India, 1817-1898 291
Chapter 49
Chapter 41 Hadji Agus Salim
Muhammad Iqbal Sumatra-Java, 1884-1954 355
North India, 1877-1938 304
Chapter 50
Chapter 42 Ahmad Hassan
Muhammad Abdul Khader Maulavi Singapore-Indonesia, 1888-1958 360
Malabar, 1873-1932 314
Chapter 51
Chapter 43 Muhammad Hasyim Asy'ari
Ameer 'Ali Java, 1871-1947 365
Bengal, 1849-1928 316
Chapter 52
Ya'qub Wang Jingzhai
Chapter 44
China, 1879-1949 368
Abu'l-Kalam Azad
Bengal-India, 1888-1958 325
Glossary 377
Chapter 45 Index of Quranic Citations 379
Muhammad Akram Khan
Bengal-Pakistan, 1868-1968 334 Index of Personal Names 381

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1875-1949 254 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub Sudan. 1858-1936 238 Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui Kenya. 1854-1902 152 Chapter 41 Chapter 21 Muhammad Iqbal Abdullah Cevdet North India. 1868-1923 344 . 1869-1932 172 Chapter 29 Chapter 46 Ismail Bey Gasprinskii Al-Imam newspaper Crimea. 1874-1919 257 Afghanistan. 1851-1914 223 Singapore. 1890-1947 86 Chapter 35 Musa Jarullah Bigi Chapter 10 Tatarstan. 1877-1938 304 Turkey. 1865-1933 126 Chapter 38 Chapter 19 Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi North India. 1908-1976 96 Chapter 36 Chapter 14 Mahmud Khoja Behbudiy Mahmud Tarzi Turkistan-Uzbekistan. Contents byTheme Cultural Revival Chapter 33 Rizaeddin bin Fakhreddin Chapter 7 Tatarstan. 1878-1931 227 Java. 1837-1914 273 Syria. 1906-1908 339 Chapter 30 Chapter 47 Munawwar Qari Achmad Dachlan Turkistan-Uzbekistan.

1858-1920 175 Tatarstan. 1857-1924 158 Chapter 17 Chapter 22 Namik Kemal Musa Kazim Turkey. 1840-1888 144 Turkey. 1860-1936 116 Algeria-Syria. 1871-1922 232 . 1879-1949 368 Azerbaijan. 1838-1897 103 Chapter I 3 Chapter 15 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri Iran. 1833-1908 111 Iran. 1801-1873 31 Abu'l-Kalam Azad Bengal-India. 1877-1938 304 Chapter I Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi Chapter 44 Egypt. 1876-1924 192 Chapter 52 Chapter 31 Ya'qub Wang Jingzhai Ahmed Aghayev China. 1889-1940 93 Lebanon-Egypt. 1866-1914 181 Chapter 22 Chapter 32 Musa Kazim Abdullah Bubi Turkey. 1858-1920 175 Chapter 19 Chapter 23 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi Syria. 1839-1878 138 Iraq. 1870-1940 90 Egypt. 1888-1958 325 Chapter 2 Khayr al-Din Tunisia.x Contents by Theme Chapter 49 Chapter 25 Hadji Agus Salim Ziya Gokalp Sumatra-Java. circa 1807-1883 133 Chapter I 6 Chapter 20 Ali Suavi Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi Turkey. 1854-1902 152 Syria. 1884-1954 355 Turkey. 1822-1890 40 Religious Interpretation Chapter 8 Chapter 3 Abdullah Abdurahman Muhammad 'Abduh South Africa. 1869-1939 229 Chapter 41 Political Reform Muhammad Iqbal North India. 1849-1905 50 Chapter 9 Chapter 6 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis Muhammad Rashid Rida Algeria. 1865-1935 77 Chapter 12 Chapter I I Mirza Malkum Khan Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Iran.

1873-1932 314 Women' s Rights Chapter 45 Chapter 4 Muhamma d Akram Khan Qasim Amin Bengal-Pakistan . 1893-1938 264 Chapter 40 Chapte r 43 Sayyid Ahmad Khan Ameer 'Ali Nort h India . 1849-1928 316 Chapter 42 Muhamma d Abdul Khade r Maulav i Malabar . 1864-1923 188 Chapter 51 Chapte r 26 Muhamma d Hasyim Asy'ari Dzemaluddi n C•aus•evi c• Java. 1886-1938 244 Index of Personal Names 381 . 1870-1938 198 Scienc e and Educatio n Chapter 27 'Abd al-Qadi r al-Maghrib i Chapter 11 Lebanon . 1872-1943 349 Egypt. 1888-1958 360 Turkey. 1868-1968 334 Egypt. 1838-1897 103 Chapte r 28 Halid e Edib Adivar Chapter 18 Turkey . Content s by Them e xi Chapter 39 Chapter 37 Chirag h 'Ali Abdulhami d Sulayma n Cholpa n Nort h India . 1817-1898 291 Bengal. 1863-1908 61 Chapter 48 Chapte r 5 Syekh Ahmad Surkati Bahitha t al-Badiya Sudan-Java . 1871-1947 365 Bosnia . 1882-1964 215 S•emseddin Sami Frashër i Albania-Turkey . 1867-1956 207 Sayyid Jama l al-Di n al-Afghan i Iran . 1886-1918 70 Chapte r 50 Chapte r 24 Ahma d Hassan Mansurizad e Sa'id Singapore-Indonesia . 1844-1895 277 Turkistan-Uzbekistan . 1850-1904 149 Glossary 377 Chapte r 34 Index of Quranic Citations 379 Abdurrau f Fitra t Bukhara-Uzbekistan .

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Altstadt (Caucasus) Ahmet Kanlidere (Tatarstan) Adeeb Khalid (Central Asia) Edward J. Rahme (Levant) A. Laffan (Singapore) Jonathan N. S.iikrii Hanioglu (Turkey) Joseph G. Lazzerini (Crimea) South Asia Marcia K. Ben-Dor (China) Howard M.Section Editors Africa Randall Pouwels (East Africa) Emad Eldin Shahin (North Africa) Iran/Afghanistan Charles Kurzman (Iran) Helena Malikyar (Afghanistan) Mahmoud Sadri (Iran) Ottoman Empire David D. Miller (Malabar) Sufia Uddin (Bengal) Southeast/East Asia Zvi A. Federspiel (Southeast Asia) Michael F. Kevin Reinhart (Turkey) Itzchak Weismann (Levant) Asim Zubcevic (Bosnia) Russian Empire Audrey L. Lipman (China) . Commins (Levant) M. Hermansen (South Asia) Roland E.

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1840-1940 .MODERNIST ISLAM.

. 1910). p. The Moon of the Fourteenth Night: Being the Private Life of an Unmarried Diplomat in Persia during the Revolution (London: Hurst & Blackett. 98. FINDING REASONS FOR THE CONSTITUTION IN THE KORAN (FROM "MULLA NASIR-UD-DIN THE PERSIAN "nwcn") Source: Eustache de Lorey and Douglas Sladen.

some of the leading tution in the Koran (from 'Mulla Nasir-ud-din[. Duncan B. in Azeri Turk- ish: "I cure the ill by writing down verses [from the 2. The Moon of York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 156. Duncan Black Macdonald (United the Constitution. Islamic Reform: The Political and ried Diplomat in Persia during the Revolution (London: Hurst Legal Theories of Muhammad 'Abduh and Rashid Rida (Berke- & Blackett. Trans- lation from Azeri by Mahmoud Sadri. the Fourteenth Night: Being the Private Life of an Unmar. argued that ing an Islamic scholar and inverted its meaning. The caption read: "Finding reasons for the consti. Valmont's use of this cartoon that a parliamentary democracy. He is the pointing with one hand to the Qur'an and holding up successor of Muhammad and must rule. for example. Mehmed doesn't bear scrutiny." The message seems clear: Muslims contrary. 1863-1943). the religious authority of the Ottoman Empire. Eustache de Lorey and Douglas Sladen. as an absolute monarch."3 Yet within ing. mon among Christians. 1966). 3. 4-5. he Valmont's suspicion of modernist Islam was com- held that Iranians. Valmont was bemused. but chapter 3)—the highest-ranking religious official in such claims don't bear close scrutiny. even apparently enlightened ones.'] the scholars of the Islamic world were arguing exactly the Persian 'Punch'). It read. Malcolm H. 3 . 1848-1917)—the chief a slightly different drawing in Mulla Nasruddin. Islam was compatible with democratic principles. This movement.4 In 1908. reproduced at left. appointed famed satirical journal of Baku. from antitraditionalism to antimodernism. vine] limitations. In a ghostwritten memoir. "Valmont" was a pseudonym. but rather mocked an old-fashioned re- erupted and came to power in 1906. Kerr. Muhammad 'Abduh (Egypt. 1906. Iran. 4. a few years of that statement. pp."2 The cartoon said nothing about consti- Tehran. Charles Kurzman Introduction: The Modernist Islamic Movement Edouard Valmont was a French diplomat serving in Qur'an]. 1849-1905. Valmont's memoir included caliph "cannot set up beside himself a constitutional a cartoon. Mulla Nasruddin. Jurisprudence. see may claim that Islam supports constitutionalism."1 States. Azerbaijan—had an entirely different caption. 58. The Development of Moslem Theology. showing a clerical figure assembly and give it rights against himself. The original—published with Cemaleddin Efendi (Turkey. 1910). rather. ligious practice. within [di- his other hand to block curious onlookers from peek. p. ley: University of California Press. Macdonald. 147-148. even among scholars who suffer "the lack of real comprehension of the spirit of studied Islam. when a constitutionalist movement tutionalism. and Constitutional Theory (New 1. 1903). September 22. pp. Valmont saw an image lampoon- combining religious and secular forces. Egypt—wrote privately in 1904 that he supported It is. p. wrote in 1903 that As evidence of the difficulty modern institutions Islam does not allow constitutionalism because the faced in an Islamic country.

we and the establishment of a periodical press through. Roff. privileging nationalism.. the Turkish terms yenl 7. chap- 1978). Finally. and a bundle of other which did not identify their values as modern. Brill. Activists described themselves ment could be imprecise." which sought to constitutionalism. women's rights. education. tics emerged in the first part of the nineteenth cen- als for Islamic constitutionalism. Islamic faith and modern values as a historical acci. 1977). Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age. or other repair necessary. and themes discussed later in this introduction (see also from contemporaneous competitors such as tradition- the Contents by Theme). 67. 8. played their modernity. Activists were not simply Muslims but Macdonald's blanket statement about the incom. The Origins of Malay Nationalism. cultural revival. scientific investigation. initially a pejorative term applied by opponents to the ment in Iran's Constitutional Revolution: "We would modernist Islamic movement. as several Islamic states adopted European mili- formed part of a movement that generated tremen.4 Introduction directly by the caliph—said that he too supported con. 43-47. Modernism distinguished the modernist Islamic terpretation. and the modern values associated ideologies. ed. The modern the twentieth century: on one hand secularists who period both required and permitted this accident to downplayed the importance of Islam in the modern be repaired: the threat of European domination made world. p. and mass education) but down- tion or reformation of educational institutions. 2d ed. 1902-1908 (New York: Ox. Turkey: Terciiman. pp. These proposals tury. the modern world. especially rationality. values that authors explicitly associated with courses was revived in a subset of modernist Islam the modern world. resuscitate the reputation and accomplishments of ity. The who espoused modern values (such as social equal- modernist Islamic movement pioneered the forma. 242. 489-490. This combination of characteris- or dismissed. (By contrast. 1908-1913 (Po. Shi'ism and Constitutionalism in the present book because their work was included in this ear- Iran (Leiden. Several authors are omitted from 6. though modernist Islam continued to spread in swcsev- One defining characteristic of this movement was eral regions after this date. and various Muslim dous intellectual ferment throughout the Islamic travelers to Europe brought back influential tales of world in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. 1998). Abdul-Hadi Hairi. litical Memoirs. codified law. the combination of modernist and Islamic dis- that is. on the other hand religious revivalists with European domination made repair possible. ford University Press. also wished to preserve and improve Islamic faith in patibility of Islam and constitutionalism also ignored. the half-century's crescendo of propos. 1798-1939 (London: Oxford University Press. muda. it distin- engaged in this movement saw the tension between guished the movement from two of its successors. Malaysia: Oxford University Press. 1994). divine mandates. We have picked the date This movement sought to reconcile Islamic faith and 1840 as a rough marker of the emergence of this form modern values such as constitutionalism. Preparation for a ter 13. 1962). but its core was clear: a set and their goals by the Arabic terms jadid (new) and mu'asir (contemporary). Albert Hourani. J. privileging authenticity and tation for political liberalization or decolonization. was Shi'i Islam telegraphed their support at a crucial mo. and similar words in other stitutionalism. Netherlands: E. Charles Kurzman. (Kuala Lumpur. M. ity. which supplanted modernist Islam in the middle of dent. p. Cemaleddin Efendi. Following one classic study. and certain forms of human equal. as well as of discourse. Revolution: The Young Turks. §iikrii Hanioglu. that I have labeled "liberal Islam. Late in the twentieth cen- the self-conscious adoption of "modern" values— tury. Malay for young. The boundaries of the modernist Islamic move- ponent of modernity). pp. two senior scholars of languages. 9. . Liberal Islam (New York: Ox- ford University Press.)7 A second character- like to know if it would be possible to execute Islamic istic involved the usage of a self-consciously Islamic provisions without a constitutional regime!"6 discourse.8 out the Islamic world. Siyasi Hatimlar. socialism. agi. lier anthology. nationalism. 2001).9 (a feature of modernity) but also "modernist" (a pro. Thus this movement was not simply "modern" earlier modernists. William R. not an inherent feature of Islam. progress and enlightenment. have dated the moment of decline at roughly 1940. freedom of religious in. 1908-1913) (Istanbul. tary and technical organization. 5. science. The authors and activists alists who rejected modern values.5 Also in 1908. (new) and genf (young). modern-style movement from previous Islamic reform movements.

"Sufism. the selection of authors and works in this anthology. applying their expertise to the selection of Ismail Bey Gasprinskii (Crimea. published in Paris. tises. important. and characteristic con- ter 29). including This they did by referring to the particular challenges dialogues. succinct. from South organized around the freedom of speech. These ues included both state-building and limits on state power. and didactic fiction of various sorts. published in Cairo. even deep disagree. and collaborator 'Abduh. pp. the anthology omits certain important figures ited: Afghani and 'Abduh's al-'Urwa al-Wuthqa for lack of space. Three figures in particular were famed scholarship and rejection of traditional scholarship. chap. 1817-1898. and advisers. numbers 1- here with the rest of Africa to provide cross-regional balance. Much of North Africa. and Modernity: Yusuf erty. ists had to defend the right to defend modern values. existed on virtually all subjects. Even authors who disagreed with the tual movement. volume 37. plus regional pioneers Sayyid I would like to take this opportunity to thank my Ahmad Khan (North India. The regional classifications are inevitably somewhat contemporaines du second reformisme musulman (ou djadi- arbitrary. as political control and circuits of training reached disme)" (Contemporary History and Interpretations of the across geographic boundaries. by arguing that their own. 2. each influential in their regional contexts. In order to defend modern values. al-Nabhani in the Age of 'Abd al-Hamid II. 71.10 but not so that this was the central intellectual issue of the move- well known to other Muslims or scholars of Islam. The Islamic faith of a couple of authors al-Manar (The Beacon). throughout the Islamic world: Sayyid Jamal al-Din return to a pristine early Islam and updating of early al-Afghani (Iran. Chicago. 1898. elitism and egalitarianism. often nontraditional positions. Supporters cited and debated the statements tributions from the authors they have chosen. Inevi- of these figures. but it is grouped russe (Annals of the Russian World). Islam but rather to make available in a single volume The present anthology includes influential writ. discipline and lib. and. "Histoire et interpretations 10. movement was not limited to central figures. relevant. I propose Africa to East Europe to Southeast Asia. and this What can we learn from these voices? The follow- anthology seeks also to highlight the contributions ing sections explore four issues that emerge from the of authors from around the Islamic world who were writings of the modernist Islamic movement. This is to be expected of any intellec- 1883-1914." paper presented at the Middle East Studies Association. ment. colleagues who served as section editors and project Namik Kemal (Turkey. published in Bakhchisaray. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 5 of key figures who served as lodestones for Mus. by pioneering new forms of discourse. Rida's troversial. 1851-1914. 19-20. plays. 1884. . and poems. 1870. stories. chapter 11). 1998. modern- forms of discourse: journalistic essays. The modernist Islamic movement was educations qualified them to speak on Islamic issues. criticized—indeed. Cahiers du monde example. in one direction Interpreter). finally. Crimea."11 The modernism of some authors may be (Warning). Yahya Abdoulline. 11. Yet the modernist Islamic movement. Ijtihad. never monolithic. opponents charged that 'Abduh and other (Refinement of Morals). The modern. Sayyid Ahmad Khan's Tahdhib al-Akhlaq indeed. or not far enough. or Jadidism). modernists criticized one another 1873. his student practices in keeping with historical change. or another. and 'Abduh's student and Considerations of influence and diversity guided collaborator Muhammad Rashid Rida (Syria-Egypt.. the and opportunities posed by the onslaught of moder- anthology presents a cross section of themes and nity. Amal Ghazali. Readers should note that the editors modernist Islamic project located themselves in re. (to be discussed in a moment) may be in question— 1935. Europhilism and anti-imperialism. was part of the Ottoman Empire. In addition. published in Paris and Istanbul. 111. a representative sampling of major voices in the ings by these authors. 1840-1888. p. ment: the right to say novel things in an Islamic dis- The anthology also samples the modernists' varied course. 1865-1935. Namik Kemal's Hurriyet (Liberty) and Ibret tanic. for Second Muslim Reformism. strategic use of traditional centuries. 1868. 1996. scholarly trea. 1838-1897. Modern val. chapter 40). especially the periodicals they ed. and some decisions may be con- (The Strongest Link). leading modernists were "irreligious" and even "sa- 1896. do not wish to construct a "canon" of modernist lation to these central figures. and Gasprinskii's Tercuman/Perevodchik (The for going too far. chapter 17). chapter 6). by laying out their modernist vision of Islam. tably. ists' Islamic faith encompassed both mysticism and lim intellectuals of the late nineteenth and twentieth abhorrence of mysticism. published in Aligarh. and variation.

Holt et al. Books." in P. According to bridge. modern science challenged other nity. how- Europe to conquer vast regions of the Islamic world. vol. "Renewal and Reform in Is." in John L. 633. 1875. Ahmad Khan. Nazik Saba Yared. among others. Euro- ume 2. Sumayya Damluji Shahbandar (London: Saqi Press. "Like a convict. Rida (chap. Modernist Muslims attributed this prosperity both to ments recurred up through the eighteenth century. Arab Travellers and Western Civi- Modern World.12 and revivalist move. p. modern means of warfare allowed raculous advances made in recent years. ever. they are also capable of industrial produc- of every century someone who renews its religion. it was associated. help and control.Y. too. the in the hearts of people an uneasiness and careless- most powerful Islamic state. 1994)." Ottoman "state will undoubtedly sink" if current Politically. modern institutions of government seemed. All. 1822-1890. ed. Ahmad Khan (chap- gained such momentum by the nineteenth century ter 40). N. trans. Modernity was not a disembodied set of ideals. according to their proponents. Namik Kemal (chap." wrote Musa Jarullah Bigi (Tatarstan. p. contribute towards spreading them—there will arise 1949. argued that "the [Ottoman] na. foreign interventions cannot be stopped. had lost territory and ness and even a positive disaffection towards Islam submitted to treaties allowing foreign intervention in as it has been shaped in our time. He used this dire prediction to jus- wish to espouse modern values in an Islamic dis. in part. 36. (Syracuse. eds. England: Cambridge University Press."13 A combination of resentment and respect is ex- Some modernists called upon this and other prece.. contrast. chapter 35). which lamic History. by their continuity with Islamic tradition. tion of other regions. 30. In addition to natural re- Prophet): "God sends to this nation at the beginning sources. pean "progress in the governance of mankind. 1983).. The Cambridge History of Islam (Cam. a European increases in productivity and to exploita- period whose revivalist activity "created an under. namely the onslaught of moder. including Islamic homelands. modernity appeared to generate wealth and commodities that the Islamic world Modernism is hardly the first movement in Islamic lacked and desired. Such calls could be heard already in the street lamps and other indicators of prosperity. pressed. 13. 2d ed." Why Speak Now? Economically. with the imperialist expan. Fazlur Rahman. . Islam: Continuity and Change in the 14. Muslim visitors to Europe in the history to claim a dire need for reform and revival of early and mid-nineteenth century marveled at the gas the faith. Khayr al-Din (Tunisia.: Syracuse University lization. Cognitively." and the nal luminous face of Islam. for example. the "black stains" of traditionalism from "the origi- tion is faced with the threat of extinction. identified this threat even as he that modernist Muslims worried about the prospect embraced modern scientific disciplines: "I am cer- of complete subjugation.. by Mahmud Tarzi (Afghani- dents of reform. M. for example. p. 1865-1933. person realizes that as long as this tyrannical admin- istration prevails in the state. to maintain social peace and build national unity in ways that con- 12. tify his call for democratic reform: "every intelligent course. Esposito. chapter 2). 1970). This is simply because they have the knowledge Yet the modernists faced a challenge that earlier and we do not. rather." tion. "Revival and Reform in Islam. tain that as these sciences spread—and their spread- lim world remains everywhere under someone else's ing is inevitable and I myself after all. 1996). it appears. the Mus. lying theme for the modern Islamic experience. to demonstrate stan. this threat required Muslims to wipe ter 17). while others emphasized the seemingly mi- Militarily. Modernist Muslims accepted these claims. worldviews with its dramatic claims of success. cited the hadith (saying of the those of the entire world.6 Introduction problematics remain vivid today for Muslims who trends continued. Even the Ottoman Empire." reformers had not. Voices of Resurgent Islam (New York: Oxford University Press. not only exploit their own mines." According to the empire's domestic affairs. John Obert Voll. for example. recognized science as a challenge to Islamic This trend had begun in the seventeenth century but understandings of the world. temporary Islamic states could not. John Obert Voll. chapter 14): "European states. science. but also ter 6). Some sion of Christian Europe.14 eighth and ninth centuries. which threatened Islam in emphasized the medieval Islamic roots of modern at least five registers.

"15 Ayatullah Muhammad Taba. most innova- founded Iranian parliament: "I've never seen the con. "The published in Iran and Afghanistan suggested that greatest benefit that the peoples of the Orient have "The black smoke rising from the roof of the father- derived from the Europeans was to learn how real land / Is caused by us. . original ideals of their faith. argued that the ought rather to value "the knowledge European British Empire was "a civilizing factor" in the Islamic women have in fixing up their houses and making world: "England. whose pillars have been tottering for 17. Egypt: Institut fransais d'archeologie orientale Intisharat-i Payam. 1843-1921) noted in a speech to the newly hardly blameworthy. rev. as well as recover the to be part of Islam. is doing one of our own them comfortable and neat. 1837-1914. and the ability they have in [doing] handy work Muhammadans which it protects. nity. We can affirm that it is not that are good and which do not contradict our reli. 46. p. modernity introduced novel patterns long exclusively to the Christian nations. du Caire." Thomas Ismael Urbain threaten the very existence of Islam." A poem the European kingdoms. and with good customs and man. 1969). p. from becoming civilized. 1880-1946 15. requisite of Christianity." but not "their good customs. Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui (Kenya. which unfavorable circumstances did in a healthy way. chapter 19) feared that "danger has come great development of knowledge and civilization in close—may God forbid it—to the heart.18 Accord- who have seen the constitutional countries have told ing to §emseddin Sami Frasheri (Albania-Turkey. chapter 41). Islamic societies could you. chapter I). cism of their brutality. not permit us to perform. 1975). ignorant of behavior that threatened to displace existing prac. p. and thus deem distancing 1890-1947. Fereydun Adamiyat. Vartan Gregorian. which he identified as "the basis of the 1902. because today civilization seems to be- Culturally." Muslims could not have developed Yet these challenges also provided an opportu- this independently. Iran: 1882) (Cairo. (Stanford. volume 2. modern ideals. a convert to Islam who infuri- of social Darwinist competition." (North India. The Emergence of Modern Af- ghanistan: Politics of Reform and Modernization. will remain in the world only a few days tries. as well as the assimilation of from left and right / Are caused by us. 1997). would not have considered this not only survive but thrive. later an Muslim women cut their hair in European styles but apostle of Pakistani independence. tions are praiseworthy. and rearing their children great duties. Gilbert Delanoue. On the contrary. "It is a regrettable circum- and flourishing of the country. tions." 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (Syria. Fikr-i dimukrasi-i ijtima'i dar mans dans I'Egypte du XIXe siecle (1798-1882) (Muslim nahzat-i mashrutiyat-i Iran (Social Democratic Thought in Moralists and Politicians in Egypt of the 19th Century. in this view. some modernists argued." wrote Rifa'a Rafi' al- stitutional countries myself." Rida wrote in 1907. 450. and those Tahtawi (Egypt. By realizing flected upon the state of these people [Europeans]. p. (London: Pinter. chapter 7) worried that "every day we themselves from it and guarding themselves against see ourselves mimicking whites. 18. their solidarity."17 this knowledge. 1798- the Iranian Constitutionalist Movement) (Tehran. their Even colonial dependence had positive implica- ways of [conducting] meetings. that the constitution is the cause of the security 1850-1904. Muhammad Iqbal try. Choueiri. Moralistes et politiques musul- 16. masses of our own nation take it to be a symbol or tices. the challenges of modernity appeared to madan Empire in the world. 1982). But I've heard. many Muslims ated French colonizers of North Africa with his criti- worried that Islam would not be able to compete. . Youssef M. chapter 18). ."16 stance that. and other things like these. or others like you. 1854- political rights. ed. in fact. like their pastimes. ages." Muslims adopted alcohol and European garb. 167. potential of colonization to develop "an administra- chapter 38) worried that the "dilapidated hall of the tive organization favorable to the development of true religion.: Stanford University Press. he continued. me. but the spirit of the and crafts and cooking. "All new things are taba'i (Iran. Calif. "Had you not re. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 7 has led to the utmost point of prosperity for their coun. 1812-1884). the religion of Islam which prevents Muslim nations gion. Islamic Fundamentalism. and not only in ways it to be a religious duty. 4. It is not the number of ners. In the context (France." relied primarily on respect for personal and more. according to modernist Muslims. nonetheless defended the Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali (North India.. / The flames that devour us government ought to be. 1877-1938. their love of coun." British Empire that makes it the greatest Muham- In sum. 1801-1873.

1871-1919) (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Later in life."24 On the other pendent country?" 'Abd al-'Aziz al-Tha'alibi (Tuni. that warn one not to European ideals in the age of imperialism: "Just look smell them— how those Frenchmen talk pretentiously about free- Like paper roses. p. Nicholson (Lahore. and at- cising its power in accordance with the spirit of the tained self-consciousness. p. La Tunisie martyre (Tunisia the ture. 1950). p. Ibrahim bin Abu Bakar. Rashid Rida and the West (Herndon. pp. 1884-1954. Iqbal offered similarly antagonistic as such agitation would spell the inevitable down. On one hand. The Reconstruction of Religious 1994). p. a large system of public educa. Through Muslim Eyes: M. . tion. idol-making!23 not possibly countenance any nationalistic awaken- ing or agitation for progress. she alone has passed ing these people to develop their own independent from the ideal to the real—a transition which entails talents. .25 19. or justice . Shaikh stitute of Islamic Thought. 1867-1934). 162. press with French colonial decrees limiting the Tu- Enravished by the West. Islamic Modernism in Ma. 262.. a mirage of perfume. right of intellectual freedom. Charles-Robert Ageron. Martyr) (Beirut. pp. key. Pilgrimage of Eternity (Javidnamah). technical skill and advanced industries. ing to live up to these ideals. p.: International In. 23. conflicted Sayid Syekh al-Hadi (Malaya. an organization of re. so that Indonesians can have their own inde. taking on the responsibility for prepar. and since the antidote of newspapers and writings published in France and He has renounced. aspects worthy of adoption and those to be rejected. trans. 25. rather. such as Ali Suavi (Tur- And have made me intimate with their roses. all the while seeking world domi- Since this garden ceased to enthral me nation like Caesar. 1934 (Kuala Lumpur. even as they berated Europeans for fail- ligion and of justice. one of about European civilization." Abu'l-Kalam Azad (Bengal- I have nested on the Paradisal tree. 1839-1878. idol-selling. that is. Lebanon: Dar al-Gharb al-Islami. Les Algeriens musulmans et la France (1871-1919) (Muslim Algerians and France. Pakistan: Shaikh Muhammad Ashraf. Thought in Islam (Oxford. 1879-1944) compared the freedom of the French The Turk. laya: The Life and Thought of Sayid Syekh al-Hadi. Emad Eldin Shahin. The acqui- Learning the secrets of the New Knowledge: sition of these aspects does not require all this amount Its gardeners have put me to the trial of Westernization."19 Some modernists seemed. frankly. also in Kurzman. . 159-160. which "can- Idol-worshipping. England: Oxford University Press. Muhammad Iqbal. 167. what can I say except elsewhere. 49. 76-77. Malaysia: University of Malaya Press. drinks from her hand nisian press and "prohibiting the entry into Tunisia A poison sweet. 1968). 1985). chapter 49) questioned is that among the Muslim nations of today. hand. 24. Abdelaziz Thaalbi. warned Muslims against modernity colonizers as God's "righteous servants. dom and equality."21 Others. and finally various philanthropic institutions. Long have I been running to and fro. the founders of the Singapore reformist journal al. 1993). chapter 44) was bitingly critical Modern knowledge is the greatest blind— of the "inequity" of British colonialism. 1888-1958."22 Yet these critics embraced the ideals God save him. quoted above praising colonialism's "civilizing" Imam (chapter 46). 1961). he castigated Turkey for Westernizing: sia.8 Introduction agriculture and commerce . The Secrets of the Self(Asrar-i khudi). First published in 1932. concluded that "all that we need infidel's cup! to acquire from Europe is its scientific achievements. She alone has claimed her times. went so far as to praise British mission in 1909. First published in 1920. First published in 1915. Do not seek the nature of Truth from this Rida. ed. Liberal Islam. Va. trans. for example. alone has shaken off its dogmatic slumber. Some distinguished between knowledge of to-day. torn from the self. 1930). keen intellectual and moral struggle. India.. 1867. Iqbal (chapter 41). reform.. for example."20 a few years later: Not all modernists fawned so enthusiastically over But do not seek the glow of Love from the European civilization. volume 1." Hadji Agus Salim key for its drastic Westernizing reforms: "The truth (Sumatra-Java. Mahmud Ahmad (Lahore. 21. p. 404. Turkey whether the Dutch colonial government was "exer. A. opinions. Pakistan: Institute of Islamic Cul- 22. he praised Tur- fall of its dominant power. 29. Reynold 20. noted the hypocrisy of Roses! Tulips. chapter 16). of modernity.

Legal Reform in the Muslim cyclopedia of Islam. from any and all of them—Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi tice of taqlid." wrote Muhammad Husayn Na'ini (Iran. eds. Third was the effort to reconcile obedience to political tyrants. London: Luzac.27 as did others: "It is adopt one of the four madhhabs. Modernists argued that the crisis demanded to give success to the messenger of the Messenger drastic reform in the Islamic world. Netherlands: E. a term that literally meant to follow (Iraq. Modernity involved both threat and ijtihad [rational interpretation] and spare no effort.' opportunity. ." wrote Abdullah Bubi (Tatarstan." Rather than follow precedent. 'Praise God vation. 1868- pretend to present true religion is no different from 1968. as stated by Muhammad Abdul Khader Maulavi gued that active reinterpretation of Islamic sources (Malabar. Muneer Goolam Farced. 1871. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 9 Iqbal's Persian and Urdu poetry denouncing mo. [founders of the four Jabal (died 627). and draw arguments The authority of the past crystallized in the prac. Encyclopedia of Islam.26 of a particular scholar. 1026-1027. rive at legal rulings on matters not covered in the the modernists had to defend their right to make sacred sources. chap. to the sacred sources. 9. (Leiden. 1866-1914. 1943. J. that is. But this tension repre. 2d ed." had for centuries been lim- Who Can Speak? ited to a fairly technical meaning. p. J. chapter 42). chapter 48) wrote that taqlid was not only ter 23)—among many others—quoted a hadith in contrary to reason and revelation." in P. "Islam is a religion that is compatible with reason. eds.29 First was the right to reach across the sev- the authority of the past and the authority of the eral legal schools (madhhabs) in which scholars tra- credential. En. it has no principles that contradict reason. Mu'adh ibn to the instructions of the imam?. 1872- Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (Syria. irrational imitation of tradition. p. 1857-1924. the opinion of those who state that one is obliged to ment weighed in on this theme. (Leiden. precedent of the Prophet and his Companions—to dictory. referring to the intellectual effort of trained Islamic scholars to ar- Logically prior to the substance of their arguments. Prophet then said. 1873-1932. 1860-1936. This widened door of ijtihad should not have been cumstances.. chapter 45). "Taklid. modernists con- from the early Islamic era in support of this position. ditionally limited themselves. Netherlands: Brill." wrote ' Abd right to bypass the madhhab?. 1996).' The Prophet then said. but also "contrary which Muhammad sent a companion. you do not find it there?' He said. derived from a root mean- ing "effort" or "struggle. of God. 8." in the words of 1922. "put the Qur'an in its rightful place. external imposition and internal reno. 'I would judge by God's book. Muhammad said. the modernists ar. tended. was permitted and even necessary under certain cir. namely the Qur'an and the chapter 15).. volume 3. pp." Second was the better to follow a beast than an imitator. 'And if sents the challenge of the modernist Islamic move. pp. God's Messenger. Schacht.: Austin & Winfield. Syekh Ahmad Surkati (Sudan-Java.'" The concept of ijtihad. Tool (San Francisco.' The 28. chapter 13). and he struck his chest. Either one is a form the sacred sources with human reason. 26. "Taqlid of religious leaders who Muhammad Akram Khan (Bengal-Pakistan. and even more outlandish is All of the lodestone figures in the modernist move. Calif. They did so by challenging two term and broadened its scope to include three distinct forms of scholarly authority that stood in their way: usages. J. Some cited revelation and precedent shut in the early centuries of Islam. 2000)." in Bernard Lewis et al. 'And if you do not find a ruling in dernity may be at odds with his English-language God's book?' He said. and reach back directly al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri (Algeria-Syria. World: The Anatomy of a Scholarly Dispute in the 19th and volume 10. 137-138. N. 2d ed. the Early 20th Centuries on the Usage of Ijtihad as a Legal 27.. 29. Calder. to serve as governor of Yemen: main Sunni schools of law] whom those practicing "The Prophet said to him. 'By the sunna [precedent] of prose embracing modernity. chapter 20) called it "outlandish" established scholars but which modernists ritually to "state that one is obliged to follow the madhhab denigrated as blind.28 The modernists latched on to the such arguments. 1971). chapter 32). "Taqlid and Islam are mutually contra.. as he has pleased the Messenger of God. Kurzman. 'I would perform ment as a whole. Bearman et al. Liberal Islam. circa 1807-1883. to contend that of idolatry. Brill. "Idjtihad. 'How would you act as judge?' He said.

1936) of the Ahl-i-Qur'an movement. 1940) (Paris: Mouton & Co. a theme broached the modernists' caricature. 1967). Brown. compose. or in more flatter. then they go tenth century scholar (chapter 23): "If people were to their earlier scholars"—that is. 1890-1944). 1861- the modernists' polemical denunciation of tradi. 1997). . penetrating minds 'original' scholars and may not use hadith directly. then a great deal taqlid—"on the basis that they themselves are not of knowledge would be lost." Indeed.31 Indeed. 77. and see Prophet. chapter 22) wrote that "all of the 'ulama' and sultans. We must also reform the theological opening editorial against the combined tyranny of books in accordance with the needs of our era. likened taqlid such lies and the extravagant praise and miracles at. We have the Badis (Algeria. Ahmad Hassan (Singapore. intel- Indonesia." In political and religious authorities who sought "to a more critical tone. 62-63. 32." Rizaeddin bin to avoid trouble. volume 41. . 1858-1936. they go directly to the hadith as the source things like earlier men?" Qasimi asked.32 and modern. 193-233. Yann Richard. to political tyranny." The Algerian reformist newspaper al- [religious scholars] in every era wrote books in ac. "Islam tributed to them. chapter 9). Authority and Political Culture in Shi'ism (Albany: State ing terms. ed. 34.. 1988). Modernists saw taqlid not as a religious require. ity—see Mohammad Fadel." Die Welt Wael B. Muntaqid (The Critic). servative thought "useful only to oppressive rulers 1858-1920. therefore the latest religion. pp. "Do not later men study. articulate tongues would be blunted." in Said Amir Arjomand.10 Introduction taqlid claim to be imitating." Islamic Law and Society. pp. Recent scholarship suggests that the original purpose Theologian of the Rida Shah Period. "Jadidism in Central Asia within 30. 1889-1940. England: Cambridge University Press. 1888-1958. p. Similarly. pp. especially a parallel argument about Muslims' veneration of the analogy between religious authority and politi- saintly figures. ties on charges of espousing ijtihad.30 Musa Kazim (Turkey. 55-59. Daniel W. was not nec- tional Islamic thought may have been aimed more essarily superior to that of other Muslims. p. if one believes in progress. and religious affairs. But if they disagree. by Bubi (chapter 32): "Since God's creation is pro- ascus. 114. Recent scholarship has confirmed this view—see Reformism and Modernism in the Muslim World. 1925 a 1940 (Muslim Reformism in Algeria from 1925 to ume 3." would go astray. 1996. who "would not have approved of cal authority. Na'ini. sity Press. lectual. the building of legal uniformity and predictabil. des Islams (The World of Islam). "Shari'at Sangalaji: A Reformist 31. quoting a of this agreement. . as scholars—even scholars espousing created. 1996). Islamic Reform: Politics and 36. conservatives and interrogated by Ottoman authori. University of New York Press. vol. nized no intermediary between the Creator and the pletely. bridge. 445-446. edited by ' Abd al-Hamid Ibn cordance with the needs of the d a y ." Even the ment but as an instrument of institutional authority Prophet's understanding of Islam. number 2. were repeatedly accused by gressing day by day. 68.. chapter 50) accused support. rule [the community's] political. Ali Merad. directed its same need. . England: Cambridge Univer- University Press. Hallaq." wrote Mirza Riza Quli Shari'at-Sangalaji taqlid—were forced by changed circumstance to (Iran. later scholars are actual writings. according to designed to suppress challenging views. p. pp. and both to idolatry. Le reformisme musulman en Algerie de the Rise of the Mukhtasar. Islam. 51-52. for example. number 1. some modernists suggested delivered man from the slavery of priests. "The Social Logic of Taqlid and 35. of taqlid was enforcement of conformity.33 The theme of authority arises Fakhreddin (Tatarstan. David Dean Commins. chapter 33) made time and again in the modernists' works.36 Or per- at the authority of conservative scholars than at their haps. 2001. economic. Ingeborg Baldauf. is the most perfect religion of all the religions. 172."35 ers of taqlid of adopting the practice only when it Modernists proposed that contemporary scholars suited them: "When these traditionalist religious are just as qualified as their predecessors to engage scholars agree with the actions and words of the in ijtihad. they engage in limited to the books of the ancients. Rethinking Tradition in Modern Social Change in Late Ottoman Syria (New York: Oxford Islamic Thought (Cambridge. it is quite possible and in accordance with ists in Central Asia had to tiptoe around the issue 33. It recog- that the door of ijtihad had never been shut com. Khwaja Ahmad Din Amritsari (North India.117-124. 1990). and we would hear nothing but repetition.34 Bubi (chapter 32) called con- devise novel approaches. A History of Islamic Legal Theories (Cam. most of which did not conform to more qualified than earlier ones. quoted above. Modernists in Dam.

" neither lights its surroundings nor gives light to oth- Even if they overcame the hurdle of taqlid. 16. number 4. Muslims had a duty to engage in ijtihad. J.37 Modernists combated their handicap by Education in secular subjects. 30. Feminists. Brill. its founders. on top of which is a very small flame that the past. 'Umar told the Mus. the scholars of row wick. 1886-1938. can Islam tions. in India. Barbara Metcalf."40 lims." In these precedents. England: Cambridge University Press. p." The Young Ansar-Ud-Deen Society. ers. pioneered by traditionally trained "By God." The Singapore news- Musa (Egypt. 1886-1951)." traditional educations had become so sterile and wrote a founder of the Nadwat al-'Ulama' seminary scholastic that they actively disqualified their gradu. both women and men will be- Din (chapter 2) and Na'ini (chapter 13)—Sunni and come learned. 1860-1900 (Princeton. 1982). 37. Several modernists of Islam. that "by this means alone . A male relative studying at the al-Azhar ing] plants grow." The Azerbaijan newspaper Kaspii mosque in Cairo objected to this act as "heretical. Baljon. . Press. 1988). "A major reason for Some modernists went further and argued that the decline in the 'ulama"s influence in the country. "Praise God ists—who admired aspects of modern education. in the words of one invited all Muslims to judge the propriety of his ac.: ligious Associations Among Yoruba Muslims: The Ansar-Ud- Princeton University Press. Afghani (chap- 39. Under the new system. pp. p. 1985). J. invented by "infidels" but resulting in in- than the person who is stating it. a teenager prevented by paper al-Imam (chapter 46) excoriated traditional her family from attending school. and prizes at the Deoband seminary in Muslims was deemed praiseworthy. 1995)." A man stood up and said. 127. by contrast. prepare students properly for the practice and study nopolize religious interpretation. Abul Kalam Azad (Delhi. if we saw in you deviation we would rec. examina- independent religious judgment of noncredentialed tions. S."39 mentor. of the Muslim world to remain lifeless and motion- ligious scholars. Under the old system. would arguing that credentialed scholars ought not to mo. 41. Khayr al. and Nation: Gen.J. "Education and the Growth of Re- der and the Making of Modern Egypt (Princeton. 198-199. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT II God's sunna that in our time there might be scholars ter 11) likened traditional scholarship to "a very nar- of the same degree as." 'Umar replied. Shi'i. tion (1880-1960) (Leiden. M. "is the popular perception that they have ates from meaningful intellectual work. and therefore to decline. In Khayr al-Din's telling. 40. Islam. because it is easier. ies themselves. memorized the Qur'an. taught herself to teachers who assigned rote exercises "in order to take read. Verse 82). 40. 1905- 1920 (Cambridge. p. 1996. Stefan Reichmuth." For Azad. some modernists suggested that all two great scholars appear. Modern Muslim Koran Interpreta. Deoband. Educational pioneer Nabawiyah less. N. "O people. or better than. mod. Margot Badran. respectively—both cite the precedent of the founded in Nigeria in 1923. 1961). along with al-Jaza'iri (chapter 15). since the verse did not limit "they" to a small live in illiteracy. grades. and sought to interpret up time. Tadeusz Swietochowski. N. argued. Netherlands: E. who created in this umma him who would rectify with They sought to reform the seminaries by incor- his sword my deviations. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-644). who Western-style schools.J. established a series of second caliph. India41—and modern disciplines. women are deprived of learning and most of the men tation. Russian Azerbaijan. be better studied and understood. arguing. reformists—not necessarily full-fledged modern- tify it with our swords." (The Caspian) wrote that traditional schools "do not and said that even he would not proceed without a deserve to be called schools. Islamic Revival in British India: p. and in every generation one or group. Abdurrauf Fitrat (Bukhara. vol- 38.38 Further. (Sura 4.: Princeton University India: Oxford University Press. . let him among you who sees any This critique emerged from within the seminar- deviation in me set it right. legitimated widespread interpre. lazily believing that [education is like watch- its verses. Deen Society of Nigeria. pp. 373. leaving the field open to the modern-educated." Journal of Religion in Africa.. 104-105. ume 26. "Do they not consider the Qur'an?" studying is just the same. the creased pilgrimages by Muslims: "The question of Qur'anic verse. the porating modern discipline—for example. that "the chapter 34) made the analogy with trains and steam- intelligent person must consider the statement rather ships." Bigi (chapter 35) blamed seminaries for the ernists faced a second hurdle: many of them lacked "widespread stoppage of brains that caused the mind the seminary credentials historically required of re. also Ian Henderson Douglas.

Brill. "Ideological Revolution in Doktor Abdullah Cevdet ve Donemi (Doctor Abdullah Shi'ism. Chris Eccel. One strain of Islamic modernism went so far in proved methods" of education. Reform of Religious Teaching in Najaf Since the Beginning cuse University Press. versity of California Press. chapter 21) made similar comments. 45. 1870-1938. of the Twentieth Century. Turkey: Eren Yaymcihk. Ahmet Kanhdere. 1910). Egypt. 262-268. Amira El-Azhary Sonbol." Qari founded Azhar fired the imagination of dozens of young the first usul-ijadid (new principles) school in Tash- religious scholars who came to study with him. West Ger. Bir Siyasal Dusunur Olarak 48. impart a knowledge of the sciences of the present age corporate al-Azhar graduates into a state-run judi. Mirza Malkum Khan (Berkeley: Uni- Identity among the Crimean Tatars (1905-1916) (Leiden.. 51. eds. 1869- Pakistan. One such student. 176-189. for brief periods. who proposed that Shi'i nian nation toward "civilization. Europeans seeking to inculcate modern values in an 43. Ende. schools of Bukhara—condemned such institutions Shihabuddin Marjani (Tatarstan. Sabrina Mervin. 82. ing in the sky while standing in a well.J. p. Marshall Broomhall. 1932. ondary education as qualifying him to guide the Ira- Muzaffar (Iraq. Yitzhak Nakash. attempting comparable reforms. without any particular merit in its inspired Shi'i modernists who never studied in own right. p. reer.51 as did ume 41. N. 70-71. 1818-1889) in. 1981). 1973). to teach only reading and writing. leading internal critics served as 1878-1931. so that in worldly matters their ing of a "a Shi'ite Muhammad 'Abduh. ed. N.'Abduh's plans for al."49 guidance is entirely unworthy of attention. 51.48 and Muhsin Sharara (Lebanon. J.43 At al-Azhar in take 15 to 20 years to study introductions [to canoni- Cairo. born 1904). combining religious and secular coursework.45 Nonetheless. 1984). Netherlands: E."42 Some seminarians despaired of reforming the Even when they failed in their attempts at insti. Munawwar Qari (Turkistan-Uzbekistan. Neth- gan and Scott. 'Abduh achieved little reform44—though as cal texts] and the four readings. pp. vol. The New Mamluks: Egyp." in Arjomand. pp. 1988). p. §iikrii Hanioglu. Said Amir Arjomand. number 2."50 Abdullah Cevdet (Turkey.47 'Abduh even for modern values. 325-341. even kent. for religious knowledge. tutional reform. Ugdal Nesriyat. chapter 26). 13-17. 49. 1999.Y. To hope for them to the chief religious official of Egypt he helped to in. National Movements and National 50. Islam in China (London: Mor. tion: "ideas which were by no means accepted when coming from your agents in Europe. "Our present schools take four or five years who considered him comparable to Protestant Ref.46 A Tatar seminary its devaluation of traditional scholarship that its pro- in Crimea. 1997). Authority and Political Culture Cevdet: A Political Thinker and His Era) (Istanbul. for example. 2000). "Religious Education and with great delight when it was proved that they were the Rhetoric of Reform: The Madrasa in British India and latent in Islam. Brill. pp. chapter 12). In Bukhara. many: Klaus Schwarz Verlag. 2000). sent a ponents viewed religious training merely as a cover leading student to study at al-Azhar. Mirza Malkum Khan (Iran. who called in 1928 for the com- the state of the world. M. Dzemaluddin Similar schools emerged throughout the Islamic Causevic (Bosnia. returned world. Islam. Turkey: in Shi'ism (Albany: State University of New York Press. another returned to China dedicated to "im. 47. Muhammad Qasim Zaman. 59.: Syra. 1996). "The Clerics of Jabal 'Amil and the tian Society and Modern Feudalism (Syracuse." He told a British seminaries be reformed on the model of 'Abduh's audience of his strategic approach to Islamic educa- plans for al-Azhar. A. considered his French sec- early twentieth century) and Muhammad Rida al." in Rainer Brunner and Werner 46. and Social Change: al- Azhar in Conflict and Accommodation (Berlin." Comparative Studies in Society and History. Hamid Algar. 183. for limiting themselves to commentaries on commen- spired a generation of seminary-trained modernists taries. producing graduates who often considered to the Balkans as a convinced modernist and called themselves legitimate competitors with seminarians 'Abduh "Respected Teacher" for the rest of his ca. . 1994). Cairo. p. were accepted 42. 1833-1908. pp. p. The Twelver Shia in Modern Times (Leiden. and our colleges ormation leader Martin Luther. 1901-1946). seminaries. such as Shaykh Asadullah Mamaqani (Iran. Reform within Islam: The Tajdid and Jadid Movements among the Kazan Tatars (1809-1917) (Istanbul. 306. Hakan Kinmli. pp. J. 266-268. 44. The Shi'is of Iraq (Princeton. erlands: E. chapter 30)—trained at the traditional role models for cadres of modernists.: Princeton University Press.12 Introduction withdrawn into their cells and know nothing about Iraq. is as futile as to expect one to reach out to a bird fly- cial hierarchy.. pp.

Other Europeans considered modernist Islam a threat to colonial control and sided instead with con. World: Ismail Gasprinskii in Cairo. 41-45. audacity in mixing right engage in Islamic reasoning. Ali Merad. through a single maneuver. France and Islam in West Africa. Ahmad Indian leadership of the modernist Islamic movement Khan (chapter 40)—while favoring freedom of in South Asia. (chapter 3) offered a warning from the early centu. when "every opinion-monger Islamic conference planning in Cairo. nor a qadi [judge]. and to limit the relativistic damage of Dick. 'Abduh movement led to other polemics—for example. 1995. . pp. Mehrdad Kia. p. Research Insti. though not all. modern education. as in Ahmad Khan's statement (chapter 40): "I am an ignorant person. Con. Tahtawi (chapter 1) supported (Azerbaijan. Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Fundamentalist Thought (New York: St. 1986). Gustave Demorgny. 2000). "Russian Jadidism and the Islamic tute for Inner Asian Studies." Middle volume 16.56 or the took his stand upon the liberty of thought the Qur'an Calcutta-based challenge to Ahmad Khan's North enjoined. urging all Muslims to nents or critics.55 a ists generally replaced one form of credentialing with charge that was often leveled against the modernists another—just as modernists did outside the Islamic themselves. Martin's. 1988). 88-90. ligious official]. Mansoor Moaddel and Kamran Talattof. 189. 422^48. temporary Debates in Islam: An Anthology of Modernist and 57. And competition within the paper that denied the existence of God. number 3. 1967). . Thomas Kuttner." giving the example of a French news. but seminary training. They ex- "not by any traditional argument. 7.52 This strain shaded into outright Other modernists limited ijtihad to those who secularists. by their imperfect faith. see Guy Imart. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 13 Islamic language. 1987)." and sought to justify his position this breach." leading to dangerous schisms. volume 31. opinion. nor a preacher." but not for the "horde of heretics" who en- not imply complete democratization of the right to gage in "chatter. Routledge. Call for the Modernization of the Islamic World. Columbia University Press. 231-234. 2001). sembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses (New York: 54. positions as bid'a (impermissible innovation).57 speech on the pragmatic grounds that open debate In sum. 1915). I do not say that whatever I investigated is true. tion of freedom that permits "saying whatever comes considering the other to be disqualified from ijtihad to one's mind. Suavi (chapter 16) rejected a defini. the modernists sought to breach the mo- advanced the search for truth54—was dismissive of nopoly of traditional religious scholars over Islamic "the opinion or independent judgment of every Tom. . "Mirza Path Ali Akhundzadeh and the russe et sovietique (Annals of the Russian and Soviet World)." Even when these quali- understand the proofs of God and His laws. Rida's resentment at Gasprinskii's leadership of pan- ries of Islamic history. nor by any proofs pressed confidence in their own qualifications— of the mujtahids based on independent judgment. Essai de reformes et d'enseigne. Christopher Harrison. pp. speech. Reagent (Bloomington: Indiana University. and Harry. writing.53 of religion. Islam As- Eastern Studies. Islamic and 1925 a 1940 (Muslim Reformism in Algeria from 1925 to Slavic Fundamentalisms: Foes or Allies? The Turkestanian 1940) (Paris. interpretation. 1812-1878). But once I had no other choice but to do whatever 1860-1960 (Cambridge. forms and Training in Persia) (Paris: Ernest Leroux. and The modernists' critique of seminary training did work. dress. France: Mouton. such as Mirza Path 'Ali Akhundzada agreed with them. Rida (chapter 6) supported "freedom values." Surkati (chapter 48) limited ijtihad only virtuosity—as compared both with their scholarly to "those who have the capacity and opportunity to opponents and the "masses. pp. 1975. or personal by nature. Several authors. Ayesha Jalal. 56. England: Cambridge University Press. neither a maulavi [religious scholar]. sophistry." fications were asserted in humble terms. uted to the polemic between the Sunni and Shi'i sects. who saw no need for the religious freedom "on condition that it adheres to the pretense of Islamic education and doubted that Islam principles of religion"—meaning the principles that could ever be construed as compatible with modern he emphasized. the modern. pp. Le reformisme musulman en Algerie de servative Muslims—for example. 109-121. Despite the precedents with wrong. pp. 1908.. contrib- world as well. 383-424. and insolence in criticizing their oppo- that some modernists cited." Ibn Badis condemned opposing make independent religious judgments. ment administratifs en Perse (Essay on Administrative Re- . Martin Kramer. p. 55. nor a mufti [re- 52. eds. they opened a space for the right to speak." Cahiers du monde 53. Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850 (New York: pp.

Jakob Skovgaard. as reported by 'Ali Ahmad al- themes were insufficiently attuned to the concerns of Jarjawi (Egypt. 1997). Taimiya (Essay on the Rida's Muhawarat al-muslih wa-al-muqallid (1906). Nadia Abu Zahra. The books by Tahtawi and Mirza Saleh Shirazi (Iran. century). Stephane 58. and has been bequeathed to the Muslims as a World (Istanbul. .. University of Washington Press. for the purpose of awakening Art. 2d ed. Iran and the Surrounding World (Seattle: was also adopted and infused with modernist con. thor—"every piece of information and fact is exam- usually extensive and reflexive introduction to the ined meticulously. yet written poetry. Egypt: 1'Institut fran§ais d'archeologie pp. "Portrait of the Intellectual as a Young Man: Rashid politiques de Taki-d-Din Ahmad b. (Leiden. adapted traditional poetic forms 1857-1914) and Ismail Hakki Izmirli (Turkey. 59. Intellectual Modernism of Shibli Flow and Ebb of Islam. ed. Wagner. Hali's Musaddas: The 62. A second movement among modernists involved When I beheld the new pattern of the age. ashamed of stringing together empty fabri- cations. Mehr Afroz Murad.. 1939). 2001. and Culture. pp. In an un. 1999). and 61.. pp. but also Iran and India. 1992). Henri Laoust. 1869-1946). orientale. "Munazara. Mod- ernists commandeered the travelogue format. as in Fakhreddin's study of the 14th cen- traditional Urdu structure of the musaddas. Bosworth et al. They sought to replace flow. number 1. 462-410. Monica Ringer. Thought of Islam) (Istanbul. pp.60 as in Kawakibi's fictional pan-Islamic assem. 419-424. 93. God knows by Fitrat (chapter 34). pp. Hilmi ZiyaUlken. E. in which debate between a my pure intention. J. my heart became sick of the old poetry. poets. a popular figure among particular rhyme scheme and verse length.63 in which—according to the au- the structure with nontraditional content. trans. Michael F. Christopher Shackle and Javed Nu'mani (Lahore.59 Century Travel Literature. eds. but also stressing the wonders The novel approaches of modernist Islam frequently of modernity—generally focused on Europe. E. Refashioning Iran (Houndsmills. Jarjawi. as in found expression in novel forms of discourse.." in C. main- How to Speak taining the positive comparison of Islam with reli- gions of other lands. Keddie and Rudi The traditional literary form of debate (munazard) Matthee. Taymiya) (Cairo. as de- literary forms of the past were inadequate. 2002)." in Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu. . India: Oxford University Press. 145-170. The Encyclopedia of Islam. and Japan.. eds. modernists specified at least three ways in which the circa 1790-1845). 126-127. bly (chapter 19) and the startling inversion effected actly what I did and what I am still doing. for example. "The Quest for the Secret of Strength in Iranian Nineteenth- the community. J. E." East Asian History." European and a Bukharan Muslim is staged with the author embodied in the European character. and I began to feel the development of novel forms of religious writing.." Islam Social and Political Doctrines of Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn and Christian-Muslim Relations. p. modernists held that long-standing literary 1914). mid-nineteenth-early twentieth contemporary Muslims. Essai sur les doctrines sociales et Petersen. but filled the modernists. But no one has Culture of Parisian Society. pp. . 565-568. England: Palgrave. Turkey: Fakiilteler Matbaasi. volume 7.62 Traditional hagio- fluential exemplars of this adaptation. Brill. Hali's "The graphic literature was transformed into modern bi- Flow and Ebb of Islam" (chapter 38). Khwaja Altaf Hussein Hali. (Leiden. Modernist Islamic vived by Muhammad Shibli Nu'mani (North India. Netherlands: 1953). Bosworth et al. "Al-Tahtawi as Translator of the continues to be written about this. Turkey: Research Centre for Islamic History. . pp. Brill. Majeed (Delhi. Laffan. which makes a natural appeal to Transfer of Modern Science & Technology to the Muslim all. 1997). 141-161. 4-50. then I had certainly to do ex. with its tury reformer Ibn Taymiyya. number 22. and partisanship is avoided as poem. and crude humor clerical circles for its rationalist heritage. 1993). Lapensee de I'Islam (The 60. Pakistan: Institute of Islamic Culture. 1976). 2001). long suspect within ery language.58 One of the most in. 1877- First. pp. Hali explained: much as possible" (chapter 33). 63. irrelevant fantasy." in Nikki R. throughout the Islamic world. among others.14 Introduction could be done by me. 35-76. Netherlands: "Making Meiji Muslims: The Travelogue of 'Ali Ahmad al- E. Dudoignon (Paris: Actes Sud. volume 9. The Encyclopedia of Islam. tent. adopted the ography. Various articles on "Shi'r. trans. E. eds. legacy from the Arabs. Souvenirs de voyage pour les gens de Boukhara (Travel Memoirs for the People of Bukhara). volume 12. 93-104. 2d ed. Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi.61 Theology (kalam)." in C. was re- with noble and useful themes. It is true that much has been written. pp. scribed by Siraj al-Din Hakim (Bukhara. Mirza Siradj ad-Din Hakim. pp. 541-575. 2001.

1998).72 Religious conservatives Urdu play was performed in 1853. p. the title char.67 Life) in Kazan (1906-1917). man. 1986). Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen. Damascus" (paper under review). p. and from Malabar 69. (chapter 7) to Durban (chapter 8). 1836-1912). every community of the Islamic world." "the tongue of heavenly secrets. eds. Michael F. 2d edition (Leiden. Daniel R."65 Similarly. bring first modern play in Central Asia. 'Overly-Europeanized' Falsifiers. pp. Various articles on "Masrah. Scholars. described theater as out a newspaper." in K. 159. 73.68 'Abduh. 1874-1919.. p. 68. Brill. A sive strategies were deemed necessary. p.' Ali Mubarak 1907 cartoon in Mulla Nasruddin.. Reformist Islam. 746-773. illnesses of nations may be cured with the publica- acter burns a roomful of old books and identifies the tion of journals"70—but participated in producing the antidote for such "poison" as "books of faith and two most influential modernist papers. The relatively Egyptian State: Muftis and Fatwas of the DarAl-ifta (Leiden. Indonesia. lamic movement held great hopes for its impact. 69. 1993). 192. Pritchett. Ralph Russell. The Encyclopedia of Islam." in C. Papers on Malayan History (Singapore: De- etry and Its Critics (Berkeley: University of California Press. This persuaded me to write ment of the spirits. pp. 1962). G. which it established in virtually 68. Nets of Awareness: Urdu Po. and Reaction amongst the Malays. 1994). by "These days there are people who believe that the Nazir Ahmad (North India. founding periodi- Turkish play was produced in 1859. ed. The Pursuit of Urdu Literature (Lon- don: Zed Books. "Kaum Muda—Kaum Tua: Innovation course (London: Saqi Books. and other Islamic cals such as Isha 'at al-Sunna (News of Tradition) in regions appear to have followed suit at the end of the Lahore (founded 1878). 65..64 admitted a certain skepticism about this power— In an early Urdu novel. as items were read aloud). low cost and wide distribution of newspapers. this anthology include pioneers from Mombasa 1997). p. 130-131. 131. 60. which have been collected from many the sciences among the common people. Frances W. Gelvin. causing the introduction to one of the first Arab novels: traditionally garbed religious scholars to run fleeing from the power of the paper. Selections in Russia's Orient (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 15 The effort to rejuvenate Islam involved an intensive ship. 1900-1941. Cairo. Defining Islam for the (chapter 42) to Singapore (chapter 46).."69 Later. in Damascus (1910-1913). Lazzerini. about the 'Woman Question' in Early Twentieth-Century lands: E." It "alerts the entice the reader to absorb its useful information and unattentive" and "has taken it upon itself to spread instructions. Sabry Hafez. the first modern medan religion" in 1929. Nether. a poem. p.." Ph. James C. paid homage to the power of the newspaper in rather than works on pure scientific or practical con. 71. "The Umma Below the Winds: zines. The Repentance ofNasuh. maga- 70. Brower and Edward J. for example. and entertaining works.73 In the 1920s. . chapter 36). The Volga Tatars (Stanford. dissertation. he Arabic and foreign books in arts and sciences. Bosworth et al. Self and Sovereignty. 1824-1893) made this reasoning explicit in showed a modernist waving a newspaper. Rorlich. "'Pious' Religious 67. E. author of the confidence in the medium: "Faced with a gun."66 The first feared the power of periodicals of "the new style" plays in the Arab world were adaptations of French enough to try to ban "papers debating the Muham- works produced in Lebanon in 1847. as a young I have realized that the readers are inclined to reading epic tales. Din ve Ma 'ishat (Religion and nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. volume 6. 1992). Tregonning. 64. Azade-Ayse form: Jadidism in Central Asia (Berkeley: University of Cali. University of Sydney. Mahmud Khoja Behbudiy An Indian opponent of the modernists mocked their (Samarqand. 66. Jalal.D. 186. 72.. for which new discur. and al-Haqa'iq (Truths) The third. The Politics of Muslim Cultural Re. narrative fiction. partment of History. Laffan. Calif: Hoover Institu- fornia Press. Netherlands: Brill. 170. 178. the first modern also made use of the same media."71 Yet conservatives in Malaya "a place for preaching and exhortation. Adeeb Khalid. p. The Genesis of Arabic Narrative Dis. comparing it favorably to the legacy of the cerns. morality. Aus- tralia." this useful book in a form of attractive narrative to and "guidance for those who seek.. 1991). historian novation of the modernist Islamic movement was the periodical press. p. and a Conceptualization of reached a relatively large readership (and listener. 1997). (Egypt. tion Press. William Roff. and perhaps the greatest discursive in. The modernist Is- project of outreach and uplift. p. University of Malaya in Singapore. J. and journals opened a stream of words that Mecca. The latter works breed boredom and lead the Egyptian pyramids: the newspaper is "the nourish- readers to shun them. and the Debate eds.

Japanese apologies may mask the lack of full scholarly appa- military victories over Russia in 1904. the scales for [weighing] the activity of the commu. The minstrel and the music—both have ies. The Malay newspaper al-Imam tional literary forms to modernist purposes and pio- (chapter 46) commented on "the ascent of the Japa. . wrote at length on the impli. A wide enough to involve significant differences of properly informed person had to keep up with break. 1906. expressed in its very form the deep enough to capture a significant portion of the modernists' view of progress. 229-251. published. Another kind of rain falls from the sky. 118. superseding previous statements. news- paper writers were vulnerable to accusations of shal- lowness. volume 27. "Commentaries. Brinkley Messick. A similar case could be made for lectures. p. 1846-1921): 75. ritualized peted models of successful modernization. the modernist movement adapted tradi- offering inspiration. The Calligraphic State: Textual Conservatives also pointed to the massive changes Domination and History in a Muslim Society (Berkeley: Uni.76 "We need an indepen- dent renewal like that of Japan. the tale we told has and the Madrasas in Modern South Asia. volume 62. they were witnessing. Afghani's Calcutta lecture on teaching tives also published printed books rather than relying and learning (chapter 11). cals of the era. Habl al-matin (The Firm Rope). pp. number 1. . pp. As a result. and a duction. interpretation has already been covered in this intro- mat exerted pressure toward brevity. chapter 27) published a lecture in Beirut summarized articles they found interesting from other despite complaining that his host "gave me time only periodicals." Bulletin of the changed. minimum of scholarly citations. or 1867-1956. Print. 74." emphasized the contemporaneity of knowledge and and referred to writings on Japan by the Egyptian deemphasized scholarly citation." Rida wrote years The substance of the modernist Islamic appeal may later in Egypt (chapter 6). especially a periodical press that nese race . . and the latest word. 12-16. Each issue presented modernist writings included in this anthology. for example. Similarly. the vigilant eager students or the lecturers themselves sometimes overseer of the government. 76. The color in the cheeks of spring has changed. Allahabadi (North India. In addition.16 Introduction 'Abd al-Wasi al-Wasi'i (Yemen. Qasim Zaman. credited extended quotations. So forgive me if I hasten or if I gloss regions and language groups. Yet in the competition for religious author. opinion within the modernist movement. especially emphasize five general topic areas. pp. which seminary-trained writers newspapers as "the great force. were carried "live" in the newspapers of the world. Like other periodi. and we turn now to the other four. 1874-1908). num- ber 1. published in Calcutta.75 despite Afghani's complaint that his host "caused this The press brought news of parallel and compet. the instructive school. glibness. "Technology and Religious Change: Islam and the Impact of Print. School of Oriental and African Studies. neered new forms." ing movements around the world. died 1959). Cultural Revival ity. Religious ing news and ongoing debates. 60-81. were more adept at producing. ratus expected of written work on religious subjects. August 17. 'Abd al-Qadir al-Maghribi (Lebanon. The Iranian newspaper Habl al-matin (The Firm Rope)." Modern Asian Stud. writers without seminary training may have The sense that cultural decline had gripped the Is- lamic world was not limited to modernist authors. they often reprinted. 1993). nationalist Mustafa Kamil (Egypt. which nity and the indicator of its condition. Francis Robinson. as for example Akbar versity of California Press. be summarized in any number of ways. The newspaper for. a sup. What to Speak cations of Japan's success. who defeated the six-foot-tall giants. for example. 1993. talk to be delivered only in an abbreviated form. The nightingale now sings a different song."74 Religious conserva. over certain aspects. they trum. In sum. and Patronage: Hadith Our sleep has changed. increasing the density of linkages across for a phone call. each of which is daily newspapers. I choose to The immediacy of the periodical press. was published exclusively on hand-copied manuscripts. preferred to write texts without detailed citations and porter of the isolationist Yemeni imamate." These inelegant. Muhammad changed. 1999. translated.

1988-1989). 145. Oasis Identities: Uyghur Na. homeland must erase existing cultural forms. and ziyali (person associated with ziya. A. volume 16. used in Arabic. p. aged by their or light). more authentic culture. 1878-1969). Less optimistically. India: Edu- 81. One set involved light. volume 2. ed. without any exception save language. modernization. 80. Mosque)." Central Asian Survey. especially if we had p. but the The sanctity of the temple priest has been person who follows the religion. lowliness. Hamza Hakimzada Niyaziy. bridge. Arabic and Islamic Themes (London: of aspects of recent culture as a recovery of older or Luzac & Company. This effort must com- bine "religious renewal and earthly renewal. chapter 31) wrote today. 1995). The Reconstruction. vored almost complete erasure crossed the line from it is time to awaken" in the early 1930s. it is not religion that becomes dull. pp. Fitrat tongue is unable to express. 1997). "Originally. earlier times. Kazakh!" in 1911. often with ref- changed. The descendants of the Greeks. 308. chapter 47). arts." wrote Reformation. 255-269. life. Gulnar Kendirbay. p. "Throughout the world a spirit of again with the pleasures of renewal. also in tics of Modernization: Negotiating Modernity in Iran (Cam- Kurzman. (chapter 34) worried that Muslims "will sleep forever Let us see what springs from the bottom of this in the land of dishonor. "The National Liberation Move. religion Germany has witnessed the upheaval of the shines. in a moment of Modernists described this revival with a handful respect for the West. pp. Iqbal.81 A third set Islamic modernism to secular modernism. worship of antiquity. 1865-1939. ply because it comes from others. "Truly. 1868-1923. Translation from Uzbek by 83. such as the "principle of move- case of Hasan Taqizada (Iran." Iqbal (chapter 41). 119. "There is no reason to reject or ignore ment of the Kazakh Intelligentsia at the Beginning of the 20th something which is correct and demonstrable sim- Century." began a poem posted turns."84 Two Centuries of Urdu Literature (Manchester. England: Islamic modernists. number 4. 391-392. Tola asarlar toplami (Complete Collection of Works) (Tashkent. munawwar al-fikr (enlightened of thought). pp. A second set of images in.78 a motif The modernists disagreed vehemently among adopted in the poetry of Central Asian nationalism: themselves as to the extent to which cultural revival "Waken. 84. 2000). who fa- ment" that Iqbal sought to recover in The Reconstruc- vored "absolute submission to Europe. erence to the Protestant Reformation in Christianity." ocean." Ahmed The soul of the Muslim has a similar ferment Aghayev (Azerbaijan. and Persian. "Masjid-i Qurtuba" (Cordova Adeeb Khalid. University Press. which from nur (light). 1997. in Kulliyat (Complete Works) (Aligarh. p. Ali Mirsepassi. sciences.79 "Awaken. 54. (chapter 2). 496. Intellectual Discourse and the Poli- 82. as in the European Enlightenment. pp. Tibawi. 78. Liberal Islam. Uzbekistan: Fan." wrote Rida (chapter 6).&2 A fourth set of similation of the culture. and the whole attitude of 77." Such imagery was nullified. has overturned the world of the Westerners. Ottoman Turkish. 1995). organi- zation. drew on parallel imagery: of recurrent metaphors. the same The distinctiveness of the modernists lay in seeing way Europe has done with religious reformation and modernity as a promising avenue for cultural revival. "Truly.80 and "Awaken! Hey! Uyghur. which has erased all marks of Achmad Dachlan (Java. awakening has encompassed the Muslims. 148. by contrast. have become youthful volved awakening. [but] this is a divine secret which the in an optimistic moment. In the words of Khayr al-Din 79. 201. and anonymity. we are in a dire need for renewal and renew- In all the realms of nature all has changed. p. Ralph Russell. 1974). practices. A revolution has brought this about. cational Book House. First published in tionalism Along China's Silk Road (New York: Columbia 1933. used in Uzbek. Hidden in the Lute: An Anthology of Europe. Those who fa- [Turkestan]" in 1918. 139-170. L. and the delicate ship of thought has incorporated into the words for "intellectual": embarked on its course. . THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 17 The grain that grows upon our land has images involved rebirth and renewal. and the as- tion of Religious Thought in Islam. Translation from Urdu by Muhammad Qasim Zaman. customs.83 around Beirut and Damascus in 1880. but later it appears to become dull. derived The French have also seen a revolution. let us see what colors the sky now "Awake ye Arabs and recover. as in the involved motion. justified the erasure Carcanet. Justin Jon Rudelson. England: Cambridge University Press.77 ers. Muhammad Iqbal.

just zurrahman Sihvarvi (North India. p. Wilfred Cantwell Smith. with figures such as Hadji Mohammad Mis- Non-Arab Muslims such as Marmaduke Pickthall bach (Java. 32. Community and Identity in the Netherlands East Indies. and Muhammad Hif- in racial discrimination prior to the modern era. calism in Java.87 Salim likened this in [the system of] Capitalism. . 91. Different Shades of Colonialism: 85. . Marmaduke Pickthall: British Muslim ter 4. 1990). Similar views have been documented in Egypt and stinct" of "the Turkish soul. which hierarchy. 1857-1964 (London: Oxford University Press." In more provocative language. 1986). 1925 (Berkeley: University of California Press. and lack of discipline" are said to jus- rights that "Islam had already proclaimed .18 Introduction formerly possessed it and it had been taken from us. denouncing in mentioning groups at a particular "stage in their the latter for their "submersion . (London: Quartet Books. N. in Africa or China for example. 201-204. for example the cam." elsewhere. and belong to those who hamper the development and wealth is put into the hands of the most proficient spread of Islam. It may Modernists made a moral distinction between rich be unfair to single out a particular author. vored social-democratic reform—notably Salim trines of the era. 1875-1936) detected and detested the ten. Race and Slavery in the Middle East Egypt. and the non-Arabs their 'freed.85 Arabs such as and an Islamic Communist movement emerged to the Kawakibi (chapter 19) objected to Ottoman Turkish left of the social democrats in Indonesia in the late "use of the term 'Arab' for slaves and black animals. Takashi Shiraishi. 1882-1964. constrained by their social situation or the dis- On the contrary. . . that of capitalism. Bernard Lewis. Eve Troutt Powell." and put it to use.: Cornell Southeast Asia Program. 89. donesia. wrote that "all-round Westernization" reinforced gullibility. 1990). in this anthology." Salah al-Din Khuda Yet modernists—Muslim.. Great Britain. don: Victor Gallancz."91 Support of capital- to "the struggle between aristocracy and democracy. . p. they oppose or defy the commands of God . A similarly scientized view is evident in Maghribi's Halide Edib Adivar (Turkey. Khayr al-Din (chap- constitutes one of the main reasons for the spread of ter 2) praised societies in which "the circulation of Islam in the world. The Hadrami Awakening: stan. pp. 69.. 1946). Those men'. Those who extinguish this spirit capital is expanded. but people who invested in modern economic and cul- Maghribi (chapter 27) is typical of many modernists tural enterprises and those who did not. An Age in Motion: Popular Radi- 1999). Some modernists fa- modernists valued along with other "scientific" doc. they perform dency among Arab scholars to "think that the Arabs the precepts of the religion of Islam. 2002). . sand years ago. . Aziz Ahmad. tify the lesser value of their courtroom testimony. 91-107. pp. and choose those precepts that suit their desire. ." and expressed the "vital racial in."86 One modernist theme was the erasure that do not suit them they throw away."92 hierarchy and evolution of human capabilities. circa 1876-1940) criticizing Salim and (England. but they pick are still 'the patrons'.Y. and paign in Southeast Asia to allow female descendants rather fear and love the will of Satan—that Satan of the Prophet Muhammad to marry Muslim men whose evil influence is apparent in this present age who did not share this descent. . 92. Peter Clark.. Put bluntly. other Islamic modernists: "To be sure. The Modernist Muslim Movement in In. Islamic Modernism in India and Paki- 87. Christian. chap- 86. and the Mastery of the Sudan. profits increase accordingly. 1865- (New York: Oxford University Press." 1910s. Bakhsh (North India. p. whose "weak self-confidence. 1901-1962)90— as Europeans and others did. Natalie Mobini-Kesheh. and other. .: Cornell University 88. Deliar Noer. there is an obligation to restore it position of their temperament to adopt polygamy. chapter 28) discussion of women. "It is this spirit of democracy which modernist Islamic movement. . Modern Islam in India (Lon- 1973). 1877-1931) espoused the right wise—replaced older forms of racism with a new of Muslims "to attend to their religious obligation version based on scientific research into the alleged without sacrificing their worldly prosperity. 1912-1926 (Ithaca."88 who can cause it to increase. p. N. Certainly many Muslims engaged (chapter 49). 64. 1900-1942 (Ithaca.Y. in luxury and social evolution. Press. of these racialized distinctions. 90." ism was indeed the dominant economic theme in the and concluded. 1900-1942 (Singapore: Oxford University Press. a thou. 285. . . 1967).89 Adivar's reference to race introduces the issue of Modernists also adopted a second form of social purportedly biological social hierarchies.

222. and beliefs. E." in Ronald thinking and Rejection of Sufism in the Modern World (Rich- Grigor Suny. p. P. espe- civilization. Bahithat al-Badiya who defended Sufi mysticism as both "the basis of (Egypt. suggested that "If we ception of a universal religion. chapter 5). Populist Protest. tion of religious practices. was a Sufi sage and justified his early twentieth century. 94. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 19 carnal appetites. and Social mond. Transcaucasia. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Fakhreddin (chapter 33). 1872-1944). and their avoidance of any kind sidered themselves in happy equilibrium. Some modernists had Sufi backgrounds— Baybacha. "The Azerbaijani Bourgeoisie and Elizabeth Sirriyeh.101 In relation to Sufism. who constitute the were overwhelmed in economic and political affairs. . "As a result. Yet what to re- coincidental. Mazheruddin Siddiqi. tutions in Nineteenth Century Egypt (Leiden. and the matter deserves systematic ject and what to maintain was frequently a subject study. Islamic p. p. 1994). Sufis and Anti-Sufis: The Defense." in the existing customs where necessary while maintaining words of Kawakibi (chapter 19). eds. 98. Mysticism Contested (Leiden. 188. 1982). "Beyond Renewal: The Jadid Tunisia. C. pursue everything Western we shall destroy our own modernists held Sufi practices to be abhorrent. 199-209. accusing them of "spending their lives in Western civilization to the Orient will only result in the pursuit of the things of this world and lavish doubling the misery of the Oriental. Re- the Cultural-Enlightenment Movement in Baku. part 2. Nationalism. tables. majority of the nation. India. Change."95 Modernists aimed these critiques at one another. It is probably not the most important Islamic values.. Frederick] de Jong. H. and Arabism in Late Ottoman Damascus (Leiden. rejecting of glory other than ostentation and wealth. Clancy-Smith. England: Curzon. All modernists. ed. Julia A. Itzchak Weismann. Pakistan: Islamic Research In- Kashgar: New Light on British. 1999). con. and Aghayev mocked others. between. T. al- lamic constitutionalism in eastern Turkistan in the Jaza'iri (chapter 15). 99. ed. N. presumably. Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of 101. 100. including Frasheri. 2000).97 Some Islamic modernists worried about wholesale and 'Ubaydullah Sindhi (Sindh. "in imitation of the fame and earn more worldly profit. and a nation that has lost its civilization cially the veneration of saints. that the modernist movement was bankrolled of debate. "Simply to transplant grounds. Modern Reformist Thought in 93. 1890-1918 (London: Methuen.96 Some other industrialists who supported cultural reform modernists wished to maintain certain Sufi practices in Azerbaijan in the late nineteenth and early twen. Turuq and Turuq-Linked Insti- Identity and Change (Durham.99 The profit to be had grows weak and vanishes. is hostile to reli. 97. rev. Islam in the Balkans (London: Hurst & Company. the Muslims gion and despises the devout. the most influential modernist in Damascus.94 Sufi organizations to develop into a political party. Salafiyya. 1999). Z."98 More commonly.. with all the weaknesses of the one without as to other Islamic practices and beliefs. Netherlands: Brill. p. a leading merchant who supported Is. 19."100 and trying to ban the commercializa- neither Eastern nor Western. p. and Russian Activi. Rebel and Saint: Muslim No- 1996). just as religious conservatives aimed them at mod. Edward J. pp. Netherlands: Brill." Salim (chapter 49) criticized and so were destined to be crushed under the feet of "taqlid" of Western manners." Rida (chapter 6) assailed from such practices lured sham clerics eager to "gain the faction of Egyptians that. who urged Albanian tieth centuries.. A. Norris.C. 157). while promoting Islam" and "an international or purely human con- education in modern subjects. ties in Sinkiang. 96." Aghayev warned. Brill. 1993). Macartney at the Muslim World (Islamabad. Colonial Encounters (Algeria and 95. One becomes lifestyles. Skrine and Pamela Nightingale. Frederick de Jong and Bernd Radtke. 170. Chinese." in Press.93 or H. but something in. 1800-1904) (Berkeley: University of California Response to the Pressure for Change in the Modern Age. the scope the qualities of the other." according to heretics of Europe and its liberals. 164. J. adoption of Western culture. 1886-1918. Tagiev and rationalism on thoroughly Sufi grounds. Lazzerini. Audrey Altstadt. p. ed. such as Husayn Sufism. 1978). One broad field of disagreement was the in part by industrialists and traders promoting topic of popular religious practices associated with international economic linkages. ernists as a whole." At the same time. Netherlands: 1992). Taste of Modernity: Sufism. reformist Sufi leaders con- the "Westernized Oriental" as "Western only on the demned certain of their colleagues on similar surface. Jo-Ann Gross. 1973). stitute.: Duke University Press.

. the right to delegate authority to the leaders and de- gued. are all equal and Yet the modernists of this period did not neces- partners in their obligations. "And seek their counsel in the matter" within and outside the modernist Islamic movement. Verse 23)." Similarly. ed. most exalted. then again masses. "Equality means nothing Na'ini (chapter 13) quoted the Qur'anic verse. writing soon after the promulga. fairness. concluding that "the salvation of the state today is dependent upon the adoption of the method of consultation. according to Abdullah Abdurahman they will be questioned" (Sura 21. vants and masters. 'Abd al-Raziq (Egypt. The Genesis of Young Ottoman the holy law. Hamid Dabashi. the old and the young. 1829-1875) verses referring to the Prophet as a "warner" or a wrote in 1866. and being equal before [God] cannot be questioned about what He does. He made them equal in ac. chapter 8): "If God made cluding that "Absolute power belongs only to God.105 Muslims. nor an obstacle to innovation in any sphere of able and the base." Mustafa Fazil Pasha (Turkey. with no distinction between the honor." 'Ali country. 104. 32-34."102 Sayyid 'Abd al-'Azam 'Imad the people. men and women. J." Chiragh 'Ali (North Political Reform India. protection of a growing list of rights. ans. mid-nineteenth-early These and other Islamic arguments accompanied twentieth century). concluded that "It is the people that have are no Christian politics or Moslem politics.. whether political." al-'Ulama' Khalkhali (Iran. 281. ment in 1860." life. Islamic does it lay down specific rules of conduct in the Civil dictates on human equality were marshaled in support. of monarchs to symbolic offices. of justice.104 Ibn Badis (chapter 9) quoting a speech of the people. stressed that world.. Prophets and messengers. 1966). lack morals. reduction to establish the legitimacy of constitutionalism. 1844-1895. in one of the earliest manifestos of Is. 1888-1966) quoted Qur'anic tution." and therefore cannot justify tyranny: "there first caliph. but does not limit "the rights of the dent. or unity. or in large countries" such as p. Author. Kurzman. the Ottoman Empire. "for there is only one justice.20 Introduction and meaning of cultural revival was contested both junction. in Said Amir Arjomand. and so on. and constitutional Namik Kemal (chapter 17) quoted the Qur'anic in." wrote Tahtawi (chapter 1). §erif Mardin. (Sura 3." not a "warden" or a "guardian. N. constitutionalist movements around the Islamic tion of the first Iranian constitution. 1988). p. that Islam dictates human fate ing that kingship was not required by sacred prece- in the afterlife. "reminder.: Princeton University Press. according to the laws sarily intend constitutionalism to mean democracy. nor implementation of constitutionalism. preferred some to of Muhammad are neither barriers to spiritual devel- others in endowments. Dustur: A Survey of the Constitutions of the Arab sity of New York Press. religious authorities and the then again in 1908." he ar." conclud- lamic constitutionalism." but was "not possible when people Thought (Princeton." trans. 1870-1940. which needed a sultanate to 103. 1962). the rich and the poor. ser. and a fuller constitution in 1882."103 as it came to be understood over the course of the Modernists referred to a variety of sacred sources twentieth century: universal adult suffrage. social. con- (South Africa.J. the Ottoman Empire briefly in 1876. Verse 159). Here too. Suavi (chap- ter 16) argued that "democracy is the highest form of egalitarian government and the most in accord with 102. Brill. "A Treatise on the Meaning of Constitutional Government. ity and Political Culture in Shi'ism (Albany: State Univer. in 1959. there is no such thing as a democratic insti. Iran briefly in 1906. after the colonial in- kings. opment or free-thinking on the part of Muhammad- countability. 105. chapter 39) argued that "the A second major goal of the modernists was the Qur'an does not interfere in political questions. terlude. no distinction between man and man. intellectual. "He but sharing the same laws. and equality. 337. and Muslim States (Leiden. Egypt promulgated a constitutionalist docu- "God has not made any distinction among his obe. serfs and nisia briefly in 1861 and then. the leader and the subordinate. ed. but them. No one can rule without the consent of justice incarnate. descendants of the Prophet and non-Arab in 1909. pp. And until we are regarded as equal in this against the absolute power of earthly tyrants. Sayyid 'Abd al-'Azam 'Imad al-'Ulama' Khalkhali. Law." concluding that "the Qur'an or the teachings "[Although God. and politics is pose them. Liberal Islam. Netherlands: E. we had no right yet [reactionaries] declared it un-Islamic to struggle to do so. Tu- dient servants. or moral.

he wrote. numerous mod- ciety. as in a 1903 Egyptian educational text: "There is How difficult it is to speak about science. Darius M. constitutionalists faced a tension be. encompass what is infinite. he concluded. good manage- ment. and British Imperial Policy in Afghanistan during the 19th and Early 20th Cen- turies. thousands of speed. 1895. Rather it is science that everywhere mani- after. England: Curzon Press. Colonising Egypt (Cambridge. is. Afghani continued. position between the age of Islam and the pre-Islamic 107. Ignorance had no al- abandoned hopes for constitutionalism and chan. from modern science—paralleled the traditional op- England: Cambridge University Press. this statement by Afghani (chapter 11): ing. the scale of justice and equality in Asia." Some modernists of modernist Islam. the beacon of the nation and the reli- accountable to an elected parliament. developments. 89. 109. Tarzi praised circumstances. Their solution to this dilemma lay in the idea that rul. nature does not permit me not to explain The "first conditions of any progress and reform. ered state power the prerequisite for all other reforms. p. but that the contrary should cause a dimi. one strain science. gion. and State in Modern Iran (Boulder. that it could only be described adopted the recently developed European view that the in terms generally reserved for divine entities. So- age of ignorance (jahiliyyd). Colo. Afghan modernists such as Tarzi (chapter 14) fests its greatness and power. accounted gether for the sake of other reforms. re- 108. number 4. Despite this. 598. as in role of the state lay in cultivating consent through train. Asta Olesen. nounce social and economic reforms. Thus I say: If someone looks deeply into wrote an Iranian educator. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 21 remain "in conformity with its geographical location. 48."106 eloquent speakers and sages have already expressed Other modernists reversed the order and consid. Besides. advancement. their thoughts to explain science and its nobility. 110. executing the seized Tunisia. English. aggression." making Afghanistan "the beam of ing sufficient state power to effect societal changes. died 1909). ternative to prostrating itself humbly before science neled their energies into lobbying the king to an. 1997. There is no way to educate and strengthen something. and property. In Afghanistan. capability has caused continuous growth and tween limiting state power to protect liberty and build. "science" versus "igno- rance"—denigrating all forms of knowledge aside 106. and these finite thoughts cannot function. vol. era and their influence on later European scientific 1908) (Ankara. Turkey: Turkiye 1§ Bankasi Kiiltur Yaymlari. There was. was to hold the sultan's ministers ened majesty. the monarch suppressed an Islamic English have reached Afghanistan. for the reverses suffered by the Islamic world: "The for example. and acknowledging its submission. 1995). Timothy Mitchell. in the world-view nution in all of these things." Elsewhere. and will be no ruler in the world but gan of "Union and Progress." The best to be hoped the king in lavish phrases as "his great and enlight- for. (Richmond. he will see that science rules the world. §erif Arif Mardin. p."110 God's custom in His world that justice. A cartoon in Mulla Nasruddin. p. ernist Islamic authors made the parallel explicit. Torture and Modernity: Self. . Rejali. In reality this usurpation." whose "ever-increasing innate talent and In addition. would resemble in- as in Khayr al-Din's formulation (chapter 2): "It is organic substance or a car without an engine. peoples. until it can accomplish it with smoothness. Modern science held such power. except no end or limit to science. and Government without a King. ing by consent would increase the state's effectiveness. Senzil Nawid. Islam and Politics in Afghanistan ume 29.: Westview Press. Clergy. 1994). and precision. and an administrative system duly complied Science and Education with be the causes of an increase in wealth. of modernist Islam sacrificed political reform alto. for 1964). and population. The benefits of science by training and drilling it in the performance of its are immeasurable. Jon Tiirklerin Siyasi Fikirleri. The power of science. the French have constitutionalist movement in 1909. "State. counting the scientific advances of the early Islamic 1895-1908 (Political Thought of the Young Turks. 119. p. movement's religious leader.109 There. order"107—a view expressed in the Young Turk slo. were "security and the question. Maulawi Muhammad and conquest have not come from the French or the Sarwar Wasif (Afghanistan." This oppositional pair. 1988)." its virtues. a nation or fatherland "without Government."108 Indeed. Indeed." International Journal of Middle East Studies.

ence. she planted that seed. p. Keddie and Hamid Algar. . and was in turn accused of atheism by conservative velopments. developed "a true and to translate it from Greek when they saw it as and strongly marked scientific spirit. Along similar lines. It is natural that national language!" Ahmad Khan (chapter 40). a seed should decompose in the earth in order to bear founder of the Aligarh school in India. The deductive objection can there be today to our adopting certain method.300 years ago just to endorse in advance. 224. Sayyid Jamal ad-Din "al-Afghani": A Political Biography (Berkeley: University of California Press.. excoriated Russian-educated something that was borrowed from our ancestors. volume 1. many leading coupled with dismay at later stagnation. tion was a favorable sign of Islam's openness. numbers 3-4. [European scien- hadiths about science being obligatory upon all. Syed Abdul Latif (Bombay. in the ing him from all other Teachers. and bringing him view of Khayr al-Din (chapter 2): "If it was permis- into the closest affinity with the modern world of sible for the virtuous ancestors to take such things thought. p. that is to say from our ancestors or more precisely our he likened to making chickens lay goose eggs. Gasprinskii (chapter 29). p. John W. science along with the belief that science was con- ther. Yet this importa- "devotion to knowledge and science .day standards it is nothing. suggesting that centuries of scientific stagnation sistent with Islam. 1968). First present. While Pride in the past greatness of Islamic science was expressing deep respect for science. xl. importation was problematic. "The Refutation of the Materialists. none of the things in their hands today is the Russian Empire. then what nated over all its achievements. Nikki R. invoke the Qur'an to lend its support to the achieve- in An Islamic Response to Imperialism: Political and Reli- ments of modern research in the different spheres of gious Writings of Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani (Berke- scientific thought. 1849-1928. centuries. Nikki R. chapter Islamic science was a foreign import. Muslims who knew European languages and sci- Europe borrowed a seed of civilization from the ences but were "unable to read and write in their own Islamic world.22 Introduction example. was perfectly intrigues and attract benefits?" understood by the Muslims. as if the Qur'an was delivered over ley: University of California Press. volume 85. 12.113 The danger of atheism helped to moti- gious elite "tried to stifle the sciences" and "was vate education reform. That seed decomposed."111 Ameer 'Ali (Bengal. with the result that its very genus has changed." The intellectual centers of the early Islamic as logic from outside their own religious community. 1909. criticized Western-style schools for trying to turn Muslims into Europeans. Others attributed the shift to internal de. Mulla Nasruddin. showed a speaker castigating an audience: 1." Muslim World. . 65-80. Abu'l-Kalam Azad. sought to pro- fruit. being among the beneficial instruments. Livingston. the cycle has been repeated many times. 111. Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani. what for centuries. Azad ridiculed the attempt "to 113. trans." trans. pp." pete with European-run schools by teaching modern Frasheri (chapter 18) took this accusation a step fur. scholars. published in 1930. 1972). as in Afghani's accusation that a reli. which domi. pioneer ofjadid schools in however. The Tarjuman al-Qur'an (In- terpretation of the Qur'an). 'Abduh. 114 coreligionists who lived eight or ten centuries ago." For others. A countertheme in modernist Islam held that early ward." conquest. Some attrib. "Muhammad 'Abduh on Sci- from Azeri by Hasan Javadi.."112 reached civilization. such as Ameer 'Ali's science might result in Muslims' rejection of Islamic emphasis on destruction wrought by the Mongol faith. May 17. The tists] could find out for themselves without the aid Europeans have taken our ancient science and of any revealed scripture. but we have remained back. in the "Sirs! There are hundreds of [Qur'anic] verses and form of riddles. 1995. Translation 114. which The Europeans borrowed many things from us. Keddie.. Ameer 'Ali continued. but by India: Asia Publishing House. considerable by [the standards of] the time. 130-171. pp. which was intended to com- marvelously served in its designs by despotism. hitherto proudly regarded as the invention skills that we see we greatly need in order to resist and sole monopoly of modern Europe. Afghani accused Ahmad Khan of "naturism. not an expres- 43) credited the Prophet Muhammad as well for his sion of the original Islamic spirit. would-be reformer of undermined any pride in past accomplishments: al-Azhar in Cairo. The knowledge that Europe derived from the scholars of Islam was very 112. distinguish. 1962). modernists also worried that excessive respect for uted the shift to external forces.

emphasizing the Qur'anic guarantee of tion to every corner of the world. emphasized this theme in her presiden. J. pp. 110. 1996).their activities outside the political world could not tial address to the Bengal Women's Education Con. including military service. Women's Movement. a woman. that women of the died 1919). Press. India: Oxford University Press. defended hijab. Eknath Easwaran. wife. pioneering educator and The rights of women extended to a variety of be.women's association in India called for an end to eth centuries. Fie! essarily predict a modernist's position on any particu- They call themselves Muslims and yet go against the lar aspect of women's rights." Fatma Nesibe Hamm (Turkey. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 23 vide an Islamic response to English education. 120. 101. so that it would not infringe on the rights freedom [from the British]. Kamp." a rights women should enjoy. among a potent symbol of Muslim women's oppression. Afsaneh Najmabadi. though. Conn. p. Gail Minault. a various sorts in the late nineteenth and early twenti."119 than gender lines. took a more radical Islamic regions began to demand gender reforms of position. 123. Muslim Women in Mombasa. 105. Brill.J. The Azerbaijan of the modernist Islamic movement was the promo.: Yale University Press. which accords women an equal "Islamic" dress—which Western observers took as right to education.be stopped for political reasons. wrote Fakhreddin the work of other Iranian women who objected to it. ed. . Liberation. in Colonial Bengal. 129.121 Similarly. Sonia Nishat Amin. "O Pathan. "Crafting an Educated House- 119. Swietochowski. 1906-1929. 1998).editor Maryam Amid Muzayyan al-Saltana (Iran. and Modernity in the Middle East (Princeton. Nonviolent Soldier of Islam: Badshah Khan.: Princeton University Press. why do you deny it to of first wives. A Man to Match His Mountains. women—and men—in many gress. a 115. Martin's tion and Muslim Social Reform in Colonial India (Delhi. In 1917. Remaking Women: Feminism 1890-1975 (New Haven. 145-146. a re- schools on various grounds. Secluded Scholars: Women's Educa- Images of "The Turkish Woman" (New York: St. cation."118 As Mazrui (chapter 7). Muslim Pathan woman named Nagiria wrote in the journal women's organizations in Russia urged limits on Pushtun in 1919. p. we are at the eve women's right to equal treatment by their husbands. 1876-1939 (Leiden. 105. 1880-1932). the (male) All-Russia Muslim Con- women?"116 Similarly. Even hijab—modest basic tenets of Islam. Russian Azerbaijan." since women have thus "been protected from gal. conference in Istanbul in 19II.122 yet the republicans in Turkey refused. a pioneer in women's education in the danger of being identified with party politics. 1998. University Press. using an Islamic discourse." in Lila Abu-Lughod.. "Pay atten. 1999). Deconstructing 121. born circa (Princeton. many others. modernists disagreed as to which He is clever but is ardent in suppressing women. 129. p. The World of Muslim Women 290. 1863-1908. "The Prophet himself says divided modernist Muslims along ideological rather that women and men both should be educated. chapter 4). 289- 118. Aral. and South Asia.: Nilgiri Press. 116.J. p.D.People's Republic granted women's suffrage in tion of girls' schooling. the women have no enemy. 1998). One focused on the fusal that Adivar (chapter 28) called "perhaps a bless- rights of women. emphasized. 117 modernists debated women's right to divorce and Among the most common themes in this segment their right to participate in politics. but published early years of Islam engaged in.: Princeton 1979). calling for a complete ban. "In Pursuit of the Ottoman Ph. Aside from edu- "Except for the Pathan.other (male) modernists were scandalized. "Unveiling Uzbek Women: (Tomales. David Lelyveld. mid. Netherlands: E. haviors. Rokeya Sakhawat Hossein (Ben. even one nineteenth-early twentieth century) told a women's who had himself called for such a ban. 1998). ed." 117. p.ing..polygamy. Modernists justified girls' 1918. Margaret Strobel." such as camel-racing with his wife and watching Women's Rights entertainment together in a mosque. gender did not nec- say that women will become wanton and unruly."115 "Many of the ways [the Prophet] used to treat his wives we see today as inappropriate and unsuitable. left "the inner spirit dead. which (chapter 33). Representation and Discourse. According to Maghribi (chapter 27). when you demand your polygamy. p. In Iran. of a revolution." in Zehra F. 2d ed. p. Aligarh's First Generation man. 158." ference in 1926: "The opponents of female education As these examples indicate. N. meeting the same year. 122. 78. Aynur Demirdirek.120 In 1918. and Nazira Zein-ed-Din (Lebanon. 1978).123 Qasim Amin (Egypt. University of Chicago. dissertation. p. Marianne R. N. Calif.

42. It is critical that women grounds that it "would enable a girl to run her home have access to certain careers of social importance. Bahithat (Egypt.. women to their children and in many respects even Egypt. p. 1980). and moral virtue. First published in 1930. Babikr Bedri (Sudan. while Rida (chapter 6) and Kazim. 126. such as ily. It con. On the contrary. Conn. Tahar Haddad. ties. while the founder of the Soci. . education. women needed only to learn child- body. . Babikr Bedri. inveighed against hijab."130 This line of rea- women's usefulness: "man and woman are equal in soning allowed some modernists to call for limits on mental capacity and are two members of one social girls' education." in Kurzman. pp.124 a woman. considered it appro. responding to turbing "third sex. ed. 127. et la societe (Our Woman. 1978). First published in 1928. Even quite conservative religious scholars. . The Women's Awakening in Egypt 129. Opening and Veiling (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ter how much a mother has been educated. . 1996). teaching in orphanages and kindergartens. la legislation islamique. the more enlightened she selves up to the highest level of civilization—the kind becomes. prefer. Liberal Islam. 1994). plus the recurrent 1943). and Society) 130. al-Badiya (chapter 5) made this case. Margot Badran and Miriam Cooke. from among her relatives or fellow diseases. Nazira Zein-ed-Din. . in such a way as to attract educated young men of such as medical treatment of infants and women's her own race. despite all the grave girls' schools in the Sudan. 222-224."127 Training women for these roles—notice the Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanavi (North India. Perfecting Women: Maulana (Tunis. "Unveiling and Veiling. 1990). . home economics. 1899-1935) attacked those "condemning or in reading and writing?" The founder of the first women to eternal ignorance. instinct. "the ruination of the religion society to make use of human resources that were of the women of Hindustan. trans. men from marrying foreigners. Bahithat."126 the view—common in global scientific discourse of A second strand justified girls' schools on the the era—that education desexed women: "No mat- grounds of benefit to society. The Forbidden Modern: Civilization 128. formation would not occur through employing and Bahithat al-Badiya (chapter 5). Niliifer Gole. Fatima Rashid schools would make women better mothers. associated such work with a dis. of California Press. God in His creation has set laws whose transforma- ring the middle-class garb of Western Europeans of tion cannot be decreed [by humans]. Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi's Bihishti Zewar (Berkeley: University pp. 47-48. 125. adopted so commonly outside of the home. 223. occupations. The Memoirs of Babikr Bedri. (New Haven. This would help to prevent our educated and all the functions involved with health. without these activities preventing the bring to nought our efforts in educating them. justified modern education on the that illiteracy presents. . . volume 2. both of which are equally indispensable. died 1953). a thing which would and culture. the more aware she is of her responsibili- of civilization you aspire to.. ."128 priate for women to perform certain forms of work A variant of this argument. Tunisia: Maison Tunisienne de 1'Edition.125 men. pp. the Gates: A Century of Arab Feminist Writing (Bloomington: p. a woman."129 accomplishment of her duties as mother of the fam. de. 132. But this trans- the era.. went beyond the currently being wasted. p. held that ety for the Progress of Women. 147. 1990). Qasim Amin (chap.: Yale University Press. rearing. 1860-1914) objected to any limits on had its effects on their husbands. 1864- gendered limits of Haddad's list. could support women's education on the association of women with family—would allow grounds that ignorance. Yusuf Bedri and Peter Hogg (London: Ithaca Press. Haven't you seen ignorant women and peasant sists of liberating your women from the bondage of women ignore their crying child for hours? Were ignorance and hijab [here." Tahar Haddad these women also occupied in preparing legal cases (Tunisia. by contrast. p. isolation]. and then some. eds. Notre femme. citizens. women in men's occupations or men in women's fended it. Beth Baron. dangers for our present society and future generations 1860-1954). Islamic Legislation. Barbara Daly Metcalf. Indiana University Press. that it may well constitute a third strand. In Ahmad Khan's words: "The learning that will be beneficial today to women is the same that benefited 124. this would not cause also linked women's education to the aspirations of her to forget her children nor to lose her maternal male modernists: "There is a way of raising your. 101-106. or in ter 4) adopted the language of women's rights but whatever profession she works.24 Introduction 1905). Zaynab Fawwaz (Lebanon.

135 The male modernist. We are weary of his despotism. 2d ed. versity Press. "Nurturing the Nation: The Family Politics of the 1919 Egyptian Revolution."131 tokens the dearth of soul in his body. Religious Response to Social Change 137."132 The emphasis on women's role as mothers was Many observers of the modernist Islamic movement. 1888-1914 (New York: Alfred A. p.: cal Roots of a Modern Debate (New Haven. 221. Conn. Knopf. in a large number ing boys. Mulla Nasruddin. namely. if he does produce any at all. Modem Movements among 134." Comparative emasculation onto modern-educated Muslim men. that is." Male fit to society. Najmabadi."136 with our own hands. Niyazi Berkes. If we deprive Bahithat protested. to find support in Qur'an and tional religious scholars of "adultery. Leila Ahmed. 1906. we have. an experience that "has convinced masculine roles associated with success in the mod. have said all along culinity. sonal Narrative of Events. and women's rights—in consecutive modernists projected their conception of an idealized sentences in her announcement of the opening of the heterosexual family onto the nation as a whole. 136. better than our non-men. p. Refashioning Iran.: Mazda Publish. combined sleepless nights. 132. The Development of Secularism in Moslems (New York: Fleming H. rep- country's first girls' schools in 1921: "Women are resenting the nation as a female in need of male sal- in charge of bringing up the future generation. in his submissiveness. who takes pride Queen Surayya Tarzi (Afghanistan.: Yale Uni- University of Chicago. pp. mirrored in the modernist Islamic discourse on mas. incapacitated liberating us [women] as he has been about our en- half of our body and have destroyed our subsistence slavement. men who did not embody the ern Egypt in 1897."137 the meaning and virtues of Humanity far better than In 1916. Fazlur Rahman. 1997. homosexual. Malkum Khan (chapter 12) goaded male Islam. (London: Hurst & Company. "The Erotic Vatan (Homeland) as Beloved and dise?"134 Iqbal (chapter 41) turned the image of Mother: To Love. the Orientalist Ignac Goldziher (Hungary. The crisis and decline of the Islamic world that it won't amount to much. p. dissertation. 1997. whose ideas of faith do not go beyond voluptuous University of California at Berkeley. 1982). but I see that it has no substantial basis. 133. p. p. . religion and practical presumptively male—"whose low. to Possess. My Diaries: Being a Per- in Afghanistan. bemoaning "the brainy graduate of high culture"— pp. me that there is no hope anywhere to be found in ern world. a Christian missionary concluded from his the men." Fitrat study of Islamic modernism that "we need not expect (chapter 34) accused traditional religious scholars of much to result in the way of uplift to Islam from ra- pederasty—"indecent acts with a beardless youth"— tionalizing and intellectual defence and pruning. 111. 1922). with this army of vagabond softas [seminary students] 135. 1850-1921). Not all observers have been so critical. and to Protect. Lisa Pollard. Afsaneh desires to own beautiful girls and boys in Para. most important responsibility in life. number 3. ers. complains of daughter of Mahmud Tarzi (chapter 14). his community. 1999). Tavakoli-Targhi. the vation and protection. Turkey. noting the "efforts. 442-467. Wilfrid Scawen Blunt. 1. 171. ity.133 and a Turkish modernist accusing tradi. p. bene. I had made myself a romance about these re- readers by noting that certain women "have perceived formers. Calif. For ex- ity. 77. 378. of theological tractates. volume 39. timid voice be- morality. and produces unhealthy children for all three sorts of arguments—benefit to family. 1992). drinking": "How can we restore the vitality of this as also for the requirements of progress in civil life great religion with these Shaykh al-Islams [religious officials]. p. with these snuff-addicted preachers. 113- 134. Senzil Nawid. Women and Gender in Islam: Histori- 131. 1897-1968). tends to be "as despotic about women of education. even many sympathetic observers. 182. Revell Company. 1998). 1919-29 (Costa Mesa. Samuel Graham Wilson. 276. Islam and Modernity (Chicago. as did a cartoon in Mulla Nasruddin showing ample. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 25 them in the past. traditionally garbed men groping and kissing danc. Studies in Society and History. rescinded his optimism after being attacked in west- nate men—that is.D. It was not in vain that Hazrat Muhammad (may peace be upon him) made the ac- quisition of knowledge obligatory for both men and The Legacy of Modernist Islam women. One British supporter was associated in male authors' writings with effemi." Ph. eats sparingly. hadith for the requirements of modern political life. 138."138 identifying premodern maleness with homosexual. 1916). May 19. in effect.

"142 An- Thousands read modernist Islamic newspapers. and Iran. ed. and the Islamic Revolution. India. 1993. Rachid Ghannouchi (Tu- In midcentury. ments—Algeria and Indonesia. Introduction to Islamic Theology 144. which republished excerpts from Ameer 'Ali and Azad. and other modern- movement was in serious decline. "Religious Links between Wang Jingzhai (China. ism via Southeast Asia.224-229. number 1. contribut- the movement appears to have diffused beyond the ing to global intellectual trends shifting away from elite intellectual circles that spawned it. This split did not reconcile modern values and Islamic faith. millions opposed interest in modernist Islamic figures among Muslim the modernist Islamic movement. The centennial of the death of Afghani recently led and by religious revivalist movements emphasizing a high-level official in the Islamic Republic of Iran the Islamic aspects.144 emphasized the modernist aspects of modernist Islam. other approach might view the split-up of modernist dreds of thousands of families sent children to re. inti. p. 1992).26 Introduction (the question of women. nisia."139 A recent critic has suggested that this bifurcation Many Muslims of the early twentieth century reflected a "disintegrative tendency" inherent in the seem to have agreed with Goldziher's assessment. Admitting occur evenly throughout the Islamic world: modern- ist Islam was still arriving during this period in some regions. Islamic Movement. old and new. Clarence-Smith. eds. Chandra Muzaffar. 236. 131. pp. The Azerbaijani Turks (Stanford. others only began to study in the Middle East in large Hadhrami Traders. political."145 ists signed an open letter admitting that "we were The modernist Islamic movement's primary leg- deceived and mistaken" in their earlier views. Calif. number 1. pp. lished in 1910. 1850 to c. born 1941) has dedicated his recent work on pated. the toleration of multiple identities. millions more par. and the Hadhra. Lebanon: Markaz Dirasat al-Wihda al-'Arabiyya. chapter 52) and Hadhramaut and the Malay-Indonesian World. "Modernism. Andras and Ruth Hamori (Princeton. c. Ignaz Goldziher. where Ocean.141 In regions where Muslim tious optimism. even among the educated. N.: Hoover Institution Press. where Ya'qub 141. This lamic modernists in North Africa and South and approach might find support in the resurgence of Southeast Asia. the aspect that appears to attract contemporary example140—but similar transitions occurred even Muslim thinkers. hun. Rachid al-Ghannouchi.'ammafi al- dawla al-islamiyya (Public Liberties in the Islamic State) (Beirut. Malaysia: Aliran. al-Hurriyyat al. Peter G. the Soviet to praise modernism as "necessary for the survival Union witnessed the most spectacular denunciations of Islam at the theoretical." The Iranian 140. the civil rights to Afghani. By the 1930s. Journal of International Affairs. 1981). millions of Muslims cele. 43-45. Audrey Altstadt. 263.J. . pp. socialism. 1908-1976. carry ernist Islam seems to have had greater staying power. Princeton University Press. 'Abduh. the Sudan. with authenticity on the and the Ottoman Empire (1908)... and fascism. "Religious Modernism in modernist-Islamic nationalism. throughout the world—not just among Muslims— brated the constitutional revolutions in Iran (1906) during the Interwar period. maut—where a "boomerang effect" brought modern- 143. right and the "New Man" on the left crowding out ticipated in the anticolonial movements led by Is. the seeds of a new phase in the evolution of Islam. is its defining feature: the attempt to without the threat of Soviet purges. 93. Islam in terms of the weakening of liberalism formed Islamic schools. that are making them. 1993). and of previous identities—Azerbaijani Islamic modern." concluded with cau. Scholars. practical. its energies sapped ists. born 1947) has by secular nationalism. scholars played an active role in nationalist move- mately related to religious life. 1750s-1960s (Leiden. social levels. for acy. juxtaposition of "modernist" and "Islamic. 1879-1949. Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub (Sudan. Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr. At the same time. "These cultural tendencies. 139. Netherlands: Brill. and Statesmen in the Indian numbers in the 1920s and 1930s. chapter 10) and other college graduates developed a 142. volume 9. 1997." in Ulrike Freitag and William G. First pub. for example—mod- selves felt in various parts of the Muslim world. vol- ume 83. such as West Africa or China.143 Chandra Muzaffar (Malaysia. 1997). p. fascism and communism. Riddell. The Universalism of Islam and Law. 1979). but sympathy for intellectuals of the late twentieth century. Among secularists. trans. 145. Mohammad Javad Hojjati Kermani. such sympathies largely dissi.: (Penang. the Arab World.). 1950." The Muslim World. etc.

The second step is to theo. inquisi- munication. Mass education. Commins. as previous eras lamic movement argued that they gain something were less insistent on the discursive construction of through juxtaposition. assured. critical. science and education (as practiced glo. have rejected such an attempt. "Modernism. but the modernist Is- characteristically modern concern. modernist Islam involves particularly difficult pair- ists share many of these concerns—though they might ings: the Islamic concept of justice with the modern be scandalized by association with their modernist concept of law and judicial systems. 147. rapid international com. THE MODERNIST ISLAMIC MOVEMENT 27 that one has both modern values and Islamic faith is a coherent individual self. Even Islamic revival. the modern con- roots.146 cepts of citizenship and rights with the Islamic con- Accepting modern values as modern is only the cept of equality. and the second believing. What. democracy (on West. 1995). then. as- generated huge populations in the Islamic world who piring to the highest ideals?"147 More commonly. escape from either of them. ed. Some of the admis. the are imbued with modern values such as cultural revival modernist Islamic movement has taken up the task (defined in a particular manner). Even some modernists the first step in this reconciliation.. with the modern concept of constitutional democ- rize the compatibility of such values with Islamic racy. Translations are famously imperfect. is to hinder lying values. Arabs Face the Modern World volume 3. This search for consistency may itself be a lose something in translation. 146. 1889-1973). 118-123. and so on. and globalized commodities markets have tive. and particular rights for women (as articulated ern terms. who suggested that every human may strike later readers as embarrassingly foolish and is composed of two separate parts. through a process of double translation: modern val- ern lines). such as references to European civilization as tional: "Both of these personalities are connected the world's sole civilization. and by international organizations). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Is- lamic World (New York: Oxford University Press. ." in John L. 50. (Gainesville: University Press of Florida. the first personality from being scholarly. But rejecting such for. and we cannot mulations does not necessarily amputate the under. p. ues into Islamic terms. pp. rational and emo- craven. such as Taha Husayn sions generated in the first century of modernist Islam (Egypt. and Islamic values into mod- bally). 1998). with our constitution and make-up. Critics may argue that these concepts faith. David D. Esposito. the Islamic concept of consultation first step in reconciliation. Nissim Rejwan.

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respectively. he ran the School of Foreign Languages. where his mentor nomi- nated him to serve as religious leader for a student mission to Paris. He then assumed the directorship of the Military School and participated in several educational reform commissions. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age: al-banat wa al-banin (The Honest Guide for Girls and 1798-1939 (London: Oxford University Press. and a book of guidance. Tahtawi stayed in France from 1826 to 1 8 3 1 . revised Eldin Shahin. 180 l-l 873) was a pioneering figure in the Arab intellectual awakening of the nineteenth century. (Beirut. whose emphasis on the Egyptian watan (homeland) constituted one of the first statements of nationalism in the Arab world. 1973). When he returned to Egypt. and became the mission's main translator. 1983). a speci- an Overview of Paris fied sum of money to the Treasury. 31 . Translation of in the Contemporary Era) (Cairo. pp. without distinction. Albert Hourani. pp. He studied for seven years at the famous al-Azhar mosque in Cairo. pp. Thanks to Heba Mostafa Risk for her assis- by Charles Issawi. Tahtawi was exiled to the Sudan.1 The Extraction of Gold. 1984). Rifa'a al-Tahtawi: Ra'id al-tanwirfi al- al-Nashr. translated from Arabic by Ihsan 'Abbas.: tance with this translation. Upper Egypt. In 1835. volume 2. Civil Rights Established for the French Article 3: Each one is qualified to attain any po- sition or rank. 102-105. edited by Ra'if Khuri. Kingston Press. Lebanon: al-Mu'asasa al-'Arabiyya li al-Dirasat wa Muhammad 'Imara. Tahtawi translated two dozen French works and wrote several original books. 469-477. Khaldun S. which produced thousands of translated works in various fields. al-Murshid al-amin li 1. 67- Boys). 11-31. [The French Constitutional Charter of June 4. or Article 2: They pay. Tahtawi directed the Medical School. Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi. in Modern Arab Thought (Princeton. after 'Abbas's death. to a rural family of modest means yet with a line of descent from the Prophet Muhammad. his own brainchild. pp. excerpted here. in Muhammad 'Imara. Tahtawi also served as editor of the official newspaper and an educational journal. Nobody may in- Article 1: All Frenchmen are equal before the law. N. or an Over- view of Paris (Takhlis al-ibriz Ha talkhis Bariz). including a didactic memoir of his experiences in France. He also read the writings of major French thinkers. and was only able to return four years later. 1970). a program for the reform of Egypt. Egypt: Dar al-Mustaqbal second selection from Arabic and introduction by Emad al-'Arabi. First 'asr al-hadith (Rifa'a al-Tahtawi: Pioneer of Enlightenment published in 1834 and 1875. Origins of Modern Arab Political al-Tahtawi (The Complete Works of Rifa'a al-Tahtawi) Thought (New York: Caravan Books. Article 4: Each one has an independent personal- 1814:] ity. 1980). As a result of a falling out with Khedive 'Abbas (reigned 1848-1854).J. al-A'mal al-kamila li Rifa'a 83. al-Husry. The Extraction of Gold. Tahtawi was born in Tahta. I Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi The Extraction of Gold. fringe upon it except in rights that are stipulated in the law and in the way the law is deemed applicable by the judge. then worked as a translator for the Artillery School. also excerpted here. 429-435. each according to his wealth. or an Overview of Paris and The Honest Guide for Girls and Boys Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi (Egypt. learned French. whose freedom is guaranteed.

because taxes are levied in a way that does no are great as far as legal proceedings are concerned. and judgment can be passed against him like maxim among ancient wise men. This is indeed a country to ans. A historian states that the law of the ancient Copts assigned to everyone his And justice filled it from end to end. from doing so. for abso- body. they shall be assisted to accomplish that. and none of that money shall be allocated I became certain that the impossible things are for the maintenance of places of worship that belong three: to other religions. and booty can- The first article. It is true that the griffin believed Article 10: The state shall have the exclusive pre. his Qisas al-Anbiya [Stories of the Prophets] mentions lable and nobody shall encroach on the property of the story of the griffin and King Solomon and how it another. with no intervention by any. in helping the wronged imposts. by the common people. nowadays. that is. and the faithful friend. own craft. Taxes might have some France. to have the head of an eagle and the body of a for the public welfare. if justice exists in any country it must religion as it requires. circa 699-767]. to the ghoul. quate price before acquisition. and lute justice as well as perfect faith. People do not mind pay- and satisfying the poor by convincing them that they ing. provided that it pays an ade. be considered as relative and not absolute. If it does. [Ahmad ibn Muhammad] al-Tha'labi [died 1035] in Article 9: All property and possessions are invio. and the faithful friend. lion. who believe in transmitting arts and crafts from which the following verse applies: father to son by inheritance. the law being the one condition like that of the Chinese and the Indi- reference and the guide. It can be stated that had taxes been clearly set in Muslim coun- tries. Thus there is no point in limiting impossible things Article 6: The religion of the state is the Apos. according to [this his- . must. "All Frenchmen are equal not meet the need of the Treasury or are prevented before the law. complete purity. The ghoul. yet it does exist as a bird. does not exist. It is clear proof of against injustice and bribery. especially when zakat [alms the Parliament tax]. The And in it were happiness and sincerity. land-tax is the pillar of kingship" is an established self. as they are in that country. Legal Great Imam [Abu Hanifa. so that of knowledge and their civilization is not limited to the ruler cannot wrong anybody. the griffin. Arabs and Franks [Europe- rogative of compelling people to sell their property ans]. so that all may be promoted to a higher posi- and justice. of tolic Roman Catholic faith. be subject to the provisions of the law. fay' [revenue from state lands]. without distinc. Thus the French could acquire different kinds establish equality through judgments and laws. harm to the payer and at the same time benefits the This criterion has become one of the most comprehen. The second article is purely political. Christians. "Kharaj proceedings can be initiated even against the king him. denied predestination. anybody who molests them in this shall be stopped and similar things do not exist anywhere.32 Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi Article 5: All who live in France may profess their In general. be suppressed. because it is an it does not contravene the law. which had to be inherited by his sons. provided that This is not true about the griffin. then it shall existing species of birds mentioned by botanists. whether high or low. I never heard any complaint against taxes. Treasury. During my stay in anyone else. this would have been Rights of the People Secured by a course of satisfaction. roots in Islamic law according to some sayings of the tion. which the poet says: Article 7: The maintenance of Catholic and other When among the people of my time I found no Christian churches shall be met by money of the faithful friend to choose. the griffin. reason for such a procedure. Consider this first article: it has great Paris. for to rule according to liberty means to tion. how highly justice is valued among them and how The third article does not cause any harm at all. power in establishing justice." means that all those who live in from being levied totally. What One of its merits is that it encourages everyone to they hold dear and call liberty is what we call equity learn. advanced their cultural program has become. and other levies. especially in that the wealthy are protected sive principles among the French. Article 8: No one in France shall be denied the right to print and publish their opinion.

It is perfection in their arts. and one man can represent all the good men. It is the land of honor and glory in the newspaper to make it known to high and low. Generous people gressed with the many foreigners who migrated to it. One of the great merits of the newspaper is that if a The Egyptians' Attachment to man does an outstanding deed. to propagate his knowledge and to say like the high-born yearn for their resting-place. land." which publish up-to. 770] said: what proves the freedom of humanity and The fourth. this way a man comes to know what his fellow men and are never patient being away from it. fifth. or deviation from. the case clear [Qur'anic] verses and hadiths [traditions of the . and seventh articles are very the generosity of its nature is the longing for home- useful for both natives and foreigners. In people do not prefer any country to their homeland.] Noth- are thinking. cumstances. facts. weeping over the passage of time. they still contain news It has been the custom that those who are away which the people may wish to know. coming from the noble people. A Discourse on the Homeland tention to inventing new things that can carry his craft to a higher degree of perfection. both domestic and foreign. For it to be followed by the tenth article is times and does not direct his desire to another craft. Thus one does not aspire to what is higher but directs his at.] So if we show some of the opinion given to you by a lowborn man. yearn for it. [. essential to curb the oppression of the weak by the proves on what he witnessed his father doing many strong. Their Homeland it is reported in the paper. The homeland [watan] is the nest of man. for the pearl merits of the mother of the world and of the bless- does not lose its value because of the mean status of ings [that is. and yearn and the vulgar. because the son usually im. It is most saw him he was to me the whole universe worthy for the souls of its people who are separated Every kind of game is in the belly of the onager from it to yearn for it. even if we refrain from calling it the most hon- man is wronged by another. high and low. which deserves its When I heard of him I heard of one. except the search for eminence. he states his case in the orable place. where he The answer to what this historian claims is that toddled and from which he emerged. Egypt]. especially on reading the daily sheets ing keeps away sane people from their homeland called "journals" and "gazettes. It is the father's craft. whether they be Bedouin or city notices. and air have raised him. . with. it appears to us that it is considered the first of all homelands in the world. This procedure was necessitated by cir. Thus the popu.] abound with innumerable lies. yearning for the return of compatriots. Although these achieved within. Abu 'Amr ibn al-'Ala' [linguist and poet. To confine him to it might produce an homeland whose soil. Thus the doer of good deeds is Nobody doubts that Egypt is an honorable home- encouraged and the doer of evil ones restrained. and rational people yearn for their country his opinions. or profitable advice. whether good or bad. . useful youth. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 33 torian]. mere propriety." A poet also said: His land. and made known to all people. past and the present. making it thus a good lesson to others. Sometimes the latter discover what the for it the same way people might yearn for the gar- former miss. . and part of his inner self. The Bedouins regret leaving Najd. If a land. . which is the quiver of God in the diver. 689- achieve his aim. unsuccessful craftsman. and much came in its praise in out any alteration in. It is said: "Do not look down upon a great dens of Damascus. food. They may also from the homeland where they spent part of their contain newly established scientific matters. [. if it could not be date news. and lation of this country increased and its culture pro. . for it helped them reach the degree of The ninth article is the heart of justice itself. lished laws.. long for their beloved ones like the lion longs for its The eighth article encourages every man to express jungle. whereas if other crafts were whose breeze has reared him and in which he grew open to him he would prove to be successful and up. and when I children's hearts to be inclined toward it. sixth. This method usually cut the roots of covetousness and kept everybody content with his craft. the congrega- not everyone has the natural aptitude to learn his tion of his family. Free whatever occurs to him if it does not harm others. is that all arts and crafts were considered gets to the courts and is dealt with according to estab- honorable. [.

" as stated in the The Rights of the Citizen Noble Qur'an. so they are called "Egyptian. "Love of homeland is part of faith. and those who and the order of their path unravels. loved by the relate to it as organs relate to the body. We say: Egypt is to the people. the members of one family. This privilege. has been denied to the it is secure and safe against the accidents of time. that they would be to one another like it nearly confined them in its corners and regions. It now combines they enjoy the rights of their country. The one nation should not be intelligence.] Some said: Among Egypt's characteris. as if the homeland were [. and homeland. especially that the shari 'a and politics led it to towering heights. the children of the homeland—those who origi- in Iraq]. which gathered life's merits in it. in addition to ness between them. and morals.. God will never enrich dent enemy who does not like the people of the home- them. upbringing—so may it be a place for mutual happi- enthusiasm. the people had no way to oppose their rulers or defend the rulings of the shari 'a. envy. Its king is mighty. in this sense are they patriots and natives. It was said: the world is Basra [a city Also. them except that who inflicted failure on them with mense. One old times. In hatred. Only of Peace. ministration. They its people are dignified and strong. [. On the Children of the Country and They were not able to tell their kings what they saw Their Responsibility as inconsistent. implicitly. Its exquisiteness of one man [united]. and Baghdad has no equal." By God's will. pleasant attributes. and the states and kings of the world. land to be secure of their country and to enjoy their tics is that the Egyptian who seeks a homeland in freedom. and they only united in language. In general. Now single king. adhering to the hadith: greatest privilege in civilized nations. or those who came and settled and adopted Yusuf. should not wish for his own happiness and the mis- ence and knowledge. that the country guarantee them of happiness.] It is said: Among Egypt's characteris. Their adherence to the rules of the coun- It is indeed across the nights and days a source try requires. and the adorn. made them equal and required them to be on the heart It is still the pride of every time. This is the children of [other] countries. so they are called "patriot. They were tined that the children of the homeland are always like foreigners in government affairs. a description of heaven]. Al-Hajjaj [ibn nated in it. and the insecurity of the homeland. dise engraved across the earth by the divine hand has prepared them for cooperation in the reform of of wisdom. it is sought for its beauty. or to the a young bride adorned with money and beauty. . meaning that ment of the territories of Islam. countries are both praised and insulted. it offers benefits to the seekers of the Patriots are not characterized by freedom except when best.] the home of their parents and the place of their [Egypt is] described by all in terms of courage. which engulfed the world and ery of others. so they are called "native".. When rulers reigned by whim.34 Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi Prophet]. it is the source of splendor and those rights is complete freedom in social association. people of most nations." This means that is sought for its money and beauty.] It has the right to be respected by all nations ions for what follows from this of quarreling. [. in entering under the care of a held jobs or positions below their qualifications.. . and leadership. until their country. and in following a single law and a single ideas have changed." for example. and faiths. . most exalted. prudence. doing what they pleased. and those dangers have been re- . and all else is a desert. or money. governor. policy. his deceit. and not to take as an enemy for adorns every place. so that the system of their rule is disturbed tics is the abundance of currency in it. branched out into various parties with different opin- [. it is prominent in every art. the heir of Dar al-Salam [the House the enjoyment of civil rights and civil privileges. as if it was the image of everlasting para. insight. or give their views on issues.. contribute to matters of policy and ad- The wisdom of the One Able King [God] has so des. one of the greatest virtues. . This is what proves that God. mentation. This is the evi- enter it and do not get rich. 660-714] used to say: Kufa [a city it as their homeland—are affiliated with it: first to its in Iraq] is a beautiful young girl that possesses no name. Its kings and lead- ers were greeted as "mighty one. Its share of civilization is im. The greatest of the old and the new. pleasantries. they are considered members of the community. and it is the urban they follow the law of the land and assist in its imple- [city] of Africa. they adopted much of its brilliance in sci. another place lives in humiliation.

When the quality of patriotism was removed. It im- into each person. After being ruled by one it by offering all they possess. perfects socialization. would ascertain that future laws and customs in my country. and the order of its system disintegrated Patriots who are faithful in their love of homeland by the numerous disagreements of its princes and the redeem their country with all their means. This is what civilization is for the nation re- land. and the lights of right guidance reached beyond whenever there is a chance I would be able to assist the horizons. Their nation whose government is in disarray. they would have followed only my tray it or deceive it. then the civil person more civilized than another with regard to the rights to which they are entitled will be lost. nor be. because they have become members of it. This is the fate of any rights of their countries and fellow countrymen. proves morals and customs. and ment orders. Had my brother Moses and all the prophets shall not disturb the serenity of my country." basis for the laws of their civilization and laws—hardly . it is understood that the Roman patriots can fill their hearts with the love of their home. perity. and it retreated from a per- and honor. God's Prophet [Muhammad]. and that I shall sail on the seas shari'a. That is why you find one kingdom more toward the country. May God be my witness that I am willing to fight and prayer be upon him. because of its On Civilizing the Homeland possession of those characteristics. both for nations and indi- homeland. and also one fail to earn the rights of their country. true Based on this. They must also carry out their obligations viduals. fulfils civic perfection. and serve multiplicity of its rulers. The love of home- land and the promotion of the public welfare are Civilizing the country allows civilized people to among the beautiful characteristics that get inculcated improve their physical and moral condition. In olden times. is the reason it reigned over all the countries of the world. said: "I was sent to you with with the army or on my own for the protection of the a clear Abrahamic shari'a. may peace it. siding in the homeland. constantly. All must always be directed toward the country's virtue its wars ended in defeat. even if they must harm themselves to do so." Anyone who practiced the science of the whenever necessary in all conquests that the govern. If the children of the homeland advanced in civilization than another. No motivates people to be inclined toward commendable one could be happier than the human beings who are qualities. and whose inclination should be toward that which brings bene. that no prophet came with country and religion. fit and goodness. the country protects its children from all that harms them. and not toward anything that violates the fect existence to nonexistence. Civilization varies. and make every one of them loved by the others. Individuals may differ with The quality of patriotism requires not just that regard to [the level of] advancement and improve- humans demand the rights they are owed by their ment. which involves who reached twenty years of age to give an oath that the lack of prosperity in the standard of living. and promotes pros- naturally inclined to keep evil away from their home. Power that had belonged to child. been in my time. the text the essence of true civilization to be considered and of which is: adopted. The intentions of the children of the country one mighty force was split into two minor forces. the Caesar of Rome and the Cae- same way a father would keep evil away from his sar of Constantinople. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 35 moved from the children of the country. and that land. state is disorganized. May God be my witness that I before. There they would defend their country and their govern. and that I pledge to follow present and learned its regulations and rules. it was divided between two Caesars in the their soul. The principles and rulings that arrived with "May God be my witness that I shall carry the Islam have certainly civilized all the countries of the sword of honor to defend my country and its people earth. failure beset the members of this nation. Likewise. nation firmly adhered to the love of country. its affairs The Responsibilities of the Citizen were ruined. is no doubt that the laws delivered by the prophets are ment. and repel anyone who seeks to harm it the east and the west. fundamentals of fiqh [Islamic jurisprudence]. improvement of condition and status. Now. the Romans used to force citizens Contrary to civilization is crudity. They redeem it with Caesar. May God be all the rational deduction—which the minds of the my witness that I shall not tolerate anyone who dares people of civilized nations developed and used as the violate them or undermine their order. They required a pledge to this effect. throughout one's life.

tion] through print and pictures. However. ligion. daily newspapers of the countries of Europe. and in a bottomless pit actions revolve. while still desiring the home. to spread Islam to the barbarian nations of these re- edge. and the desire to protect it. whose adherence distin- guishes the people of Islam from other nations in Freedom of Opinion and Expression power and defense. covered a new world. This could be the case dition is that [this freedom] should not destabilize the of the Qaysi. tries of Europe. for both reasons. upon which they base their civil 1461-1483]. The only con- sons of citizenship and status. with- ian. The benefits of civilization are numerous. and to ways and means. except for a small deviation. Muhammad]. they call civil protection. and wanted to kill them. That is why some have said: as civiliza. and the protection of religion is of civilization in the countries of the earth is the the core of all pillars. they call love of country. gions. and the that facilitate the path to civilization by providing the Europeans worked to perfect and improve it. But for us. the religion of the Prophet wars diminish. Therefore. Printing houses. and the Syr. on land and sea. instability and revolutions become seas. [There was an expansion] of freedom dren are obliged to protect it. The greatest aid in navigating the sea is the invention of the "compass. for example. south. of the [Indian] Ocean and its shores. east and west. always heading to- pillars of civilization. Zeal for one's country could be entirely for rea. best of people [that is. and never deviating from it. because of coarseness. out neglect or excessiveness. the Egyptian. The four directions: north. stipu. But they rights" or "natural law"—rational regulations. we achieve all this. But the in this respect by disseminating [aspects of civiliza- practice has run to confine [this love] to religion be. previously unknown to the ancients. It is a box. political books. around them revolve all the sciences of life and de." which is the "house of On the Reasons for Civilization the needle. they civilized countless people on the islands rarer and disappear completely. their re. [thanks land. as. and around which trans. inventing machines and equipment may say: the Arabs invented this machine. unlawful enslave. and from there the countries of the they call freedom and equality. The Arabs of Islam used to travel to discover new struction. freedom of navigation and travel. to] the law of freedom of expression. they have the science of "natural were sorcerers. who put the printing houses under his laws. and indus. They discovered countless lands and come less brutal.36 Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi go beyond those fundamentals upon which the people of France at that time were in a deep sea be- branches offiqh were built. in the homeland all humankind is equal. promoting science and knowl. They believed that printers damentals offiqh. and familiarity with the wonders of the world. The love of religion East and Egypt. [The . It knowledge to write legal. Inside it are drawn the and that it traveled from there to Chinese lands. government and should take a moderate path. or their kind. of printed books in Europe was the German nation. and combines religion and patriotism. What we call justice and benevolence. despite their differences. literary. unite Among the greatest supports to civilization is the against the foreigner to protect their country. countries and bring their people to the religion of the tion advances among the kingdoms of the earth. It is said that the first inventor ward the North Pole. What we call the branches offiqh. traveling to all sides of the [Indian] Ocean adhering to shari'a. Similar to the science we call the fun. attentive Europeans followed their example and dis- tion vanish. were saved by Louis XI. hostility decreases. and poverty and humilia. conquests be. produce it in large quantities. Then printing reached the rest of the coun- rights or laws. Travel brought all the kingdoms of the earth fortune. It was [also] said that the house of the needle try. advancing agriculture. its chil. especially in the cause of its importance. philosophical. the people of Islam. Then shrewd and ment and bondage end. We find that parties. in which is sisted education and learning. Every Islamic kingdom is a kings' approval for scientists and possessors of homeland for all those in it who belong to Islam. love of country is but one of Among the things that helped to broaden the scope the branches of faith. the Yemeni. cause of blind ignorance. and wealth. and discovering the countries that can help was invented by none but the Europeans. the king of France [reigned lating good and bad. commerce. which are among the fixed a magnetized iron needle. In sum." It was said to be invented by the Arabs Also among the reasons for civilization on earth: of Islam.

which are required by the principles of their politics and justice. They are ways [they formulate] political procedures. just kingdom. and doctrine. centers of trade in all sorts of exports and imports. without ha. on condition guided toward their destinations. and in adhering to it in matters of worship. With this [compass] the captains at sea are ion on any subject may not be muffled. gious interpretation] on minor issues. and as required by the in- the planting of forests and tree farms. People kingdom. to grow the tegrity of the individual. for every member of the community—as deduced tion that desires many ships and ports must increase from the rules of reason. of the country. like the doctrinal views of the which is built upon justice and public freedom. Ash'aris [followers of Abu'l-Hasan al-Ash'ari. so long as accordance with the greatness of its dominion. and it will not be confiscated. then the kingdom of France and the Sublime The Types of Freedom State [the Ottoman Empire]. and decrees another and from one place to another. their time. ion. religious freedom. Their opin- wind. How. ever. and industry. joining together to honor each other's are not restrained from dealing with their money as rights. obtained its freedom. world. is not allowed. ers. without being considered unjust. Sea power is a plen. as is eating poi- of a kingdom is that its banner be allowed to sail in son. For example. Humans cannot suppress natural freedom Seas. It is as if punished. and the followers of On Public Freedom and Social Equality madhhabs [legal schools] who exercise ijtihad [reli- Freedom is the license for permissible action with. duct and noble morals. as long restrained only by the limits prescribed by law or as they refer to consistent criteria. except in ing of the four original winds and the catastrophic accordance with the laws of the country. others. and political freedom. since one's conscience rests proper wood so that the naval kingdom can build its upon the goodness of one's behavior in dealing with fleet. it must obtain the appropri. behavioral freedom. In a kingdom that has applies to the freedom of political madhhabs. Among the advantages of sea power is that it Behavioral freedom involves commendable con- helps in promoting agriculture. most that what they say or write does not violate the laws kingdoms of Europe are masters of sea power. which has a strong naval power. The same dom are based on freedom. the social community formed out of the people of the cordance with the principles of the kingdom. principles of religion. that is. opin- the extent that satisfies its needs. The rights of all the people of the civilized king. or eating other people's food without their the sea and to be respected throughout the seas of the permission. The Egyptian govern. People may do as they please and their ministers are unrestricted in the different with themselves. eat- Policy experts have said that a kingdom's sea ing. 873- 925] and the Maturidis [followers of Abu Mansur al- Maturidi. on condition that it adheres to the tiful source to broaden the scope of civilization. laws. ment has important ports that could be [world] lead. ate ships through purchase from foreign countries to Religious freedom is the freedom of faith. and their work. for example. the greatest sea power is the kingdom of the British. Over- most beneficial thing in demonstrating the sea power eating. died circa 944]. that they cannot do without. and walking—things common to all power should be relative to its land power. impenetrability and security. the opinions of the heads of official administrations and each individual may move from one house to in implementing their principles. except by a legal or political ruling in ac. and aided by the advantage of the Mediterranean and Red molded it. Among the rights of civil freedom is Civil freedom involves the rights of a city's resi- the human being's right not to be forcibly exiled or dents and communities toward each other. If that is difficult. drinking. trade. As a result. Natural freedom originated with humankind. The human out an impermissible obstacle or a prohibited objec. and in individuals. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 37 function of this compass] is to determine the blow. and whose ports which cannot be matched in Freedom is divided into five types: natural freedom. social association is permitted. It is the attribute necessary especially in colonies outside the kingdom. for that is good politics. being feels secure in following one of the madhhabs tion. so that each individual has pledged to the oth- . they please. civil freedom. Monarchs rassment or coercion. The na. according to the codes of their countries. The they do no harm to the individual or to others.

and trade can record and document fear freedom. The greatest Freedom. and industry. It would not be surprising for the same humans. trade. world that have no freedom. knowledge. Per- has thus guaranteed human happiness. The two rights [of the state and the all their inventions in books. It exists when ity is nothing but a protection of freedom. right not to be coerced into doing what is unlawful Socializing people and improving their conditions in their kingdom. and both are associ- their ruler. It is not surprising for a kingdom. It provides a rea. and thereby would be infring. ated with justice and benevolence. People of that era strive to perfect the prac- nied by the justice of monarchs. they will allow people the freedom of summed up in the right to do what is legal. it will reason for the restriction might be that the monarchs be a great means in comforting the people and mak. Every member of the community will equip their minds with good judgment and [the is allowed to enjoy all that is permitted in the king. where the sciences of management and banking have pro- gressed. welfare. in all these meanings. expand commerce and continuously invent ing upon their rights. to reap public benefits and As freedom is naturally imprinted on the hearts of financial fruits. actions regarding personal property. is the greatest difficulty for the person who appreciates the benefits means for making the people of kingdoms happy. In short. mitting them is one of the principles of the art of governmental administration. their compatriots. and as divine wisdom has decreed that hu. When education progresses and condi- freedom of the people of every kingdom can be tions improve. If the freedom of the people is accompa. and the practice of their natu. and since the enemy transgresses by invasion. dom. for this freedom. Some wise people said: allow me to improve edu- without a legitimate reason. daily life. the state need not culture. of the kingdom perceive their subjects as unqualified ing them happy in their countries. try. This is part of their duty toward their coun- condition that the individual does not trespass the try. benefits to be generated. is considered to be a cation. where their strong principles and solid foun- The Duty of the Free toward Their Country dations have been mastered. Evidence has proven that this freedom is of the greatest public benefit. so long as one The greatest freedom in the civilized kingdom is avoids harming one's compatriots. Clever people in agri- ance with firmness and reverence. tice of their business and work. and dom is associated with equality. people of that kingdom in these sciences. so should they devote their free. Thus. on ditures. and opposing the laws of the equipment and machines contributing to the public country. But the If freedom is built on just and sound laws. of these arts is to see these spheres restricted. This in real- Political freedom refers to the state. and expanded in practice. ability] to handle huge operations. among those who live nearby and compete with the grated or humiliated. then they will not consider it an infringement late the law of the country.38 Rifa'a RafT al-Tahtawi ers to help them in all their activities that do not vio. once they ever restricts them arbitrarily has stripped them of reach a lofty level in understanding the knowledge of a recognized right. And free- dom to honoring their country. and The Relation between Freedom that human beings have been inclined toward it for and Happiness centuries. and not deni. Who. and is hurt by the enslavement of the nations of the every individual may engage in all legitimate trans. and industry.] they do not upon their rights when the government collects taxes oppose the individual. also feels happy with the freedom of other nations. If people feel obligated to serve their coun. and abundant profits and individual] will counterbalance each other. thriving day by day. as civilization has advanced. ral freedom without infringement of any kind. industry. because of their incomplete civil son for their love of their countries. Among the the state assures all of its people their legitimate and splendors of the nation's freedom is that this nation recognized property. and the expanded spheres of agriculture. and the gains. ditions of the whole world. limits of the law. trade. and they all repudiate anyone to fight enemies or contribute to government expen- who would impinge on the individual's freedom. [In return. people will have to fight and repel him. the education. will thus be multiplied by ruler and the ruled will both be happy. The government the freedom of agriculture. and I will devote myself to improving the con- denial of their recognized right of happiness. combining toler. mans be dignified above all others. Restricting what people are allowed to do. Human minds. .

Equality in rights is associ- the senses of smell. or prevent all that is stipulated by the Legislator. [states]: "None of you is a believer until a strong basis. rights requires equality in the responsibilities that tributes. without internal or external distur." bances. continues to observe this equality. of the Messengers prior to Islam. Some est. Some were world revolves are based upon rational and sound granted magnificent qualities while others were not. This is the highest level of justice. principles devoid of inhibitions and doubts. shari 'a and politics are based on a wisdom that we cal qualities. that this equality is illusory. It is supported by inside and outside. Justice is a quality that lows that they must cooperate to remove a public induces humans to be rightful in words and conduct. it fol. moral decency. two ears. If their country suffers a mishap. and touch. Each has two eyes. most exalted and glo- some to others in endowments. chivalry. and revered by all. taste. will establish its the saying of [the Prophet]. . and the like. mand their rights. and its kingdom will have upon him. with no distinction between the detests. Equality means trusting all the people are all equal in this respect. internal purity. If people can be proven to be equal in rights. the source of civil strife. two hands. sincerity of the heart. and fend off the aggression tent with the wisdom of the philosophers and the laws of its neighboring kingdoms. a wisdom that is weak. All are equal in their conduct. shari'a and nature. and no one is preferred of the kingdom. and civilization. Thus. It is the cornerstone of the es- ity would be associated with freedom when the ban. are characterized by justice. All other virtues stem from jus- would be added: their concern for the continuation tice. Divine Providence has the legal and political obligations around which the already privileged some over others. therefore. which makes each one equal in dom. regardless of their status in the king- ral human quality. and the resolution of of country. may peace and prayer Justice be upon them. obligations toward each other. THE EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND THE HONEST GUIDE 39 is possible for others to do. philosophers perceived [justice] as the virtue of all tally put aside their private privileges. although the support of natural Equality in rights is nothing but the legal ability laws should not be taken into consideration unless it of the human being to do. without distinction. preferred known to God the Sustainer. He made them equal rified. or prevent legally. and it is consis- ries. In any case. noble or mean. and these are the products of justice. This nation is strong. but with spe- of their country's stability and public welfare. ness or distastefulness. and being equal before them. that human equality in freedoms. all are on equal footing in life. and also in physi. modesty. similar manner. And although God. nate. through worship. This is ordained and articulated in all the books revealed to His messengers. Equality All people manage their property and rights in a Equality among the members of a society is a natu. and people owe one other. attain. proper due from others. piety. love prevention of internal disorder. they must to. you love for your brother what you love for yourself. Obligations are al- But if we examine the matter thoroughly. the leader and the subordi. we find ways associated inseparably with rights. to perform their over others in terms of survival. This Those who perform their duties and receive their equality cannot be suspended by human legislation. It encompasses civil and public It makes sense. To this a third character managed without it. because and thus differed in moral makeup. moderniza- adhere to equality and forget privilege. ated with equality in obligations. Equality means nothing but sharing the same laws. the cific names such as sympathy. tion. whose affairs cannot be ner of war is brandished. Each needs sus. They responsibility. tablishment of kingdoms. Therefore. unless shari 'a law has stipulated its right- honorable and the base. Any nation that considers generosity. may peace and prayer be freedom on firm grounds. equal. civil rights to another. most exalted. because all people share common at. All equality the basis of its laws and natural rights. and persevere in so doing. threat. protect its country. attain. We cannot depend on what the mind likes or in accountability. some bodies being strong and others can perceive. and to be just with themselves and others. They form part of its attributes. As humans de- tenance. It will be strong enough to defend its territo. The noble hadith. as its removal would serve their public inter. They must virtues and the basis for human society. they must [in turn] fulfill their and have the same right to the necessities of life.

and its future. agricultural. pp. His tenure as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire was brief. and educational reforms. 1980). First published in 1867. 84- Emad Eldin Shahin. ac- mands justice and charity. He advanced strong arguments for the acquisition of Western institutions. And commanded him to cooperate in good works and to fear God to the exclusion of idols After I had long contemplated the causes of the prog- or transgression. both personal and political. "May God guide him to the surest path. Still a teenager. Tunuslu Hayreddin Pa§a (Khayr al-Din lands: E. Khaldun S. Khayr al-Din went into retirement in Istanbul. pnme among them the concept of liberty. he studied in the ruler's palace and then joined the Bardo Military School. Whose rulings de- Praise be to Him who made prosperity one of the scribe orbits around the two points of faith and God's results of justice and endowed mankind with intel. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age. 1850-1881 Maktabat al-Nahda al-Misriyya. which is suitable for all times. the guardians of his Holy Law. he introduced influential fi- nancial. the book excerpted here. Khayr al-Din et la Tunisie. 1970). 2 Khayr al-Din The Surest Path Khayr al-Din al-Tunisi (Tunisia. He is to be praised at all times and generation. ligence. 2d ed. Turkey: Kultiir Bakanhgi. Brill. Khayr al-Din's remarkable talents facilitated his ascendance to the premiership of Tunisia (1873-1877) and of the Ottoman Empire (1878-1879). Zu'ama' al-islah fi al-'asr al-hadith Thought (New York: Caravan Books. and on what the authors master Muhammad. 40 . Harvard University. ress and backwardness of nations. whose combination of Islamic and modern education produced much of the elite that later struggled for Tunisian independence from the French.1 In the name of God. is crucial for peace and prosperity. generation after I praise Him. contained Khayr al-Din's political visions and his program of reform. He was the main inspiration behind the promulgation of a constitution and the establishment of a parliament in Tu- nisia in I860. 1967). lasting only eight months. and practices that he considered compat- ible with the Islamic shari'a. which he headed. (Khayr al-Din and Tunisia. the beneficent. 1999). And I pray for his family cording to evidence which experience has decreed and his companions. Mass. Khayr al-Din was a Circassian who was enslaved and sold to a notable in Turkey. should be accepted. protection. Nether- Alaaddin Cetin. Albert Hourani. pp. the merciful. 33-53. (Leaders of Reform in the Modern Era) (Cairo. values. He founded the Sadiqiyya School in 1875." knowledge. administrative. where he spent seventeen years before being brought to the court of the Tunisian ruler.: Cen. who was sent with the Book and of both groups have written concerning the Islamic the Balance. Origins of Modern Arab Political 1. and constrained by the autocratic tendencies of the sultan. The Surest Path (Aqwam al-masalik). 160-165. 1822-1890) was a prominent reformer and effective states- man. Egypt: G. As Tunisia's prime minister. van Krieken. where he received Arabic and Islamic education and learned modern military sciences. translated from Arabic by Leon Carl Brown (Cambridge. His major written work. by which He made it possible for man to After this invocation the compiler of these pages attain right conduct and the various gradations of says. relying on the Islamic and European his- in all tongues. Khayr al-Din ar- gued that liberty. its attributes. 158-197. Ahmed Amin. pp. 95. After his dismissal. I decided to assert what I believe no intelligent Muslim will contradict and no one who Khayr al-Din. S. Pasha of Tunis). 1850-1881) (Leiden. al-Husry. ter for Middle Eastern Studies. pp. A. 1979). J. To whom it was revealed that God com. Introduction by 1798-1939 (London: Oxford University Press. umma [community]. And I pray for His servant and our tories I was able to examine. 1976). (Ankara. 71-96.

which has interests. rect their concern to acquiring the essence of knowl. then my effort might attainment of aspirations. other material which the reader might of action in this world. tries. and especially of those known. less both among the politicians and all the classes sider the competition of nations in the fields of civili. by others out of a predilection for despotism. Then. if we consider the many ways which have whose farthest distance is now connected with its been created in these times to bring people and ideas nearest. not be without benefit. about other nations. we may to learning about domestic events. The general nomic and administrative policies. supporting the religious system. Rather we believe it . including obser- Is it fitting that the physicians of the umma should vations based either on precedent or reasoning. suffices to make it sought after by the rest led to the utmost point of prosperity for their coun- of mankind. All-High God so wills. negligence existing among us. be found throughout the several chapters. Nor will we be content to indicate what com- portant events of these days and to awaken the heed. will be ignorant of its ailments? Or that they should di. and their minds be able to restore what was taken from our hands and are empty of any knowledge of the outside world. Further. I have shown their nation. by use of it overcome the present predicament of This is undoubtedly one of the most imposing ob. and who according to religion knows important European historians) in the two fields of that the Islamic shari 'a [religious law] is a guaran. Such a person will The purpose in mentioning how the European then be saddened to see that certain 'ulama' [reli. It is also to them to achieve what is most beneficial and helpful. There- Thus. Should this prove to be sembled what years of thought and reflection had above my own powers. I have also noted the superiority formerly held Whoever considers these two undoubtedly true by the Islamic umma (as attested by even the most principles. It is We are likewise saddened by such ignorance on the made up of an introduction and two books. properly expect on such a subject. I have called the book The Surest Path to Knowl- edge to the exclusion of its contingent circumstances? edge Concerning the Conditions of Countries. pelled us to compose this work. THE SUREST PATH 41 has been shown the evidence will oppose: if we con. stacles to a knowledge of the most appropriate course In addition. the object of this book is to remind the fore it is appropriate that we set out our motive in learned 'ulama' of their responsibility to know the im. With the guidance of God we seek the paths of For this reason I was fired to believe that if I as. if the by His Excellency the Bey [Muhammad al-Sadiq. united country peopled by various formation about European inventions related to eco- nations who surely need each other. call attention to these aspects of the Prankish [Eu- it becomes clear that we can properly distinguish what ropean] nations—especially those having close con- is most suitable for us only by having knowledge of tacts or attachments with us—which ought to be those outside our own group. we will not hesitate to visualize the With God's help I have collected all possible in- world as a single. and that secular organization is a firm foundation for all conduct was regulated accordingly. with reference benefit to be derived from the experience of each to their situation in earlier times. 1859-1882]. integrity and correctness. makes this easier. will necessarily recognize exerted its influence on the wraraa's conditions. each of part of certain statesmen and a feigning of ignorance which has several chapters. of the people by demonstrating what would be a zation and the keen rivalry of even the greatest among proper domestic and foreign conduct. especially if it comes upon hearts working together in defense of Islam. writing. This includes their own eagerness to learn who surround us and live close to us. plus what I had seen during my travels to guished readers is to be hoped for as a means of avert- the various states of Europe where I had been sent ing my own poverty. The motive for a work is its true beginning. the indulgence of my distin- produced. even when it is pursuing its own personal progress in the governance of mankind. kingdoms attained their present strength and worldly gious scholars] of Islam who are entrusted to take power is that we may choose what is suitable to our into consideration the changing circumstances of own circumstance which at the same time supports time in the application of the Law are opposed even and is in accordance with our shari 'a. a sufficient guarantee to the ruler of Tunisia. closer together. The folding-in of the globe. And good intentions are. knowledge and prosperity at a time when the shari 'a tor for the two worlds.

while not avoiding other things correct. On the because the Holy Law does not forbid the imitation contrary. and to translate it from Greek when they saw is born that security. and any. took his advice The first task is to spur on those statesmen and and dug a moat around Medina when it was attacked. Discriminating critics must sift out the truth prove of. "The learning of a man having no knowl- The second task is to warn the heedless among the edge of logic is not to be trusted"—then what objec- Muslim masses against their persistent opposition to tion can there be today to our adopting certain skills the behavior of others that is praiseworthy and in that we see we greatly need in order to resist intrigues conformity with our Holy Law. If they find it to be and its results. reigned 656-661]. Mawwaq [Abu 'Abdullah al-Gharnati. Our by the enemy. He even worked in it himself in order to exhort the sible ways of improving the condition of the Islamic Muslims. The things as logic from outside their own religious com- basic requirement is good government. but pay attention to what was said. indicated to The disgrace is our needing outsiders for most ne- the Prophet of God. may God bless him and grant him cessities. may to one ultimate goal. In the Sunan al-Muhtadin [Traditions of the ganizations of non-Muslims must be renounced. There is no reason to reject or ignore something There is no need to abandon acts practiced by non- which is correct and demonstrable simply because Muslims that are in accordance with the shari 'a cate- it comes from others. it is by truth that the person is known. Andalusian one praising such things should be disavowed. "There is no harm in imitation of that ceaselessly emulating what they deem good in the which is linked to the good of the believers." If it was agriculture and commerce. hope. Wis. we find them refusing to accept tanzimat by a probing examination of the thing concerned.42 Khayr al-Din important to build certain arguments upon it. of surrounding their cities with a moat incentive is a desire to accomplish two tasks leading as a protection against attack. By the following. and such every- not according to the person that truth is known. This is what the French have done. [administrative reforms of the nineteenth century] whether it be word or deed. and the deficiencies in economic development and When Salman the Persian [a companion of the public policy which overtake the umma as a result. God bless him and grant him peace. especially if we had formerly gories of obligatory. 'Ali [ibn Abi Talib. there is an obligation to restore it and put of anyone who does what God permits.quirements. It is other in clothing. died 1492] is found the following. son-in-law and fourth umma and of promoting the means of its development successor of the Prophet. savants having zeal and resolution to seek all pos. day needs just as in weapons and all military re- Rather. 1783-1836] is found guided. The shortcoming in economic develop- . Prophet]. their Rightly Guided] by the Maliki scholar Shaykh al- books must be cast out and not mentioned. "The acts attitude is a mistake under any circumstances." it to use. "Do not pay attention to who and knowledge." work of others. We see them vying with each not its originator be from among the faithful. No further so that [Abu Hamid Muhammad] al-Ghazzali [1058- evidence is needed of this. promoting all the indus. they have attained the sound orga. has said. permissible for the virtuous ancestors to take such tries. may God be pleased with him. may God by such things as expanding the scope of the sciences honor him. smoothing the paths to wealth in spoke. if we reflect on the situation of those nization of their affairs in this world to be witnessed critical Muslims and the European actions they ap- by all. the Prophet of God. Anyone devoted to religion should not be On the margin of Durr al-mukhtar [The Selected deterred from initiating the commendable actions Pearls] by the learned Shaykh Muhammad Ibn' Abidin related to worldly interests of one religiously mis. There is no hiding the disgrace wherever one finds it. and eliminating the causes of idleness. they should accept and adopt it whether or which harm them. from which munity. 1111] said. This judge. The truth is that all of these things are dom is the goal of the believer. of non-Muslims which we have forbidden are those which violate the requirements of our canon law.al-Hanafi [jurist of Damascus. home furnishings. and proficiency in work it as being among the beneficial instruments—so much to be seen in the European kingdoms. Actually. indicating the backwardness of the umma peace. simply because they and attract benefits? are possessed with the idea that all behavior and or. when besieged in skills. that the Persians had a custom. One is to take it European products. recommended or permissible possessed it and it had been taken from us.

"Let him who fights. self of something which. He ex- of progress. tion with caution. These institutions are based on two pillars—justice dence and a weakener of its vigor. but it is equally neces. fight as his adver. which if Holy Law. of the capabilities of any potential aggressor and an dance. may the strength and support of God be con. we now get only other such inventions needed for defense. at a have said instead cannon. for similar or even better conditions died 642]. "O the influence of their Christian religion. both for us and for others. In sum. until the rule of is the subject of his book. for this on to say. which also entails a knowledge of the exported from the kingdom and compared it with means leading to this goal. and in may God bless him and grant him peace. including what might be suitable and liberty. THE SUREST PATH 43 ment is the failure to use our country's industries veyed through you to those with you. It is well known that these two are the easy to purchase in peacetime are not easy in time prerequisites for strength and soundness in all king- of war. defying fatigue fight them with the same weapons they use to fight for the entire year. Without the value of our land's raw materials." The meaning of this hadith is made ined that Europe's peoples arrived at their present clear in the advice of Abu Bakr [first caliph. and then in a short sword. How can a thinking man deprive him. There is no doms. of its regions. or silk farmer or cotton farmer. savagery. "Kingdoms which do not keep pace movement of decline—which is naturally quicker with the military inventions and tactics of their than that of advance. especially when and liberty—both of which are sources in our own linked to the need for military necessities. Europe fell into a shocking state of nection the statement of a European author on mili. of the northern barbarians and the fall of the Roman placed caution? It is worth mentioning in this con. the kingdom's tanzimat comparable to those we see among others? need for others stands as an obstacle to its indepen. growth to be seen among others? Can this progress avoidably take place. Emperor Charlemagne [742-814]. for the Islamic umma. military or non-military. After entering their country. Corroboration of with fear. be successful without our implementing political As for political imperfections. king of France. lawlessness and oppression. rifles. Then. Law will not be attained. Supporting erted every effort to improve the condition of the what we have related is the statement of the Prophet. in itself. people by striving to promote knowledge. as will be shown in detail. ruin will un. the basic means of creating abun. Empire in 476. reigned state because of a marked fertility or temperateness 632-634] to Khalid ibn al-Walid [Muslim general. armored ships. may God be pleased with both of them. to 'Asim other ways." He singles out military matters because that several nations. rulers. effort to mobilize against him equal or superior cumstances. "May the people of al-Yamama be seized should be a major source of gain. sell the produce of his labor to you—arrow for arrow. For this reason it can be the imports and found that the two approximate each asked." If Abu Bakr had known this age. This requires knowledge facturing process. spear for spear. even at many times the value. herd. if we considered the total of what is strength. died 625] in its darkest period of ignorance and oppression by its the hadith. for example. are found in other parts of the world. does urge the enforcement of justice and equality . Therefore we must press on to the purpose reason for all this except European technical of this book which is to reveal the conditions of the progress resulting from tanzimat based on justice European nations. after it has been processed. sooner or later. sword for the European for a cheap price. It is not to be imag- sary fights. Under these cir. has not long been firmly established. called noblesse. We receive these the state of preparation imposed by the Holy none of the increased value resulting from the manu. Although it Khalid. match cau- this statement is in seeing. Europe returned to bin Thabit [companion of the Prophet. their of slavery to its kings and oppressive grandees of the prey. he would time buy it back. it would be the lesser of two evils. after his death." and he went to process the goods we have produced. our shep. When you meet a fighting party. He said. beginning a tary policy. After the attacks simply because of unfounded misgivings and mis. he approves of? The present situation in the kingdoms of Europe How can he lightly turn down what will benefit him. sary to keep up with one's neighbors in all aspects and most of the kingdoms of Europe in 768. Europe remained in the noose neighbors risk becoming. Nor is it due to when he sent him to fight the apostates. can we today attain such a level of prepara- other. for if the tion without progress in the skills and bases of value of imports exceeds the exports. and price several times higher.

634-644]. What has no foundation Ibn al-'Arabi [Andalusian jurist. has said. tive system duly complied with be the causes of an increase in wealth. is a clear sign of what we have mentioned. is. necessary. or of religious law. Christianity does not interfere in po. high and low. religion and God's rule for the two worlds. Justice guaran. which is to be contrasted of his unwillingness to imitate the political order. since that was incompatible Jesus. Among its care- in the sciences and industries through tanzimat fully guarded principles are the release of the creature based on political justice. the proof of Islam. "Justice brings glory to the religion. giving priority to avert- and justice. forbade his disciples from with their appetites. this being opposing the kings of this world in what relates to nonexistent in Christianity. consideration of the public interest appropriate to the The essential prerequisite for all of this is security time and the circumstances. verge of vanishing and losing their independence was Also. with the good behavior of their neighbors at that time ing recognized in the rest of the European king. carrying out the lesser of two evils when one is that justice. upon him be peace. This was the result of doms. imposed upon all men from the prophet to the least ity needs a thousand qualities. once said while This has occurred today in certain Islamic kingdoms. and by extracting treasures of the earth of the rights of mankind. preaching. tion directly from God. the protection to wealth. "The caliphs conclusive proof that oppression foreshadows the ruin and kings of Islam want to be refuted.44 Khayr al-Din before the law. by smoothing the roads from the exigency of his own passions. It is God's custom in His world terest. leader of the Christian religion. this world. whatever its previous condition." One of ity and the security of its subjects. their rulers being restricted by shari 'a laws applicable Rather. as has been said. havior when consultation has been omitted." A that it should become a tradition incumbent upon Persian maxim affirms. and [what has] no guardian will said. and also because of the many probity to constituted authority and strength to all perfections which God had placed in him. turies when royal despots had absolute power over litical behavior. and justice is the guardian. for the authority of his holy law was over That some of the European kingdoms were on the the spirits and not the bodies. 1332-1406]. the imperfections existing in the provinces due solely to their poor conduct resulting from the of the pope. "Consultation is one of the foundations of the be lost. good management. but that Among the most important of the shari 'a principles the contrary should cause a diminution in all of is the duty of shura [consultation] with which God these things. The under- orders of the people. If he acts by these two he will be be pleased with him. and grant him peace. may God be pleased with him." Among the sayings of 'Ali. any deviation in me set it right. and with their knowledge of agriculture and commerce. and property. peoples. which is built on retire- politics saying that he did not have dominion over ment from the world and asceticism. may God bless him and from both Islamic and non-Islamic histories. Europe has attained these ends and progress to both religious and secular matters. all of which can be of creatures." natural propensities are such that unrestricted author. from among the Islamic umma. "O people. lying reason for this obligation upon the Prophet was tees the security and well-being of all subjects. ity for kings brings about some kind of oppression. whether Muslim or not. because it is founded on the concept God's creatures. "The king is the foundation. Man's should be in the pulpit. may God bless him and grant him have dispensed with this since he received inspira- peace. ing corruption over that of advancing the public in- tion in their lands. let him among you who sees It happened in European kingdoms during those cen. which have become the normal condi. This is well known from our Holy Law charged His impeccable Prophet. 1076-1148] has will be destroyed. They are providing for the country's prosper. the principles upon which there is consensus is that Anyone who leafs through the third section of every adult Muslim knowledgeable of what is for- Book One ofMuqaddima [The Prolegomenon}. and an administra. and other matters of this nature. may God grouped into two." A man stood up and . later rulers. although Muhammad could The Prophet. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab [second caliph. because unlimited authority of kings. It is a duty by al-Ghazzali] asserts that the possessor of author." The Nasa'ih al-Muluk [Advice to Kings. will find Ghazzali. Even nances based on reason. even if they of civilization. by Ibn bidden is obliged to resist any forbidden act. without the restraint either of ordi- of retirement from the world and asceticism. has said. "There can be no right be- just. Al- Khaldun [Tunisian historian.

For this reason it is incumbent upon the with his death. "Abu The aforementioned benefit will be realized only Muslim is right. However. but if people exercising this re. because some Nor do we deny the possibility of finding among form of restraint is essential for the maintenance of kings one who conducts himself properly in the king- the human species. nent manner in one person. in accordance with pre- kings of Europe fear the councils and the opinions cise. as it depends on qualities which restrainer to provide a check. If the dynasty violates such a policy its po- relates also in the section on "Commanding the Good sition will not be well established and its control will and Forbidding the Evil" in the Ihya' [Revival] that be incomplete." his anger with water for ritual ablution. caliph. the judgments of the holder of author. king. love what would bene- mentioned in the chapter on the imamate in his fit the country. European and Muslim] is the same: to demand an accounting from the state in order that its conduct Consideration of human nature thus makes it clear may be upright." protected by such precepts as commanding the good Without this type of resistance to authority. For this reason it is diffi- doubt that if a just imam [leader] such as 'Umar. and Abu Muslim al. "Praise whoever is under him. the kings fear those who resist evil. is. and be capable of implementing the Muqaddima in saying. dom without consulting "those qualified to loosen straint were left to do as they please and rule as they and bind" [political power brokers]. 661-680] with. and is moved by see fit. after stilling policy valid both for this world and the next. at the same time. and forbidding the evil. "By God." 'Umar replied." There can be no because of his appetites. for he usually demands of God who created in this umma him who would rec. if we saw in you deviation we would ity usually turn aside from the right and are unjust to rectify it with our swords. died 682] came before son. had not believed such a harsh retort to be in sary to return to imposed political laws to which the accordance with the shari'a. Ibn Khaldun has referred to what we have possess complete knowledge. ship would not be proper for mankind. If it is imposed from God All-High by means of him saying. "This is not from your toil. It freedom of the press. in the state then it is a policy based on human rea- Khawlani [famous ascetic. Group feeling is produced leading orous in defending religion and the rights of the ca. this is rare and not to be is essential that the restrainer should in turn have a taken into account. well-observed ordinances) is the situation most of the masses that proceed from them and from the likely to bring about what is best for the kingdom. This is not the result of my toil nor if it remains respected through being preserved and my father's. pation of those qualified to loosen and bind with the The Europeans have established councils and have kings in all policy matters (with responsibility for given freedom to the printing presses. even if the roads leading to this end that there are only three types of kings. est. "Since kingship is an expres. nor from that a prophet who determines it. might be both lacking in knowledge and deficient in . either in the form of a are seldom combined in a single person—and even heavenly shari'a or a policy based on reason. but assuming these qualities were combined in a perma- neither of these can defend its rights if they be vio. just as the isters directly responsible. Or he in mankind. public interests through discriminating supervision. as we have said. replied. cult to obey him. it is then a religious of your father or mother. personal aims or appetites that would prevent him both of which stem from irradicable strength rooted from carrying out the general public interests. THE SUREST PATH 45 said. The aim of the two [that is. Thus we must assert that the partici- 'ulama' and the notables of the umma to resist evil. A king might may differ. the fruits to be expected from this need to have the love of justice to seek the aid of an informed loyal a restrainer would not appear to the umma. It public interest." Mu'awiyya. sion of the essential grouping together of humans. If these laws are imposed by the wis- Mu'awiyya [ibn Abi Sufyan. For this reason it is neces- liphate. Or he might possess complete knowledge but have and its basic characteristic is domination and force. to turmoil and fighting. the best safeguard for the king. and the minister to advise him in complicated matters of original state of neglect would remain unheeded. most important and most discriminating persons held the people's allowances. In the Islamic administration of the kingdom placed upon the min- umma. Al-Ghazzali nations. vig. he would not have masses will submit and let themselves be led to their praised God but would have been impelled to oppose authority as was the case with the Persians and other it and to rebuke the man who spoke. them that which is not within their power. they would disappear lated. This is tify with his sword my deviations. Come forward for your allowances.

saying. that such protection then in order to escape the consequences a minister were appointed and his conduct commend. of all are an aid in attaining the public interest. is treason. where would is able to do this. with the knowledge of if there is no Holy Law in operation to protect him the harm which would ensue." in the king's family. but as this facilitates the maintenance of the monarchy if he sees bad he divulges it. and it is not to be imagined that the king would or the minister is obliged to resign from government advance someone whom he knows would offer seri. especially ing this. He may be retinue in their aims and appetites. but not his honor and reputation. Or he could oppose them and order those realized only by his striving to advise on how to pro- functionaries under him to carry out what the inter. Fail- he be able to triumph over that opposition. This is manifestly a mistake. out of the dom. minister success in his efforts to administer the king- tation and responsibility would be clear. may God be pleased with him." and other such kingdom is set right even if the governor is a pris. who was mad. then he must withhold his he get this right and by means of what support would agreement to anything which would cause harm. or by delaying them beyond the ability and probity. As the could find acceptance even among the thinking man translator of [John] Stuart Mill [English thinker. homeland. These same three types can apply appropriate time in order to make manifest the de- to the chief minister as well. One of the supplications complete knowledge from achieving its good pur. who is both the judge and the plaintiff? Because of this second set of obstacles. and even to himself. of concurring in what would lead to the destruction able. so there would be no need for those quali. however. then the imperative nature of consul. sweetness of agreement with the appetites in a situa- because the matter of advancing a minister to execu. because the fied to loosen and bind. since the opinions protect me from an enemy who carefully watches me. showing in a permitted to endanger himself for the good of the coun- manner hardly to be hidden that his own interests try. king. service once and for all. tion out of which results destruction of the kingdom tive power or of removing him is in the hands of the will later be followed by the bitterness of remorse. for even if not for self- ous opposition to him. The extent of success will depend on his the way intended. when this entails opposing the man and bind. This is shown in the situation of . The obedience outweighed any concern about the harm done to the to the king and the love of country required of him are kingdom. Either he would agree with the king and his for the creator and censure of the creature. if he ests of the country require. then they fall back on the tactic of defaming him need for opposition in the second case and for assis. In this way the condition of the of you. of the kingdom. You are king only in name. then his situation would turn upon two possi. before the king. If not. If kings are more nearly like the If God frustrates their hopes by granting such a last two types. who has not been forewarned. Rather it would help him. especially in eastern 1806-1873] has said. fects and increase the errors. It is clear that the obli. was. Assuming.46 Khayr al-Din executive ability. the aforementioned min- It might occur to some weak minds that to entrust ister is obliged either to choose the first situation of with responsibility a minister endowed with good conformity and adopt the ways of dissimulation with reputation would repair the disadvantages of the last the disastrous consequences resulting in harm to the two types. which oner of his appetites or is weak in judgment." This was only tration of the kingdom within the framework of the through the participation of those qualified to loosen public interest. "He is acting independently tance in the third. of 'Ali. "God pose. which would necessitate punishment bilities. mote the public interest and ward off corruption. just If he sees something good in me he conceals it. to whom the ministers were responsible. from the factiousness of his enviers. the king. or by hiding his good gation of consultation and ministerial responsibility qualities and making public his bad qualities in order in the case of the first type would not impede the to turn hearts against him. stories of the type spread by the unrighteous. then his agreement. whose fondest It is clear from this that kingdoms administered hopes would be to do him harm and in every way without regular and well-observed laws under the available to them to stop his beneficial activities supervision of those qualified to loosen and bind will which tend to diminish their personal profit? They be limited in their best and their worst to the person might do this by carrying out his orders other than of the king. "The English nation reached countries. In that case. How then in such a situation would it be its highest peak during the reign of George III possible for the minister to carry out the adminis- [reigned 1760-1820].

because a group of opinions is more likely to the unity of command. The owner "and if you are equally divided then decide in favor of a large garden. for this is less extensive dent judgment. THE SUREST PATH 47 the European kingdoms in past centuries. knowing from the basic prin- whatever might create corruption. ner is permissible and is not deemed a diminution of such as carrying out political and commercial rela- his general executive authority. ther the general scope or the basic prerogatives of the 'Appoint for me a helper [wazir] from among my imamate. for example. The authority of this type of vizierate than consultation in all executive acts. died circa 652]. would strengthen the roots and increase the fruit. "If you divide two taken publicly not secretly. For this reason when 'Umar found in the words of the imam Ibn al-'Arabi. then decide in favor of the four"— justly not appropriated exclusively. they all recognize the soundness of Sa'd's state- the imam chooses a vizier to whom he delegates au. It should not be the multiplicity of persons in no way contradicts the said that the participation of those qualified to loosen unity of the imamate. but all forms of consultation roots of imperfection growing out of the two types with a single imam are authorized. before the imamate is the appointment of two independent establishment of laws. have approved his statement. Commentators on Sa'd. and in accor- Sayyid al-Sanad [reference unclear] adds the com. just as he has exclusive authority other execu- the delegated vizierate in the aforementioned man. As he has stated ciples of cultivation that pruning at that time would in the course of an exposition. execution of all judgments. al-Maula Sa'd al-Din and what causes them to prosper or wither." ing exclusive charge of implementation and direc- Therefore. which is linked to the unity of and bind with the princes in all aspects of policy commanding and forbidding. for God all High has related the type of consultation there is no restriction upon ei- speech of His prophet Moses. the sums should be spent against four." the assistance of helpers knowledgeable about trees On the other hand. In the former is not restricted. would be a restriction of the imam's jurisdiction or such as 'Isam al-Din [probably al-Isfara'ini. It is thus clear how even more explicitly ac- thority to administer affairs as he sees fit and to ceptable is consultation in general policy matters in implement them in accordance with his own indepen. as he is the one hav- missible for the imamate. then his sharing of tions with foreigners. "This also is to be agreed to. my brother Aaron. He restricts his disallowing of multiplicity to his helpers disagreed. if this is should also be noted that the imam is the one who permissible for the prophethood. let us try since their opinion was more likely to be correct— to understand this by means of a parable. Additional evidence is to be attain the correct answer. such executive actions which are the very bases of sible. for the view of those qualified to loosen and people. made said on the subject of special taxes taken from the succession to the caliphate a matter of consultation people when the treasury is empty. would promulgate any decision. for during that time they had imams with obedience owed to each of them sepa- ministers famous to this day for their complete rately. not arbitrarily. upon him be peace. dance with the views of the public. firmed it in saying. "The unauthorized kill the tree at the roots. if the imam's sharing his power with tion. the sense referred to here. died 1657]. and other bind—in all aspects of policy is even more permis. be dispelled by reading Qawanin al-wizara [Ordi. "they should be among six persons. [Ahmad ibn Musa] al-Khayali [died circa 1457] con- Mawardi [Iraq. for this could create an obligation to obey knowledge and valor. might happen that the owner of the garden wanted planation of "The Creed"] does not even disallow to cut some of the branches of his trees. 1332-1389] in the Shark al-'Aqa'id [Ex. As an additional element of clarification. he said. He has said in ex. ment. by ['All ibn Muhammad] al. Increase my strength with bind would be tantamount to that of the imam. appointing and dismissing power with a group—those qualified to loosen and administrators." This is because of royal tyranny referred to above. tive activities not requiring the association of others. died of his executive powers. circa 974-1058].' So." In plaining the delegated vizierate: "This occurs when sum. in the management of the party which includes 'Abd al-Rahman ibn and care of his trees would not be able to do without 'Awf [a companion of the Prophet. it is even more per. Now it [Taftazani. who ibn al-Khattab. Yet they were unable to cut the conflicting ordinances. may God be pleased with him. and nances of Government]. This is an illusion which can circa 1544] and 'Abd al-Hakim [possibly Siyalkuti. to ." mentary that his preference was for the majority. but ate. It him and cause him to share my task. In such circumstances. believing that the sharing of the executive authority of the imam.

law to others of the race. Whoever gives due attention to the matter Since the granting of liberty in this sense to all the of necessity. Each is equal before the the garden. this responsibility becomes a strictly pre- dom. the blame would fall one's self and property. subjects does not extend beyond the limits of the The second sense of liberty is political liberty. duly the earth is for the sons of Adam? It is true that the determined before the courts. of the reprehensible in our shari'a is in the category plied that the king by his very nature and intelligence of those responsibilities which can be delegated. may God be pleased Papal State and the Muscovite state. and result in confusion. participation is needed?" He replied. loosen and bind. In a con. "are you so sparing in granting him sibility. may God be pleased limits of permissible action is. opment of knowledge and civilization in the Euro- ers might attempt to stop the owner in what he wanted pean kingdoms. but bind both the rulers and the subjects. eral Deputies. indicates that liberty is the basis of the great devel- plete executive authority in his garden. order to avert any possible ambiguity. Can it be argued that this was a restric. for you concede that given his qualities no such scribed obligation upon them. public interest. referred to in saying. said—like that of the orphan's guardian. This might oblige him to accept their advice the individual's complete freedom of action over in these two cases. despotisms. and he would deserve to be deprived of person." argument. Thus. This is because the avoidance knowledge of political fundamentals. we believe it imperative to demon- to do because of the Holy Law. for these two are with him. They would not be prosecuted for any- the production of the world and the exploitation of thing not provided for in the laws of the land. they would indicate to him that such action would The expression "liberty" is used by Europeans in displease the Creator of the trees. In such circumstances. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. We would call them those qualified to versation I had with a European notable. Although these two possess established one should not think that such action is a restriction laws. of the umma. scribed. there can be no prohibition on the meaning any deviation in his conduct or governance type of consultation which has already been de. Furthering the interests of the umma which is the demand of the subjects to participate in and managing its policies are matters which do not the politics of the kingdom and to discuss the best come easily to everyone. in owner should wish to sell the fruit before it was ripe. "Whoever among you a means of liberation from the unsoundness of that sees any crookedness. but if not. as Shaykh Ibn al-'Arabi has done (for people is most likely to cause a divergence of views he is our source in all that we have previously stated). "Then some members of the community assume the respon- why. This is similar to what the second obstruct his will when he does something beyond the caliph. the laws yield from the garden belongs to its owner." This is owner. It is well known that the imam's umma. For example. In general. when he re. honor. with him." I asked. The chamber has the right to discuss in the pres- . to course of action. then the obligation is removed from the rest freedom of action in government. this is not enough to protect the rights of the upon the owner. to someone else. Or the help. "Who will guar. so that no individuals need tion on the owner of the garden. When such a group is so desig- wish to participate with him in the affairs of the king.48 Khayr al-Din obstruct the owner's wish could not be considered a Since what we have been presenting on this subject restriction on the scope of his supervision or his com. then let him set it straight. when giving him his fear encroachment upon their person nor any of their way would have been contrary to divine wisdom that other rights. If was incapable of acting in the wrong manner. for the influence of those laws depends on the freedom of action concerning the condition of his will of the king. I was prais. or even sense exists in all the European countries except the if his position was—as 'Umar. nated. who is the true two senses. One is called "personal liberty. The Chamber of Deputies is to be found in all antee to us that he and his descendants after him shall European kingdoms except the Papal State and Rus- remain upright?" sia. even though this [latter] group is not ing at length their king and mentioning his great elected by the people. and the protection of one's upon him. as we have explained. and why do you of the community. the people instead elect from would not hesitate to assert that this is necessary among those possessing knowledge and virtue a especially in these times characterized by a dearth of group called by the Europeans the Chamber of Gen- knowledge and an abundance of tyranny. Liberty in this whether it belongs to him. and wealth. if the strate the meaning of liberty in actual practice.

As liberty and the constitution. which causes the of state policy seem to be beneficial or the contrary. actually hides an ulterior motive. ganization of society. whereas their the ruler and the subjects share the same aim regard. then with the various branches of knowledge and all kinds comfort and wealth will disappear. people cannot be prevented from writing what hampered in certain aspects of their work. Their peoples have reaped its benefits by to abstain from granting complete liberty. and to draw it toward a policy tention given to technical training. Some subjects resist their kings only in order improvements in communications by means of rail- to have the right of opposing the state if it turns aside roads. which can be reduced to four basic high prices will overwhelm its peoples. reason for the struggle is to exacerbate factionalism With these societies the circulation of capital is and fanaticism. Some believe the cause it to increase. and wealth parties. even if only personal liberty. We have seen that the opposition of the various parties. Then it becomes impos- working to bring about its possible consequences and sible for them to put it into circulation. What does seems to them to be in the public interest. products can be imported from distant is easy for kings to grant complete liberty. THE SUREST PATH 49 ence of the ministers and other statesmen which lines foundation of material well-being. If people liberty. must feel secure against thing else which is called freedom of the press. have gathered from the lofty tree of liberty are the jects. There are those who have obtained uncultivated and neglected. if liberty is lost in the kingdom. for these governments have refused their vasive that it leads to annihilation. commerce. This leads directing their efforts to the interests of the world in to the consequences already mentioned. This is because the conditions Among the most important things the Europeans of kingdoms vary according to the aims of their sub. growth of human ambition. . synonymous with politi- a result of this belief. they have planted? Who then will venture to sow it? even if this includes opposition to the state's policy. as both logic and and intellectual activity. and the at- from the straight path. profits increase accordingly. and are a complement to and other such matters affecting the public interest. In addition to this there remains to the public some. physical work. have spoiled en route or the freight costs would have There are those subjects who suppose that the been several times the value of the goods. that the hostile action against property cuts off hopes. which they live. liberty. the rulers have granted the and with the severance of hope comes the severance people the second liberty subject to important con. support for commercial societies. until finally destitution becomes so per- ditions. so that the subjects are divided into expanded. solute liberty. with each seeking the policy which it believes is put into the hands of the most proficient who can most beneficial for the kingdom. in books or it profit a people to have fertile lands with bountiful newspapers which can be read by the public. In such circumstances it railroads. lose the assurance that their property will be protected. you find the most fertile fields European states. In others. This causes the dynasty to believe that the ranks of those without capital. One of the benefits of liberty is com- One of the duties in kingdoms that have granted plete control over the conduct of commerce. By means of the of benefit to the kingdom. These four categories are the experience reveal. and poverty and of industries. state should be a republic. some kings deem it permissible cal tanzimat. Their percep- categories: agriculture. even if it appears countries which have progressed to the highest ranks to be confined to returning the state to the paths of of prosperity are those having established the roots of public interest. Or they crops if the sowers cannot realize the harvest of what can present their views to the state or the chambers. is that its sub. importation was formerly impossible. thus achieving ab. tiveness and zeal will be weakened. They can do this by concerning themselves In general. for example. subjects rights which it would be easy to bestow upon subjects of other states. Some would choose the Through technical training wealth gains the nec- monarch from a different family than the one favored essary means of productive activity from among the by others. that being despoiled of any of the fruits of their labor or is. benefits. They would ing the public interest. Because of the faint hope of the people in many lands In this matter there are differences among the of Asia and Africa. jects should repay having received this blessing by they are compelled to hide it. There can be no doubt this second liberty with the first. Artisans. of activities. because lands quickly enough to be useful. which is based on justice and the sound or- as will be seen.

the religious endowment administration. pp. he served as a judge and then as Egypt's leading religious official. D. Adams. 'Abduh was exiled to Beirut for his association with the 'Urabi revolt. "Ikhtilaf al-qawanin bi-ikhtilaf ahwal al-umam" (Laws Should Change in Accordance with the Con. he received a traditional Islamic education in his hometown. ed. Returning to Egypt. Through a return to the fundamental sources of Islam. translated from Ara. 309-315 in al-A'mal al-kamila (The Study of the Modern Reform Movement Inaugurated by Complete Works). desired. 1849-1905) was. and the court system. 1972). enabling Muslims to address the requirements of modernity. 302-369. 'Abduh became closely associated with him and his reformist ideas. and labored to introduce reforms in al-Azhar. he joined Afghani in Paris. If this Muhammad 'Abduh. Malcolm H. 3 Muhammad 'Abduh Laws Should Change in Accordance with the Conditions of Nations and The Theology of Unity Muhammad 'Abduh (Egypt. In 1884. God the Sublime. which agitated against imperialism and called for Islamic reform and unity. Humanity is thus involved in activities are among those things that depend on the capacity for rational inquiry. 1953). 1966). Now. the ability the other. Islam and Modernism in Egypt: A ditions of Nations). the Arabic language. indeed. to envision results and knowledge of the methods dent on the perfection of the second. 1. Certainly. where he taught for several years before being pardoned by the Egyptian ruler. then continued his education at the celebrated al-Azhar semi- nary.C. 29-40. The Osman Amin. where they produced the famed journal al-'Urwa al-wuthqa (The Strongest Link}. Lebanon: Muhammad 'Abduh (London: Oxford University Press. Zu'ama' al-islah fi al-'asr a/- Arabic by Devin Stewart. The first piece presented here makes a case for legal reform. Abduh's influ- ence extended beyond Egypt. for he under- The First Creator. pp. Muhammad 'Imara (Beirut. bic by Ishaq Masa'ad and Kenneth Cragg (London: Allen & Islamic Reform: The Political and Legal Theories of Muhammad Unwin. First published in 1881 and 1897. so that through them we might attain the perfec. the most prominent figure of modernist Islam. Born to a peasant family of modest means in the Egyptian Delta. can Council for Learned Societies. and the education of girls. Introduction by Emad Eldin Shahin. Egypt: Maktabat al-Nahda al-Masriyya. Abduh returned to Beirut. reprinted by permission 'Abduh and Rashid Rida (Berkeley: University of California of HarperCollins Publishers.: Ameri- Theology of Unity (Risalat al-tawhid). Muhammad 'Abduh (Washington. 50 . along with his mentor Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (see chapter I I). hadith (The Leaders of Reform in the Modern Era) (Cairo. 151-154. God also bound one of them to plished in a particular fashion. entrusted to takes no task unless the results thereof induce him humanity two powers. in order to do so. making the perfection of the first depen. Abduh hoped to liberate the Muslim mind from traditional patterns of stagna- tion. Charles C. 1933). 1979). not every activity produces the results cal. 'Abduh devised programs for the reform of the educational system. Ahmed Amin. to do so. inspiring reformists throughout the Islamic world. and Egypt's Legislative Council member. al-Azhar administrative board member. respectively. During Afghani's sojourn in Egypt (1871-1879). the second piece highlights the role of reason in understanding religion and the shari'a. Mu'assasat al-'Arabiyya li al-Dirasat wa al-Nashr. 1966). it must be accom- tion intended for us. Kerr. pp. Translation of first piece from Press. one practical and one theoreti.' Laws Should Change in Accordance with innately disposed to seek out a theoretical under- the Conditions of Nations standing and to discover the true state of matters before he begins any practical work. In 1882.

then. tradict the customs and traditional values that its natu. When people properly recognize need. They are restricted by it. they will not stumble along their path and confuse It has been the custom of legislators in every age. and the two are related incomprehensible. is accom. lasting dejection and perennial rancor in the hearts norance of what these laws were intended to accom. leniency that customs and traditional habits require. or hard. to apply the law of ment." the occurrence of such a path toward good sense will be obscured. noble. beginning with not to be blamed for discarding such laws. and whose senses are quick to be affected. ing laws. of his folk and clan. They will pervert the application of these laws. and de- that which produces benefits most quickly. or devoid of discernible purpose. Need is the guiding master. their such-and-such a crime. teacher. arranged in a known manner. or the lack For example. hu- change them. Otherwise. first and in particu. whose spirits are examination and a more elevated plane of thought. and essary. If imprisonment. It might is a cure for others will become a disease for them. the laws of each nation correspond to these laws. troubles his tempera- one group of people to another group who differ from ment and severely pains his spirit. It is more appropri- Human knowledge is in effect a collection of rules ate for them to learn first what the need is. and the road thing to one of them would be a very great check to understanding will be closed before them. to take into account the level of hardship and suffering at the hands of misfortune. they do not deviate from the harshness or tion and its level of thought. At no time does it con. people who were not in- guish results according to their relative benefits. collective stores of information. all humans are bent on rounding strive to fulfill it. Laws vary in accordance proper dose of medicine. and the outcome of intellectual dened with severe laws. they For this reason. so that the people will not find them unclear. by which people organize the might be equal with others in their level of knowledge methods of work that lead to those benefits. then work turns out in plish. someone should say "So-and-so was imprisoned for order among the second group will be disturbed. so that they about useful benefits. The consider the correct to be invalid and the right to be sentencing of this criminal. what motivated them. have described did something that required punish- It is not permissible. and the first the outcome is more complete. This cause his death soon thereafter. with nations' varying levels of knowledge. would be a clear injustice. an impossibly difficult obligation. They should not be bur- theoretical inquiry. and what made them nec- the best fashion. and put others in their place. or produce long- is because of short-sightedness on their part and ig. the beneficial with the harmful. due to their certainty that the . in terms of cause and effect. go against its dictates and prescriptions. for him. the results of that suit their conditions. for they will be harmed by investigation. and if the spirits of his the law will not suit their state of thinking and will not clan and the inhabitants of his town cannot bear that match their customs and traditional habits. manding that they abide by such laws would impose plished most easily. They are task. such as banishment. each nation adopts rules [Legislators have also customarily] paid full atten- for its activities and chooses laws for its circumstances tion to customs and traditional habits. A little reprimand suffices and the threat of a light ral disposition has established. intelligence of those for whom laws are to be insti- Since the conditions of nations depend on their tuted. the benefit that results is greater. like someone who takes more than the its level in understanding. They also do so in order to distin. They will against perpetrating the crime he committed. so duced by need to institute such laws do not consider that they might put each result opposite a particular them among life's fundamental necessities. suppose that one of these people we thereof. However. of circumstances. so that and united with them in the consequences thereof. In establish- in accordance with its power of theoretical investiga. and is set forth most reliably. and do not out their theoretical knowledge. exile. If the institu- lar so that through it they might be guided to the tion of laws within a nation is motivated by its need proper methods for the work they perform in order for them. therefore. because pride and delicate sensibility. to a more severe wrong. it will not contravene them simply because to lead a full life. punishment. thus encountering in instituting laws. so that what miliating labor. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 51 capacity is fully developed. Because laws are the basis of activities organized Such people should have prescribed for them laws properly to produce manifest benefits. because of his and surpass the first in level of understanding. unless fortune provides punishment restrains many a group of people whose it the chance to ascend to a higher level of rational temperaments are readily compliant.

1879-1892]. in order. for example. adopted a unified plan for the farming of their lands ness and the shunning of delicacy. and defaulting guilty party from among such a group to imprison. instituting harsh laws for violators. we law. and not a punishment. through farming and seeking better ways to accumu. the prisons filled up with those left be. The hand of divine Providence brought to dens thrown on the shoulders of the people. and new law should not be the sort of general rules whose the market for whips became brisk. harms individual of abuse. The purpose of control over them for quite a long period. When appropriate for present conditions. until the populace's spirits became attached to them. for ignorance was changed so as not to debase a person's honor. The country regularly withered and themselves from serving as a pretext for those who . fearing that they could not survive This recompense would have been a reward for them. If laws do which the matter of their tax payments would be put not serve this purpose. Their insides are and were no longer overly concerned with govern- filled with vileness and baseness. They Many a nation has raised its members on coarse. choosing laws that the time came for the government to demand the are not difficult to understand. Egypt's inhabitants were barbarians who did not ishment for falling behind in the payment of taxes know what was good for themselves. They avoided the owner's land. in actuality. someone who established for of corruption and increasing instances of injustice. had a tight hold on them in that era. but they instituting laws is to prevent that which disturbs or. other villages. With this new As an example of what we have just stated. So the laws that the pursuit of immoral aims by harsh laws based on se. lace. Either they would be destined to commit evil work. Egypt acts or else their spirits would be extinguished. The articles of the hind by the others who had fled their villages. remained settled in their properties. despite the availability of the that do not go against the inclinations of the popu- necessary means for it and the suitability of the soil. government had adopted to prevent farmers from vere punishments. Villagers left and settled in of writing their names in the landowners' register. through the government of Tawfiq [Egyptian we should see them as merely widening the sphere ruler. them a just law concerning this issue. The government was thus become the most severe punishment. them. It appeared that verdicts are meant to apply to various punishments everyone had either fled. a miserable end indeed. to the fires of rebellion variation. been imprisoned. in a fashion different from that followed in ear- Landowners did not know the value of the land they lier laws. Then various oppressive hands had successive harsher punishments to be trifling. It is a clear mistake to sentence a fleeing. This would flourished at particular times of the year. neglecting to work the land. Some time whip was removed from among its people. This will prevent the laws from beatings. consideration to the laws of our courts. in the long run. but now it has late wealth and fortune. then they are but empty bur. Such people are only deterred portance of agriculture. Indeed. taking it seriously and com- from perpetrating offenses or restrained from the peting in their crop yields.52 Muhammad 'Abduh ruling was wrong and the judge unjust. to make them including provisions for severe punishment. on the submission of taxes changed to a certain ex- ment. since his spirit considers even tent. The pun- ago. It continued in this sorry state for a long being lit and the heat of hatred flaming up among time. and the sound of the may cite the former state of our own land. suggest multiple interpretations. former and latter. and their spirits are ment taxes. their entered a new stage of development as a result of temperaments humiliated. compelled to force villagers to take possession of the The time has come for our government to turn its land and farm it. so that they inclinations. so that they could be relieved governors to grab them. Egypt entered a new era. then falling in arrears would have tarrying in town long enough for the hands of the been their dearest wish. and agriculture was made easy for them. They did not pay and public welfare was regulated according to laws attention to agriculture. whose texts do not royal taxes. and their pride utterly measures which made the methods of farming easier crushed. and got the populace to remain in their villages. or ached for many diverse crimes. because they had begun to learn the im- far from honorable. disrupts the structure of society. without only lead. and detracts from public welfare. They grew tired der. They continually wished that their properties between the two conditions and the change in the two would be transferred to someone else. If the punishment for would not be burdened with paying the taxes that the falling in arrears in earlier times had been seizure of government had imposed on them. This was a consequence of the difference owned. and their spirits longed for a just law by interests.

Changes in the form of gov- of legal cases and disputes. The disease of discord spreads rapidly populace and their level of comprehension. power is actually dependent on the capacities of its nocent of error or treachery." some are called had stood between them and the attainment of their "Decisions of the Privy Council. of the government of France." others "Proclama. regulating guide. The laws should suit the conditions of the taking. as they had imagined. absolute monarchy to a restricted monarchy. given an abundance capacity of those ruled. as a law by which the people should abide? Even if Since the identification of the proper means and they were informed of the law. the former does not take a single step un- of the law do not provide a clear ruling and their texts less induced to do so by the latter. customs and traditional habits in order to establish terpretations contrary to their evident meaning. it would remain incon. and written in an unclear style—are not precise in their level of thought. [We urge this] while recognizing the erwise. and the gates of these impositions must be in accordance with the corruption are flung wide open. and their new awareness of and well organized. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 53 harbor immoral designs to play with people's rights ments. did not occur by the will of those in The laws that have been in common use in our land authority alone. The governing conjectures. While they set out to make leg- tions and conditions. the Moreover. expenses in. they are not safe from the machi- should facilitate the determination of legal rulings and nations of special interests. from an be set forth in logical categories. while the actual articles subjects. those of us who have legitimate claims conditions of nations are themselves the true legis- are not beyond entertaining invalid suspicions and lator. It is therefore necessary that the articles the citizenry's legitimate claims." and so on ad infini. and these are tan- of the law be written explicitly. before them. True. we do not are not transparent. less desirable state. the increase eral." some "The Royal Decree is. obstinacy pursues them relentlessly. they were able to overcome all the outside forces that rectives of the Ministry of Justice. The shift straightforward manner. desires. the wise. The government welfare of the people is obstructed. How could this scattered mess reasonably serve their goal or attained their desire. indicate rulings in a tamount to the condition of the populace. learn and acquire them in their essential forms. then to guistic constructions. Moreover. laws in a just and beneficial manner. the depends on the governing power. for example. They fail to ar- . ligence and discernment." some are called "Di. imposes these things on its subjects willy-nilly. measures presents a difficult puzzle for human intel- ceivable to them. and use simple lin. otherwise. By learning what their true obligations were. as is the case in our land ernment and the replacement of its laws depend on at present. nor are they known by the people. each one according to his own situation. factors were the conditions of the people. they will be nothing but ink on paper. Rather." This free and open to all. the need to ascend to a state higher than their present Certain laws are known as "The Imperial Law. and should refer us back neither islation and participation in the establishment of laws to the "Proclamations" nor to the "Regulations. they only arrived at this noble tions of Legal Rulings. fact that those who exercise control over the law do Scholars and political leaders of both ancient and not have the status of legislators able to derive the modern times have long recognized that legislators rulings which apply to the actual situations at hand and institutors of laws must always take into account from general rules or from texts which support in. Indeed. because it is foreign to their condi. it is extremely difficult to tions and beyond their capacity to understand." some one. they could not have reached tum. but crease. nor do they possess the make them conform with the exigencies of the present means necessary to prepare them for such an under- situation. The laws must fulfill all of the necessary restric. Oth- as they wish. too gen. We might suspect someone who is in. resentments grow strong. goal after breaking through the obstacles that stood sued on such-and-such a date. but the matter is not quickly and avoid wasting time in pointless discus. so they end up regressing to a sions. This leads to repeated appeals for deny that the preparation of means and measures judicial inquiry: The matter takes a long time. enabling through their collective body. and the disorder of them to understand the laws and abide by their require. which has deprived people of their rights themselves prepared to move to a higher level of civi- and jeopardized security. a free republic. It It is necessary to reform this obvious flaw in our often occurs that a certain group of people think legal system. apply to all possible cases. laws are named "Regulations. the strongest contributing up to now—in addition to being insufficient. It behooves us to do this lization and legal organization.

for us. This is en. and The doctrine of unity could equally well be called give decisive verdicts. guide individuals in their activities before Islam. untrodden by the previous Scriptures. so that their work may be trans. of which the first prerequisite is expression. associated with them. dogmatic theology and serve to regulate customary habits and preserve meri. to genuine education before all else in order to be able denote the distinction between the two. Qur'anic word was created or preexistent. Thus the whole revelation and to their successors. Another thing on before its time. when methods of proof in theology were comparable to they desire to establish a sound system to regulate those of logic in its procedures of argument within the nation's social life." In sum. though in his aim of the mission of the Prophet Muhammad. require our acceptance of its contents simply on the . So kalam. Theology consisted for the most part of intri- and the possible affirmations about Him. with their to attain this goal. settle on firm opinions. They rarely relied for their path of rectitude toward the best ultimate goal. and so lose the benefits of decisive action fact that the chief point of debate at issue between and squander their own welfare. as well as cate subtleties and credulous admiration of miracles. One reason for this lies in the argument. identical procedures but differing subject matter. the negations that are necessary to make relating to with free play to the imagination—a situation famil- Him. or is essential tirely evident from the verses of the mighty Qur'an. They are thus aptly the learned of the early centuries was whether the described by the proverb. they include in the gov. During the course of a nation's ascent or de. including their familiar sionally appealed to dogmatic tradition (naql) and practices and the customs on which they have been then only after establishing the first principles from raised. its laws are inseparable from these capacities. For in their rationality they only occa- its members have acquired. the essential works. however. was used as a term in preference to logic. Book gives us all that God permits us. and the nation may follow the in their custody of belief. The proof of the science of theology is named from the most impor. But it does not as will fully appear below. strive first to change the the speculative sciences. and all its studies the being and attributes of God. morals may become virtuous They had. scent. There were in every people custodians and their conduct. will be punished by being may lie in the fact that theology is built on rational deprived of it. was known among the nations torious aptitudes. little recourse to rational judgment and customs excellent. Unity was the great of the rhetoricians to reproduce. Oftentimes religion on the authority of its own The theology of unity (tawhid) is the science that leaders was the avowed enemy of reason. like branches of the same stem. This is what makes intelligent people. They spend ages in pointless scholastic theology. ernmental laws themselves chapters and sections that This branch of science. the form of civil rule for a demonstration as alleged by each theologian in his nation is nothing but a reflection of the capacities that spoken case.54 Muhammad 'Abduh rive at correct decisions. which they went on yet again to further deductions. position. appropriate qualities and of what is incompatibly The Qur' an came and took religion by a new road. the recipience of the revelation he was simply a man. a road appro- The original meaning of tawhid is the belief that priate and feasible alike to the contemporaries of the God is one in inalienable divinity. gation. of religion concerned with its protection and propa- formed from a burden to a custom and natural dis. The blessing and peace of God be upon him. iar enough to those acquainted at all with the condi- ticity of their message and treats of their essential and tion of the world before the coming of Islam. It deals also with the apostles and the authen. It rested its unity of God in Himself and in the act of creation. prophetic interpretation. Indeed. belonging even to the From Him alone all being derives and in Him alone shortest chapter of it. case on a quality of eloquence. placing ology. quite beyond the competence every purpose comes to its term. namely the demonstration of the matter from that of earlier prophecies. Indeed there is an almost total con- trast between the intellectual cut and thrust of science The Theology of Unity and the forms of religious persuasion and assurance of heart. ideas and dogmas on the nature of existence or the laws of the universe. to know about His attributes. or scholastic the- people's capacities and traditional habits. In this way. The name may per- no matter how much its classes change or its affairs haps also be credited to the fact that these scholastic vary. "He who hastens some. prophethood of Muhammad was quite a different tant of its parts.

The Qur'an deals at allowed the faith to rule in their hearts. and the Muslim people from their right and proper there is nothing which reason finds impossible. ture. gress the proper bounds of religion. it offers arguments and evidence. it pro. had little leisure at that time for critical discussion Verse 30] Even in the realm of the moral it relies on of the basis of their beliefs. with the available men of insight. had to do with branches of law. by and continuity. his foes and ensuring the unity of the Muslims. all Muslims are of one mind in the conviction allusions. therefore so inas- and alerted the intelligence. 632-634 change their own disposition. which. there are several human Verse 9] And thus the way was open for man to trans- attributes. many consequent points relating to sulted in the death of the third caliph ['Uthman in the comprehension and evidence of prophetic mission. as the Qur'an says: "Such was The Prophet's day passed—he who was men's the way of God in days gone by and you will find it recourse in perplexity and their lamp in the darkness does not change. if neces- Verse 34] Thus for the first time in a revealed Scrip. lar mind was made to feel there could be free rein to terparts in man. . passages involving human comparisons. sound study would conduce to belief in God. So the case remained until the events which re- and. and ger had possessed many of the very exponents of pi- takes controversial issue with those who exaggerate ous religion. Qur'anically depicted.. Verse 23] And again: of doubt. This Qur'anic esteem for the rational judgment. with a far surer accent of transcendence than the the Reminder and We truly preserve it. As God said: "It is We who have sent down large." [Sura 15. such as the knowl. the recompense of approbation and punishment to the Among the actors in that crisis of disloyalty was arbitrament of God. as Even in relation of the narratives of the past. not go beyond what was indicated by the literal mean- sengers. It addressed itself together with the use of parables in the allegorical to the opposing schools and carried its attacks with or ambiguous passages in the revealed text. The caliph had rable. after consultation. and seeing. They did edge of God's existence. men understood the Book in its meaning and faith. passion in the thoughts of those who had not truly and like the face and the hands. It set out the order in the much as the appeal of this religion to reason in the universe. of His knowledge of the content of their in. It spoke to the rational mind great scope to alert intelligences. What few differences evidence: "Requite evil with good and your worst there were they took to the two caliphs. For it knew that every thus be sure of the validity of its claims and message." [Sura 13. sary. In been killed with no legal judgment and thus the popu- what is ascribed to God we find points that have coun. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 55 ground of its own statement of them." [Sura 30. Shi'ism]. with these." [Sura 41. liph gave his decision. and the ca- enemy will become your dearest friend. 656]—a tragedy which did irreparable damage to the So Muslims are of one mind that though there may be structure of the caliphate and brutally diverted Islam in religion that which transcends the understanding. So it had no need of either ceeded on the conviction that the created order fol. Nevertheless. such as power. gave spirited substantiation. lows invariable laws. These issues. in name or form. earlier religions. It affirms the reward of overborne the steadfast people and set in motion a train good deeds and the retribution of evil deeds and leaves of consequences they could only deplore. ing of the words. In this introduction there is no 'Abdullah Ibn Saba' [7th century. of His power to send mes. are made compa. Both worldlings and zealots together had on both sides of this theme. not point that no elucidation is required. with the principles of dogma. course. like taking one's seat upon a throne. spiration. the shape of religious man as God has made him. His two immediate successors in the caliph- "God does not change a people's case until they ate [Abu Bakr and 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. Men There is no altering the creation of God. excessive abstraction or over-rigorous definition. On the contrary. and study of created things was in no way limited or required a lively scrutiny of them that the mind might hedged about with conditions. They believed in the transcendence of God that there are many things in religion which can only and refrained from debate about the implications of be believed by the way of reason. "Lawless an- length with predestination and human free will. reason finds its brotherly place. the principles and certitudes within it. Verse 11] and 634-644] devoted their span of life to repelling ". So plain is the for the most part. of His will to give them particular messages. Under those two ca- Saving those who give place to neither reason nor liphs. reputed founder of need to expatiate further on similar topics. Only the Qur'an remained unimpaired in its The Qur'an describes the attributes of God. hearing." [Sura 48. a Jew who had embraced Islam and an . choice.

man truly has choice in the deeds which proceed cession of the Prophet]. For a in his volitional activity is like the branches of a tree long time they maintained their "excommunication" swaying necessarily. as explained above. which students came from every part. These two problems. Some of existing authorities. in pursuance of ciples. Egyptians and principles. ship. Evicted from there. died 748] and his [spiritual] master. among the Muslims. bian peninsula. were of the view that treme pietists]. The newcom- a lot of later heresies. People came into Islam in droves—Per. So they opposed the went so far as to declare their opponents infidels and school ofjabr. they gave due ity—in a spirit of contention against the first group. and moderates. quences in the field of dogma. the most famous of them being Hasan ing that God indwelt him. and various who exiled him. Rival schools of thought about the pented of. He proceeded to Egypt where he did find promise between the old and the Islamic. or so it is alleged. Men and fourth successor of the Prophet. The Shi'as carried their heresy to the 682-720] gave directions to [Muhammad ibn Mus- point of exalting 'Ali or some of his descendants to lim] al-Zuhri [died 741] to record the traditions he divine or near-divine status. questions were examined. Throughout the period of the of those who resisted them. Hasan al-Basri. al-Basri. Civil war ensued. when his school showed its head Every opinion-monger took his stand upon the lib- again. where he failed to find the support he ing notions. They fled into remoter parts but continued their get people back to first principles and bring them seditious activities. and thence to inwardly. the point of excessive pleading of the Qur'anic text. rule of the sons of Marwan [Umayyad caliph. will—man's independence in willing and doing and But the community had been sundered and its bonds choosing. People of all religious gated his seditious views. of sincere integrity took to the vocation of knowledge 661] (whose face God honor) to the point of assert. which some espoused even to necessity of defending the temporal power of Islam. taking his poison with him. however. ers asserted their right to an equal stake with the Events took their subsequent course. of reason and its competence to know all religious sians. though 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz [caliph. were not all. he was exiled to Mada'in. or determinism. and education. He went to Basra where he propa. free play. Syrians and their neighbors. no effort was made to regulate the issue or to weak. tempests of sedition came the tensions of doubt. In this task. great numbers were ready to busy themselves with Others limited the writ of reason to the first prin- the first principles of belief and law. issuing in The first theme of contention to arise was that of the hegemony of the Umayyads [reigned 661-750]. and schisms raised their heads those who had pledged allegiance to the fourth ca. and the sectarian Many of the first Muslim masters. until after much fight. of traditions and interpretation. His ideas spawned erty of thought the Qur'an enjoined. and others in their train. however. Others again—a minor- the Qur'an's guidance. died ing that cost many Muslim lives their cause grew 685]. Shi'a [supporters of hereditary suc. over its adversary. Freed from the pertaining to worship. and the question of the supreme sin unre- of unity broken. each striving by word and act to gain the better differed on this issue and the former broke away. This in turn gave rise to forgeries teaching according to his own independent lights. including Hasan excess brought sharp divisions into Khawarij [ex. place to the delivered tradition without neglecting the totally repudiated reason and thus went counter to the . He had a school in Basra to was the rightful caliph and rebelled against 'Uthman. even the ramifications of law and matters Africans. The Khawarij from his knowledge and will. reigned 656. Individual idiosyncrasy had the present in certain areas of Africa and of the Ara. and he was the first tradition-collector. In the time of 'Ali. he went persuasions had come into Islam without knowing it to Kufa. A remnant of them survives to to a common position. liph broke their fealty. seeking some kind of mediating com- wanted. did not halt the troversy developed also over the question whether propagation of Islam and did not deprive the areas the real attributes of God should be posited of the remote from the center of controversy of the light of divine essence or not. son-in-law proud role of reason or overlooking the intellect. with widespread conse. which held that man to demand a republican form of government. So after the collaborators with the dire consequences we know. had come by.56 Muhammad 'Abduh excessive admirer of' Ali [ibn Abi Talib. but carrying with them into it their exist- Damascus. Wasil ibn 'Ata' [founder of Mu'tazilism. Ibn Saba' claimed that 'Ali al-Basri [642-728]. There was also the question the Qur'an. caliphate developed and were propagated in partisan. Con- These developments.

the Imam al-Haramayn [the Imam of Mecca Prophet] either abstained from declaring themselves and Medina. a still partly reared edifice. It was in this way that the lines were drawn be- With the disciples of Wasil the paths diverged tween the thoroughgoing rationalists and the mod- further. They had the idea that it was were agreed that religious principles were a matter a work of piety to establish dogma by scientific cor. There ensued here and many maligned him. be. every plain deed some hidden mystery. of obligation for their followers. however. vicissitudes were prolonged. principle.M. His from a reluctance to give expression to what might school came to carry the name of "the people of the conduce to heresy. and views inimical to belief in God them. They persisted on this A further element in the picture was the sect of tack until their sects multiplied apace. who believed in hulul 'Abbasids [caliphs. reigned 754-775] ordered the issue of books Shaykh Abu'l-Hasan al-Ash'ari [873-925] early in exposing their errors and negating their claims. He theology took its point of departure from its perpetual based dogma on the principles of rational enquiry. they were an integral part of Islamic dogma. to the point that [Abu Ja'far] al-Mansur profiting from the other. then in the prime of [the incarnation of God in humans] and sought to power. The followers of [Ahmad] the dispute over the createdness or uncreatedness ibn Hanbal [780-855] called him an infidel and de- of the Qur'an. until the emergence of [caliph. In their han- viction. 1028- or took a stand for uncreatedness.]. both in respect of roboration. They were known to the Persians for the successful establishment of as the Batiniyya [esoterics] and the Isma'iliyya [a their power and the overthrow of the Umayyad state. however. Whereupon them on assuming the externals of Islam. though lacking the support of the rulers. Their schools of thought had a brought them into high positions among their min. dling of the Qur'an they were as far from the import The early 'Abbasids knew the extent of their debt of the text as error is from truth. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 57 Qur'an itself. namely the study of the created order. The rule of the the Dahriyyun [materialists]. disastrous influence on the faith and undermined isters and retainers. It was recognized that the in- what was merely a figment of the imagination. sustained by the power of con. Opinions on the caliphs and the caliph. there were consid- by attitude and utterance induced those to whom their erable areas of contention between them and the views were congenial to accept their direction. the fourth century [A. At this juncture the science of theology was still a as is well known. gnostic Shi'i sect]. Several of the 'Abbasid caliphs adopted manded his death. sunna and consensus. and much blood was effectively overcome by these esteemed thinkers— . within The disciples of pristine loyalties doubted his views the terms laid down by the Qur'an. the community ate marched with those on matters of doctrine. He plotted a middle course. each group became rife. including Manichee sectaries and Yazidis. This did not prevent ism emerged. They began to disseminate their opinions and bating of these atheist sectarians. and should be tween what went back to rational first principles and stringently followed. the dogma of the Qur'an's being created. from mutual borrowing. between the early "orthodox" and young plant. acts of worship and mutual dealings. 750-1258]. and other Despite the identity of purpose shared by the or- Persian persuasions. as well as utterly irreligious thodox and those at issue with them. Technical the subsequent tendencies towards extremes. The reticence arose 1085]. criminally shed. helped them and their views prevailed. Many of them thus came into conviction. came to his support. valid rational applicability. as well as by other names current They relied strongly on Persian collaboration and among historians. Abu'l-Ma'ali al-Juwayni. They the adherents of the schools of the early masters took strayed far in their exegesis and pretended to find in up their challenge. as if did violence to faith. as to the com- people. All ideas from the Greeks." Two powerful forces were ation to men of reason and piety. and [Abu Ishaq] al-Isfira'ini [died 1027]. Their foist upon the Qur'an the notions they brought with learned scholars began to write books. familiar. The dispute brought much humili. Their deviations and deeds are only too authority without any part or lot in Islam religiously. while a however. without discriminating. In the name of faith. So ner attitudes of heart and the spiritual life constituted they mingled with the tenets of religion what had no a binding obligation to which the soul must be set. A number of eminent 'ulama'. among them Abu Bakr considerable number of those who held to the plain [Muhammad ibn al-Tayyib] al-Baqillani [circa 948- sense of the Qur'an and the sunna [the practice of the 1013]. Athe. For they had recourse to drawing congenial erate or extreme upholders of the text of the law. that is.

C. they gained ground. the to-be-proven was of substance and accident.] and Aristotle [384-322 B. ing espoused the high role of reason and confirmed As a consequence. Two centuries or so later these types sur. porary trend of will. As for the schools of ['Abdullah] al-Baydawi [Shafi'i scholar.]. Ash'ari scholar. better of them. Verse 29] which exempts neither the seen nor the limited to mere wrangles about words and scrutiny unseen. theories of matter and nonexistent also. according to whom one Ordinary people turned from them and the special- or even several proofs could be shown to be false. died circa philosophy. For they got themselves into controver- periphery of the Islamic world. the pursuit of crafts and the strengthening of the obscurantists who got the upper hand. a traditionalism than a rationalism. ized by feebleness and mediocrity. in which it was terests. time yet leave open the possibility of the object whose exis. They evicted intellect from its rightful place and dealt phers were subject to two influences that got the arbitrarily with the false and the valid in thinking. In due course. worth and Ideas which had never had any place in science found loss. Nevertheless. 1286]. of methods—and that in a very few books character- bar them or to impede their findings. Later exponents of this criti- and [Fakhr al-Din] al-Razi [1149-1209] and those cism became so extreme as to forfeit their following. who adopted their position. a complete intellectual confu- its competence as the ultimate means to happiness and sion beset the Muslims under their ignorant rulers. destroy- the social order through the disclosure of the secrets ing the remaining traces of the rational temper which hidden in the universe—all in accordance with the had its source in the Islamic faith. became concentrated in a single pursuit. the assump- ity in elucidating the unknown and fathoming the in. There was. insurrections aimed at the civil power. tions and debates of which approximated more to telligible. died and the only concern of philosophic rationalists was 1355]. al-'Adud [al-Din al-Iji. insisting theology and related themes. the whole gamut of rationality of [Abu Hamid Muhammad] al-Ghazzali [1058-1 111] in relation to religion. it should be of religion. sies obtaining among speculative thinkers in the field The disciples of al-Ash'ari's school. Had not the Prophet observed: "You are most sponsors. religious believers who afforded them full liberty of Then there supervened the various successive action to enjoy and give rein to their intellectual in. and students of the writ- mind: "He created for you all that is in the earth. inasmuch as they were sheltered by the mass of progress of knowledge was arrested. They were well able to achieve their objec. notably Plato other nations who alleged an enmity between knowl- [circa 427-347 B. aided too by the remote- on intelligent discernment and the proof of experience. That outlook continued until the rise physics. whereby the tives. they All this explains why matters of theology mingle held. they drew their ideas from pure reason. Though there were relatively few of them. indeed. and. it is clear that most of the philoso. and this had the more mischie- vived only as insignificant pockets of opinion in the vous effects. remembered. authority. there was the prevailing contem- travagant. expected from their activities. They betook them- divine mandate for such exploration by thought and selves to devious by-paths. and others. and why various rational sciences to gain knowledge. required the believer as a so came under attack. who brought sharp criticism to bear upon the tional premises and deductions in the same assurance entire content of philosophical lore in the fields of with which he accepted the dogmas of faith. Fostered by the general educational pov- battle of Badr [in 624] an example of behavior based erty. no justification for making the argument from with philosophy in the writings of later authors like the negative instance absolute. having based their doctrine rationally on they clashed with the beliefs predominantly held. They took up highly misleading po- . The first was an admiration for all that They went so far as to espouse the view of some in derived from the Greek philosophers. including the principles that where proof was wanting." [Sura ings of the previous generations found themselves 2. Second. precluded the results the Muslim world might have tence it was intended to demonstrate being substanti. ness of men from the pristine sources of the faith.58 Muhammad 'Abduh the temper that leans wholly on the literal and the and with it a too precipitate inclination to accept their instinct that runs off into the imaginary and the ex. edge and faith." and given at the tolerated. and ists became indifferent to them. school. ated from more adequate evidence. to satisfy their intellectual curios. Then came al-Ghazzali and his matter of obligation to hold the certainty of these ra. and the laws of the universe. the criterion between truth and falsehood. the Qur'an hav. who asserted things Islam had never before cognizant of the world and its ways. Not a single intelligent Muslim sought to de.C.

how is it that it has bound them with their beliefs and their own disappearance as a com. and fulfilment of pledges as being its very pillars. earth. that is. does it come about that deception. and ing. indicating how it was founded on the Qur'an nal mind. that God is pleased with ignorance and a neglect of Whatever is other than these must be understood as study of His marvelous handiwork? contentious and inspired by Satan or political pas. munity has been sundered into sectarian movements things allowed and things forbidden. and liefs and principles from this prolonged disaster with apart from God are helpless either way. how is it that Muslims are content gion is a religion of unity throughout. verse peoples into one common unity. to powerless things that can neither avail nor harm. If Islam granted to reason and will the honor of tion and were finally involved in an utter collapse of independence. point of thinking such practice part of tawhid itself? The foregoing is a summary of the history of the. What are all these accretions to their religion. while their ideas and language sadly mis. relying therein upon proof and not tak. to acknowl. The Qur'an has cognizance of every man's have become in these days a people who nose around deed and judges the true and the false. through all its secrets. It forbids us to be slavishly credulous. theology. such chains? If it has established the principles of munity. how 159] how does it come about that the Islamic com. why do multitudes of Muslims turn their faces sequences befalling the masses of men in their be. honesty. enjoining rational procedure and intellec. falsehood." [Sura 6. Well is it said that traditionalism can have justice. religion only know it very approximately? ply followed their fathers with complacent satisfac. to know God most high in His at. and may occasion models of tyranny? If religion eagerly anticipates the loss as well as conduce to gain. supposing thereby reason. liberation of slaves. believe that the Islamic reli. and even the majority of the educated men of for our stimulus points the moral of peoples who sim. If Islam was the first religion to address the ratio- ology. perfidy. as far as may be. It is a deceptive thing. why are the greater part of its rulers such evil consequences as well as good. their conjectures. It is. . [. is it somehow beyond the reach of those who would tual enquiry into the manifestations of the universe. grasp it? and. abandon and forsake? confidence. . is it that Muslims practice deception against God. tenance of faith. why have Muslims spent centu- and though it may be pardoned in an animal. and even and broken up into groups and schools? the issues of Islam and the very denial of God. and if the and calumny are so current among Muslims? Qur'an says "You have nothing to do with those who If Islam forbids fraud and treachery and warns divide over religion and make parties. so as to If Islam welcomes and invites enquiry into its come by certainty in respect of the things to which it contents. tributes that are necessarily to be predicated of Him when all the time Muslims have the very Book of God and to know His exaltation above all improper and as a balance in which to weigh and discriminate all impossible attribution. and yet its very injunctions they edge His messengers with full assurance and heart. Their If Islam is a faith that unifies. There can be no doubt that the con. giving it free rein to range at will goal and quality. it is ries enslaving the free? scarcely seemly in man. summoning it to look into the whole ma- and how at length partisanship sadly distorted its true terial universe. in trust toward Him who created the heavens and the represented God. why today in the opinion of so many directs us. why this numerous fantasies fell very far short of the real meaning of diversity among Muslims? If Islam turns the believer religion. however. LAWS SHOULD CHANGE AND THE THEOLOGY OF UNITY 59 sitions on questions of both morals and doctrine. for it in vain? They who were once exemplary in The purpose of this discipline. So the Qur'an hearts of men. with Him. is the energy and action are now the very picture of sloth realization of an obligation about which there is no and idleness? dispute. into its particulars. How does it happen that the very apostles of love sions. Verse imposters that they have neither part not lot in it. why is the Qur'an not read except by chant- guides. even to the its widespread confusion were grievous and heavy. while divine revelation is its surest pillar. the . It is not a reli. saving only therein the main- We must. how It is said by some that if Islam truly came to call di. ] If Islam regards loyalty to covenants. If Islam really is so solicitous for the mind and ing things merely upon tradition. namely. with so little and many indeed have closed and barred gion of conflicting principles but is built squarely on the door of knowledge altogether.

Can we not. ered. and fellow believers in both supposition. if "man is the God. As a medicine for human society its Does this seem intelligible? Is there any parallel in success when truly tried is so manifest that not even the annals of men? Doesit not appear that the very the blind and the deaf can deny or gainsay it. if tion. His Apostle. call immediate and general relationships. while what is it we see among them. and daughters prove refractory toward their mothers? To admit the validity of what I have said of its fine Where are the bowels of mercy. and if this the whole story? Parallels could be found in the de- which they quite fail to fulfill is in fact their most scriptions of Islam in their day given by al-Ghazzali. But the reading of the Qur'an suffices of itself right and wrong? Who do they in fact take each their to vindicate what I have said about the essential na- own way. Such Islam was—and der even what remains in the hands of the wretched. We have earlier said that religion is guidance and A glimmer of Islam. and and reason have no accord with this religion? enjoin upon each other justice and patience" [Sura It may well be said that the foregoing has not 103. which it is embarrassing to appear among men. Whoever uses it well and takes its directives west. as if thereby they had conduct have become an argument against it. ture of Islamic religion. both secret and open. Do you not see yet no will to use it. instinctively cian treated a sick man with medicine and he recov- regard Islam's doctrines as superstitious and its prin. it is said. and the true and loyal believers? If it science see their faith as a kind of old garment in prohibits all abomination. save those who believe. and all men to witness that science loser .60 Muhammad 'Abduh sacred law. and these several generations past. indeed. but its full light is in the east. or forbidding evil. while they preen themselves on illness could take up the medicine and be cured. of compassion for a effects. these evaded prohibited things and achieved some distinc. interpreted according were totally unrelated the one to the other. Those Muslims who stand on the threshold of God wills. whether evident or hidden. having to the understanding of those among whom it was nothing in common? Why do sons murder fathers. . Qur'an which they despise and regard as worthless We have now set forth the religion of Islam and to religion and the world! Many of them simply pride its true character. Verses 1-3] and yet. for the most part. do good works. they go altogether to the bad. illuminated the reason. But is the objection their honest folk call and get no response. sent down and to the way they put it into practice. filling whole volumes. Yet precisely there will gain the blessedness God has promised to those its own people lie in the deepest glom and cannot see. who follow it. As for those Muslims who by their themselves on ignorance. squarely what the divine will requires? Why do they both about the general population and the intelligen- not hold to it with fortitude and speak truth about tsia. Many of those who come to visit Muslims whose only business with the scriptures is him or seek his ministrations or even gloat over his to finger their pages. he has think themselves forward-looking. letting things go as they will in rabid indi. not enjoining kindliness exaggerated the plight of Muslims today. to counsel each other and lay upon each other and other writers on religion. while being memorizers of their precepts and expert in their he himself despairs of life and waits either for death laws? How far they are from the rational study of the or some miraculous healing. is. In dire straits from pain aping the free-thinking people who scoff and jeer and and with the medicine by him in the house. All that Muslims who have known something of science are the objection just elaborated leads to is this: a physi- precisely those who. His angels. those who deceive themselves that they have some both physical and spiritual? pretension to be religious and orthodox believers in If Islam teaches that religion consists in sincerity its doctrines regard reason as a devil and science as before God. must be dealt with not here. why is it that they thus so totally fail [Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad] Ibnal-Hajj [died 1336]. it suffices to read the pages of history as in- neighbor? Where is the just dealing the rich owe to dited by those who truly knew slam and the objec- the poor with their possessions? Rather the rich plun. bounden duty. but in another book. provided it is read with care vidualism. in the light of all this. ignoring each other's affairs as if they to understand its real import. tive writers in other nations. then the doctor himself succumbed to the dis- ciples and precepts as a farce? They find pleasure in ease he had been treating.

it occupied an important place in my think. in which he defended Islam's treatment of women. Egypt: Dar al-Shuruq. 1992). Egypt: Dar al-Shuruq. Translation of second piece from Ara. Muhammad 'Imara. 1899). whose introduction is presented here. translated from Arabic by Samiha Sidhom Peterson 1. examined it. 1993). in 1899 and 1900. rivaled other ideas. and Tohrir al-mar'a (The Liberation of Woman. namely the necessity of im.'alaqa Amin: The Complete Works) (Cairo. 3-10.. to which 'Abduh secretly contributed sections. When it was eventually stripped of all confound. Qasim Amin. lationship Between Woman and Renaissance) (Beirut. ed. 1894). The truth I attention. There. and Islamic Civilization) (Cairo. called for an end to the seclusion of women. Samir Abu Hamdan. in Muham. After his return to Egypt. The book generated heated controversy in Egyptian intellectual circles. power that compels a human being to communicate ing errors. al-tamadun al-islami (Qasim Amin: The Liberation of Woman pp. respectively. mad 'Imara. 4 Qasim Amin The Emancipation of Woman and The New Woman Qasim Amin (Egypt. 1863-1908) was renowned for his support of women's liberation in the Islamic world. Leba- bic by Lisa Pollard and Raghda El Essawi. I am confident ing me of its necessity. Qasim Amin: Jadaliyat al. and once it is accompanied by the belief that it will benefit the progress of future generations. alerting me to its advantages and remind- status of women in Egyptian society. Conn. and widespread edu- cation of girls. he joined the judicial system and worked as attorney general and judge. a former Ottoman governor of Kurdistan who had retired to Egypt following a major revolt in that province. Amin was born in Alexandria to an Egyptian mother and a Turkish father.: Yale University Press. al-Mar'a al-jadida (The New Woman). Amin's major works in- clude Les Egypt/ens (The Egyptians. overcame them.1 The Emancipation of Woman ing. The Liberation of Woman and The New Woman: Two Documents in the History of Egyptian Femi- nism. from reflection to the unlimited space of appeal and proving the status of Egyptian women. Egypt: © American University in Cairo Press. every scientific or literary idea once it crystallizes in the mind. Debate (New Haven. Qasim Amin obtained a bachelor's degree in law in 1881 from the School of Law and Administration and was sent to France in an educa- tional mission for five years to study law. bayn al-mar'a wa al-nahda (Qasim Amin: The Dialectical Re- 1989). 2000). such as the need for women's participation alongside men in public life. pp. Qasim Amin: al-'Amal al-kamila (Qasim 1988). First published non: al-Sharika al-'Alamiyya li al-Kitab. 61 . I became aware of the absence that such individuals will arrive independently at the of a platform from which this truth could be elevated same conclusion I have. and finally reached the point where it became my dominant I call on every lover of truth to examine with me the thought. Leila Ahmed. The latter book. to which Amin responded in al-Mar'a al-jadida (The New Woman. After finishing his primary education at the aristocratic Ras al-Tin School and the Khedival School. 1900)—whose conclu- sion is also presented here—adopting further liberal views. I have considered it. an improvement in their status. 511-518. Introduction by Emad Eldin Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Shahin. and analyzed opment and ensures its positive future is the strange it. he joined Sayyid jamal al-Din al-Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad 'Abduh (chapter 3) and participated in their publication of the journal al-'Urwa al-wuthqa (The Strongest Link). Qasim Amin: Tahrir al-mar'a wa (Cairo. am presenting today has preoccupied me for a long A profound factor that influences human devel- time.

During these encounters ity and inflexibility. it will come up with a heresy. in refuting an apparent truth. there should be to hurl a false remark and declare it a heresy in Islam. political structures. Every cipal traditions or of current events. This is a well-known.62 Qasim Amin Communicating these findings supersedes concern labor of research. parts of the world imply a uniformity of traditions tance and isolation have been eliminated by modern or ways of life? Who can pretend that Sudanese pref- inventions. regional factors. are a part of the universe. the laws of change? Can the Muslim contradict God's arguments. intellectual movement toward progress is inevitably An intellectually lazy person whose arguments are followed by an appropriate change in the traditions weak is often satisfied. location? Does the presence of Muslims in various This is especially obvious in this century when dis. This is because we have neglected the people living during that era are unaware of the nurturing of our minds to such an extent that they changes. and other factors. and place? How can people believe that traditions able to state that the life of Western countries is a never change. religious unfamiliar idea. established . In fact. It is against our traditions and social dealings. In truth. or believe that the Bedouin tradition are reflected in the increasing number of individuals is appropriate for an urbanite. and industry. Likewise. and when the separating borders and for. unfit for any growth. but the heresy is not against eventually overcome him in the struggle. rather than immobil- or ideology over another. Therefore. which are characteristic of death victory was sometimes for truth and at other times and backwardness? Is not tradition merely the set of for falsehood. and mores of a society. appropriate to its life and behavior at a specific time tinues to characterize Western countries. I have strength he has to assist it in reaching that goal. whether a product of the sound prin. understanding that traditions are one of the intellec- between right and wrong: it is an internal struggle in tual products of humans. It is as over any negative consequences that may be incurred if God created the Muslims from clay especially set by the individual in presenting his knowledge. him if he opposes it. and differs according to historical era or geographical an external struggle among the various countries. and appearing in an unfamiliar form. heredity. sufferings. whose power dominates human beings and the has experienced a trace of it. These changes or the Indians. ethical ideologies. It is reason. Why should it. during a specific historical era every are translated and published simultaneously in five country has peculiar traditions and mores that match or six languages. examples of differences between the Sudanese and He only makes this false remark to avoid the effort the Turks comparable to the differences in their in- of understanding the truth. To these people I will respond: Yes. the changes are influenced by have become like barren soil. These traditions and mores Countries like ours have preferred a less ruffled change continuously in an unobtrusive way. The aside for them and freed them from obeying natural impact of this power is recognized by anyone who law. However. the ideas the creation of that country? of any Western scholar. the Chinese. Our laziness has caused us to be hostile to every scientific inventions. its intellectual state. Such an individual feels rest of living creation. so that existence. the or replaced by new ones. coercing him if he tries to force which ought to be brought to perfection. bidding walls have been torn down. intercultural exchanges. along to his work. and if he does not use whatever heresy. erences are similar to those of the Turks. even though he and his traditions History offers numerous proofs of this phenome. when formulated in a book. The history of nations is saturated with disputes. that if he fails to use this power toward the goal it is Some people will say that today I am publishing aiming to achieve. This characterized Islamic countries conventions of a country defining the special customs during the early days and the middle ages. and con. and at the same time maintain the continuous struggle between truth and falsehood. beliefs. and that human intellect all branches of education. the arts. like a gas that a Muslim believe that traditions cannot be changed could not be contained through pressure. and that it is his duty to pressure may cause an explosion that would destroy preserve them forever? Why does he drag this belief its container. falling at all times under non. or to disengage from the tellectual status. resisting Islam. or claim that the tra- who have toured the whole world and who presently ditions of any country have remained the same since can be counted by the thousands. or to avoid its application. and wars that originated with laws of creation—God who has made change a pre- the purpose of establishing the superiority of one idea requisite for life and progress.

The head of no tangible impact on the normative structure affect- the family had the absolute right of ownership over ing women's status. In every country where Chris- woman to be under the power of her father. the ficult to understand this phenomenon. and that she and children of the race) to be the same in a civilized should not live after her husband dies. and after him his eldest son. its. which are usually intended to improve the belong and the level of civilization of these societ- state of affairs but are immediately turned around to ies. and it does not prescribe any guiding prin- Greeks and Romans. who like to associate all good things nation. and that they even influence the crawling while the other is taking steps. . however. On the contrary. family. it does not guar- also elevated. we find that women in nations Therefore. and when the status of a nation her achieve freedom. because at Austrian. with women with no legal bonds or numerical lim- peans also need to be considered in this context. reflecting the progress and civilization curate. and This is the basis of our observations. The use of country more than any other power. Prior and influence over local traditions. the status of women in that country is guarantees the freedom of women. whenever and in whatever way he the specific nations in which it was introduced. citizens of a nation cannot but comply with a more advanced civilization have gradually with the existing traditions. just behavior of every individual in a society is appropri. one is walk- laws of that society. This belief is confirmed through ing while the other is running. and that tradi. One woman is factors in a society. compatriots. and are searching for the are most knowledgeable about religion eventually means to achieve it. reflecting with their religion. and the Russian woman. the status of has advanced because her Christian religion helped women is also low. unless they change. If wished. which are based on familial and tribal bonds of a nation and its level of civilization and knowl. When the status of a nation is low. is inac- is elevated. destroying or transforming it so that those who deserve their independence. the Italian. Other Asians nation as in an ignorant. and so times tradition may even supersede the existing reli. the German. on. as one would present a guest with the best of his ate to the intellectual abilities of that society and to possessions. then her tianity has been introduced and spread. He could dispose of her through trade. run by autocratic structures. rather than on formal structures. or death. This evi. ponents of a nation. This belief. barbaric one. Christianity did not set up a system which of that nation. it has left husband. and for men to gratify themselves of free women on earth. they are therefore striving for freedom and demand- dence of history confirms and demonstrates that the ing every human right. Force is the only law edge suggests that the power of tradition controls a with which such societies are familiar. or advanced from the low status to which they have unless their intellectual level increases or decreases. These women believe that they disown its existing form. been relegated. force is also the medium of control for governments tion is one of the most influential permanent com. These traits are present among emerging societ- This total interdependence between the traditions ies. This authority still prevails among uncivilized Af- We cannot consider traditions (which are merely rican and American tribes. has been molded by the traditions and manners of nation. the French. Women in all these societies have felt that they gion. for example. and have started to overcome the gap Thus I believe that traditions always overcome other that has separated them from men. The differences between Egyptians and Euro. do. lowed by the British. These discrepancies daily observation of the laws and programs of our reflect the different societies to which these women nation. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 63 fact. Christianity her life. and is least likely to change. Some Asians even believe a way of life for an individual. the method by which its children are brought up. considered a ciples on this topic. believe that the Western woman an uncivilized condition for that nation. fol- become new instruments for corruption. His heirs eventually inherited her and with there were a religion which could have had power her all the rights that were given to the owner. The American woman is in the forefront. it was acceptable for Arab fathers to kill lim women today should have been at the forefront their daughters. The ancient rules. We have learned that women in the first antee her rights through either specific or general human societies were treated as slaves. are human beings and that they deserve freedom. On the other hand. status of women is inseparably tied to the status of a Westerners. It is not dif. that a woman has no immortal soul. because the present her to their guests as a sign of hospitality. then the Mus- to Islam.

with- cipation. the tendency to equate men's tral to the ideology of the supreme ruler. women are con. stipulated the governments continually took on a despotic nature. This will be discussed later. There ing in household and child-rearing expenses. giving pref. trusteeship. rulers. Islam declared women's freedom and eman. the shari 'a. rienced the suffering resulting from the catastrophes and superstitions inherited from the countries in which have befallen him. sidered to possess the same legal capabilities in all civil Yes. capricious tampering with the affairs of their subjects. This is are a few exceptions to this pattern. The of a country ruled by a despot. since it is cen- Within the shari'a. Islamic societies have been stripped his villagers. dominates a weaker one. These whenever possible. Rulers adminis- fact. and that he place in human society. equality of women and men before any other legal with their sultan and his assistants having total au- system. without which marriage is meaning. would be inclined toward compassion. yet they demonstrate unsupervised by any formal structure. and granted women all human rights during out restraint. The reason is obvious and is related to the ruler. struck with one of the political structures that delineated the rights hundred lashes. women only with regard to their duties. that unlimited power is permission from either their father or their husband. having expe- What a pity! Unacceptable customs. even in the context continues to flow from him to those around him. but they are in- unlike some Western laws. and that the village chief. especially when it is unac- These advantages have not yet been attained by some countable. distant past knows that the village mayor. who. whether important or unimportant. which equate men and significant in contrast to the majority of cases. When despotism prevails in a country. erners and some Muslims imagine or believe. Thus they ruled however they wished. This explains that respect for women and for their equality with men why for so many centuries absolute and autocratic rule were basic to the principles of the liberal shari'a. and of divorce. At various ten Egyptian pounds. that an oppressed nation does not contain an this beautiful religion. ing and freed them from the obligation of participat. thority. Observation indicates. existing situation is contrary to the law. how- which Islam spread have been allowed to permeate ever. is not limited to individual cases only. upon his return to the village takes his of the ruler and the ruled. one would assume that a person who ex- originally women in Islam were granted an equal periences injustice would love justice. their human beings respect only force and are deterred . however. because Initially. Islam has created for women mechanisms they in turn influence their subordinates. and that granted to the ruled revenge upon a hundred peasants! the right to demand that the rulers stop at the limits The natural implication of this situation is that established for them by the shari'a. however. According to Islamic law. Despotism and women's rights is obvious. donating. In fact. Every Egyptian The most significant factor that accounts for the who has lived under despotic rule in the not-very- perpetuation of these traditions. oppressed nation is that of depravity. attitude pervades the life of all individuals. corrupt morals became the first sign can account for the low status of Muslim women. A despot worthy of consideration and contrary to what West. counsel. our legal system went so far in its kindness to tered these nations poorly and were excessive in their women that it rid them of the burden of earning a liv. is the suc. In sum. robbed of cession over us of despotic governments. Experi- disposal of goods.64 Qasim Amin The Islamic legal system. a temptation for abuse. and obliged to follow justice and avoid injustice. or supervision. having any say. These despotic systems have also influenced issue of lineage. the relationships between men and women—man in less. This topic too will be addressed later. and they admin- a time when women occupied the lowest status in all istered the affairs of their citizens without these societies. The only plant that grows in an status already given them by the shari'a. reclaims a hundred pounds from times and places. spits his spirit into every powerful person. unhindered by requirements of ence demonstrates. quite often they even tampered with religion. unchallenged by any other opinion. In was the norm for Islamic countries. Knowledge in these countries appropriate and fit environment for the development had not developed to the point of giving women the of desirable virtues. its impact erence to men with regard to societal rights. his superiority began to despise woman in her weak- mary. regard- Islamic law favors men in one area only—po. traditions. are cases pertaining to buying. nothing in the laws of Islam or in its intentions ness. less of the approval or disapproval of the supreme lygamy. and contemporary Western women. As a result.

tempt. are not change but the conditions surrounding it. and threw her into the road whenever he ture. need to improve it. was ignored. a man appointed a guard. mother. and she was part of that totality of which he took Among the most important of these are the firmly possession. a man divorced her with. many women norance and secluded herself with the curtains of now accompany their husbands during their business darkness. They have heard about the West. and had no legitimate of their rulers. that they quite often go to public parks in self in the person of the man. treated them with con. the causes of criticism patience. whether male or female. and wife gathered after he was done to eat what was left over. would be dropped and our country would benefit Despising the woman. Despising the woman. The Current State of Thinking about Despising the woman. affairs. We have observed that women at opinions. This is a new kind of respect mind and she had simple-mindedness. political movements. He had freedom and she had bondage. Were women's socialization effected in isfying himself with any of them whenever his pas. Likewise. as well as certain other advantages from public life and kept her from involvement in anything which they themselves were forbidden—but without except female or personal issues. thoughts which they be- . tion. She was of intellectual development of men. despised them. of the poor state of their social order. a man filled his home with of the population. Thus a eunuch. or a servant supervised. a legal guardian. or doctrinal issues. and space and she had darkness and prison. of women. A woman when we have witnessed a decrease in the power of had a very low status. he dent in their women and have no worries regarding had knowledge and she had ignorance. many men have and pleasure. a man sat alone at the din- ing table. which was lifted only when she was to be car. many of them. She obliterated her. then these criticisms for his actions arid justice in his dealings. This has occurred among men who are confi- wished. spent time with ried in her coffin to the grave. and women alike. a man secluded her from able word. over the last few years. He ignored the prescribed were the use of the veil terminated at limits familiar religious obligations. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 65 only by fear. or daughter. and sion and lust drove him. a man announced that she When Egyptians saw the good life that Westerners was unworthy of trust and honesty. They have begun Despising the woman. displayed for the eyes of all hu- in the corners of her home. amused himself with her whenever given women a special status within the family struc- he wished. and felt the the house and boasted about her permanent restric. their widespread influence and their indisput- Despising the woman. Leaders public affairs. This change is a consequence of the increased the family as wife. become aware companied her wherever she went. and the moderation no importance. to keep up with the West and its blessings. while his mother. the arts. and learned about the West's progress. Despising the woman. men out reason. In reality. observed. the Situation of Women in Egypt ian to protect her chastity. In fact. he had Yet we cannot claim that this change removes the absolute authority and she had only obedience and need for criticism. Everything in existence belonged to him. white or black. accordance with religious and moral principles. established tradition of veiling among the majority Despising the woman. a man imprisoned her in to show signs of dissatisfaction with it. She was submissive to a man because he present have more freedom to look after their own was a man and she a woman. and ac. or with numerous wives. he had a their trustworthiness. have intermingled with Westerners. which required good intentions in most Islamic schools of belief. disseminate new thoughts. he had light for women. from the active participation of all its citizens. and the inadequate socialization slaves. sat. the status of women in Egypt until the past few years. men crushed I do not exaggerate when I say that this has been their rights. order to take the fresh air and to see the works of the ing in the universe except that which she concealed Sublime Creator. She specialized in ig. mans. A man used her as an object of delight trips to other countries. Egyptians have. sisters. and she had no arose among them who competed with each other to patriotic pride or religious feelings. enjoyed. A woman had no which life has no value—a desire spread among them opinions on business. She was allowed noth. and stomped on their personality. regardless of her position in men. When women were weak.

one that can play an movement toward its obsolescence. it will be made inform a nation about the state of its deteriorating clear to everyone. to be a kind of lunacy. A new awareness amongst the Egyptians of the they cannot be had without women. as well as that of cer- tain Egyptians—at the head of them being His is no hope that Egyptian homes and families will Excellency Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh [Egypt. and so on. upon which success in the world depends. such as segregation. despite its simplicity and its self-evi. rather than Hence. They cannot freedom. as well their homes and their families become a proper en. One would call for work and action. situation. and for the rejection of Legal scholars decided that it was an offense to Islam. will change. Such an observer sees: be had except through training. The government's interest. Some fourth. 1899]. Anyone who sees the report not participate in all of their activities. such that that the ignorant delight in believing. much one group might try to hide it. important role alongside the developed countries. The matter that is . as their desire to change that practice through [the vironment for providing men with the characteristics institution] of engagement. nor are they the things that will trans. until along the lines that it is now practiced.66 Qasim Amin lieved would guide the community down the road to its publication last year [in the author's book The success. even if they do lamic law] courts. 1. It such people: If the Europeans intended to destroy us. This is because no social condition can be We have but one word with which to respond to changed unless it is made the target of education. A third would call for And many graduates from the madrasas [seminaries] love of the country and self-sacrifice in its service. just as the truth conditions. writings. This is the indisputable truth. necessity of educating their daughters. Liberation of Women. Such sents human perfection. and a become a vibrant community. Any and all find proof of the fact that our women have broken change must be the result of a confluence of virtues. in fact. In their But one factor escaped the attention of these lead. see chapter 3]. nothing less than increased adherence to the of them went so far as to say that it was a crime precepts of religion. away from their role as slave. they are not the means by which people always is. A decrease in the use of the hijab and its con- They must believe that there is no hope that they will comitant institutions. or of a speech in our present situation! designed to encourage its listeners to want to change. hopes and pains. They will not have any liberation is not. delusions prevent them from reaching the truth. a Muslim. upon form of the Egyptian family. and customs which are not but a hi jab [that is. no matter what they would have only to leave us to our own devices! its target. The displeasure that our youth takes in marriage with a place in the world of human civilization. or. a thin veil] between them and innate to the individual upon his birth. was considered by certain people. These are delu- influence if women are not favorably disposed to sions that the simple-minded are inclined toward and them. or how much ten about the benefits of change. they must begin with the roots of reform. and no matter how Nor can it consist merely of books and articles writ. Anyone observing our present social situation will form a people from one state to another. is not enough for a reform program. any possible sources of discord. against the country and against religion. 3. won't have liberation of Eastern women was something that the any influence worth mentioning upon the community Christian nations were striving for in order to destroy if they do not reach women. that His Excellency made regarding these courts This truth. to consist merely of a government order They have no more perfect method than to leave us issued to spur the masses to action. and that there remains characteristics. do not understand where their true interests lie. they were even so deluded as to say that the ers: these ideas. in other words. and an. as was their custom. or are not filled with love for them. if Egyptians want to reform their current teaching them nothing. mufti [chief religious educated and unless they participate alongside men official] of Egypt—in reforming the shari 'a [Is- in their thoughts. and that any Muslim who supports women's understand their meanings. and those similar to them. will find a number of matters regarding the re- dent nature. And there 4. These will merely another group might try to neglect it. become that proper environment unless women are 1849-1905. and if women do not Islam. 2. because they their children embody the perfect picture that repre. A saw it as an exaggerated imitation of the West. other for harmony and unity. sooner or later. morals.

then the wife is returned Stipulation Two: If the husband is ill or impris. with no means wife if he proves his sources of provision and his available for them to divorce their husbands and no willingness to support her through them. Without then needing to return to the courts. the judge grants the wife a divorce. in- in ways too clear to explain. But. the second hus- oned and he refuses to provide for his wife. and in response to front of the court. left nothing behind for her provision. after swearing that she deserves to be provided placed on mankind's freedom of action. he is sentenced to pay alimony. the they will not divorce a single one of their wives and. [This con- dition] damages Islam and the Islamic community for by the absentee. dren. If he about polygamy: does not. cial incapability but cannot prove it. the wife is also returned to her original hus- that he will be cured or released from prison. She also has the right to make a refutation children. Then. in fact. wife has the right to ask to be provided for from that thus. If the death of the original husband is discov- period of illness or imprisonment is so long that harm ered during the wife's period of 'idda or after it and orfitna [dissension] is feared. If he does family member who could support them or their chil. The husband has the right to remarry his Justice about their unhappy condition. without being able to support them. If. money. the judge takes she is allowed to remarry. or if he left money in someone's trust. any return to his wife is unacceptable. These men continuously fight with their wives over Stipulation Four: If someone owed the husband expenses and over their marital rights. proclaim what she believes to be them he produced eleven stipulations. Stipulation Six: If a man is lost in an Islamic land ing the mufti about the legal recourses that could be and there is no news of him. a long period or his destination is unknown. believes him to be. If those four years pass. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 67 most worthy of mention is the mufti's. others two. proven that he has no means of providing for his wife. the judge grants the wife a divorce after the I am hereby raising my voice in complaint over the fixed period elapses. the wife inherits her original husband's property if Stipulation Three: If the husband is absent for a the second husband was ignorant of the first short period of time. She can. If the Minister fails to find the for his wife despite the fact that he has a clear source lost husband. and it is many of them take four wives. to her original husband. the same action. or vorcing a man from his wife for not providing for her long prison terms. If the man claims finan. not do both. which we present Justice should search for him in the areas where she below for the reader's benefit. However. In the case that he is absent for number of wives that poor men are marrying. If he has years. complained to the Ministry of is refutable. and that he left no guardian to provide for her. ing that the absentee is alive. his wife has the right to adopted in response to such complaints. the Minister of Maliki madhhab [school of law]. the judge grants the before the new marriage contract is drawn or after it. He studied raise the issue at the Ministry of Justice. This year. and after swearing that he. hard labor. If the band. the woman must then no clear source of income and continues to refuse to wait out the time of her 'idda [Qur'anic term of wait- provide for his wife. he sets for the wife a period of four of income. depravity continues to affect them and their money. statement fixes a date by which he must send provisions. it happened that the wives of men who Stipulation Five: The judge's prerogative in di- had been sentenced to life in prison. Moreover. if in fact the first husband not leave means of provision for his wife. not know- provide for his wife. the judge grants the wife a di. the judge died and the second husband knew of his death be- . The Ministry found itself in need of consult. he Stipulation Seven: If the absentee returns or is given a one-month grace period—no more—at the proves to be alive. [In this state] it becomes impossible for of anyone who claims that she has no right to that men and women to respect the limits that God has trust. or his whereabouts. if he can prove incapability. ing before remarriage. and if he does so before his wife's end of which he is considered divorced if he does not new husband consummates the marriage. the judge band knew all along that the original husband was grants him a period of time after which it is assumed alive. but before his departure he did husband's death. deed. apparently to clarify pater- vorce from him on the spot. some have three. nity]. Indeed. in the issue and others similar to it. wife a divorce. either through the courts or by Stipulation One: If the husband refuses to provide means of the police. in line with the his fate.

guidelines of the Maliki madhhab. the humble found. irrevocable. After the minister has the man searched for. The Shaykh of al-Azhar lent his agreement to this tween Muslims. tian homes. We conclude as you do. and it cannot be lygamy and divorce in a voice that is well heeded. just as it does not permit desertion or dom or servitude. family and the other from the wife's. Maliki Servant of knowledge and of the humble ones at She then has the right to remarry. which orders that every animal follow the side of the family. they are neighbors. a great religious the woman's claim is proven to be true. erners. He is required to rule until our goals are met. If they proof that our will does not interfere with this move- are able to settle the dispute between the couple. before disappear. with the things that one witnesses every day in Egyp- vincial judge. In this case. We thank you for high Stipulation Nine: The wife of a man missing as aspirations. If after the Minister To the Mufti of Egypt. her husband is harmful to her. and the arbitrators have no right to make it appeared. This process of setting a grace period is valid only These two issues—that of polygamy and that of in cases in which the absentee had. then the case is reverted to stipu. virtue or beating or abuse without legitimate reason. 1832-1917]. free- harm his wife. an income with which to provide for his wife. seek our opinion. The The arbitrators are then sent to the couple. then the woman can remarry if We have received your letter dated the fourth of she wishes. by legal means. and his money is al-Azhar inherited at the end of the year. following the the fighting armies. foretells that the state of Egyptian women thy arbitrators. There is nothing strange about this: It has always Stipulation Eleven: The wife has the right to ask been our way to follow our whims. we met with serious opposi- according to what his appointed arbitrators have tion even from those in whose selves and in whose recommended. scientists. nature of the environment in which he lives. that herits nothing. and sent Muhammad 'Abduh the following in said conflict. solved through one of the means provided for in The sum of these facts—and then some—along the Book of God. The shari'a does not permit a man to our lives in excess or lack. If all Rabi'i al-thani 1318 [August 2. then the wife in. It grew. may God keep you: of Justice searches for the man. are amongst the most important issues that I addressed or in cases in which the wife does not fear seduction. in my book The Liberation of Women. the woman then begins her period of 'idda. the divorce is revoc. scholar and a wise jurisprudent. He supports my suggestions about po- and wife becomes quite severe. about which you lations six and seven. and after the period of 'idda has passed. homes the changes that we work for had already able. and thus grant you our agreement. one of them from the husband's is in need of improvement. year is set. and his money goes to her heirs. as they are reflected in your interest in the result of a war between Muslims has the right to this venerable matter. they recommend divorce and bring necessity of preserving and continuing the movement the matter before the judge. It is best if This movement did not result from study. then they are chosen from among people out. If it is difficult to find such rather. Stipulation Eight: If a man dies in a conflict be. then it would be my opinion that there is . the judge grants the wife a divorce once which Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh. richness or poverty. the case is brought to the pro. cumbent upon the wife to prove. a period of one Signed. that can be proven is that the man went along with containing eleven stipulations. and it is proved that he indeed fought project. depravity. It is in. 1900]. so ment lies in the fact that when we pointed out the be it. his wife is permitted to raise the issue letter: before the Ministry of Justice. has called worthy of Stipulation Ten: If a dispute between a husband his interest. and according to the law known to natural ily. number 19. knowledge or ignorance. the judge to grant her a divorce if she is harmed by If it makes no difference to us whether we spend her husband. through the influence of contact with West- arbitrators from among the members of their fam. Otherwise. take her case before the Minister of Justice. and about Otherwise. He must then appoint two trustwor.68 Qasim Amin fore consummating the marriage. granting women the right to divorce her husband— ing. If that year passes and the man is not Salim al-Bishri [Egypt.

his family. It is like true. This took place when women were given which they see no one and encounter no one. only to women from their former state of decline. or the doctor who amputates a patient's But if what we hear and read about every day is limb in order to preserve life in other limbs. "Serve serve no credit for its invention. We are teaching that the Take a look at the Western nations. makes no difference. or a sultan's order. And once divorce her the next. from that of men. Rather. cess. it takes place." or "Cleanse yourselves of the faults that have lation]. and religions. We aren't saying the same things to you that oth- and then some. women began to daughters and sisters and grandmothers if they wish!! direct their energies. iso. languages. And you'll This is the natural. through the preparation of young people ready French women. as we've morals and habits and manners. from societies. working alongside of men. then we have the following to say to arise between people. advanced. Nations have used your family and your country. crept into your morals. civilization—the kind of civilization you aspire to. and his way of raising yourselves up to the highest level of country. other. share a com. or that the way American women are raised. But the easiest of all with the Swedish or the German woman. You'll find advice. then let men have a number of It is this freedom that has delivered Western women. neer who builds a bridge in order to make transpor- late our women and hold them back even further!!!! tation easier. or a magician's magic. or the scribe who spends tention to these countries and ask them what the se. . long hours in some governmental bureau writing an cret to the progress of their women is. It consists of liberating your women ers say. THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN AND THE NEW WOMAN 69 no need for the freedom and the education that have mon ground in one matter: they enjoy freedom and been granted to Egyptian women up till now. that Egyptians want to create a living. But none of these has the right them: to call his work more useful to the social order than There is a means of getting yourselves out of the the woman who gives to society the gift of a well- poor condition that you complain about. and marry a new woman every day. in ignorance and inter-departmental report. to In Africa and Asia there are a number of countries in the establishment of and participation in charitable which women live entombed in their homes. entirely different from Russian women. goods in order to sell them." or any such slogans it before us. are not those of said. that get lost in the wind. so that she may not enjoy life of the merchant who spends his day bent over his without him! What else can we do but direct our at. and put it to their advantage. no doubt. things like "Unite and be of help to one an- from the bondage of ignorance and hijab [here. And you'll find French women to be to meet the requirements of a changing society. we de. that of the judge who mediates in the disputes that civil nation. Perhaps we will learn from them how to iso. But all of difficulties is the one that ends in victory and suc- these women. And useful work—different. But just because this work is different does not mean cayed to the extent that when a woman's husband dies that it lacks importance: women's work is like that she must kill herself. despite differences in their regions." Nor are we saying. and imprison their wives and they were granted an education. you to your goal. you will find changing of the self requires more than a leader's amongst their women great differences. amongst these nations there are those that have de. long-term secret—one which find that the Italian woman has nothing in common is surrounded in difficulties. and their a saint's miracles. This means was not our brainchild. tested it. useful to himself. It is like that of the engi- isolation. And the shortest path is the one that delivers nationalities. If it independence. There is a raised man.

order to correct them. in the View of Bahithat al-Badiya) (Cairo. Feminists. 70 . Some of the sufferings she experienced and observed were expressed in her writings. which she published along with feminist essays in 1910. I applaud your kindness in accepting the in. 5 Bahithat al-Badiya A Lecture in the Club of the Umma Party Malak Hifni Nasif (Egypt. and rejoices in what you and men are rife. but there must be an element of truth in them. where I seek reform. Our meeting today is not simply for getting ac. the symbolic and practical implications of women's garb. at the age of 32. There is some truth in our claims and in those of men. Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]. pp. "A Lecture in the Club of the Umma Party. Her life then took an abrupt turn when she married a Bedouin chief. Haven. of my talk. founder of the Egyptian Feminist Union. Leila Ahmed. Egypt: Matba'at al-Muqtataf. At the moment there is a semi-feud between us and quainted or for displaying our finery. a meeting of (male) nationalists. 134. 1992). and the need for legal change in women's status. She graduated from the first teacher training school for women in Egypt. Colo. 'inda Bahithat al-Badiya (The Contemporary Muslim 1. 1886-1918). She discovered he already had a wife—his cousin—and a daughter he expected her to tutor. 64-68. where she later taught. Men blame the discord on our poor upbringing we can take. pp. Women and Gender in Islam (New (Bahithat al-Badiya) (Cairo. Her eu- logy was the first feminist speech delivered by Huda Sha'rawi (1879-1947). 227. 228-238. and addressing some of the most sensitive social issues of the day: changing gender re- lations. I greet you as a sister who feels what you feel. pp. encouraged his daughter's education. men because of the low level of agreement between ous meeting. The English and that as human beings we both succeed and fail. in Margot Badran and Miriam Cooke. was born in Cairo into a literary family. but is a seri. May Ziyada.: Yale University Press. Opening Making of Modern Egypt (Princeton. who used the pseudonym Bahithat al-Badiya (Seeker in the Desert).1 Ladies.J. Complaints about both women suffers what you suffer. she died of influenza. The present selection was one of these lectures. 1976). sity Press. I hope to son is cured by continual moaning. Dar al-Ansar. while we claim it is due to men's arrogance and pride. 1920). erb says there is no smoke without fire." translated from Arabic by Ali Badran and Margot Margot Badran. An Arab prov- succeed. The program listed at the end of the lecture formed the ker- nel of the more extensive set of demands that she sent in 1 9 1 1 to the Egyptian Con- gress in Heliopolis. 1995). Her father. 1899-1987 (Boulder. 1987). Which side is right? Complaints and rejoice. who had studied at al- Azhar with Muhammad 'Abduh (see chapter 3). The Women's Awakening in ton: Indiana University Press. I don't believe a sick per- vitation to this talk. and to examine our shortcomings in and haphazard education. Soha Abdel Kader. delivered in 1909 and first published in 1910.. Speech Egypt (New Haven. On Fridays she gave women's lectures at the Egyptian University and elsewhere. al-Muslima al-'asriya adapted from the same volume. grumbling are not reform. I wish to seek agreement on an approach us.: Princeton Univer- the Gates: A Century of Arab Feminist Writing (Blooming. Bahithat al-Badiya pp. Beth Baron. and went to live with him in the Fayyum oasis west of Cairo. 1990). N. remember that I am one of you. says that Anyone who differs with me or wishes to make a opinions that appear erroneous to us are not totally comment is welcome to express her views at the end wrong. 1994).: Lynne Rienner. but if I fail. gave up teaching. the Saniyya School. Egypt: Society. Egyptian Women in a Changing Woman.: Yale University Press. This mutual blame which Bahithat al-Badiya. 179-185. Introduction 'Abd al-Muta'al Muhammad Jabri. eds. Conn. Conn. Islam and Nation: Gender and the Badran. philosopher. In 19 18. delivered to hundreds of upper-class women.

Is it just to prevent women men invented pipes and faucets to carry water into from doing what they believe is good for themselves houses. Would reasonable women seeing water and their support? If pregnancy impedes work out- pumped into a neighbor's house be content to fetch side the house. which might be far away? Is it Furthermore. while the women work in the they have pumps in their houses. but to love that if we were to edge them out today. "You women have and knead dough? She might be weak and unable to been created for the house and we have been created trouble herself to prepare the wheat and dough. other half of the day. These women might male servant. others who are bar- gave us rest. prevent us from doing under the pretext of taking and the machines themselves are made by men. haul crops. One man wishes vanish in time. come lawyers or judges or railway engineers. Obviously. home now does not occupy more than half the day. women sewed clothes for themselves and We must pursue an education in order to occupy the their households." Is this a God-given dictate? might be poor and unable to hire servants or to work How are we to know this. We or our female servants used to sweep our divorced. They but there are unmarried women. but men invented machines for cupy us? Of course. I am not urging women men took up the profession of tailoring and began to to neglect their home and children to go out and be- make clothes for our men and children. Before. sifting flour and kneading dough. be populated. The division of labor is where civilization has not arrived. but men invented the sewing ma. Is it right to Men say when we become educated we shall push tell a doctor he must quit his profession and become them out of work and abandon the role for which God a merchant or vice versa? No. I do not mean to deni. No woman can of labor. we should do the latter. But isn't it rather men who have to do as he wishes. but at the same time pushed us out of ren or have lost their husbands or are widowed or work. But I simply wanted to show that men something to be regretted and feared. Then their jobs away. should we spin and to weave cloth for clothes for themselves waste our time in idleness or seek other work to oc- and their children. argued that pregnancy causes women to leave work. or she to be breadwinners. Each has the freedom has created us. If men live alone in one part of the The question of monopolizing the workplace world and women are isolated in another. clean and soft. Instead of collecting water from the river. another a merchant. and then men invented in supporting the family. it also impedes work inside the house. women used to ers have taken away a lot of our work. Then men established bakeries employing men. to become a doctor. we would each other and to live together so the world would only be doing what they have already done to us. crops. Even those women merely a human creation. Some women even climb palm trees to har- By what I have just said. but academic qualifications. the Nubians whose men sew clothes for themselves ing stones. to go and winnow wheat Men say to us categorically. since no holy book has alone without help. water from the river. It might be their own hands. Since male inventors and work- pushed women out of work? Before. costing her nothing work? more than a little money. The iron for these machines is mined by men. except women in the villages it does not upset the system. but if women enter the learned professions do all this work now. both will comes down to individual freedom. I think if men were in our place spelled it out? Political economy calls for a division they would have done what we did. We still witness people like go to a mill instead of crushing wheat on the grind. vest the dates. but that is what men wish to chine. Work at spinning and weaving and put women out of work. and the household. our per- grinding stones for the bread they used to make with sonal freedom should not be infringed. how many able-bodied men have not reasonable for any civilized woman seeing bread become sick from time to time and have had to stop from the bakery. Nor do I mean to imply that they do not sat. In the past. fields. Women in villages in both Upper and grate these useful inventions which do a lot of our Lower Egypt help their men till the land and plant work. Some women do the fertilizing. or those whose husbands need their help houses with straw brooms. God did not are the ones who started to push us out of work. and create man and woman to hate each other. A LECTURE IN THE CLUB OF THE UMMA PARTY 71 has deepened the antagonism between the sexes is isfy our needs. It is not right that they machines to clean that could be operated by a young should be forced into lowly jobs. Poor women and servants used to fetch like to become teachers or doctors with the same water for their homes or the homes of employers. . But if women winnowed the wheat and ground flour on any of us wish to work in such professions.

and we are vain and arrogant. the more aware she is of her long centuries of enslavement by men. died circa 655]. but while that might be schools. Some have exceeded men in they do not wish us to work because they wish to courage and valor. it is not true under improve this situation. When someone says some- cation. We We are still new at educating our daughters.]. and other because we are still in the first stage of education and chores. spare us the burden. or in whatever profession she works. Our op. absolute monarchies. This is dem- encouraged the French to continue fighting and val. Haven't you seen ignorant women rusted and our bodies weakened. draw water for irrigation. Queen of England [reigned 1558-1603]. not the school. We women are now men can relax. our minds responsibilities. we want respect. but women have excelled in learning and Nothing irritates me more than when men claim the arts and politics. but in fact our upbringing is to blame. because what they fear is distant. but poor upbringing. which is the Cleopatra [queen of Egypt. Kindi [a companion of the Prophet. "No. reigned 51-30 B. The problem lies with the family. advice from each other. selves and others. long as they see seats in the schools of law. thing. this tling match? If men say to us that we have been cre. Some people tion. vention. onstrated by the fact that many men and women who iantly waged war against those who fought her na. would not cause her to forget her children nor to lose ated weak. This cannot happen in a minute as some ponents may say that their rule was carried out by might think.72 Bahithat al-Badiya lead animals. Eliza." it discourages us and pushes us backward. think that good upbringing means kissing the hands came queens and were adept in politics such as of women and standing with arms properly crossed. If the city woman had not been in one of these schools. . While also are too quick to ridicule and criticize each other there is no fear now of our competing with men. such as Khawla bint al-Azwar al. I am sure she will not be prevented from doing hard work." After lightened she becomes. You may have observed that women in the our Oriental habits still do not allow us to pursue villages work as hard as the strongest men. the mother of Turan Shah [reigned have to redouble our efforts to reform ourselves and 1249]. and at university unoccupied by us. over nothing. It is unfair to put the blame on the their ministers. the second. She is doing that to satisfy her desire for been as strong as the man. Isn't the country woman learning or for recognition. As see that their children are strong and healthy. medicine. jealousy and scorn usually come into play. only in religion are the two connected. If unable to do hard work because we have not been one of us shows eagerness to complete her education accustomed to it. has done this. she would have given a job. the Byzantines. Queen of Russia [reigned 1762-1796]. Joan of Arc [circa 1412-1431]. No matter how much a mother has been man from al-Ghuriya [a section of Cairo] in a wres. men can rest assured in their jobs. We Shajarat al-Durr. who are men. They should replace the first with who impressed 'Umar ibn al-Khattab [second caliph. who governed Egypt [1250-1257]. Queen of Spain [reigned 1474-1504]. Catherine. it is you who made her maternal instinct.C. Good upbringing means helping people respect them- Isabel. We must true under constitutional rule. who Learning and upbringing are two separate things— led the French army after its defeat by the English. the more en- us weak through the path you made us follow. educated. morals of our girls. and we much study. duty of the home. the young. engineer- Specialized work for each sex is a matter of con. health and stronger than the latter? Do you have any would our only distraction from raising children be doubt that a woman from Minufiya [a town in the reading a book or writing a letter? I think that is im- Egyptian Delta] would be able to beat the strongest possible. "That's enough edu. I am not giving examples of women who be. 634-644] with her bravery and skill in fighting when Men blame any shortcomings we may have on our she went to Syria to free her brother held captive by education. On the contrary. Is it right that they and peasant women ignore their crying child for accuse us of being created weaker than them in mind hours? Were these women also occupied in prepar- and body? Women may not have to their credit great ing legal cases or in reading and writing? inventions. One of our shortcomings is our reluctance to take When someone says to us. It is not mandatory. As long as we do not like her city sister? Why then is the former in better work in law or become employed by the government. ing. we say to them. are well educated are lacking in morals. We do not want condescension. Education has not spoiled the beth.

but we have outdone them in display piece. She walks swaying like ing the hair could be seen. meant to be a way to leave the home without the izar. along with my sisters who are being edu- as I am told. Sura 24. veiled. Finally. not going out into the street except when she women do not fear to mix with men. It must not prevent us from gaining an cept? Moreover. Our former garment was one of Europeans. ticity in the veil. now they are worn by singers and dancers? while the upper half—like age. nor cause our health to deteriorate. why fact it is. some women have started wearing education. why can't he take me with him to select and the body with a dress of the kind Europeans call what I need. we we have finished our work and feel restless. I believe the best band will not choose clothes I like and bring them to practice for outdoors is to cover the head with a scarf the house. I do not. the road to reform but we are neither properly covered nor unveiled. on the other hand. Then we artfully began to shrink the women are just the opposite. down to the heels. because advocate unveiling. Not so that more than half the head. because it can rightly be called being bur. and if our men were ready for it. which in our house does not have a spacious garden. When it in colors—blue. appearances do not indicate it? [Qur'an. and pours bottles of perfume on herself. . like Europeans. the fresh air that God has created for everyone. Some of our prudent house. or let me buy what I want? cache poussiere. A LECTURE IN THE CLUB OF THE UMMA PARTY 73 Men criticize the way we dress in the street. do not advocate a return to the veils of our grand. can the onlooker understand good intentions when which God has commanded us not to display. buy it for us. loads herself down with jew- worn only with a corset. but we have to was carried to her grave. brown. If the get-ups of some women are should be prudent and not take promenades alone. that man. This is being done now in Istanbul. only this. and with sleeves long enough to should I opt for ignorance or for unveiling in front of reach the wrist. another dress? In that instance. Veiling should not prevent us from breathing fresh which has virtually become a "dress" showing the air or going out to buy what we need if no one can bosom. but how the body as well as our dress and jewelry underneath. I would ap- ied alive. I think going out without it is more mod. correct covering. The pretend to be enticed. In front of her husband waist and lower the neck and finally two sleeves were she wears a simple tunic. conform with this pre. a dust coat. and mixing with we are quick to imitate and seldom find our authen- men. . bamboo in a way that entices passersby. the more it advances. Verse 31] Does our present izar. shouldn't we go to the outskirts of the city and take est. when Turkish women go out to neigh. We claim we are veiling. But the used to spend her whole life within the walls of her nation is not ready for it now. If we had been raised from childhood to go un- mothers. and wears whatever little. and red. We should not saunter it would be all right if they unveiled their faces but moving our heads right and left. But who will guarantee that we will have a point. and Imams [religious leaders] have differed on the not just put in boxes exclusively for men? But we question of hijab. The woman prove of unveiling for those who want it. Don't you see that diamond tiaras Nowadays the lower half of our attire is a skirt that were originally meant for queens and princesses. because at least eyes are not attracted to it. because they are harmful to us. or at least they came more transparent than an infant's heart. I would narrow in front of us. and when she goes out she added and the garment clung to the back and was wears her best clothes. and derriere. her (tabarruj). including the ears. and we should avoid gossip. But our whole body. waist. They borhood shops. a wall was visible and the flowers and ribbons ornament. I am sure that most of these purpose of the izar [long outer garment] is to cover showy women do this without bad intentions. but she makes a wall out of her face. cated? Nothing would force me to unveil in the pres- . The European woman wears the simplest figure was totally hidden. but it was still wide enough to conceal the she wishes at home or when invited to soirees. The way we wear the izar now imitates the dress the more it is shortened. the face veil be. not hijab. and if should call it a dress with a clown's cap. because we have exceeded the bounds not shorten it and tighten it until we transform it into of custom and propriety. In my opinion. The wrap shrunk little by dress she has when she is outside. When the woman wrapped herself in it. and does not conform to our standards of modesty (hijab). We tied back our headgear elry. If my father or hus- covered their hair and their bodies. place limits on those who are less prudent. that she paints various colors. to cover the body right If I cannot find anyone but a man to teach me.

We shall suffer double occupation. What is the good of education if one can- toms should not be abandoned except when they are not abandon a custom that is not rooted in religion. We have all seen family happi- by Egyptians except when they are appropriate and ness destroyed because of this old betrothal practice. The woman who used to gather with 'ulama' [religious scholars] should be accompanied by her father. The two get married to a Westerner. while the current in movements and repose and sense if a person is false. women. which might be light but could become enough for the two persons to get to know each other's complicated through neglect. It is a practice in all nations. and they except among city people. while she would be thrifty if she were be able to evaluate that person's morals. ond by our own actions. ficials and nobles] hidden away in "a box of aged by our silence to contaminate others. and the Prophet himself. and brother. harmful. and she should wear simple clothing. If illness causes me to consult a doctor. The second will be Most sensible people in Egypt believe it is necessary worse than the first. When the Eu- other. cousins. she becomes a does not see the faults of that person and would not spendthrift. and friends to live near them. She is a good example of decorum that immoral young men would use this opportunity and modesty. but it is enough to tell if they are attracted from a doctor who could cure me? to each other. who otherwise would be encour. anyone with good intuition The imprisonment in the home of the Egyptian can detect a person's moral character in the eyes and woman of the past is detrimental. I cannot find reckless. but we shall have invited the sec- their marriage. Are we better in Islam than tion. practical. the two people should see Sukayna [bint al-Husayn. freedom of the Europeans is excessive. or an uncle or a and poets. In my view. West.74 Bahithat al-Badiya ence of the teacher. and soon they start to quarrel and the harmony Sayyida Nafisa [saintly scholar. including Egypt. Cus. or daugh. neighbors. her I have heard that some of our high officials are guardian should probe the behavior of the man to as- teaching their girls European dancing and acting. She falls things. we cause Egyp- ters appearing on stage before audiences acting with tian men to seek European women in marriage. and others. because the first occurred for fiances to meet and speak with each other before against our will. but when someone loves another. If we are afraid Islam prescribes." If we do not solve this problem. but I am opposed to this and am gance of their wives. wives following their engagement. servants. I would like become subject to occupation by women of the to remind you of something that causes us great un. It is wise. well. 762-824] and Sayyida evaporates. broth- wise. . that person ropean woman marries an Egyptian. did not do other. The European woman thinks convinced this is rooted in fallacy. thinking they would be happy with them We must show our disdain for the few Muslim women rather than daughters of pashas and beys [high of- who do these things. They marry European servants and working-class and a moral threat we must fight as much as we can. and the like. one by happiness—the question of engagement and marriage. Some there is no woman doctor. I can remain veiled and still bene. married on the basis of false love and without direc- fit from the teacher. to see young women without intending marriage. I certain how serious he is before allowing him to see consider both despicable—a detestable crossing of his daughter or the young woman for whom he is re- boundaries and a blind imitation of Europeans. ers. However. that these wives will bring their fathers. European practice of allowing the engaged pair to get Most Egyptian men who have married European together for a period of time so that they can come to women suffer from the foreign habits and extrava- know each other. died 736]—God's blessings be upon them— and before signing the marriage contract. Some people advocate the would close the doors of work in front of our men. we shall On the subject of customs and veiling. should I abandon myself might protest that one or two or more meetings is not to sickness. or should I seek help character. The result of this she is of a superior race to the Egyptian and bosses getting together is that they would come to love each her husband around after marriage. men and the other by women. as peace be upon him and his followers. European customs should not be taken up and that is harmful. one should investigate by talking with acquain- between the two extremes and does not violate what tances. bare bosoms in love scenes? This is contrary to Islam. great-granddaughter of the each other and speak together after their engagement Prophet. It is not improbable. sponsible. What good is there for us in women and By not allowing men to see their prospective men holding each other's waists dancing. chance. As for a person's past and other a better model than today's Turkish woman.

they should also Is our condition satisfactory? If it is not. because immodest behavior on the street and prove to our hus- if he does he will endanger his own good product. but parents. and and lower classes are. on condition that their views I had the right to legislate. as much as possible. us not to accept marriage to him. rather than agement. and who cation for girls. it should be to the benefit. not merely acquire national manufacturer of silk visits the factories of the trappings of a foreign language and rudiments of Europe and admires their efficiency. When our young men go to Europe to in a man's mind that woman is weaker and less in- study modern sciences. and child care. How can a [practice of the Prophet]. Our youth any condition to hurt our feelings or fail to respect claim that they bring European women home because us—if we do all this. If we fail to do something about not the detriment. and a nation that has lost its human than they are. As these men get an this. If we eliminate introduce the same European-made product. Let them show us what they want. they should bring Euro. shall we be content with her when she more intelligent children. If a We should get a sound education. health care. lower-class children are respect for others should not make us overlook the greatly neglected by their parents. men. and compulsory preparatory allows women peddlers and washerwomen. sons to be eliminated from the blood and strength- tion. . or books through which she can children and replace them with Western children. with whatever is foreign. We have to find work to do at she admired in those other children? If the lowliest home. What work of most of us at home is lounging on cushions would be the result if this happens? If an Egyptian all day or going out to visit other women. If to follow their views. and the blessing of the dead. In many of our ways we follow the views of our ens the muscles and gives energy. why doesn't the husband gently guide his wife? neighbor and the jewelry of her friend and the furni- Husband and wife should do their utmost to please ture of a bride? This is added to the notion imprinted each other. Public interest is above admira. to have authority over her? Can he respect a is deficient and lacking in what her Western sister woman who speaks only about the clothes of her has. how can we bring benefit to their compatriots. would it be right that she would leave her books about health. How does wife travels to Europe and sees the children there with the woman who knows how to read occupy her lei- better complexions and more beautiful than children sure time? Only in reading novels. Has she read in Egypt. how can a just man despise us? they find them more sophisticated than Egyptian As for the unjust man. 2. Providing primary and secondary school edu- superstition. while most men? I am the first to admire the activities of the of the children of the elite are sick or frail and prone Western woman. I would decree: do not do injustice to us nor trespass on our rights. or even school education for all. despite the care lavished on them by their to respect those among them who deserve respect. it would have been better for women. The superior to our own. almost all of them. in good the husband becomes an example for other young health and have a strong constitution. Teaching girls the Qur' an and the correct sunna of the lesser respect that men accord us. The children of the middle also takes the place of one of our best women. it means we think our condition is satisfactory. and I am the first to illness. telligent than he is. he should buy music. one can see that the work- Western woman marrying an Egyptian is disowned ing classes have better health and more energy and by her family. or profit herself and others? Being given over to idle- would she do her best to make them beautiful and ness or luxury has given us weak constitutions and make them resemble as much as possible that which pale complexions. Our beliefs and actions have been a great cause 1. and her courage. By the same token. They should bring better it in the eyes of men? Good upbringing and to their country that which will profit it and dispense sound education would elevate us in the eyes of men. pean students and workers to Egypt because they are We shall advance when we give up idleness. of Egypt. We are ready Now I shall turn to the path we should follow. sensible man respect a woman who believes in magic. The reasoning is the same. At a first glance. Our education should also include home man- machinery that would do work rapidly. bands through good behavior and fulfilment of du- If we pursue everything Western we shall destroy ties that we are human beings with feelings. no less our own civilization. Work causes poi- good of the nation. On the other hand. education and profit themselves. A LECTURE IN THE CLUB OF THE UMMA PARTY 75 If the man thinks the upper-class Egyptian wife devils. and we do not allow them under civilization grows weak and vanishes.

work. Maintaining the best interests of the country and 6. Making it incumbent upon our brothers. first aid. Allowing women to study any other advanced ish women of Istanbul. Instructing girls on the theory and practice of any woman and man to marry without first meet- home economics. dispensing with foreign goods and people as tience. Bringing up girls from infancy stressing pa.76 Bahithat al-Badiya 3. and not permitting of Egypt. subjects they wish without restriction. health. male relative of the bride. Adopting the veil and outdoor dress of the Turk- 5. and other virtues. and childcare. 9. ing each other in the presence of the father or 4. honesty. much as possible. cation so they can serve the women of Egypt. the men ing betrothal and marriage. 10. 8. Adhering to the shari'a [Islamic law] concern. to implement this program. . 7. Setting a quota for females in medicine and edu.

Emad Eldin Shahin. Adams. 77 . kindly mentioned its title to you. volume 31. 1845-1909). He advocated return to the original sources of Islam and the re interpretation of the Qur'an to meet modern demands. Through Muslim Eyes: M. (Damascus. Rida believed in the compatibil- ity of Islam and reason. 1937). Va. Rida's monthly periodical. was widely read and highly influential. from late in his life. science. as well as some eminent European an introduction of the topic and what needs to be Orientalists. "al-Tajdid wa al-tajaddud wa al. pp. Muhammad Rashid Rida. Rida attended a school established by Shaykh Husayn al-Jisr (Lebanon. has writers. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age: 1798-1939 volume 32. 226-231. and virtuous women overlook and forgive any shortcoming. number 3. 770-777. pp. 1970). A large audience of scholars. al-Manar arba'ina sana (Rashid Rida and Forty Years of Fraternity) (The Beacon). Rida therefore acquired a fair knowledge of modern sciences and European languages. Born in Tripoli. the Merciful This is a lecture the publisher of this periodical [al- Manar. volume 32. I appeal to you to ing students of the high schools. Albert pp. which reinforced his reformist and antimystical tendencies. I begin with attended it. July 1931. number 1. disseminating the ideas of Islamic reform throughout the Islamic world. Hourani. and modernity. al-Manar (The Beacon}. 1933). Rashid Rida 1. Cairo. which he published from 1898 to 1935. reflects Rida's vision of Islamic renewal and his con- cerns about the increased secularization of Muslim society.: International Institute of Islamic Study of the Modern Reform Movement Inaugurated by Thought. and Renewers Muhammad Rashid Rida (Lebanon-Egypt. Renewing. 6 Muhammad Rashid Rida Renewal. The Society of the Oriental League has entrusted me tute of Geography at the invitation of the Society of to deliver a lecture tonight on the issue of "Renewal. Yet Rida was critical of some of 'Abduh's disciples who took modernist ideas to secular and liberal conclusions. Rida was greatly influenced by the reformist message of Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad 'Abduh (chapter 3). He rejected the growing attempts to subordinate Islam to modernity and Westernization and in his later years tilted toward religious conservatism. number 10. Syria: Matba'at Ibn Zaydun. delivering it and attested to its moderation. Muhammad 'Abduh (London: Oxford University Press." My colleague in its board 1348 [early 1930]. the Beneficent. 49-60.1 Part I In the Name of God. Charles C. Translation (London: Oxford University Press. They were asked for their opinion after explained and examined. Doctor Mansur Fahmi [1886-1959]. and Renewers). or The Beacon} delivered at the Royal Insti. students of al-Azhar [University]. the Oriental League on a Ramadan night in the year Renewing. of directors. March 1932. 1993). becoming one of'Abduh's closest disciples and his biog- rapher. and he moved to Egypt in 1897 to join 'Abduh. October 1931. and Renewers. 222-244. The speech translated here. while studying also the works of Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali (1058-1 I I I ) and Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328). from Arabic and introduction by Emad Eldin Shahin. outstand. Islam and Modernism in Egypt: A and the West (Herndon. pp. Al-Sayyid Rashid Rida wa ikha' mujaddidun" (Renewal. Egypt. 1865-1935) was a prolific writer and one of the most important figures in Islamic modernism. Shakib Arslan. who believed in the need to combine religious and modern education. Renewing. Like Afghani and 'Abduh.

intellectual. 1805-1849]. and renewers abandoned and forgotten. Verse 59] our statement. its people living a life of ease. wickedness". "Shall culture. then turned tegration of the family. and imitation of Western civilization. All these vices our public and private schools are in even greater are old. Verse 35] our . they defied our order and pursued disobedience and We need an independent renewal like that of depravity. Nor [do we need] a a time that is strained by religious. laws. vast sultanate. we have worn out and depreciated. All that it needs is to prepare. as well as attacks on the nation's reli. and so. to do so. 1849-1905. It would have restored the glory of Arab youths and teach them respect. literary. erally "naked arts"] and discouraging virtue under the If our al-Azhar and religious institutions are in pretext of freedom. and promote 1936] who demonstrates the willingness to do so. and eroded their independence. as us in the paths of civic advancement has been re. liberation of the Oriental woman. [There is] Introductory Note on Our Need for no need for an imitative renewal like that of the Ot- Renewal in All Aspects toman state. which ended in the disintegration of its In a time that is afflicted by ideological. and we will explain the sentence against them is justified. What we have of the old and the modern is a activist. everyone knows. regain our with the history of Athens and Rome and other capi- independence. military. then in its termination and eradication political. Sura 17. voked and corroded. we are in a dire need for renewal ripe. If it had adhered to its initial plan. Communist. it is pousing depravity in the name of the liberal arts [lit- useless in itself and cannot preserve the core. industrial." [Qur'an. language. even zation. "Ver- cal interests and develop our agricultural. and its customs. Anything that could preserve our na. In our attempts to acquire of knowledge and wisdom. interest. ing of the eastern part of Africa and the western part and origins. see chapter 11]—not the renewal shell of imitation. the concepts of renewal. any perish but the ungodly?". renewal like that of the Egyptian state. the violation of marital vows. Therefore they deserved our statement. have erupted. "And when We de- cludes two dimensions: positive and negative. and its national charac. and values. tions is almost entirely negative. and We destroy the harm later. the Great [ruler of Egypt. ily We shall annihilate these wicked people". tals of the ancient peoples. reigned 1922- tional character and religious heritage. They weakened their states ruption of education and socialization in them in. es- walnut that lies under the outer wooden layer. The cor. in a time that is threatened by women's independently during the reign of Muhammad 'Ali revolution. in to imitation and ended with occupation and the loss a time in which heresy and unfettered promiscuity of independence. good traditions. and to achieve it with a worthy leader. All of our historical origins. to exert the renewing. Our stroy a population.78 Muhammad Rashid Rida ter of dress. dress. Egypt would have become a great sultanate consist- gion. the We need this glorious renewal. With this renewal we shall Verse 13] our statement. need of reform to renew the guidance of religion. not new. [Sura 46. nothing remains stable to raise our of Asia. preferring their own lust over the public Japan to promote our economic. civilization. We send Our command to (warn) complaint against defects in the religious institu. which started cial chaos. It is still qualified which you know even better. in from the world geographic atlas. Verse 16] [This in this nation complain about both and propose one means:] We order them with obedience and virtue. as known to those who are familiar need of reform to renew our civilization. throne today there is a king [Fu'ad. On the and renewers. and commercial wealth. and renewers have become widely spread necessary efforts. "We would never have de- become a dignified umma [Islamic community] and stroyed cities if their inhabitants were not given to a strong state. like the shell of an almond or a of heresy and promiscuity. our blossoming civilization. We need renewers of civili- empire. Iranian pan-Islamic it fully. and values. and fulfill all our interests. [Sura 14. while preserving our nation's religion. and Bolshevik upheavals. and would have been charged with the In such a time. and when they disobey. which I have described briefly. see chapter 3] to the fringes and have never been able to reproduce and Jamal al-Din [al-Afghani. People of vision and understanding them utterly. but reform after the other. laxity and profligacy. the disin. and the bonds of kinship. and politi. and leadership of the Muslim umma. to seek this goal when the time is amongst us. like Muhammad 'Ali the Great. and language. and great the modern and the old. one that combines true religion. [Sura 28. such as Muhammad the novel and borrow the modern we have only clung 'Abduh [Egyptian scholar. Truly. 1838-1897.

destructive individuals have assumed the despise those who call for that. None of them deserves this title. distinguish. leading land and naval armies. and Great have become known. permit drinking and all types of sin.. these heretic calls to destroy [the government's] re- ligion. Their praise of the ex- 2. began with an earlier generation. virtue. audacity in mixing right with wrong. and to deride those who would preserve [the of his people in his attempts at imitative renewal by past] by calling them reactionary. dom: freedom of religion.] gest basis for the military and civilizational renewal They also entice youths with heresy and praise the of the nation and the state. permission and approval. adorning his wife. to be a good and virtuous fied by the leaders of knowledge and modern civili- spouse. zation. and reformist excellence in knowledge or wisdom. are the stron. They engage in flagrant slander. true nature. not for have [formed] a scientific. 1857. with its conquests and civili- to rise up with him and acknowledge his stature. and they sion. It is quite sufficient preclude them from engaging in modernization. sophistry. or restoring its liance of one of them in political leadership. fleets. to allow whom- 11. They call been for the excessiveness of the Egyptian govern- the household her prison. praise the extremist Turks who have tossed Islam fulness that follow. Verse 117] This means that He [God] will not ever she pleases to enter his home. and A horde of heretics in this great country are at shaving the beards of his statesmen! present attempting to assume this honorable title [of Jamal al-Din [al-Afghani] and Muhammad 'Abduh renewer]. speech. No advice can be heard during the pursuit dents on his scientific missions [to Europe]. But Amanullah Khan [ruler of Afghani. his wide preaching are useless once they have deviated from garment. did not of moral chaos and whims. Some even say that she is fit for wars and fight- of Muhammad 'Ali. seclu.2 which glory. RENEWAL. the garb of his officials and that of the stu. these pretenders would not have dared to voice palace. Had it not organized and frugal head of the household. and work—[the very freedoms] that are glori- ing her over man: that is. 1919-1929] lost his throne and shed the blood is old. take and insolence in criticizing their opponents or crit- pride in the donning of the hat. donning the [European] hat. guidance or group. or in revealing unknown truths. ating practices useful to the umma in preserving its ing to respond to them. swimming. dence. The umma has seen the bril. and to enter the destroy them because of transgression on His part. even if he con. not for initi- ceeding with their reforms insofar as the umma is will.. while preserving the pursuit of lust. His Majesty. It 1927]. AND RENEWERS 79 statement. capable of following their footsteps and pro. RENEWING. siders her as an angel in goodly pavilions. politi. Advice and requests. They urge the nation to abandon the guid. and they theless. They en- munities so long as the people are righteous. seated on the throne ing. even if it is like a garden ment. for truth has no sanctity for them. and the husband her jailer. ter. and an zation whom they claim to be following. allow the mixture of ics. not correct evi- women and men in dancing [halls]. cessiveness of the Turkish heretics is not novel. and traditions. as well as the princes and the ing. form well what God has created her for. re. opinion. urge her not to consider such impediments as the bur- cal. an affectionate and educating mother. destroying all the cornerstones of free- it her utmost concern in life to prepare herself to per. take off the apparel of virtue. values. if the nation so soldiers blindly obedient to their leaders. writing. and its product in . ance of religion. developing its wealth. and the religious. "Your Lord would not surely destroy com. [. breast-feeding and nurs- longer unknown. They also tempt her with The modernizing reforms of Muhammad ' Ali the positions in the government and attorneys' offices. to concede [to their claim] that the old is repulsive plishments. dress. and must be abandoned and despised just because it stan. and travel. (I seek forgiveness from God because restor- was inconceivable before [the umma] became ready ing the nation's glory. religion. [proof] of moral degradation and intellectual decay viving the sciences.) leadership of renewal and monopolized the title of All their wares in this marketplace are but chat- renewers. is considered by them as reactionary. marine and air nobility of Muhammad 'Ali's family. None. Sa'd Pasha Zaghlul [Egyptian nationalist leader. Muhammad 'Ali's folded turban." [Sura tice her to disobey and disregard him. and achieving glorious accom. home of whoever she likes without [her husband's] when they are righteous in their deeds. and social reform of' Abduh and Afghani are no dens of pregnancy and labor. who makes behind them. rational. They criticize woman. trying to turn them and women into nation's components and character.

4 I heard the Friday which preserved its religious and national character. knowledge. they clashed with and urge the fasting worshipers to defend the Qur'an. This could be worse than When similarly false renewers deceived Amanullah the divisions of ethnic and national extremisms and Khan. His Highness 'Umar Pasha Tusun [1872-1944]. accusing its 'ulama' [religious scholars] 5. assume the leadership of 400 mil. They which its enemies scorned and accused of transgres- should have combined religious renewal and earthly sions against women. Leaders military system. industry. nor [opposed] the posi. which was once a province of this have been justified. like Japan. because they imitate the heretics of Eu- rope in their hostility to religious scholars. casting doubt on the doctrines of religion. in the mosque where I pray. though this and elites are forced to call upon the government to process started in the last century during the reign of prevent members of this party from pronouncing evil. pity Islam They were imitators. found resistance from religious scholars. . which it requires. of being an insurmountable obstacle to the progress man sultanate. Islam has neither prevented the evils of re. claiming that science and philosophy have 4. less in number. Further.] because renewal was carried out by one Europeans. who him and his government. in debate at the University. poor republic. and he tried to imitate the present Turkish state. the imitators among the clerical scholars. and civilization than the king. reigned 1880-1901]. Asia. He was forced to flee and constitute the majority of the nation. for women at the University of Egypt. undermining its audience and his own admission. 'Ulama'. after some of the renewal.80 Muhammad Rashid Rida this generation has been the extinction of the Otto. Nothing remained of it as dirt is removed from the road. explain later. unanimously criticized such nonsense. and the authority of religion and church on the other. The false renewers here do not consider existing Recently. Had they called for except for a small. and so on. The presence of a new party ap- they showered him with praise for unveiling women pears to complete the roster of divisions. [The Turks] have not the necessity of equality between men and women. of political parties. sultanate. a to declare their hostility and resistance to it. therefore. Mr. This blind imitation has made them disincline [people from re- 3. in a newal. Doctor Fakhri Faraj Mikhail al-Qibti. it would much blood was shed in the conflict between the free- have been accomplished in a short time. as I will dom of knowledge and government on the one hand. is hostile to religion and despises the devout. the same way Europe has done with reli. Egypt preceded the Turks in this earthly renewal. someone at the American University [in Cairo]. practical reform in the name of renewal. renewal of divisive strife. whom we defeated ligion]. There was a dark sedition.3 Similarly. even in divorce and inheritance. and Africa. an obstacle that must be removed just Europe. ora- abdicate his rule. This sort of strife occurred in Europe during the The clerical scholars neither opposed nor helped [the Middle Ages. Afghanistan. a similar situation took place in Afghani- conditions. Mahmud 'Azmi [1889-1954]. the Turks have embarked influence of someone who declared unheard-of rights on all the earthly renewal that the heretics called for. and writers urge people to respond to this party.] and forcing his people to wear hats. and then affluence. 'Abd al-Rahman [Khan. Now [Turks] want [Egypt] to follow [the Turkish state's] footsteps—its heresy and disavowal The Alleged Renewal of the Heretics of the guidance of religion—so that [Egypt] will not Constitutes a New Division of the Nation be able to replace [Turkey] in what it is now quali- fied to do. This took place precisely as a result of the negative Since the last century. which it condemns. annulled it. which was the greatest sultanate in of the umma. pursued an independent path of renewal. they would dom of Egypt. [This party. Had it been carried out by both sides. in imitation of the heretics of Europe and its liber- newal ignited fires of revolution in his country against als. This so-called renewal is almost becoming a real lion Muslims [around the world]. which were the worst centuries for process. and. argued tive aspects. that is. to judge by the support of the criticizing its rules and regulations. There has been no real renewal in tors. lecture which he published and distributed. prayer speaker. His heretical re. notables5 renounced that lecture and the newspapers gious reformation and modernization. no inclination for [building] schools. and the like. scholars. during which side.

. However. provided that each is put in its place with no neglect The true statement on this topic is that humans at all or excess. Among the cre. and nationalism. . tional and independent people do not shun the old and turn to the new unless there is a reason making it pref- erable. to selected creatures whose holy fore it escalates. Ra- advanced than bee hives and ant hills. generating order in our world [The Lesser Collection] to its correctness. . Without them. for the sake stage to another. political. As a Naysaburi. "God sends to this nation at the beginning of every century All of creation is new. to prevent this conflict be. their dwellings would not be more and those women and men who are at their level. . thing outside it. and the tendency for discovery and the nature of things and their type. most glorified and exalted. Each has its place. The renewal and change and transformation in the phase of our of religion means renewing its guidance.] Renewing is a law of social association. [. in accordance with the rule of logic.. [companion of the Prophet. RENEWING. Da'ud [al-Sijistani. This is exactly what I seek with this souls He prepared to receive it.. has advanced along with lecture. In each there is good and ill. I see it as the greatest task that I can perform the nature of human societies in their progress from one before the Society of the Oriental League. Some people by na- Part of renewal in human action is achieved by the ture tilt more to one or the other. died 678]. ] This is the meaning of renewal and What I stated in the introduction to a previous renewing. said. peace be upon them all. RENEWAL. died 889] in his Sunan [Hadith Col- ated. and others from the hadith of Abu Hurayra common people cannot approach. appropriateness. [ ." [Qur'an. on coeducational schools.] the Seal Part 2 of the Prophets.] A Types of Renewal and Their Necessity rational person may prefer the new for a reason related Social. [. and it leads us [to conclude] that both the new lecture. There is New and Old no contradiction or opposition between them. which is based on the revelation of the wise dition before it spreads. renewal is part of nature and habit. . . . in accordance with their na. I see the condition of Egypt as dif. The absolute original is the someone who renews its religion. [Jalal al-Din] al- Renewal and renewing of the universe are among Suyuti [1445-1505] referred in his al-Jami' al-saghir the divine general laws. with His grace.. clarifying its existence. the narrators of hadith [ac- counts of the Prophet] tell us that [Muhammad. [. refuting the innovations and extrem- for our parents and grandparents. AND RENEWERS 81 stan. in accordance with instinct of independence.] they reached the stage of maturity and independence.. They enable societies to patriotism. may be appropri. either in itself or for some- sary for human societies. [. It is counterweighed by the The True and Decisive Statement on preservation of the old. benefit and harm. and the old have their place." Narrated by Abu Creator. ture and level of readiness. Verse 43]. to its usefulness and utility. "No change will ism that its followers accrue. or their reluctance in up- thou find in God's way (of dealing): No turning off holding it and following its rules in managing the in- wilt thou find in God's way (of dealing). religion. We must repel this se. folk proverb says: "Whoever does not have a past [Ahmad ibn al-Husayn] al-Bayhaqi [994-1066] in al- will not have a future. new and old are relative. Rarely is the new invention. civic. God. such as the economy. and every new one will become old. 933-1014] in his Mustadrak [Supplement].] times need both the old and the new. progress through the stages of civilization and ascend ferent from that of Europe during these centuries and on the paths of science and knowledge. The Wisdom of the Collected the knowledgeable may understand in senses that the Hadith]. humans would be similar preferred. . because of its newness. Even divine that of present-day Afghans. which is opposite of imitation. [. . and it is a matter of igno- ate to state here as a summary: rance to prefer one over the other in absolute terms.] civilization. and religious renewal is neces. terests of humans and the laws of society and Sura 35. until it was completed by Islam when of dear Egypt and the entire Orient. [Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah] al-Hakim [al- once new." This is a wise proverb that Ma'rifa [al-sunan. They operate [today] just as they operated truth and certitude. Despite this completion. except by children to flocks of birds. Every old creature was lection}.

661-680]. his siblings receive nothing. tute that medication with a German one. and literary life in their character. so Preferring all that is national. 'Utba ibn Farqad. [. In . When 'Umar arrived in Syria wearing his patched garment and riding his camel. [Other] nations assimilated into them and were came appalled by the spread of cheap German prod. perseverance.] The answer I received was. I would have preferred it. let alone the regula. marriage. They maintain the regulations that we believe to have been argue that the government has abandoned the rules revealed by God. inheritance. I then mention a statement of the wise man of what he said in the letter: "follow your grandfather of the Orient [Afghani] about them.] [a later caliph. Ma'add ibn 'Adnan [patriarch of the northern Arab [The first scholar] is the Shaykh al-Islam [chief tribes] in his toughness. not the Germans. He wrote a form. I had to substi. style. has reached such an extent that characteristics of the nation. I inquired in some eigners imitated our ancestors in this respect.. of the sharl 'a in such and such cases of the penal tions deduced through ijtihad [interpretation] by our code and finances. There is no difference for these renewing between 'Umar [ibn al-Khattab." They never denied its existence. sponded... over that which belongs heretics and Copts have spoken at podiums and to others. most exalted. and that we remained silent and leading scholars on the basis of our laws and prin. even rules of inheri- home. . second caliph. not I need to begin with a brief introduction on the stag- to learn from them how they rule. the Their Religion peoples of the West. we must abandon ciples.] statements by two Turks. They preserve the regulations of the old schools urging us to abandon our religion and our British judges and their legal decisions more than we entire shari'a. letter to his governor in Persia. and other components and lims in this country. not just the rules of inheritance. 634. the Mus- industries. They formed several associations features were assimilated into other peoples. particu- pharmacies in Berlin and Munich about a French larly the British. especially their language and religion. in which the British differ from the laws of all it is French. Mu'awiyya observed: "O. may God be pleased with him. [. commerce. allowing the eldest son to acquire the gave as the reason [for its unavailability] that it was entire inherited estate of his parents. and Mu'awiyya regulations. They do not fear anyone In clarifying the need for religious and earthly re- who is simple in attire and appearance." nation of the religious scholars and its negative im- Similarly. [. They prefer their own The contempt of the false renewers for us... but only other nations. all the rest of God's regulations regarding the per- ing pride in their legislature and other matters in the sonal status code. either new or old. The for- to investigate means of prevention. Had an Egyptian or Arab medication The Contempt of the Heretics and Copts for existed. Part 3 ful." 'Umar re. who be.]! include [. ['Umar's] instructed his governors in pact on rulers and seekers of political and social re- foreign provinces to observe Arab garb. Part of heresy. "We came to teach them how we rule. Commander of the Faith. and harsh life Ottoman religious official] Musa Kazim [Turkey. and di- early years of Islam. . a better one for that purpose. particularly the British. Therefore. see chapter 23]. The heretical false renewers try to medication I usually carry during travel and keep back convince us to abandon all that. newal. laws.] The Arabs were able to preserve their Preferring the National to the Foreign national character in the provinces they conquered. the people of Syria are accustomed to seeing their rulers in splendid clothes. . accepted its judgment. [the first] by one of the most enlightened scholars of bidding [Muslims] to wear the dress of the Persians Islam and [the second] by an outspoken proponent and ordering them to preserve their Arab customs. all vibrant nations. is a long as they obeyed these instructions and maintained cornerstone of economic. political. An example is what happened vorce.. "It is French. Arabized and Islamized. and Islam's perspective and encouragement. for. muftis [religious officials] between the two types of 644]. the Muslims in Urging Them to Abandon With this kind of nationalism and patriotism. God bless his soul. Those who abandoned these ucts in their country.82 Muhammad Rashid Rida Spartans. tance. have advanced. . [. while the rest of made by the French. faithful to their kind and devoted to their nation." The Arab descendants of Ma'add are like the 1858-1920. Our ancestors preceded the foreigners in tak.

Its implementation depends on the accep- is possible. I will volunteer to teach there and to promote cooperation vis-a-vis the Western states deliver my health and science lessons in accordance and peoples. me in Istanbul with the project of al-Da 'wa wa al. see chapter 21]. or Rational Interpretation] that he used to publish in Egypt before the [re. reigned This man.] [The second scholar] is Doctor 'Abdullah Bey The Statement of Sayyid jomal al-Din Cevdet [Turkey. to establish friendly relations. I see that you do not do the of Fatih and Sulaymaniyya [historic mosques in same. while you oppose religion?" try. evangelizing their religion because of the reli- He explained. also told me of the influence of the Turkish re- Ahkam-i 'Adliye [Compendium of Legal Statutes. I suggested to him. helped 1867-1912] sent a letter to Sultan Abdiilhamid [II. concerns the fol- the Ottoman state. and it that Rida established in Egypt in 1912]. It included the Shaykh al- to wish to serve Islam under your auspices. He formulated all its laws in accordance with do not enjoy the slightest share of such an influence— the shari'a. needs and that address the conditions of the present he told me: "This is a great project and necessary to time. The 'ulama' of Egypt Yemen. AND RENEWERS 83 his home in a suburb of Istanbul." He responded. God bless his dance with the rules of the [Ottoman] Mecelle-i soul. 1869-1932. What contains rules that contradict established statements is their status in Egypt?" of Hanafi doctrine. "I oppose the religion of the shaykhs gious freedom we have. God bless his soul. [Ottoman prime minister. Among the things convince the Central Committee of the CUP. But the an implicit moral link between you and us. RENEWING. [He also planned] to establish a unified how can they be accused of blocking civic progress. ." [General] Mahmud § evket Pasha fatwas—is that they do not issue fatwas in accor. he was explaining The 'ulama' of Istanbul had a great influence on to me his plan for the reform of the government of the nation and the government. 1860-1940] to state would oppose [such reforms]." [. the Western people send missionaries to our coun- "How is that possible. I would be the first Palace for consultation. an elite school ing that "each one of us is an Oriental king. but what can we do with the official tance of the 'ulama' and the approval of the Commit- scholars of fatwas [religious rulings]?" tee of Union and Progress.] Islam and the minister of education. RENEWAL. "I realize that this the state. editor [al-Afghani] on the Turkish Scholars of a magazine [ictihad. because it country (Iraq) do not have such an influence. who view us as one and the same. I guarantee you that I can deduce from the al-Da'wa wa al-irshad to [Ottoman] Prime Minister vast Islamic shari 'a all the rulings that the sultanate Huseyin Hilmi Pasha [1855-1922]. and then said: "The scholars in my 1876]. the emperor of Japan [Mutsuhito Meiji. [. . 1858-1913]. The statement of al-Sayyid Jamal al-Din [al-Afghani]. . and there are similar ones by because he was persecuted and not allowed to enter him regarding the Muslim 'ulama'. promulgation of the Ottoman] Constitution [in 1908]. to power in the Ottoman Empire in 1908].. I will speak to the Shaykh He means that the Islamic clerical scholars al-Islam to convince the scholars. who can serve as while we follow the ideas of those people. I would like you to send us preachers to evan- Istanbul]. He is one of the founders of the lowing incident: Committee of Union and Progress [CUP. and so on. reigned 1876-1909] seeking his friendship and say- irshad [Propagation and Guidance. and an Islamic college. who publicly declares heresy. which I refer to here. because it is impossible for us to progress gelize for your religion (Islam). He informed is in our interest and the interests of our people to me that "if you succeed in this effort and establish get acquainted. and to [Colonel charged with the issuance of official fatwas for the Mehmed] Sadik Bey [§ehrekustii." I responded. the two minis- . I will I learned about them. all of which conforms to shari'a. which came During the time [Jamal al-Din] was at Istanbul. a practical resistance that the government feared [to "If you agree not to commit yourselves to Hanafi make reforms]? When I presented the project of doctrine. ligious scholars. I see with your approach in religious reform. and about the Shaykh al." The understanding of Rashid [Rida] Efendi and Shaykh sultan was interested in this letter and ordered the Muhammad 'Abduh of the religion of Islam helps formation of a committee of his advisors in Yildiz progress and benefits the state. do my utmost to persuade them to use their influence Islam—who is restricted by them in the issuance of on this matter. commercial court to specialize in reviewing the cases and where is this progress? When did they put up such related to foreigners and Jews.

he would be assured of reward like the one who fol- vide them with a special education that qualifies lowed it. and the condition of the people. to justify individual ijtihad. he would be required to bear the burden like that appropriate gift. such as military affairs. and the spread of hadith of Anas [ibn Malik. century someone who renews its religion. ligion. without a divisive extremism that turns the relates to matters of livelihood. nation into factions and mutually hostile groups. evident] text. orphanages. The sultan There are two kinds of this renewal in this regard." The sultan adopted this view.84 Muhammad Rashid Rida ters officially concerned with this issue. these scholars turn even Muslims away this type of renewal in the statement of the Prophet. writing. the writing of books in easy modern in this regard. ing the doctrine or the scholar whose knowledge they The second type [of renewal in earthly affairs] trust. Islamic teachings in the world. The objective of this hadith focuses on the loosen and bind]. to reunify the Muslims issues that are not stipulated as self-evident in God's around their commonality. died 875] from the hadith of manner. and hos- pitals.. for His Majesty to send tice in Islam that was subsequently followed (by oth- a courteous letter to the emperor. but without Jarir ibn 'Abdullah [companion of the Prophet. prohibiting inno- spects. [. and to jus. said and speech. as stipu- from the schools of Istanbul to be sent to Japan. "You are more knowledgeable about styles. and say that you theirs being diminished in any respect. trade. Its interests differ in accordance to changes Shaykh al-Islam and the minister of education sug. servant of the Prophet. wife of . follow. along with an ers). except where [the to recognized criteria. Some the Two Renewals are particular to government. and all human legislation in the presence of a [self- tify those who engage in taqlid [imitation]. The shari'a has left this to the experience of the vival of the Arabic language." Narrated by Muslim from the according to scientific methods. Among these general practices are the founda- for Islamic evangelists. I have mentioned the hadith on religious renewal: on which depend the defense of the country and the "God sends to this nation at the beginning of every protection of the umma from aggression. The gested the formation of a delegation of scholars shari 'a has taken all that into consideration. prior to disunity and dis. may peace be upon him. without has received the highest approval. in time. people. Everyone is equally [responsible] for this re- A Conclusion on the Objective behind newal: individuals. How could they be charged with con. died implementing the suggestion of special education 640]. They met with the sultan at vation. and others. according cord. it is in even more need of renewal in earthly Yildiz Palace and the discussion started. may peace be upon him. The shari'a prohibits ijtihad revealed text's meaning is] self-evident. groups. without their rewards being diminished in them to fulfill this duty in the present age. and governments. . revelation or the practice of the Prophet. The affairs. most qualified in all re. which God has perfected. directed his gaze at him and asked his opinion. entrusted in Islam to those in charge and to the group We have explained its meaning at the outset of the known as ahl al-hal wa al-'aqd [the people who lecture. your earthly affairs. Sayyid If the nation needs renewal in maintaining its re- Jamal al-Din al-Afghani. and the issue of harmless practices. place. They approve the legislation on the return to the simplicity and guidance of religion as basis of consultation and the exercise of reason. in it was in the beginning. is to develop a cadre of intelligent persons and pro. The Lawgiver [God] has recommended Majesty. And he who introduced some evil prac- suffice for the time being. tion of the principles of useful sciences and arts and the establishment of schools. Sayyid Jamal al-Din remained silent. circa 612-709] and 'A'isha [bint Abi Bakr. the spread of education and socialization. He One relates to the public interest and our need for said what may be summarized as follows: "Your legislation. in vocabulary.] industry. It might any respect. from Islam. lated in the books offiqh [jurisprudence]. "He who introduced some vincing the Japanese to adopt Islam? [My] opinion good practice in Islam and was followed (by people). such as agriculture. Some of the means for this renewal include the re. The Prophet." Narrated by will look into its implementation in a satisfactory Muslim [ibn al-Hajjaj." The The legislation connected with this renewal is words of this text are [directly] related to our topic. mention to him that his suggestion of the one who followed this (evil practice).

exploiting the condi- [ibn Hanbal. principle according to which "Necessity permits the arts." to assess the extent of this necessity. may God be pleased these are considered a collective duty in Islam. RENEWING. circa 614-678]. to observe the [jurisprudential] the umma and the state hold dear. financial. and industries. AND RENEWERS 85 the Prophet. and the with her. 780-855]. and mili. does not restrict the umma in pursuing them. you are restrictions are to avoid inflicting or generating harm more knowledgeable about. ." Narrated by Ahmad and transgression (for example. and air installations. legitimate renewal includes all that interest from them). RENEWAL. All and to follow truth and justice. naval. The only and whatever relates to your earthly affairs. He commented on its meaning: "Whatever entire umma sins when it neglects them. tary systems. land. tion of the financially needy by collecting usurious In conclusion. impermissible. administrative. such as the sciences. The shari 'a concerns the affairs of your religion is referred to me.

and to find direction for a future he felt was being lost. 1890-1947) was the scion of a long line of religious scholars from the large Mazrui clan. Randall L. music. Pouwels. 59- 1. 7 Shaykh al-Amin bin 'All al-Mazrui Advice Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali Mazrui (Kenya. What is especially interesting about al-Amin. pp. Trans. 6-8. Horn and Crescent: Cultural 71 in Fran9ois Constantin. however. an existence which was nei. orientate (The Paths of Islam in East Africa) (Paris: Editions 800-1900 (Cambridge. He was very aware of the nature of this debate as it was being discussed outside East Africa. Al-Amin sought to explain what appeared to him to be a topsy- turvy world. These are not the sorts of things do so] only for the good. 1989). toms to those of others who do not get along with us and dance. The Shaft'i Ulama of East Africa. Uwongozi (Advice) Press. golf. whose identity was lost to him yet who could to mimic them. and other things like these. Kenya. Salim. He appears to have read the teachings and writings of contemporary authors such as Muhammad Abduh (chap- ter 3) and Rashid Rida (chapter 6). Arab colonial power in Kenya and Mombasa was replaced by British rule. from Oman during the 1700s. 45-48. "Sheikh al Amin bin Ali al Thanks to Professor Thomas Hinnebusch for his valuable help Mazrui: un reformiste modeme au Kenya" (Shaykh al-Amin with this translation. (Madison. their hold fast to these roots and habits and customs be. bin 'Ali al-Mazrui: A Modern Reformist in Kenya). from which these excerpts are taken. Shaykh Abdallah Salih (Mombasa. ertions. we artisanry as they do. nations. 1987). pp. [how- lost its way and [took to] imitating that of the spar. We also have wanted to follow them in their ex- ther this nor that. All people of the world have their customs and hab. pp. we should do so] only in ways that are good and which do not violate our religion. and not only in ways that are good because of dissimilarities people have in their cities. This is mimicking whites. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. not in things like working or studying except in an emergency. First published in 1931-1932. I say [we should follow them reason intelligent people in every tribe customarily only] in their good customs. And the foundation by which We have imitated them in their habits. like their pastimes. In the 1880s and 1890s. [it seems] people know their way is their nationality. and which do not contradict our religion. 201-202. ever] in [other] things of ours. Pouwels. England: Cambridge University Karthala. and [if we choose to change we have taken to: to the contrary.1 How Do We Imitate the Europeans? to their ways. Kenya: East African Muslim Welfare Society. 120-122. as well as the localized dilemmas in which it found itself during Mazrui's lifetime.. their solidarity. ways of [conducting] meetings. 86 . and religions. lation from Swahili and introduction by Randall L. it does not benefit us row. Les votes de I 'Islam en Afrique Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast. What we have observed of their exertions has We must take care that we do not change our cus. their love of coun- cause they fear becoming like the blackbird which try. we have left all Shaykh al-Amin bin 'Ali al-Mazrui. Ahmed I. Farsy. 1987). from we have only seized upon [things like] drinking wine which they derive their habits and customs. For this and dressing as they do. and then [if we do so. ca. 1830-1970 1955). Mazrui wrote two short-lived newspapers in Arabic and Swahili in the early 1930s. not become a sparrow. 97-124. been in their entertainment like football. Nothing has survived of those journals except for twenty-seven essays that he later collected into a little booklet. is the specific construction he gave to the singular historical character of Swahili Islamic society. which had immigrated to Mombasa. pp. ed. To address these issues. I say this because every day we see ourselves its which are not like those of other people.

For example. Mombasa has 75. and other modern forms of employment. thousands of people from the up- country crowded into the city seeking work and the excite- Qur'an.000 people. they are the ones who make an good scent. rather as fools who belong whom there are great differences. I implore you. which requires [of [even] see the difference between [genuine] knowl. or days reduce them to a contemptuous and humiliat- other things! ing condition that accomplishes nothing for them Poor people of Mombasa! These days we cannot except to debase their religion. work. Are these ones [now] to be where there are not Muslims.] takes him and he goes and pushes him into the fire 3. we have never regarded wretched little one of ours which is so little.—Trans. and the Kamba. O Prophet! Show us the truth. munity—who number only a few people—and [yet] ing them comfortable and neat. even that of the represent. and rearing their they have two daily newspapers. Muslims these days are of the Europeans who work as coolies and cooks and in [such] a state of division that they are their [own "boys. and with good customs and Muslims have none. The So he finishes at the Qur'an school. poor even in fearing the people who proper women if they don't cut their hair [as white lead them. poor in everything. ADVICE 87 meaningful forms of employment to the Chaga. as if the European language Advice for Today's Muslims itself is all the knowledge we need. It is a stinking mess."3 vent it. nor know its meaning. We don't consider them to be poor in wealth.] misfortune [for him]. . When the British made Mombasa the principal port hardly knowing anything except how to read the city of their Kenyan colony. Or the knowledge Euro. while Mombasa children in a healthy way. or telephone workers.2 They are the ones see ways of following the whites' example? It seems who do mechanical and railway work: they are the we have become like flies. These casual employees themselves of all that is base. Swahili. the new skills and ideas cites all the time in his daily and nighttime prayers. searching effort to learn the work of lighting and craftsmanship for filth. [the form of which] we have taken to be is worthless. They learned quickly about the new forms of em. and Muslims among taken to be scholars? No. ["Fot-fot yes" in the original. One source of great women do] or wear frocks. and his father Swahili and other Muslims found themselves to be minori- ties in their own city. single [Muslim] newspaper except this work and crafts and cooking. the Kikuyu." all [of them] speak the language of the whites worst] enemies. to the lowest order [of society]. ties [Swahili towns of East Africa] except these Qur'an schools which a seven-year-old child enters 2. It brings this twaddle as something that makes them civilized. and We have tried to imitate the Europeans in how we among these are many Muslims who are the most expect our women to act to the point that we expect humiliated of all peoples. even learning salutations like "good morning" or "thank you. them] their best and [demands that they] cleanse edge and [mere] language. building only in sores. They are poor in learning. One hardly sees a city anywhere even more than our own. [These ethnic groups were neighbors of the coastal and—God forbid!—leaves at a barely mature age. agriculture. and made happy by a stench. And [even this] he is hardly able to read ment of the new possibilities that the new order seemed to properly.—Trans. dissension in Mombasa concerns the Banyan com- pean women have in fixing up their houses and mak. I am unable to identify pit of the missionary school where there is great this reference. It has gotten so that people think there is no need for knowledge of These quarrels in which Muslims are involved these [practical affairs like] business. which he re- ployment and mastered English. the Praise the Lord! Is it only in bad things that we Taita. me great sorrow that Goans have their own school." which are how you greet or thank some- one in their language. and arm us with the strength to pre- [merely] a twisting of the tongue when we say "yes. And in the whole of Kenya there manners. and [something] to make our while we have not one school in all our communi- women go around in circles. they are the ones who do radio like scavenger beetles becoming offended only by a and electrical work. and the ability they have in [doing] handy exists not one. needed to land jobs in light industry and transport. Show us what knowledge. them to be like theirs. Fatiha [opening verses of the Qur'an]. and We have tried to follow the whites' ideas about charge us with the vigor to follow it.

They were in We always want the government to treat us the four groups: 'Amr ibn al-'Asi [died 663] and his army. school.88 Shaykh al-Amin bin 'All al-Mazrui Our advice to today's Muslims is to [encourage same as the Indians. by open. one defends only its own interests and causes harm Every day we complain that our education is de. afterward particular city to participate in the reconciliation of they ought to make a great effort. nor between Arab and Kikuyu. the reason for "Jama 'a" in the Arabic language means something lifting them up. This will [ward off] dis. number around 12. Confrontation saps people's strength. But where is the money to build these which makes [many] people into one. [Yet] have we thought even for them to] build their madrasas [seminaries] to teach a day of wanting to do as they do in giving as they their children what is in the shari 'a [religious law] and do to educate their children? Indians each donate what they need to know about life in this world as well. We believe that Muslims number about half. we will collect 36. Abu 'Ubayda [ibn al-Jarra circa 581-639] and his army. God forbid. and This madrasa itself [provides] a stratagem for protect. first. each favoring only themselves. so then there will their community. So why cannot we hospitable [that is. Countrymen. we are stingy their differences. Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan [died 683] and his 4. that is Arabs and Swahili. Rather. [The meaning is unclear: either that the Qur'an pro- vides evidence of the great things Mazrui desires for Mus- army." And the essence of this brother- will cause them anxieties. Because of this . lims can achieve great things. or that the Qur'an provides the wisdom by which Mus. twenty shillings more than the Poll Tax they pay. otherwise gen- alted ranks. nor between religion and religion.—Trans. [all] having a madrasas? I say the money is not lacking. The people of Mombasa number about 75. but I say this must be and hood is in the fundamental objective of achieving that we can do what is necessary to improve our unity.] but their enmity was well known. they do not see like you that [there is anything wrong ing children from the temptations of the mission in] teaching their children knowledge of the world. encourage all Muslims to be one family. the abolition of different factions where every resolve. to others.4 our community for consideration. all the people require is a plan. saves their religiosity. which stated that "Mus- People suffering misfortune will say that this [plan] lims are brothers. Even clining and that it is total nonsense to expect the though their intention is to be united.000.000. [and] then they should are a family which encourages people who live in a resolve to do this with their whole hearts. ing the way needed to accomplish this. and Shurahbil ibn Hasana [circa 570-639] lims. So if we require every person among us to donate three not to [create] differences between Indian and shillings a year. and harmony from their religion and avoiding harm. nor is there any other means except through education that combines [matters of] Religion and the World. and his army. I ask God Al- This respect cannot be realized except. as And [it is the purpose of] the Muslim community to I have already stated. with money! Do we think that great education will Look at the armies of Islam which set out to con- happen without a little application and with a lot of quer the cities of Iran in the time of our lord Abu complaining? Bakr [first caliph. nor between one year. No doubt all of these shared one goal. tribe and tribe. not in [creating] divisions between be no problem that the money will be available. and many among them are Mus. mighty to help us to fulfill it.000 shillings in just Swahili. for example. Thus we. The Community of Islam This is the true way of advancing Muslims to a condition of pride and sublimation. and teaches them excellent manners and erous] people donate three shillings annually so our great strength of character. need to know to benefit them in this world and in the God Almighty has arranged all Muslims in a form Hereafter. nor between the damned and that we need and to teach our children everything they the devout. nor between master and servant. of brotherhood by His word. children can learn about religion and worldly mat- grace and will encourage them to desire better things ters too? of themselves. as God Almighty showed in the Qur'an. lifts them into the ex. reigned 632-634]. they cling to government to improve it. eliciting lims. it enjoins every Muslim to be a brother to another. part in a certain matter. since all Muslims want very much to This is my plan and I place it before the eyes of be respected. This will be sufficient to build the madrasas European and Javanese.

each part [of Muslim. the community] in respect to every other part. for example. like the parts of our Lord. ers. Do we think we should distance ourselves from the A function of the Community of Islam is [to see] bigotry of people when they were in the kind of that all Muslims are like the connecting parts of a ignorance [that existed] before the Prophet came.—Trans. what is desirable each other? A Muslim is the brother of a fellow is that it be like this between Muslims. ADVICE 89 estrangement they were unable to defeat the Irani. 5. And when. we have seen [how] the armies of the brother in religion owes another. and leaving [them] only [with] the duty a Likewise. the whole thing: and follow what the Prophet told us? Should we not and if one [part] is sick. it will dis- brought all four armies together. which is when they defeated bonds.] . does a had its armies under its own commanders. not many days passed does it appear to be when a person stops himself without victory. how bad [Ferdinand] Foche [of France]. the whole is seized by Wild hold fast to our Islamic comradeship. It will permit them Allies in the Great War [World War I] were afraid to help their brothers so they might bring about the of defeating their enemies so long as each country desired harmony. [Matungu fever is a very painful sickness that is com- mon in East Africa. body. But when rich person do harm when he tries to help his com- they joined together under the command of General panion to be a rich man like him? Also. creating one army courage some from organizing their own [exclusive] under his command. just as the Prophet said. These [examples] show that tearing from rescuing a neighbor from a fearful danger in at each other does not strengthen people even though order that they might be like each other in vigor? they intend to be harmonized. thus saving Cardamom Fever. stopping them from bringing harm to oth- the enemy. If the ans until Khalid ibn Walid [died 642] went and Community of Islam becomes this way.5 Furthermore.

The highest aim auspices of the Young Muslim Debating Society. Abdurahman on Democracy. As a leader of the non-Europeans in South Africa he was The Aim of Democracy second to none. Mr. 48. under the scribed as something in one's mind. For instance. Dr. It was the aim of democracy that every man in this cratic Institutions in South Africa. in front of a Muslim audience—as in the speech described here. Making Race: The Politics and Economics of Coloured People of South Africa. The Rise and Decline of Kronos: Journal of Cape History. 1986). Apartheid: A Study of Political Movements among the 58. Durban. the religious man spent his time in prayers so Most of them were aware. running on a platform of unity among nonwhite peoples and a demand for equal civil and political rights with whites. p. different conceptions of happiness." said the learned speaker." pp. Queen Street. volume 17. Mogamed Tasleem Ajam. Aburahman. Maskew Miller Longman. Abdurahman's speeches rarely referred to Islam. Van der Ross. provided a man did not seek happiness in such a man- "Dr. who chose as his subject "Demo. A. E. and established a medical practice on his return to Cape Town in 1895. He acted as leader to the South Afri- can Indian deputation that went to India in 1929. City Council. R. that the that his soul may be saved and he found happiness doctor was a member of the Provincial Council and there. in the mid-1930s. would give the same answer. There were introducing the speaker." member of the Coloured Fact Finding Commission. Abdurahman's pater- nal grandfather was a former slave who founded a successful business in Cape Town." Indian Views. who espoused communism and secular nationalism. Abdurahman soon entered politics. 90 . Democracy can be de- ing at the Muslim Institute. pp. 4. pp. 33^40. "is an ideal C[ouncil]. By the time of this speech. Despite the imposition of suf- frage restrictions on nonwhites. July 19. South Africa: South Africa: Tafelberg. 1880-1985 (Cape Town. Gavin Lewis. Introduction by Charles tween the Wire and the Wall: A History of South African Kurzman. then there was the individual that found hap- also occupied an important position on the Capetown piness in pursuing his vocation. Martin's Press. Abdurahman was elected to the Cape Town City Council and the Cape Provincial Council. Be- South Africa.1 Dr. Abdurahman. 1987). 1. Abdurahman's reformism was already losing favor with younger militants. Abdurahman. 198-204. no two people was accorded a public welcome last Sunday morn. said the chairman. 'Coloured' Politics (New York: St. the chairman. and most interesting as well as a most difficult subject. As to what was meant by democracy. said that the doctor needed no introduction drunkard regarded it as the height of happiness to get and described him as the father of non-Europeans. drunk. E. given to the Young Muslim Debating Society in Durban—he allowed him- self passing references that linked his faith with his political beliefs. by contrast. H. his father studied theology at al-Azhar in Cairo. Coloured Identity in South Africa (Cape Town. However. M[ember of] Provincial] "Democracy. 1990. who arrived in Durban last week as a which arises from ideas and wishes of the people. perhaps because many of the South Asians and Africans whom he rep- resented were not Muslim. 8 Abdullah Abdurahman Democratic Institutions in South Africa Abdullah Abdurahman (South Africa. In of any human being was to be happy. "Dr Abdullah Abdurahman." said that it was a world should have equal right to pursue happiness. 1870-1940) was the pre-eminent political leader of South Asians in South Africa in the first half of the twentieth century. went to Scotland to study medicine. helping to found the African People's Organisation and serving as its president from 1905 until his death in 1940. 1987). 1935. the Ismail. Ian Golden.

DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA 91 ner as to disturb or injure others. a child's character is molded becoming greater. there should is that the white man inherits certain rights immedi- be nothing preventing him from doing so. Custom and Tradition this would not be the case. which reserves skilled labour for the privileged classes. We must not expect the Euro- soning. however. and custom and tradition mold his be placed in his way. hundred years ago. because he tent. If he did so he who are in a minority. If God made no distinc. As the oppressed classes consoli- . white labour or the civilized labour policy. The vote was merely an instrument to put your ideals into We can divide the population of South Africa into operation. we had no right to do gard himself superior than those of a different colour. The tradition we have in South Africa self by playing music in his own home. and as tion. If a lover of music enjoyed him. Immediately [as] you begin to given to man was skill. but only for the privileged classes. It will be years before the democratic ideals are im- try. and is of a different colour. A man. cannot follow all the two groups. pean in this country to be a democrat. "Democracy had nothing to do with the vote or the franchise. If we study the history of the world. meant that we were all equal. In a democratic institution a man is free. and the vast majority of un- would find himself in a lunatic asylum. God has given us the power of rea. Our Present System can declaration of rights that every man was born free. erty of their parents. and no restric- tions are placed on him. he is The Vote and the Franchise differentiated against. Islam. it ever. has any more intelligence than any one of us. no obstacles should by its parents. but this did not already a number of Europeans who have realized imply that we were not equal. Though God had made us all equal. There are different races and different colours. It was stated in the Ameri. The privileged classes or the Europeans. And until we are regarded as equal in this coun. can be compared with the system which prevailed tially. so. They had then a democratic institu- also true that he had made us different. that the system is wrong and unjust. which must be developed to its fullest ex. ideas that pass through his mind. It required skill to follow a treat a man in a privileged manner irrespective of his trade or profession and it was the greatest sin in the intelligence or character. equal before God and man. Democracy privileged classes known as the non-Europeans.C. Man. It is impressed upon the white child to re- tion between man and man. we find long as we have different groups we shall have no that there were no democratic institutions until a few democratic institutions. the latter inherit the restrictions and pov- are all equal. it was 400 years B. This was something that The Two Groups you can use to put your ideas into practice. for him. and the pressure of the privileged classes is tradition. which also teaches us that we citizenship. there is no such thing as a democratic institu. Not because he went out in the street disturbing others with his music." said the doctor. The privileged classes cannot continue to oppress the different classes for- While it is true that man is born free in this world. If you admit this doctrine of everyone being The system of government in South Africa today equal. There must be a pur. The Native is now aspiring for something is also true that there was such a thing as custom and higher. and this leads us to While the former inherit all the privileges of free our religion. pressed upon the Europeans of South Africa. Because he belongs to a different race. There were tion. The Prophet of Islam had said that reasoning comes out of a mold where the character is molded lighted the torch to heaven. The greatest gift that God had because of his birth. in South Africa. and that is what we have here following his trade or vocation. but if he ately [as] he comes into this world. From its birth. you cannot treat a class of people differen. If there was a democratic institution in South Africa. We have the pose of God in creating the difference. here. is judged by something for which he is not responsible. but he should be prevented. you are departing from the world to prevent a man from exercising his skill by ideals of democracy. ideas for him.

they will not see it in our time. . which was carried. and the Indian. We may of thanks. S. but come it must. Badat proposed a vote democratic institution in a day or a week. concluded compel the Europeans to accede to at least some of the doctor. he agreed that there should be cooperation between solidate our forces? We cannot achieve our ideal of the different groups. Afbdulla] I[smail] Kajee [1896-1947] thanked The fear of physical force is driving the Boer and the doctor for the very interesting lecture and said that the Briton into one people.92 Abdullah Abdurahman date themselves and show a united front. we can gain much. Mr. their demands. Why should we not con. the Coloured. Mr. invited and satisfactorily answered by the speaker. M. By consolidating the Native. We have seen that the group system At the conclusion of the speech questions were leads to destruction.

disunity. Education in Algeria) (Algiers. which he held responsible for the repression and injustice of Muslim societies. 93 . In 1908. al-Shaykh 'Abd al-Hamid (Kuwait City. advocated cultural and social reform. 468-471. Tunisia: Dar al-Raya Pioneer of the Islamic Movement in Contemporary Algeria) li al-Nashr. If I disobey Him. 1995). nationalist leader. speech that included the principles of governance. 1978). In 1 9 3 1 . Salah al-Din al-Jurshi. and com- bated practices that it viewed as corrupt. 9 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis The Principles of Governing in Islam From the Speech of [Abu Bakr] al-Siddiq 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis (Algeria. In response to the alienating policies of the French and the Francophile tendencies of the Algerian "evolues" (assimilationists). right path. volume 13. until I get them their due. number 11. The powerful among you This is the text of Abu Bakr's speech: are weak [in my eyes] until I take away from them O People. Ibn Badis was born in Constantine. he as. ed. Constantine. Tajriba fi al-islah: Ibn Badis haraka al-islamiyya fi al-jaza'ir al-mu'asira (Ibn Badis: (A Case in Reform: Ibn Badis) (Tunis. The article presented here reflects Ibn Badis's nonconventional response to the abolition of the Ottoman caliphate. 162. and founder of the Association of Algerian Scholars. and political despotism. Ibn Badis returned to Algeria in 1 9 1 3 to devote his career to Islamic re- form. January 1938. From the Speech of [Abu Bakr] the Upright. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World (New pp. Ibn Badis: Ra'id al-islah wa al-tarbiyah fi al-jaza'ir 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis. Esposito. In addition." in John L. The Association opened hundreds of free Arabic and Quranic schools. Shahin. Algeria: al-Sharika al- erning in Islam. Obey me as long as I observe God in your affairs. Emad Eldin May God Be Pleased with Him). and prepared Algerians for independence from the French. Translation from Arabic and introduction by York: Oxford University Press. stressed Arabic and Islamic education. I was entrusted as your ruler. Ibn Badis formulated a program that asserted the Arab and Islamic identity of Algerians. 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis: Ra'id al- 1. pp. Ibn Badis articulated his views in several books and in his news- papers al-Muntaqid (The Critic) and al-Shihab (The Meteor). al-Shihab (The Meteor). 1969). Wataniyya li al-Nashr wa al-Tawzi'. After graduation. volume 2. 1987). where he was exposed to the reformist ideas of Sayyid Jamal al-Din Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad 'Abduh (chapter 3). education.1 When Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (may God be pleased with Support me as long as you see me following the him) was sworn in as caliph [in the year 632]. 161- Emad Eldin Shahin. am not better than any one of you. he joined the Zaytuna mosque in Tunis. Algeria. to a prominent Berber family and received religious education. Fathi 'Uthman. albeit with inconsistency. 1889-1940) was an Islamic reformer. although I what is due to others. "Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis.. "Usul al-wilayat fi al-islam. min (Shaykh 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis: Pioneer of Reform and khutba al-Siddiq (Allah ta'ali 'anhu)" (The Principles of Gov. and correct me when you see me going cended the pulpit and addressed the people with a astray. intellectual stagnation. Algeria. These principles have only recently been achieved The weak among you are powerful [in my eyes] by some nations. he proposed a modernist interpretation of the Quran that attributed the decline of Islamic society to mystical practices. you owe me no obedience. Kuwait: Dar al-Qalam. he established the Association of Algerian Scholars to promote Algerian identity and Islamic reform and to combat the Sufi orders and the assimilationists. and nationalism. Turki Rabih.

They must support him. If Abu Bakr was better. The Fifth Principle siderations. because they are the source of their authority and sent. not their own. This principle is based on the state- cumstance and the position. "correct me when you see me going astray. so that the was not due to his rule over them but because of his people become aware of and agree to it. not the rulers. and make them and Abu 'Ubayda ibn al-Jarra [circa 581-639]. who follow the choice of the nation. Rule cannot be bequeathed nor be based on personal con. In this case. is derived from the state- The Second Principle ment. Undoubtedly." fied in a specific matter and position for possessing the characteristics suitable for that position. "correct me when you see me going astray. as they share with him the responsibility. I was entrusted by others. hold him with Abu Bakr. No one can rule without the consent of the people. 'Umar [ibn al-Khattab." The responsibility of the people toward the ruler lies In other words." The Third Principle The Eighth Principle Assuming the affairs of the people does not make the ruler better than anyone else. This is derived you." The First Principle The Fourth Principle No one has the right to assume any of the affairs of The people have the right to monitor those in charge the umma [Muslim community] without their con. He is not deeds and stances. and that in offering assistance to him as long as they see him is "you. This principle is based on the the rulers are not following the right path.94 'Abd al-Hamid Ibn Badis I say that and seek God's forgiveness for myself the statement." He who manages an affair of the Muslim community should be the most qualified in this matter and not the The Sixth Principle best in behavior. If two persons share good behavior and qualifications. authority to the leaders and depose them." following the righteous path. the Prophet appointed 'Amr ibn al-'Asi [died 663] to lead the army of Dhat al-Salasil and supported The people have the right to question the rulers. the one and guiding the ruler and pointing the righteous path who is better qualified should be entrusted with this to him when he deviates. This principle is derived from [Abu Bakr's] statement. On this The Seventh Principle basis. This prin- ciple. this declare the plan he is going to follow. of you. as the previous one. This principle is also derived from allowed to lead the people as he pleases." form the statement. "although I am not better than any one and for you. "Support me as long as you see me following the right path. "although I am not better than any one of not convince the people otherwise. It is the people that have the right to delegate preserve the right to appoint or depose them. The people must correct him matter. though they were better people have the final word. "I was entrusted as your ruler. He also appointed Usama ibn Zayd [died result of the people's right to hold the rulers account- circa 673] as a commander of an army that included able and correct them when they are convinced that Abu Bakr and 'Umar. but one is better in good behavior The responsibility of the people also lies in advising and the other is more qualified for this matter. This is a than him. Someone might be quali- ment. them accountable for their actions. but as they . qualification varies with the cir- if he misbehaves. he should be entrusted with that post. died 644]. and can- statement. Preference is achieved Any one who assumes an affair of the people should through merit and deeds. The were all under his command.

they would not have accepted his speech. he was All are equal before the law. us and all of humanity and grant us success in re- and the strong should not usurp the right of anyone turning to these principles. This makes the people feel free others. the law that realizes their interest. These principles were [The state] should protect the rights of the individu. but they obey God by fol." This is what the first caliph in Islam stated and implemented fourteen centuries ago. We pray to God to rescue should not be forsaken because of their weakness. including himself. suffering The Eleventh Principle the chains of humiliation and enslavement under monarchical and clerical rule. statement. he forsakes their obedience. If I There should be a realization of a mutual responsi- disobey Him. Were these principles known to or practiced by other nations then? No. The rights of the weak The Ninth Principle should be granted to them without favor due to their weakness. . There. do not obey the ruler per se. and seek forgiveness accepted for themselves. The law should apply to the time with what they already knew. The rights of the weak All-Knowing and Wise. The dues should be fairly taken from the strong without trans- gression or weakening them. not devised by men but were revealed by God. be no salvation. regardless of their inspired by Islam. you owe me no obedience. without which there can because of their strength." His plan is the obedience of God." Thus. be it of an eyes] until I take away from them what is due to individual or of a group. nations were immersed in the darkness of ignorance and deterioration. had he done strong without any fear of their strength and to the otherwise. The people knew [The state] should maintain a balance in society what the obedience of God in Islam entailed. if he deviates. who oversees them. weak without leniency for their weakness. Are the civi- The Tenth Principle lized nations close to this today? Was Abu Bakr making these statements on his own? No. The powerful among you are weak [in my is imposed on them by any other authority. This principle and the two previous ones are voluntarily adopt. This principle is based on the statement. "I say that and seek God's forgiveness for fore. Freedom and sovereignty are a natural and legitimate right of every individual in The Thirteenth Principle society. not because it due. The ruler is delegated by them from God. myself and for you. they bility of the ruler and the ruled in reforming society. "Obey me as long as I observe God in your affairs. They should always feel the need to continue work- lowing the law that He has revealed and that they have ing strenuously and seriously. the als and groups in society. This principle is derived from the statement. The Twelfth Principle "Obey me as long as I observe God in your affairs. when protecting the rights of its members. who obey you are powerful [in my eyes] until I get them their the law because it emanates from them. This is based on the to apply this law to everyone." to manage their affairs on their own. The derived from the statement. so that they do not transgress against The people will not be governed except by the law they others. Everyone in soci- ety will share this feeling. THE PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNING IN ISLAM 95 please. "The weak among rulers only implement the will of the people. He addressed the Muslims at that strength or weakness.

: duction by Charles Kurzman. Richard A. and John Obert Voll. to attain. (Khartoum. Known as "the Boss. 133. blood. Perhaps the universe would inevitably stagnate. anticolonial activist. pp. They have the patience. This identity. 226-227.. Individuals and groups should recognize and dangers and to avoid them. Historical Dictionary of the Sudan. "al-Haraka al-fikriyya fi al- Sudan: 'Ila 'ayna yajib 'an tatajih" (The Intellectual Move. 1899-1956 (Oxford. distinguished individu. pp. Mahjub pushed to radicalize the Sudanese nationalist movement and helped write the Sudan's constitution and declaration of independence. In recent times. he was by turns a top government official and a political prisoner. 109-117. and dedicated idealists who blow the trum- als and those with true culture have thought and will pet and encourage people toward a goal that has to be always think about realizing the ideal. 2d ed. as democratic governments were suc- ceeded by military ones. dedicated advocates who ultimate victory. al-Fajr (The Down). Afaf Abdel Majid Abu Hasabu. their place. 10 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub The Intellectual Movement in the Sudan: Which Direction Should It Take? Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub (Sudan. humans' goals have be- come deeply interconnected. Intro. England: Clarendon Press. (Metuchen. in 1969). 1970). Poli- 1. in all its branches and subdi- of their parents. Human effort achieved by talented people like themselves. reli- sincere idealists. Lobban. individuals and as part of a group with whom they ficult. ment in the Sudan: Which Direction Should It Take?). 1992). Carolyn pp. His final imprisonment and exile followed two terms as prime minister. from the beginning of creation were it not for the appearance of a handful of talented. Sudan: University of Khartoum. 209-211. First published Fluehr-Lobban. and politician. in 1941. Jr. Over the following two decades. both as that their followers among the masses perceive as dif. common goals. notwithstanding the large number of non- Muslim non-Arabs in the south of the colony. Translation from Arabic by Hager El Hadidi. the resil- existence. Martin's in the Sudan: A Study in Constitutional and Political Press. Mahjub and others in this movement sought to build a modern Sudanese identity by downplaying the sectarian and regional distinctions that divided the colony. as Mahjub argued in the essay translated here. was affiliated closely with the Arab Islamic world. 215-217. Development. literature and the arts would never gion. public celebrations. 96 . Imperialism and Nationalism tics and Islam in Contemporary Sudan (New York: St. 1908-1976) was a lawyer. Factional Nahwa al-ghad (Toward Tomorrow) (Khartoum. he participated as a young man in the Sudanese intellectual reform movement that came to be known by the name of its jour- nal. Sudan: Conflict in the Sudanese Nationalist Movement." Mahjub left a political legacy that included repression of leftists and southerners. and shared advance. judge. to this day and on to eternity. making the prosperity Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub. Trained in colonial schools.' In all places and times.J. Abdel Salam Sidahmed. p. 233-234. sincere. Muddathir Abdel-Rahim. 1918-1948 Jami'at al-Khurtum. Every aspect of life and each cultural ide. If it were not for these have relationships based on nationality. in addition to fervent defense of democracy. because the nature of human beings is to fear travails. and lifestyle is improved to insist that the goal they envision is necessary for them- attain it. do everything within their power to achieve outcomes The ideal life is important for humans. 1985). and the power of faith that makes them trust in ology has its own sincere. to prefer the conventions attend to the ideal life. 35-41. and to resist all change in ideas and visions: material life and intellectual life each have action. In the 1940s and 1950s. This ideal gives people a greater purpose for selves and others. They is harnessed to achieve it. founded in 1934. Qism al-Ta'lif wa al-Nashr. Scarecrow Press. poet. if not impossible. 1996). N. ience.

let my solace be that this nation will never ever unethical. How is it possible to the future and reveal what it portends. There tion. and material ide. and to see as the ideal. science. This struggle and ultimate furniture. I will be satisfied. That is an honor I cannot claim. tion. in every place and time. and wealth upon their neighbors. how. Such are the loyal reformists. Such [hedonism] is born out of ignorance. And this is not imaginary. enlightenment without discriminating between tion cannot be achieved unless the individuals. Generation follows genera. cannot exist. and status. who then look far into the evil that has overtaken them. Reformists must do away with such lack offspring to rectify my mistakes and reform my . I degree of nobility. intellectual. Their self-interested the group. who don't join try. idiocy. A piece of candy in the hands of an oblivi. is inhabited by an obtuse and insipid char. However. individuals. but the ideal is continuously rejuvenated. their vanishing bod- rising to achieve them. and They can find happiness in the world of culture and a stupidity that cannot imagine life as a continuous intellect. family. are not to be blamed for wanting to join them for a But the teachings and generosity of a select elite moment to formulate an ideal for the intellectual are fruitless unless all people have reached a high movement that we desire for this growing country. propagators of rigidity and dissent. comfort. and races. ies die. erases the future. nation. in mental activities that elevate food. it requires parent in the relationship among nations than among perfection. An ideal does not know mediocrity. and to study the past and present of the nations are also those self-interested individuals who have I have known. hang on to the wealth derived from this power. If I fail. THE INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENT IN THE SUDAN 97 of an individual not only in contradiction with that people in every time and place. cannot find a lowly shack. Following that. however illegitimate. with cozy and luxurious struggling for perfection. depend on the singing bird. clothing. And we als of humanity. and in every branch of others but also with the prosperity and security of of material and intellectual life. intellectual movement in our nation toward what I in order to retain power. recalcitrance must be confronted. the exchange of trust and respect. shipers of the ideal formulate plans that cannot be It is easy to imagine a situation in which every accomplished in their lifetime but must be pursued race. not a mirage. classes. and their riches remain for future generations. and humanity through novel findings and innovative people who see that life is worthless when its short opinions. seekers and the weak. I will try to direct the been blinded by their desire to preserve the status quo. and individual has an equal share as long as life continues. But I am going a caravan unless they can maintain the idea that they to attempt to study the past and present of this na- are crossing the desert of life unaccompanied. as are That is why the propagators of reform and the wor- activities to achieve it. A evaporate when faced with loyal. who peek wasted—either because of the ignorance and stupid. na. whereas the poet. truth acter. let on their innovativeness against the obstinacy of the alone a luxurious abode. But this situa. the and falseness. Recalcitrance will ous child means the deprivation of his sad friend. drink. take it as their life mission to shower their differences and misunderstandings. They spread science and of culture. gators of the ideal. the selfless propa- ing the highest ethical. and personal pleasures. into the past of nations and understand the fate of ity bequeathed from past generations. and who lay out the tru- regressive and rigid people who do not accept inno. The progress of science tions. est ideals for the intellectual movement in their coun- vative opinions even if they are right. lacking in generosity. the lyre player who nearly discovers the zeal and integrity of the leaders of the renaissance. progress and annihilation. For some people do not benefit don't pretend to be one of those talented people to from education. This is good news for human beings. this cutthroat competition does not and period is spent seeking common ordinary pleasures. victory in the battle between light and darkness. with the intention of celebrat. the opinions rectify what time has spoiled? There is also a class of and actions that it requires. and races whom God has granted the privilege and enlightenment weakens fanatic loyalties and of intellect and morality. or because of their intellectual movements. and are thus able to shape competition between individuals and groups. justice. and all effort to reform them is whom the secrets of the era are revealed. and secrets of the universe. If I am successful. where they enjoy creating ideal visions and chain where the living depart. This abominable contradiction is even more ap. in the world of culture and the This is a conflict between people who care only about universe of intellect. selfless visionaries beautifully designed house. nations. and enables the culture.

and unique within its genre. and to become closer to the of the mulid [birth] of the noble Prophet which are spirit of religion by studying its roots and following read in zikr circles. ing envy the dead. Ahmad. Their verse honorable intentions. hamasa. the Turkish invade Nubia at the head of 20. and because man). They do not accept humiliation. The story of the Mahdiyya is temptible. despite its originality. or at least wear. Thus Islam prevailed and became the Sudan. and appreciate them in their original language. Until recently. seeking nei. And even then. It accepts Prophet]. and would not religion. accepted by the people in the name of self with the humiliation of begging. zikr shama'il al-rasul [remembrance of nothing from its intellectuals but honest words and the qualities of the Messenger]. especially in the desert.D. but are also the purest has given us. or 642 A. Husayn al-Zahra' [died 1895]. In every place where Islam has spread. and Shaykh [Muhammad 'Umar] al-Banna' the elder tyrdom. In fact.. sources of this language.D. far from the influence of European languages. delicate ghazal [love poetry] in the manner of the and the noble hadith [sayings of the Prophet] are not ancient Arabs. 1844-1885] was a reli. Islam spread. This is not all the previous generation only in the Arabic language. and they a recent example. is the closest to the religion of the majority of the population of this classical Arabic. you would doubtless Arab blood has become the majority among its popu. and was that era. and al-hath 'ala al-jihad [inspiring sacred ture and culture has [also] spread. who have won the honor of mar. As a result. extending protection to their guests and tak- unless it was a religious movement. when 'Abdullah of Muhammad 'Ali [Ottoman ruler of Egypt. with the da 'wa [propagation] not taught in schools. find it a wonderful literature. until the last conquest work together to achieve. would not stain him- gious da 'wa. they revolted against the corrupt.000 warriors.. It is necessary to learn. The liv. 1805- [ibn Sa'd] ibn Abi Sarh [died 656] was appointed to 1849] in the year 1820. stoop to relinquish public duty. there were no non-Arab languages heard in it except The history of Islam in this country [the Sudan] dates the Turkish language. under. The da 'wa of al-Mahdi [Muhammad are not happy with defeat. they also left a genre of literature that. also included some poetry [in the genres] offakhr. this literature is wonder- Muslims are very keen to come to understand and ful. [circa 1847-1919]. and of upper Nubia in It is no wonder that the language of the people of the year 1505 A. That is why the Sudan was fortunate that read the mulid by the leaders of the Tijaniyya [Sufi the Arabic language spread in its lands. I refer to the stories appreciate this legacy. Arab litera.H. The Sudan has remained. of this country.. and this was after the conquest back to the year 22 A. Shaykh Abu'l-Qasim Ahmad Hashim [died 1934]. They find meanness con- ing the garb of religion. you can see it in your [daily] comings and verse. lectuals among us. Shaykh al-Darir. Since language was not the official state language. A nation with such religious fervor can. . They goings.] in 1898. Most of their poems were [in the not tolerate opinions that have atheistic tendencies or genres] of al-mada 'ih al-nabawaiyya [praise of the break the norms of conventional morality.98 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub errors. but was only spoken by the strengthening in this country until the Arab conquest Turkish rulers among themselves. has been ignored by the intel- stand. no movement could They are noted for their generosity and openhand- be successful in transforming or changing conditions edness. and took over governance. whether in their songs or their poetry. anticolonial leader. people of the Sudan inclining toward [the classical The influence of Islam in this country is clear and genres of] hamasa [heroic] andfakhr [vainglorious] tangible. The Scripture of struggle]. If it had not been ture in this country is most apparent in the legacy of for religion. to present us with the ideal that we will all lation. [. you would not have seen people dying for the past generation—literary figures such as Shaykh the sake of God and acting so bravely. both because order] entitled "Insan al-kamal" (The Perfect Hu- of the spread of Islam among its people. If you had the good fortune to its precepts. the sunna [sacred precedent] of His Messenger. and the Prophet's conquests and victories. regardless of how poor he is. expelled them from their And the impact of Islamic religion and Arab cul- country. ers [the colonial regime].D. Each one of these poems begins with a God. And it is no wonder that we find the country. Any man among them. and you can feel it in every action of the people have great passion for all kinds of horsemanship. and the history of sincere actions. ing care of their neighbors. ther fortune nor prestige nor worldly position. virtue of the tongue and the hand. beautiful and harmo- . of lower Nubia in 1318 A. or to hear its narration.

social. because Egypt to reach it. it still affects fort of giants and the work of generations. THE INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENT IN THE SUDAN 99 nious narratives with fine examples of rhetoric and ary movement will eventually be transformed into a metaphor. Lit- people. Let us make our ideal clear and draw the path with Egypt since the last invasion. to be dedicated to the service of the language and the customs. The late Shaykh Muhammad Hashim political movement that leads to the independence of wrote an introduction to the mulid that is a master. and This ideal is the goal of the intellectual movement meaning. Bayan wa al-tabyin [Rhetoric and Clari- spect the religious practices of Islam. In this way they will come to be Arab in language and taste. the conditions required to achieve this [1355-1418]. We are attempting to possible. and to bic encyclopedias such as [Kitab] al-aghani [Book of direct the movement toward the goal desired by its Songs] by Abu Faraj al-Isfahani [897-967]. The subject matter comprises the different subjects . it calls for the ef- This influence is strong and ongoing. prohibitive. Wafayatal-a 'yan [Late Such has been the intellectual movement in our coun. we must It is necessary for us to attend to this influence grasp the Arab Islamic heritage. and hard to achieve. This country shall not lack dutiful. and try up to now. of Islamic religion and Arab literature on our life. and others. ideal does not know mediocrity. mad] al-Mubarrad [died 898]. [. and the effect of all of these from it. Kamil [fi al-adab] [Literary Perfection] by [Muham- So what is the ideal that this intellectual move. it may seem remote. That is why we need to by it? So I will say that learning involves only dedi- speak first about the effect of Western culture in our cation and study. and visionary offspring to take up the bur- culture. All of these are examples of the influence in this country. as it appears to Subh al-a'sha [Daybreakfor the Sufferer of Night- us through this exploration of the past and present Blindness] by [Shihabuddin Ahmad] al-Qalqashandi of this country. And I state with increasing companions. loyal. This influence warrants at Christian poet and philologist. Adah al-katib [The An ment must follow? And how can it be reached? The of the Scribe] by [Abu Muhammad] Ibn Qutayba ideal intellectual movement in this country will re. so as to be armed with the strongest weapon on the intellectual movement. readers and writers alike. piece of rhetoric in its expressions.] 1800-1871) and his least a brief discussion. the true reli. traditions. and dispositions of its of the ancestors. need to embark upon the study of the Ara- draft the ideal of the intellectual movement.] al-udaba' [Literary Biographies] by Yaqut [al-Rumi] al-Hamawi [circa 1179-1229].. and second about the country's climate. and nature. because the writings of the Arab Islamic certainty that the impact of Islamic religion and Arab heritage have already been published in Egypt and culture will remain part of our intellectual movement Syria.. All that we need to do is devote ourselves to as long as this country exists. and as long as it has the study of this Arab Islamic heritage—a detailed culture and intellectual movement. inspired by the past comprehend gradually the spirit of Arabic Islamic lit- and present of this country. establishing a proper national literature. pharaohs or to cling to the fringes of the West. the country—political. This liter. it requires perfec- Such influence has also increased through contact tion. and intellectual. selfless. fication} by al-Jahiz [circa 776-869]. On the surface. making use of its nature erature. this study based on scrutiny. devoted offspring. This effort awaiting when we are attempting to direct the intellectual us is unlike that of Shaykh Nasif al-Yaziji ([Lebanese movement in this county. and will work under its right guidance. itself is under the sway of Islamic religion and Arab educated. and interconnected impact will undoubtedly be subject to interaction comparisons so that we get the full benefit of this with the modern opinions and Western ideas that we heritage. criticism. are acquiring. However. [828-889]. too gion. And they need also to embark upon the desired intellectual movement. elevated by all of these toward the goal of erature in its entirety is but subject matter and style. And those among us who wish to country. But an people's minds. and the implications study of the fundamentals of Arabic literature such as of its ideal. Greats} by the judge Ibn Khallikan [1211-1282]. Both will be subject to the climate of Maybe someone will ask me: And what is the way this country and to ideas and imagination inspired by to learn this Arab Islamic heritage and become inspired its geography and its nature. And this is its future. It will many to enumerate. revive this legacy. and to draw the best conclusions geography. despite its periodic tendencies to return to the den of its renaissance. To complete our intellectual movement. Mu'jam loyal. structure. and to grasp the subject matter.

their sensitivities. Let us work to achieve it. Come along! O youth of this generation. see which ideal the intellectual movement needs to social. And the style is the way these subjects the gazelles of its dunes. It remains for us to are striding toward is our independence—political. and hold fast to our Arab heritage with complete tol- the ancient and modern Arab. country in a way that instills patriotism in its youth tions that this nation has undergone and the creeds and and a sense of duty toward the land of the ancestors. and are born out of [an This is our ideal: to protect our Islamic religion amalgam of] civilizations. follow in this country. All these will revive our worshiped the gods of the ancient Egyptians and national literature and arouse patriotic feelings. and then build a political movement that cannot be refused.] sources for its artistic imagery. a widened intellectual horizon. aimed at independence is worthless. We have seen the The propagators of this literature should circulate cultures to which the nation was introduced. beliefs adopted by its offspring. [. dutiful. and finds in these the are treated. and time and place. The ideal vision country from ancient times until today. which it because it is grows out of our essence. adopted Islam. lamic culture backed by an acquired Western culture. and visionary offspring of this coun- describing the scenery of its jungles.. The feelings of the people. Let the loyal. This is our ideal. peals to the sensitivity of this nation's offspring by selfless. the true religion. and its They should be mutually supportive in creating a opinion leaders. so to adopted Christianity for a long period of time. to which useful political research. socially. Such is the and their traditions.. let us work together to establish this proper national literature that takes the subject of its ideal. and the artistic narrative from the dispositions of its people generation after us will work to realize it. resulting in the independence of this coun- groups. some Negroid and some Arab. its fertile valleys. the shining of try work toward this ideal. And erance. so that the movement may its people were exposed. along with the try—politically. their movements and si- We have followed the intellectual movement in this lences. Turkish and the Abyssinian. that composes its verse and ap. Let us die. and we have gives attention to the writing of the history of this seen the various states and the succession of civiliza. and intellectual. are the sources for music. and an eager- we have seen that they [the people of this country] ness to study other cultures. and intellectually. .100 Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub treated by literary figures. as its creed. eternal dream and the work of ages. And we have seen that this be transformed from a literary renaissance to a po- country and its people are the result of [different] blood litical one. The goal we would not exchange for any other. We must stride toward it and The ideal vision that the intellectual movement work together to achieve it. and the Western. which differ according to the silver moon in its deserts. among them the Pharaonic. and all work that is not has to follow is for this country to have an Arab Is.

SECTION 2 Iran/Afghanistan .

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from the four vedas. was to revive the power and image of the Islamic world through modern-style reforms. The first selection was a lec. then studied modern sciences in India before coming to prominence as a royal adviser in Afghanistan in the late 1860s. One of these pupils. spread sciences and wisdom in Greece and reached such a height that his word was accepted Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani. then for almost a decade in Cairo. If knowledge. 101-108. Jamal al-Din then spent a decade associated with academic reform—briefly in Istanbul. Jamal al-Din reinvented his political positions when necessary—supporting and opposing absolute monarchy. As with his name. Press. and later in Russia. all adorned with virtue and at. 103 . His final years were spent as a would-be adviser to the rulers of Iran and. he said: [. Born in Asadabad in northwestern Iran.1 Lecture on Teaching and Learning knows that the determination of these two circles is impossible until perfection in geometry is achieved. They are from the same Pythagoras [Greek mathematician. though both monarchs were suspicious of his loyalty and piety. Certainly I must be happy to see such one observes closely. Thus we can say that the Indians were the inventors Calcutta.C. circa 569-475 realm that first understood the zodiac. and the shastras. since they are the offshoots of that Remain. 1972). after yet another expulsion. . 1966). Sayyid Jamal ad-Din "al-Afghani": by Nikki R. however. An Islamic Response to without proof as an inspiration from heaven.] of arithmetic and geometry. he will see that the "Code offspring of India. Keddie (Berkeley: University of California Press. 1838-1897) was perhaps the most famous propo- nent of modernist Islam. Note how Indian numer- als were transferred from here to the Arabs. where he published the famous journal al-'Urwa al-wuthqa (The Strongest Link) with Muhammad 'Abduh (see chapter 3). for example. The Greeks ues spread out from India to the whole world. A Political Biography (Berkeley: University of California 1968). and denouncing and offering to assist the British Empire. there to Europe. These youths are also the sons of a land that was tainments. Imperialism: Political and Religious Writings of Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani.]. He was educated at seminar- ies in Iran and Iraq. 181-187. circle was first determined. the second piece was first published on Religious Unbelief and Political Activism in Modem Islam in 1883. and all making great efforts to acquire the source of all the laws and rules of the world. Keddie. and has enjoyed the stablest popularity of all modernists in the century since his death. He spent much of the 1880s in Eu- rope—in Paris. Human val. and lofty thoughts. in Albert Hall. II Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Lecture on Teaching and Learnin." the mother of all Western codes. Elie Kedourie. dian youths are here. he adopted the name "Afghani" in order to distance himself from his Shi'i origins. and Christians in the second—offer Jamal al-Din's view that Muslims can and must adopt modern science as a means of civilizational survival. and from Allow me to express my pleasure that so many In. was taken India that was the cradle of humanity. Everyone B. and Answer to Renan Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (Iran. The texts presented here—addressed to Hindus. translated from Persian and French 1. lim- youths are from the very land where the meridian pid poetry. Nikki R. (London: Cass. the Ottoman Empire. November 8 [1882]. Afghani and 'Abduh: An Essay- ture delivered in 1882. . Upon his expulsion. pp. before being expelled yet again. His consistent aim. On Thursday. in the first selection. These were the pupils of the Indians in literary ideas. Introduction by Charles Kurzman.

having awakened after and industry. ready expressed their thoughts to explain science and Since it is thus. and ten not to explain its virtues. Thus. and simi- West to East. There is no end or limit to science. and commerce is based on agriculture So I am very happy that they. clarified. mathematics. ties. other than science. the harm the Egyptians but science that did it. Just as. will revert to him. commerce. teaching. For example. if the owner of an orchard neglects Ramses II [Egyptian king. if a ruler neglects the dissemi- ing to some and India according to others—it was not nation of the sciences among his subjects. and sciences. mechanics. relations between science. so. just so rulers. work to level B. without science. must strive for the dissemination of the The Egyptians who increased their realm. teaching. thousand persons. achieved only with agricultural science. Kimiya. chemistry. Rather it is science the external world. we will learn that each one . There are no riches in the world Now I would like to speak of science.] never came to India or conquered the Indians. ruled 1279-1213 B. for his own profit. and will be no ruler in the world but science. and with its own special quali- that everywhere manifests its greatness and power. or abode of science. The Europeans have now put their hands on every You must know that each science has a special sub- part of the world. we learn that wealth is the result of with matters outside its own subject.C.104 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani [The Indians] reached the highest level in philo. meaning that the world fits of science are immeasurable. ing to the laws of agronomy. sovereignty has never left the regard to analysis and composition. ject and deals with nothing but the necessities and stan. Arithmetic deals with separate quantities and it has moved from East to West. What advantage is who. who reached the borders of Tatary and India. no man would continue to remain thousands of eloquent speakers and sages have al. Despite this. Industry is produced only air of India is the same air. and present here are fruits of the same earth and climate. must strive to lay the foundation of the sciences and If we look at the Chaldean conquerors. More than this. or "chemis- humbly before science and acknowledging its sub. selves and their governments are proportional to their tion. The acquisitions of men for them- Thus I say: If someone looks deeply into the ques. If science were removed from thoughts cannot encompass what is infinite. the chemistry. and there is no wealth in the world and learning. Plant science. the ground and improve its trees and plants accord- the true conquerors were not the Chaldeans but sci. is. The Phoenicians will revert to that government. ninth century has an orchard must. not the Phoenicians.C." speaks of the special features of bodies with mission. which so expanded government? their power. the loss called Sosestris. There science. However. The soil of India is the same soil. and these finite is a world of science. and how can one call such a government a it was science. we now wish to say some words about the rather what conquered the Indians was science. in the world. aggression. 356-323 As the nobility of science has been somewhat B. to tend it according to the laws of agronomy. and conquest have not come ics treats the special features of bodies that exist in from the French or the English. every government for its own benefit was. and Greece—in reality barefoot. Agriculture is If we observe well. science makes one man have the its nobility. Just as an individual who ramis [Sammu-ramat. phys- usurpation. gradually made colonies of the there to a Zulu king from ruling a society poor and British Isles. and other times from geometry with interconnected quantities. with their ships. In reality. Assyrian queen. the human sphere. and learning. one hundred." fixes only plants as the subject of its dis- science. like Semi. the whole world of hu- ence. Besides. this true ruler. How difficult it is to speak about sci. who reached Mesopotamia accord. one thousand. are reclaiming their inheritance and Thus it is evident that all wealth and riches are the gathering the fruits of their own tree. botanical sophic thought. which is "botany. The bene. In reality this accidents of that special subject. he will see that science rules the world. The English have reached Afghani.C. try. if we study the riches larly the other sciences. the French have seized Tunisia. nature does not permit me strength of ten. to disseminate knowledge. In sum. a long sleep. Alexander [Macedonian king.]. result of science.]. and these youths who are with physics. industry. is continually changing capitals. manity is an industrial world. None of these sciences deals of the world. Spain. for their ence and knowledge. own benefit. geometry. and agriculture. Sometimes cussion. and geometry. Portugal. and does not enter into other matters that are Ignorance had no alternative to prostrating itself necessary to the human world.

explains human nobility. write. the main translations were done later under call for the acquisition of all the sciences. Philosophy is the science that deals with the state would have striven to reform their kingdoms in ac. and shows man the a science is needed to be the comprehensive soul proper road. This was why they acquired in a short ences is related to another science. The first defect appearing in any nation for all the sciences. It is philosophy that shows man the Muslims these days do not see any benefit from human prerequisites. 813-833). they would not send their and requisites. or and they would not invite teachers from there to their Explanation of "Guidance. and their causes. we see that the minds of our Mus- was obtained from those sciences that are like limbs. apply each of them in its proper place. Also. al-Ma'mun (caliph. they the ideas of the masses of the bazaar. 1571- schools." by Mulla Sadra. 754-775]. acquired the Arabic language be capable of speak- If a community did not have philosophy. I say that ject is universal. and every truth from falsehood and every right from because of the nonexistence of philosophy. I may say that if the spirit of philosophy were 1640] and Shams al-bari'a [probably Shams al- found in a community. even if that community did bazigha. and no difference exists between their ideas and those schools during this period of sixty years. needs. and Greek into This need of one science for other sciences can. Shark al. a hundred years. we sive soul and the rank of a preserving force is the now wish to say something about the quality of teach- science offalsafa. Not one of them the Islamic religion. philosophy and the sciences has been explained. or be the cause of benefit for the human to discuss the general affairs of the world and human world. Persian. and associations. or understand is. and all ing and writing. For long years they expend philo- sciences with particular subjects. nor would it remain stable.] . or "philosophy. no fruit wrong. ence that enables a man to become a writer. them. TEACHING AND LEARNING AND ANSWER TO RENAN 105 of these sciences whose subject is a special matter The first Muslims had no science.—Trans. and after fin- could not last in that community for a century. [In fact.2 it is that if that science were isolated." is the sci- from these sciences. For example. and spirit. The reason is that teaching the philosophi. those sciences sophic thought on grammar to no avail. arts. so that it can preserve their ex. which they call "literature. scholars] read Sadra [that is. The Rising Sun. For the existence of each one of these sci. the Arabic language at the time of [Abu Ja'far] Man- not be understood from the one science itself.Hidaya. undoubtedly their philosophic spirit would 2. independent of the European countries. Thus to man. a philosophic spirit arose among can maintain its existence individually and sepa. translated from the Syriac. deficiencies spread into the other become the cause of the progress of each one of those sciences. The Muslims now make grammar a the individuals of that community were learned in the goal in itself. ing and learning among the Muslims. It employs each of the sciences in its and the purpose of grammar is that someone who has proper place. that is headed toward decline is in the philosophic istence. necessary. like the relation time all the sciences with particular subjects that they of arithmetic to geometry. However. It shows the sciences what is their education. thanks to is like a limb of the body of science. sciences. That community without the Arabic. but. that ishing they are unable to speak. Thus sur Davanaqi [caliph. Thus. and until ing their everyday speech. necessities. lim logicians are full of every superstition and van- Undoubtedly. It is strange that our 'ulama' [religious sons each year to European countries for education. As the relationship between the preeminence of The science that has the position of a comprehen. now they have not received any benefit from those Logic. by Mahmud Jawnpuri not have one of those sciences whose subject is par- ticular. progress would It is philosophy that makes man understandable not be achieved in it. spirit of philosophy could not deduce conclusions Rhetoric. cord with science. After that. which is the balance for ideas. we see these days that after Egypt have been opening schools for the teaching of studying that science they are incapable of correct- the new sciences for a period of sixty years. and owing to that philosophic spirit they began rately. reasons. should make sciences. themselves. The Ottoman Government and the Khedivate of and poet." because its sub. However. of external beings. if the spirit of philosophy had been in ity. speaker. everyone who acquires it capable of distinguishing cal sciences was impossible in those schools. they study grammar.

if the discussion relates to Galileo [Italian Shame on such a philosopher." like a very narrow wick. of it. we can say that our 'ulama' at this time are "My religion is inconsistent with self-evident truths. a person who studies this science should ligion is incompatible with geometric proofs. As for [Abu Hamid Muhammad] Ghazzali [1058- phy of the shari 'a. from early evening until morning How very strange it is that the Muslims study those they study the Shams al-bari'a with a lamp placed sciences that are ascribed to Aristotle [Greek philoso- before them. Thus a person where there is proof. science is that noble thing that has no connection with selves sages. strated.] with the greatest delight. Rather. whereas we see our jurisconsults religion. However. and one European science. . region. 1564-1642]. one will understand this truth. Thus. becomes renowned through science. the rules of civili. One they If one considers. and shame on such astronomer. someone who says. and despite this they cannot distinguish any nation. The harm of this igno- science among the Muslims are deprived of under. and the causes for the promulgation of laws. and there is no in- own households. A scholar is a true light if he is The first education obtained by man was religious a scholar. Error) that someone who claims that the Islamic re- Certainly. days have divided science into two parts. and Jurisprudence among the Muslims includes all proof is neither Aristotle nor Galileo. and the laws of nature is zation. geometric proofs.C. sophical demonstrations. benefit the book Munqidh min al-dalal (The Deliverer from and loss. related to science. everything that is known is known by ask: Who are we and what is right and proper for us? science. The truth is domestic. since philosophical education can only be light on the whole world. and every nation that becomes renowned They never ask the causes of electricity. who was called the Proof of Islam. tions are self-evident truths. not science to men. What kind Hence we can say that reform will never be achieved of scholar is it who does not enlighten even his own by the Muslims except if the leaders of our religion home? first reform themselves and gather the fruits of their The strangest thing of all is that our 'ulama' these science and knowledge. circa 384-322 B. if a scholar is a scholar he must shed education. call Muslim science. he says in explained the truth regarding right and wrong. Even stranger. and the reform of the world.106 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Faruqi. much smoke comes out if Aristotle were one of the pillars of the Muslims. the steam. The Islamic religion is the closest of reli- after studying this science unable to manage their gions to science and knowledge. and they do not once consider why if pher. They have not understood that penetrated the rest of the community. and when we leave the glass. we see that those who study this an ignorant friend of Islam. heretics and enemies of Islam. at least it should light up his and is able to understand proofs and demonstrations. and they do not itself. 1571-1630]. philo- be capable of establishing laws and enforcing civili. and if his light does not obtained by a society that has studied some science reach the whole world. rant friend to Islam is greater than the harm of the standing of the benefits of laws. on top of which is a very has inevitably passed judgment on the falsity of his small flame that neither lights its surroundings nor religion. 1642-1727]. and [Johannes] Kepler [Ger- is stimulated by all the events and parts of the world." In it are 1111]. as we remove its glass cover. his village. and then the useful sciences. the foundation of the Islamic faith. ing the Islamic religion are really the enemies of that sador of the state. they consider them not one who travels along a road like a blind man who infidels. and state laws. and railroads. that the ruin and corruption we have experienced first Because of this they forbid others to teach some of reached our 'ulama' and religious leaders. ture. man astronomer. [Isaac] Newton [English philosophy! A philosopher is someone whose mind physicist. and those who forbid science who has studied jurisprudence profoundly is worthy and knowledge in the belief that they are safeguard- of being prime minister of the realm or chief ambas. there is no smoke. For the laws of na- zation. does not know where its beginning and end are. and philosophic demonstra- Since the state of these 'ulama' has been demon. Thus. However. although they are proud of their compatibility between science and knowledge and own foolishness. municipal. or "philosophy of law. The father and mother of science is proof. The science of principles consists of the philoso. and is not distinguished by anything but their left hand from their right hand. gives light to others. or his home. Men must be boat. his city. died 1652] and vaingloriously call them.

new per. I could have penetrated better of its desires. I took the lib. the illustrious M[onsieur] character. it was perforce led to follow the to him. 1823-1892]. as I said above. at least an unlimited field for its hopes. "the praises that I can give you. advice of its teachers and the orders they gave. I of reason. contrary to Monsieur Renan's talk covered two principal his promise. what al. piness and misfortune. a peaceful ognize that Monsieur Renan has acquitted himself corner where its tormented conscience could find marvelously of this very difficult task. in citing cer. in a word. repose. a poet who loved philosophy obedience was imposed in the name of the supreme wrote several centuries ago to a high personage Being to whom the educators attributed all events. of distin- erate these people. which might be the unfailing source of its unhap- pied in the world. points. from the great thinker of our time. the principal caused this talk to be de. indicate the remedy. or of those on whose nations whose renown has filled the West and penetrated into it was imposed by force. I hasten to rec. the necessary I find in his talk remarkable observations. proving that the Muslim religion was by its very es- sence opposed to the development of science. Monsieur Renan seems to say. and aptitudes of the peoples who [Ernest] Renan [French Orientalist." he said to without permitting men to discuss its utility or its him. in these circumstances. do not force me disadvantages. I would say the secrets of things. as well as to those who study the perhaps be the most profitable for it. do not like ei- Answer of Jamal ad-Din to Renan ther metaphysical sciences or philosophy. incapable of distinguishing good from evil. is indestructible. and is harmful. it is even more difficult to accommodate it in your columns. It was then that there arose some educator or tain facts that have passed unnoticed until this time. since. hurled it into the unknown and opened to have under my eyes only a more or less faithful trans. lation of this talk. by their nature. However. did not know the salutation as an homage that is due him and as causes of the events that passed under its eyes and the sincere expression of my admiration. it is that may be somewhat troubling for those who ven. power to force humanity to follow the inspirations ceptions. I will say that no nation at its history of the Arabs which had remained unclear until origin is capable of letting itself be guided by pure now and to throw a live light on their past. It does not know. This is no doubt for man one of the to bestow on you the praises that you merit. adopted this religion." heaviest and most humiliating yokes. if not the complete satisfaction it in the French text. which either how to trace back causes or to discern effects. But after reading this talk one cannot refrain I have read in your estimable journal of last March from asking oneself if these obstacles come uniquely 29 [1883] a talk on Islam and Science. given in the from the Muslim religion itself or from the manner Sorbonne before a distinguished audience by the in which it was propagated in the world. their hands as if burnt up by the breath of the desert wind. dried in Sir. Monsieur Renan wanted to clarify a point of the As to the first point. since humanity. Since this speech time that kept Monsieur Renan from elucidating these suggested to me some observations. and if it is erty of formulating them in this letter. This lacuna means that it cannot be led either by ing historical truth and making it known to those who force or persuasion to practice the actions that would do not know it. a light reason. TEACHING AND LEARNING AND ANSWER TO RENAN 107 I now wish to excuse myself. though one cannot say that he has guishing that which could make it happy from that usurped the place and rank that they formerly occu. This Mutanabbi [915-965]. He receives my humble And. or to avoid what influence of religions in the history of nations. at its origin. This pre- cious plant. it vast horizons where the imagination was pleased. It is no doubt the lack of the farthest countries of the East. but the harm is no less for that. to destroy the glory of the Arabs. If I had had the opportunity to read and where it found. and that the Arab people. finally. the ideas of this great thinker. The eminent philosopher applied himself to livered only in an abbreviated form. Haunted by terrors that it cannot escape. as I recognize. manners. It was therefore necessary that humanity in particular in that of civilization. other who. Monsieur Renan has not at all tried. points. not having. look outside itself for a place of refuge. . whose actions he celebrated: "Receive. he has applied himself to discover. we believe. and an indescribable charm. which I have difficult to determine its causes in a precise manner the honor of addressing to you with a request that you and by irrefutable proofs.

108 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani but one cannot deny that it is by this religious edu. according to an opin. however. who would thus be condemned to assimilated almost all the Greek and Persian sciences live in barbarism and ignorance. he at. I plead here with Monsieur Renan not the cause with a rapidity only equaled by the speed of its con- of the Muslim religion. Is not this the index and proof of their contains in itself all morality and all sciences. No one denies that the Arab ors and intolerance. religion he practices and not in another? Wherefore gions? All religions are intolerant. but I know The Christian religion (I mean the society that follows equally that this Muslim and Arab child whose por- its inspirations and its teachings and is formed in its trait Monsieur Renan traces in such vigorous terms image) has emerged from the first period to which I and who. as well as the shining center against what they call the spirit of vertigo and error. Realizing. at a later age. including gion in the world by many centuries.'" belongs to a race that has marked science. and scientific methods being forbidden them. its passage in the world. the Muslim religion has tried to stifle on their native soil. ences. and burning hearth of all human knowledge. that have for their object scientific truth. each one in its way. like an ox to the plow. oblivion. or pagan. taches himself resolutely to it and makes no effort to cation. I cannot keep philosophy (with which. access to the truth with the help of philosophic the vast field of science and philosophy. ignorant and barbaric as they Yoked. Having I know all the difficulties that the Muslims will have followed for several centuries the path of civilization. to the dogma whose were in origin. which all truth must depend. They continue to fight energetically philosophical sciences. not only by fire and blood. despite its rig. can one affirm that this the day when he has lost his faith. the day when he obstacle will not disappear someday? How does the has stopped believing that all perfections are in the Muslim religion differ on this point from other reli. and their most precious books were relegated to ion accepted at least by some people in Europe. and the venerated all the countries under their domination. someday in breaking its bonds and marching resolutely I am led here to speak of the second point that in the path of civilization after the manner of Western Monsieur Renan treated in his lecture with an incon- society. developed them and gave them a brilliance they ers of the law. A true however. What would be the benefit of seeking truth when he If it is true that the Muslim religion is an obstacle believes he possesses it all? Will he be happier on to the development of sciences. people. but by brilliant and fruitful achievements that prove that the Christian religion preceded the Muslim reli. Rome and leaders of the Catholic church have not yet disarmed Byzantium were then the seats of theological and so far as I know. Convinced. It has thus succeeded tion from the Arabian peninsula up to the mountains in halting the philosophical or intellectual movement of the Himalaya and the summit of the Pyrenees. I know all this. A similar attempt. foolish pride in possessing what he believes to be it seems to advance rapidly on the road of progress and absolute truth. testable authority. whether it be Muslim. he despises science. Christian. he must walk eternally in the furrow that the civilized nations. if I am not mistaken. go beyond. There came. but that of several hundreds quests. just as it extended its domina- science and stop its progress. full of have just alluded. to surmount to achieve the same degree of civiliza. in fact. took up what had been abandoned by slave he is. natural love for sciences? It is true that the Arabs took . The Arabs. thenceforth free and independent. I must recognize. since in the space of a century. and in turning minds from the search for scientific One might say that in all this period the sciences truth. studies on The monuments they had built to science collapsed. it acquired and of millions of men. the Greeks and Romans walked with assurance over tion. self from the tutelage of religion. for all the sciences. that all nations have emerged from barbarism and Why should he exhaust himself in vain attempts? marched toward a more advanced civilization. a time when their researches were aban- believer must. that his religion had never had. for which the Christian faith. No. it was from hoping that Muhammadan society will succeed unable to live happily for long). turn from the path of studies doned and their studies interrupted. becomes "a fanatic. while still in the state of barbarism. was made astonishing progress among the Arabs and in made by the Christian religion. rushed stacle. I cannot admit that this hope be denied to into the road of intellectual and scientific progress Islam. that had developed slowly during several centuries In truth. besides. whereas Muslim society has not yet freed it. its taste for science. was not at all an invincible ob. rekindled the extinguished sci- has been traced for him in advance by the interpret.

known. did not bor. that fructified and developed these germs. and who think of him at all when he was Greek and their neigh. As for Ibn Bajja [Andalusia-Morocco. we followed step by step world. Christianity. a new scope. Besides. peoples would then regain their moral autonomy and ity. What would happen if. perfected. 775 to near the middle of the thirteenth century. no less evident. impose their language on the defeated. and that during this period the Muslim world writers. It was therefore easier for the former to ex. for a people! But while recognizing that from about The Arabs cannot. especially if one is two great cities. quest. Is there not in this another proof. which could be legitimately claimed by the power The fact that they preserved their former religion. transplanted there its language. from the material fact of conquest? All conquered ing Spain and Andalusia did not lose their national. No doubt Islam. and [Abu Bakr Muhammad] Ibn Tufayl Germans. Italy Sabaeanism. and the Persian scholars con- ognizes that the Arabs conserved and maintained for verted to the Muhammadan faith thought it an honor centuries the hearth of science. the countries that had become the great cen. like Iraq and Andalusia. eliminating everything that is outside this Harran [in Anatolia]. Thus. group and its descendants. The expansion of Islam gave it. one would find that the Middle Ages was not due to the Arab people who ruled Arabic language was not then entirely unknown to at that time. the impulse it gave to the sciences? Would we not ties of the Persian scholars nor the role that they played be led. is true. nations would not take long to on the Occident. no part of Islam the Arabic language was that of the Harranians. and coordinated with a perfect taste and a 1138]. whose capital was say that they are not just as Arab as [Abu Yusuf Baghdad. and that if this distinction summits of the Pyrenees and poured its light and riches should disappear. The Europeans welcomed Aristotle. Iran is an example. clarified. claim for themselves the A. were simultaneously warriors and apostles. extended. Several centuries before would attribute to themselves all glory. they remained Arabs. there were in believe that they do not need this claim. and wherever of the intellectual superiority of the Arabs and of their they established themselves. in penetrat- the fall of the Arab kingdom in the Orient as in the ing the conquered countries with the violence that is Occident. and these countries could not thence- ignorance and became the center of religious fanati. TEACHING AND LEARNING AND ANSWER TO RENAN 109 from the Greeks their philosophy as they stripped the foreign to the Arab nationality. They made no effort in this direction willing to consider that human races are only distin- until Arab civilization lit up with its reflections the guished by their language. I do not wish to deny the great quali. The Syrian priests were Persians of what made their fame in antiquity. fell again into and its doctrine. circa 1110-1185]. What nobler mission to write their books in the language of the Qur'an. no longer to recognize in conquering in the Arab world. they developed. Persian scholars. Ibn Rushd (Averroes) [Andalusia-Morocco. does not mean they should be considered would come to say to France that neither [Cardinal . but it is cism. circa 1106- completed. but permit me to say that the peoples other virtues or merits than those that flow Harranians were Arabs and that the Arabs in occupy. it Monsieur Renan does do them this justice. from Andalusia. its manners.D. thus. glory that renders these writers illustrious. but also for the most part Ghassanian Arabs converted to these sciences. which they usurped by right of con. the 1126-1198]. but one cannot conclude from this sad spectacle possible that in going back to the centuries preced- that the scientific and philosophic progress of the ing the appearance of Islam. but they did not arms in the service of the Muslim religion. they preserved it for natural attachment to philosophy? It is true that after them with a jealous care. going back to the first was superior in intellectual culture to the Christian period of Arab domination. Ya'qub] al-Kindi [Arabia. circa 801-866] because ploit the scientific treasures that were buried in these they were not born in Arabia. and from Iran. forth avoid influence. and the English were not so far from Rome [Andalusia-Morocco. who became famous in this period were mostly from and if. no doubt. He rec. we did not take into ac- There were also among them Transoxianan and count either the influence it exercised on minds or Syrian priests. Monsieur Renan has said that the philosophers the first group from which was formed this conquer- of the first centuries of Islam as well as the statesmen ing people who spread their power over the world. the French. rare precision and exactitude. but we that is to say during about 500 years. ters of science. one cannot and Byzantium as were the Arabs. they have Muslim countries very distinguished scholars and among themselves enough celebrated scholars and thinkers. forget their diverse origins. The Arabs who put their who had emigrated and become Arab.

does not completely satisfy humanity. by whatever names they are called. I could neither perceive nor explore. cause the masses dislike reason. as every- justice claim that the Harranians and the Syrians. would claim for its belief. it re. after becoming solidly es-tablished in It is permissible. It will always be thus. why the Arab world still remains buried in profound and Transubstantiation. philosophy. the triumph will not be for free thought. after [the revocation of] the edict of would agree with each other? When the Christian Nantes [in 1685]. under the most modest and seductive forms. England would in turn claim the scholars who. The French. science. also. suddenly became extin. be- 785-786] put to death in Baghdad 5. and it is a bloody stain for the history of tant regions that the philosophers and scholars can a religion. however beautiful it is. between re- [Jalal al-Din] al-Suyuti [Egyptian scholar. 10 Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani Jules] Mazarin [1602-1661] nor [Emperor Napoleon] find in the past of the Christian religion analogous Bonaparte [1769-1821] belonged to her. after having been thrown in such science and philosophy. the bushes of theological discussions. When- darkness. to explain the guished. whereas philosophy frees him of it totally themselves the glory of the offspring of those illustri. the struggle will not cease by despotism. historian exaggerated the number of victims. and the contrary happens when it became established. philosophy. or in part. belong equally to the great Arab family. So sciences. Religions. Germany or facts. And if all religion. one can with entered Athens and Alexandria. this religion tried to stifle the is philosophy that reigns as sovereign mistress. why this torch has not been relit since. and its teachings are phers in order to destroy sciences in the Muslim only understood by some intelligences of the elite. ciliation are possible between these religions and ous and enhanced the brilliance of its scientific re. as it is for the history of a people. ligion and philosophy. all resemble each other. countries down to their roots. No agreement and no recon- ing come to France. How could one therefore hope that they ous families who. and it was marvelously served in its designs long as humanity exists. trying to stifle both under a live light on the world. . to ask oneself why these two cities its first concern was to put aside real Arab civilization. between dogma and free investigation. however. which thirsts mains nonetheless established that this persecution for the ideal and which likes to exist in dark and dis- took place. 1445. Here the responsibility of the Muslim reli. Europeans belong to the same stock. it will elimi- gion appears complete. made its professorships illustri. who one knows. emigrated to all Europe. the two principal centers of science and are Semites. Admitting that this and because. Religion imposes on man its faith and nown. 1505] tells that the Caliph [Musa] al-Hadi [reigned I fear. which were.000 philoso. the Incarnation. and inexplicable mysteries of the Trinity. It is clear that wherever it nate philosophy. ever religion will have the upper hand. a desperate struggle in which. hav. on their side.

these terrifying accounts would force you You say you are afraid that such words will displease to speak out instantly. 1971). You see the ruthlessness with many thrones have toppled. The journal inspired the makers of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906. how many dear souls which the income of the state and the nation is being have been dragged through the dirt of degradation. Isma'il Ra'in. and see how know how much the servants and subjects are subject many regimes are being overthrown in this age of to harassment. Malkum devoted himself to a journal called Qanun (The Low). Edward G. 1833-1908) was an activist and pamphleteer who. as ambassador to Italy. including the necessity of conspiracy to promote the rule of Law. 1914). 10. where its popularity threw the shah into "paroxysms of irritation and alarm. Born in the Armenian town of Julfa. but for Westerners trample on our rights. as he had ceased his oppositional activities upon reappointment to diplomatic service. translated here in its entirety—probably writ- ten entirely by Malkum. yet Malkum played no direct role in that movement. but retained certain Christian practices. bridge University Press. including the purported letters to the editor—demonstrates Malkum's vivid prose and some of his characteristic themes. he was exiled for organizing se- cret societies devoted to freedom and equality—then hired the following year in the Iranian diplomatic service. England: Cam- assistance. appearing periodically in forty-two issues over a decade. Malkum was educated in France on a govern- ment scholarship. was smuggled into Iran. A thousand times you minute from the manacles of their sycophancy. Qanun (The Law). You know the level to which the prov. who extent the existence of the state and the health of the would not permit their meek rulers to be freed for one monarchy are being shaken. 111 . Then what is the meaning of loyalty to the not have enough manly candor to say openly how things really are. You Look about you for a moment or two. Translation from Persian and introduction by Charles Kurzman. When he was fired in 1889 in a scandal over a proposed Iranian lottery." according to the British ambassador. ours. 12 Mirza Malkum Khan The Law Mirza Malkum Khan (Iran. How many monarchs are forced to flee. and returned to Iran to teach at the country's first modern-style school. which campaigned on behalf of constitutionalism. 1973). Issue number 10 of Qanun. have enough sense at least not to Malkum Khan. in different periods of his life. O dignitaries of the of the state. How inces have been reduced. then what difference is there between the state! Why don't you tell the shah. plundered. England. No. Mirza Malkum Khan (Berkeley: Univer. have a speck of honesty and justice in service to your So why haven't you told the shah of these matters? benefactor. You know to what the ruthlessness of the traitorous courtiers. And if. If you have confided to one another that this cannot continue. rising to the post of ambassador in London. next to Isfahan. Hamid Algar. Mirza Malkum 1. in 1899. you do the shah. Khan (Prince Malkum Khan) (Tehran. unfortunately. Iran: Bungah-i sity of California Press. You know how ambassadors and all the All these calamities would not have occurred. how things really are? You who know what anger has gathered in the hearts of the people. alternately served and agitated against the Iranian monarchy. Thanks to Mahmoud Sadri for translation and Poetry of Modern Persia (Cambridge. This journal. The Press Matbu'ati-i Safi'alishah. aforementioned and cowardly traitors? tinctly. Brown. O exalted state? If you place personal safety over the interests courtiers of the shah! O ministers. clearly and dis. Malkum and his father converted to Islam.1 O intimate members of the royal household. London. A decade later. the Dar al-Funun (House of Sciences). circa 1890.

were destroyed. if you had as much perception and zeal as other journal. who has really become crazy in her enthusiasm for journal Qanun. Now. But the depravity of you. who belongs to the rank are gone. his imperial holiness why the state authorities have as leader of a group of enslaved beggars. On one hand. deserve this servility. as worthy of someone speaks ill of Humanity and the founders better than this standing. It happens that most of our in devotion to the oppressors of the age.12 Mirza Malkum Khan deny our words. There is no humiliation whose bitterness I have servants. the shah. Why so-and-so plun- allow—us to make the bearer of these eminent quali. have become great supporters of Humanity. they have drowned us with pe. bet- have achieved enlightenment. My servant's wages A prince with good sense. Then you will see the path of nationalist martyrdom. spend one noblewomen—in proportion with the intellect and prudence that they have developed far more than the men of our age—have perceived the meaning and vir- 2. the shah. this oppressed shah. We. out of insanity or loy. My aunt—al-Saltana. a secret organization that ter than our non-men. If you were understood that they have invisible champions in this Men. Now that we have stumbled onto the in the service of Humanity. Now that I have reached here. whimpered. There is no scoundrel who has not afflicted is not full of enthusiasm for the Law. who believed in Humanity less than any- not tasted. What good is com. sand troubles. I see no head that this state. but you have the power to revive a whole country. at least as well as some animals ous Karbala [an Ottoman city. dered these houses. Why our kingdom is being ru- ties the emperor of the people of Iran. who have become in spirit greater devotees of Hu- O dear brother. ness of his. allow us to present the grievances of the speech. have lately taken to slandering that you recognize as your personal portion are the Humanity as much as they can in the presence of lot of most of the people of Iran. whenever truly think of yourself as having rights. Unless you want to maintain this good. this wise shah. how would this handful of titions of grievance. has started a secret riot along with sev- . vancement of Humanity. in particu- Malkum Khan founded around 1890 in conjunction with his lar. as others do. do not have the right to ask natured shah. My property is gone. All the royal me. from His imperial highness would reply that you. My family is gone. But strangest of all is the rush of women toward For the thousand sacrifices that you foolishly made the advent of Humanity. refers specifically to members of the Society of Humanity. such stupid hypocrisies. Ever since the sound of The Law has rung out. so that I may be released from the grasp is all praise and acclaim and yearning for the ad- of these man-eating oppressors. so harshly and so confidently. My reputation is gone. and to understand the nificent state for almost 40 years. in the name of God the arena of The Law. and on the other hand they have ignorant ministers of mine be able to rule over you gladdened us with support and useful information. I don't know which unbeliever to seek Whenever they find a safe spot. If you their plan quickly came to light. you who number more than 10 million? If you had the sense to consider A noble and wise officer. ined so. their conversation refuge with." in addition to denoting all people who tues of Humanity far better than the men. and moral pleasures for your enjoyment! less masses to the royal court without your taunting blows.] this endeavor. immediately recognizes the purpose of ties that you have. that is. My brothers and kin. not only can you save yourself. now in Iraq. writes: folk have all perished in the misfortune of service to You have lit an unusual fire. as a sort of taqiya [the Shi'i Muslim tra- plaint and despair? Thousands were oppressed like dition of pious dissimulation]. site of an do. meaning of unity. who has served this mu. all of these calamities and bitternesses manity than we. poisons of misfortune change into tangible comforts alty. one. the people of Iran. with that cleverness and sly- of Humanity2 awaits you. the that moment the broken-hearted people of Iran have people of Iran. of intimate courtiers of his royal majesty. allow— killed thus-and-such a minister. With the talents and abili. countries' women have. and left. Why our nation has been bound to such ab- ject servility. yourself Men. after a thou. ["Humanity. Some weak-willed friends.—Trans. what foolish oppressor would dare to touch the important Shi'i Muslim shrine]: rights of your Humanity? Nothing remains in this life for me. writes from glori.

to act. on condition that for the time Why are the people not allowed to send their chil. and that the sun of enlightenment will Why are uneducated and untalented individuals pre- breathe a new spirit into this blessed land. come to an end. THE LAW 113 eral of her friends in the royal quarters. confiscates your property. inconsequential. and which "What is unlawful government?" path to take. Now that divine beneficence has opened That which plunders its subjects at will. as and plucks out your eyes whenever it pleases. You who read these words. not any defect in enemies of wisdom? Because science opens the people's eyes. Although the various others. nation of this great race would remain buried forever Why has the king himself gone to Europe three times in this graveyard of misery. Show [me] the people of any the people find their voice and their courage. we want to be Men like and fit for work than Iranians. I will send it. because the signature school in Iran] requests that we publish these ques- of our government is no longer worth anything. what further rights of the nation to any foreigner who wants them. People of in- from others? telligence will easily identify their specific answer in these words that we set out. especially Because we want our subjects to be as ignorant and among the highest ranks. j. A. period]. under single coin? Because our government. . obstacles. what miracles are you expecting their statements in summary fashion. what fresh disgrace these subjects. and say. Why were this kingdom's concessions not given to the subjects of the kingdom? A. we will defend our rights as Men. It makes no sense for a man to be as fearful Because we have decided that our subjects should as you are. remain as poor as possible. On the contrary." And recent struggles of this kingdom have been fruitless. you who call yourself a human being." Soon everyone of good sense will take on the What should we do to change this? duties of Humanity. the harsh blows of these times? Nobody said that the spits on its pacts and contracts. "We are not animals. Soon nobody will lack strength. being. you who wish to have the We sincerely regret that we cannot respond person- right to live in this world—for the defense of this right ally to every one of the friends who have written on and the proof of your Humanity. sells the the gates of Humanity in all directions. Here. D. they region of the earth who are more thirsty for progress say. blind as possible. ferred to others? Because we want the name and practice of science Some ignorant old people and some shameless ignora. and when the zeal of the nation. A youth educated at the Academy of Sciences and M. without waiting for others Become a human being and demand the Law. brazenly denies its obligations and pacts. you do not reveal how and where you re- dren abroad for education? ceived it. The concession that you want to take from Technology in Tehran [the leading modern-style the government is useless. the cause of this is that none of the knowledgeable authorities divining the heavenly secrets have yet seen An individual from Isfahan writes. The cause Why have we become such deniers of science and of this despair is their own idleness. "Let us wait and see what the others and slits your stomach open. and not allowed his sons to go once in forty years? gious authorities and the masters of perspicacity have Because it was decided that our princes should re- told us repeatedly that these times of misfortune will main ignorant. and useless. The truth dawns where it is least expected. this is certainly against the rules. M. what hesitations remain for the flowing wastes the kingdom's treasures on any base whim. do. tions and answers here. the reli. and art to fall into complete disuse in Iran. numb and useless. and that of our government not worth a sence of the Iranians has appeared in this way. the pre-Islamic your family in the street. currents of this nation's forces? Soon the rays of the shamelessly exploits the salaries and claims of its sun of Humanity shall leave no stone in this kingdom employees. millions. alone. N. a thousand times a day. that defies description. throws in the time of Ignorance [that is. we can only allude to some of are you awaiting. fit to show clearly where the destination is. s. Why is the signature of other governments worth Why should there be any surprise that the natural es. muses say that they despair of this people.

with sufficient you for service to this nation. we accord you a higher meaning and We in the societies of Men are shouting to wake position. to make offerings to us. because women in every kingdom and all times you have wept bloody tears over the calami. Bombay. Islamic authorities? To fortify the hearts of the weak. have for you. and readily offer you the glad tidings that people up and prevent this terrible tragedy through from this moment on. Those First. would never and in no way pretend to make a higher don address. we draw your lofty attention specifically to the dered your true being useless. from among the 'ulama'. like those other non. please send all materi. to your being for this great purpose? A thousand Third. the grace of the strength of Humanity. it is wished for an opportunity for service. . equity and manly duty demand that you what type of sacrifices in this alliance of mutual strive to lend them assistance and relief to the ex- support? You will soon be astonished and ecstatic tent of your powers of generosity. The performance of this great mission is to be men. of your exalted soul. liverance. to especially [religious scholars] of Islam take up the leadership needy trustees. Why go this far? You who are reading these You know the truth. and the purity of Humanity? What need have I to tell in fact have become spiritual martyrs for these you what sort of zealous disciples have undergone truths. "What's it to me?" Rest assured that up to this devoted entirely to the knowledge and competence day. On the contrary. Fourth. or Ashkabad. appoint the trusteeship of Humanity to your heart. Your mission in the world is the spirit of Humanity expects from that noble per- far loftier than the fanciful dreams that have ren. in a manifest miracle. commanded by divine decree. the learned ones. if only one dinar a month. Furthermore. even among the tradesmen and soldiers and others whom O wise one of an exalted nature! What need is there no one counts among men of note. The state and our entire ex. because some agents have lost all their what heathen. the you are appointed to the absolute trusteeship of noble child of the homeland. To light this path of de- Humanity is the observance of these laws.144 Mirza Malkum Khan A. The remedy is just as you specified. what better torch than the science of the Q. or als to one of the correspondents of The Law in to obey us. tical difficulties have nothing to do with this. From now on. s. and of this army of prosperity. we tell all people to Baghdad. Among the largest services that nity of your destiny. words. as the means of saving mate means. in this widespread crisis to say. Why are you waiting training. your veins will testify that God created whatever person you deem deserving. are they better than you? If you would only look into Second. Everyone can for me to specify your noble name in these pages? A advance into this arena of Humanity. which was entrusted and distinguished Men. four following items. The numerous prac. lightenment? We proclaim from first to last that we The office of The Law has relocated from its Lon. The correspondence bureau has moved claim. D. why do you hesitate to take up this popular zeal. by all legiti- ity. For years you have ment of truth. how ate way to whatever places and people you see fit. You. bring the copies of The Law in an appropri- individuals who hold high offices in the world. you have been unaware of the reality and dig. to express your intrinsic nature. particularly higher knowledge. eras have been the best proponents of the advance- ties of this dear homeland. of the journal]. timeless mission? What are you afraid of? After this. make themselves a manifestation of Humanity. Islam is the collection of divine laws. what right do you have these pages [that is. son. what better reasoning than this word of en- To all of the friends of The Law. come and recognize us. life and immediately that my words are meant for you. We have not told and will not tell anyone to closer to Iran. as master of their sex and instigators of this kingdom. take to witness the divine intention of religious duty and great care that all members of Humanity give ma- the honor of erudition as the greatest of the 'ulama' terial aid. what wretch could call into question possessions during their service to Humanity. limb. bers of this respected half of the nation. Now that incumbent upon you to appoint good and pure mem- divine will has appointed the rising sun of Human. We are pre- perceptive mind will have no trouble recognizing pared to give ourselves in service to them. whatever meaning name and position may istence have tumbled over a frightening precipice.

God is great. the spirit of Hu- have not already recognized? Beyond this. kisses have we to impose on your noble time by reminding your chosen forehead. . and utmost pity. at this very moment. by letter or in person? With all whispers in the ear of your intelligence the words: respect. and to complete this essay you of these things. we urge you to take note if. what need manity takes flight in the world of conscience. THE LAW 115 What more can we say that your intellect and zeal at this point.

of progress—and as such. This trea- tise was widely distributed in Iran and provided theological support for the constitution- alists in the face of monarchist and clerical opposition. Christian nations and the Europeans were deprived Therefore the progress and perseverance of the West not only of all the varieties of natural sciences but in translation. 48- i Intishar. interpretation. Na'ini expanded on this theme in a treatise defending constitutional limits on power in Islamic terms—the introductory section of which is presented in this chapter. ful and Purification of the Nation. and implicit in the Islamic holy books and traditions. Iran (Leiden. Thus they con.1 Thanks are due to God. Baqir Parham. principles on the one hand. Chishm-andaz (Perspective). which was part of the Ottoman Empire until 1918. and justice—the fountainhead lover who seeks after the beloved. Yet his text survived long after its author's disavowal. Iran: Shirkat-i Sahami. whom he helped in arranging an influen- tial fatwa (religious ruling) issued in support of the constitutionalists. After that fate. and the concomitant and political axioms. Muhammad Husayn Na'ini. earlier histories. Muhammad cessor of the Prophet] and other early leaders of and his pure progeny. is a necessity of Islamic life. Lord of the two worlds. When the constitutional movement took power in Iran in 1906. and damnation is deserved for Islam. Netherlands: E. they equated Islam with priated the principles of civilization and politics slavery and savagery. Didda al-istibdad (Against Dictatorship) Persian and introduction by Mahmoud Sadri. First published in 1909. number 5. Translation from 77. This was due either to the lack regression of the people of Islam and their subju- of such knowledge in their divine parchments or to gation at the hands of unbelievers [the Mongol con- adulteration of their heavenly books. 1977). Brill. salutations are due to the noblest of the earliest and and in the edicts of ' Ali [son-in-law and fourth suc- the latest and the seal of the prophets. Shi'ism and Constitutionalism in milla ya hukumat az nazar-i islam (Exhortation of the Faith. Lebanon: al-Markaz al-thaqafi al-'arabi. practical reason. 13 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini Government in the Islamic Perspective Muhammad Husayn Na'ini (Iran. 1860-1936) was an Iranian religious scholar who lived for decades at Shi'i seminary cities in Iraq. famously—though possibly apocryphally—urging that all copies of his trea- tise be thrown into the Tigris River. Its biting criti- cism of both monarchical and clerical despotism has remained common knowledge among educated Iranians and a thorn in the side of successive dynasties in Iran. those aware of the history of the world spectacular advances in such a short period of time have come to realize that prior to the Crusades. as well as the Islamic Republic. Abdul-Hadi Hairi. or Government from the "Nigahi bih nazariyyat-i Na'ini" (A Look at Na'ini's Theo- Perspective of Islam). So they appro. until the Day of Judgment. 6th ed. Na'ini later came to reject political involvement. Tanbih al-umma wa tanzih al. those nations attributed ally forgot the principles of their own historical their defeat to their lack of access to civilizational origins and even supposed that abject subordination sciences and their general ignorance. 1988. as they have justly acknowledged in their all of their foes. (Tehran. Na'ini was the assistant to one of the leading scholars of Najaf. reason. 1960). 16 . J. Three years later. ries). Na'ini even supported the rise of the Pahlavi dicta- torship in the 1920s. the would be impossible for unaided human reason. querors] resulted in such a state that Muslims gradu- ful event [the Crusades]. Therefore they thought sidered curing this mother of all ailments as the that the commandments of Islam are contrary to greatest of their goals and pursued knowledge as a civilization. as they have admitted that learn- ing such principles and sciences conducive to such And then. 1999). pp. Tawfiq Sayf. 1. and application of these also of the sciences of civilization. (Beirut.

tice. Thus they have endeavored to free them. creation. five chapters. thus making it unnecessary for and the subsequent edicts of the elders of Istanbul others to undertake such a task. that they at once affronted the Creator and His munity has. and to restore An authentic hadith [tradition of the Prophet] their legitimate national rights of partnership and states: "When apostasy prevails on earth it is incum- equality in all affairs. These were clear historical documents faithful concerning the necessities of the religion and concerning the position of the Islamic leadership on to cleanse the nation of the apostasy [of tyranny]. Absolute power 3. So this lowliest of servants followed the utterance of the prince of the oppressed. tyranny. But the have given it the title of "Exhortation of the Faithful man-eating pack of wolves in Iran attempted to and Purification of the Nation. Using such phrases in Persian texts is the equivalent ayatullahs in Najaf. Verily God spoke the truth in the holy soning of its clerical leaders. It is my hope that The momentous edicts of the leaders of the with God's blessed succor this offering will achieve Ja'fari religion [Shi'i Islam] in the city of Najaf. In their struggle to break the bent upon the knowledgeable to reveal their knowl- chains of slavery and in claiming their legitimate edge. and called it religion.] to mean "constitutionalism. even in God's lution of 1906.1 . Achieving a Constitution Thus they allied themselves with the pharaoh of and a Consultative Assembly of the People. Muslims have hazarded oceans of fire." the essential necessities of Islam. in today's Iraq. Liberty and Equality 1206-1227]. and possibly also to the Ottoman sovereign domain. the retrogressive trajectory of the Islamic to struggle against the absolute power of earthly ty- world has been halted and slavery under the imperi. the plunder of the lives and property of the Mus- lims. yet they declared it un-Islamic support. thus silencing critical tongues. They dared to contaminate this sublime reli- ous passions of dictatorial rulers has been terminated gion with such an insult." Accordingly. Finding no better pretext for this than religion. to render this service. they dared to commit this [the reference is to the Iranian Constitutional Revo.] constitutional revolution to be in accordance with the spirit 4. of them. [This phrase is in Arabic but is not quoted from the 2. [The term "conditionally" (mashrutiyat) also was used of Islam. and in this holy project they have even abets the injustice. Verse 26] the Government. Iran and revived the atrocities of Zahhak [a mythi. The Muslim com.—Trans. This is the extent of their injus- Young Turk Revolution of 1908]. thanks to the superb guidance and rea. with God's benevolent belongs only to God. who extolled "those who prefer noble and to reveal the incongruity of this apostasy with death to the abject life of servitude. Shi'i Islam]. Since the aim of this essay is to admonish the tional rules. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE I 17 At this juncture in history. cess except in God." [Qur'an. and and prosperity. Mongol ruler. [The author is referring to the joint edicts of three grand Qur' an. Him. from will be upon them. They have of such an outrage and derision of religion. grave affront to the prophet of Islam. is contrary to the duty. Verse 10] selves from the pharaohs of the time.—Trans." [Sura 30. rants. "And I have no suc- [Sunni Islam] who unanimously declared the strug. I repent and take refuge in him." I will organize it in sustain the polluted tree of injustice. And he is the tionalism] as a necessity of religion. silence in the face which they have emerged as a phoenix."—Trans. 2 divine approbation. and a conclusion. I the issue. and an introduction. I have put all my confidence in gle for these holy and legitimate goals [of constitu. of the illustrious religion has taken it upon himself Husayn [grandson of the Prophet and third Imam of to discharge his responsibility. Nature of Tyranny. declaring the Iranian of using Latin phrases in English texts. and if they fail in doing so God's damnation rights. for they denied the signs of God and made fun freedoms. and an Explanation of the Meaning of cal Iranian tyrant] and Genghis [Khan. they turned to the pharaonic declaration: "I fear for Introduction: An Analysis of the you. become aware of the Qur'an: "Therefore evil was the end of those who did true requirements of its religion and its God-given evil. and fail- faced martyrdom and spilled their pure blood in order ure to support the holy religion in repelling such a to achieve the great privilege of national salvation mischief and injustice. for they may change your religion. Conditionally4 of Sura 40. exonerated ultimate guide toward righteousness."3 Islam from acquiescing to such tyrannical and irra.

stipulate its conditions and limitations.—Trans. their privileges. in terms of wise. 6. education of the citizenry. or dictatori. can even surmise that the reason for any government. Sura 21. and the independence be conceived of as one of two kinds: It is either "pos- of their nation will be utterly destroyed. If not. The field of practical reason consists of three sub. sessor of the right to expropriate any holdings. and give it to his entourage. They help him to arrogate to and practical disciplines for the management of so- himself God's attribute: "He cannot be questioned cietal affairs. regardless sessive" or "preservative. be it in religious or national af. gestion. On the slightest sug- tection of the essential constitution" of Islam.—Trans.] . management of society or cessions to foreign corporations in order to finance lavish politics. and feed them to his hounds. If he providing for a defensive force. fairs. and early twentieth century shahs who sold exorbitant con- divisions: purification of the soul. passion.6 He The shari'a canons concerning the upholding of doesn't even hesitate to give himself leave for open these two holy duties are known as political and sexual debauchery at the expense of his subjects. but they will be questioned. hereditary. He can separate basic principles: any proprietor from his property. He does not hesitate to im- side of the scope of this essay. the extent of the exclusiveness of its rule. and tear them to pieces. or give away any part of the nation or its of government. rights. or to exact any taxes for his personal private 2. Or to encourage his pack of wolves to spill their tionality is contingent upon self-rule." of how wealthy. He considers himself the sole pos- rightful. [This jab is meant particularly for the late nineteenth losophy. The pure shari'a too has endeavored to maintenance of the honor. and civilized they may The possessive form of government is the case be. Verse 23] 5. That is why the pure shari 'a [religious law] of in which a prince considers the nation his personal Islam has designated the protection of the "essential property to dispose of as his whims and desires dic- constitution" of Islam as the highest of duties. The nature of the ruler's domination." legitimacy of discharging such duties. Protection of the nation from foreign invasion. use. and home economics. progressive. is contingent upon their own endeavors.) It is evident that all prison. Also. ensuring that rights are allotted to the as he sees fit. he keeps it."5 This is why the thy of God.] personal trips to Europe. to ers' rights—these are among the internal duties sell. He rewards the institution of the imamate [Shi'i religious leader. it is necessarily true that the such duties. and anger with adamant in choosing competent sages in theoretical those of the nation. independence. legitimate or illegitimate society. sages. rent. speci. whether any system of taxation. that the protection of every nation's honor and na. the honor of their religion. He treats the nation like a stable full of animals fying Islamic government as a holy duty invested in meant to satisfy his passions and wishes. and deterring people from invading oth. domination. freely elected. His courtiers help him identify his pow- greatest kings and emperors of Persia and Rome were ers of tyranny. whether initiated by divine prophets or by government. obsequious bunch around him. These sages realized the necessity and about what He does. in realizing his ends. banish. worldly affairs are contingent upon government. tion of the society and the life of humankind. nation is like that of a farmer toward his farm. remedy the shortcomings [of government] and to ality of every nation. His attempt to maintain order and to defend the neutralizing the typical maneuvers in such cases. (A detailed explication of this issue is out. Protection of domestic order." in Islamic phi. tate. One polity and government is necessary for the constitu. [As distinct from "theoretical reason. 18 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini Be aware of the notion that all sages of Islam and of ization persuaded them to accept such responsibili- the nations of the world agree that some form of ties. He upholds or tramples people's rights 1. and this real- [Qur'an. Other. any organization of forces in it be personal or group rule. torture. based upon two blood and plunder their property. he sells and mortgages national rights to finance his silly and hedonistic trips abroad. was to uphold these principles and discharge ally imposed. he adorns himself with divine titles wor- subdivision of "practical reason. or punishes people insofar as they aid or impede him ship]. he gives it away to the are what the experts in terminology call the "pro. despite their abhorrence of tyrannical rule. and so on—these wishes. civilizational laws and are considered as the second and still. and nation. can only the integrity of their country. or execute his opponents.

usurpation and violations of trust. having infallible rulers. tional right to question the authorities safely. The rule is ab. vigi- nation and possession. Everyone has equal rights. they should be and arbitrary. If they killed same principle that we Shi'is consider as a principle someone but didn't mutilate him and feed him to their of our religion. just arbiters. It is a limited form of nature of this government is analogous to loaning and government. Its power will be limited to the extent to which is punishable by law. If they expropriated who partakes of the exalted status of an infallible . affairs is conditional upon the necessity of reaching and the degree of their devotion to monotheistic or those [national] goals. down. they may be called "children" as well. conditional. The citizens are partners with polytheistic religions. the nation is hostage to the lance. responsible. are called protectors. none other than the principle of accountability. Their only value is to sate the of the yokes. Govern. It is necessarily evident that anyone hounds. ated from their own resources and wealth. and alive. satiate the passions of the rulers. insofar as their use for their rulers is like the use of upholding domestic order. And according to the government bear the yoke of servitude of the sover- old adage: "People follow the religion of their eign prince or his courtiers. to their own life and existence. because it is autocratic property but didn't rape the women. and tyrants. so whatever they refrain way. and the ter and proprietor of their rights. This is the from doing deserves profuse thanks. and its interference in its citizen's nations of their rights and the rights of their rulers. the nature and essence of the lat- orphans. and and checks and balances. and responsibility. degenerate tree delegated. ship is like the relationship of creation to the Creator.) The legitimate responsibilities. Therefore. based on domi.) The most extreme administrators are all stewards. and a general lack of re. the au- tributes and rational faculties of the princes and their thority of the government is limited to the above- courtiers. And ter form of government are stewardship. imperious. thanked. The nation that is needs of their owner. as well as the degree of the awareness of mentioned matters. The nation that is blessed The second form of government is that in which by such a government is called pious. like little On the other hand. rule does not belong to an absolute arbiter. The root of this sprawling. not to government varies according to the personal at. crops for the farmer. It is clear why of a slave to his master—even lower than that! It is each of these titles would be appropriate for such a the relationship of the farm animal to the farmer. government. National resources are at the The most exalted means of ensuring that a gov- mercy of the ruling group. in all its manifestations. Because the degenerating into an absolute and arbitrary rule is former is. is known as possessive. guardians. They have no independent right subject to such rule should be called servile. they should be thanked. Those in charge of such a government sponsibility. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 119 This form of government. "owner to the crop owner. And all citizens share the na- those subject to such a rule resist it." dictator. and are solute if the citizens acquiesce to it. whims of the leaders. They are form of tyranny is where the ruler declares himself responsible to the nation. They are not responsible ernment will not betray the trust of the nation in any to anyone for what they do. watchful deliberation. That which pro- These two forms of government are distinct both tects this form of government and prevents it from in their true nature and in their effects." They in turn treat their subordinates as petty is called limited. and the slightest infraction God. In short. and it can survive only in the absence of and conditional to the same extent. this relation- trodden. It form of government. And it is evident why each of these des- is none but the nation's ignorance of its own rights ignations would be appropriate for such a form of and the rights of its rulers. is. Everyone's relationship with the ruler is that enslaving. and resources. and the ruler's authority is rule-bound delegating. (For this affects the leave they government in the ownership of the nation's powers give to their rulers to lord over them as the sole arbi. tyrannical. and oppressed. as happened safe in doing so. not owners. Nor does anyone protesting the under the rule of the pharaohs. The head of such a form of is even lower than that: it is the relation of the crop government is known as an absolute ruler. and dictatorial. And insofar as they are alien. it is evident why each ment is based on discharging the aforementioned of these designations apply to such a nation. emancipated. just. of course. service. responsible and just rulers. they may be called "vegetative"! This form of government is committed to using the The degrees of dictatorship exerted by this form of nation's resources to meet the nation's needs. (And again. gallant. and so on. This kind of government princes. accountability. and protecting the nation.

went into occultation in 874. and endowed with many moral attributes accountability. ages to adjudicate on their behalf. All of constitutional law or the constitution.7 seldom does it happen that the king is just Consultation. nations may attempt a pale principles of Sunni Islam. as you have learned. The people's prehensible for ordinary human beings. possession of the nation. in the second." True accountability and responsibil- and virtuous and happens to choose a perfectly wise ity will preserve the limits on power and prevent the and chaste supervisor of the affairs of the state. by imposing the aforementioned limits so nity]."—Trans. governmental powers are his occultation. the will of the nation's selection. to every individual in the nation. in that it sets limits and the penalty irresponsibility of the leaders. Due to divine protection. But according to Shi'i Islam. so they can discharge their duties in In short. this legitimacy that the government will strictly refrain from inter. and honesty of the people and the govern. There should the devastation and atrocities in Iran. rests in the principle of the supervision of the "the fering in affairs in which it has no right to interfere. [The last of the infallible Imams. in accordance to the requirements of religion. stitutional government to absolutism in the first tion. those knowledgeable in religion serve as his "pub- theology. and the nation in that conditions. treatises" [compendia of ritual duties issued by a re. reigned 531-579] and [his vizier] Buzar. sions by the grand experts in religious law will suf- able by permanent termination of the service and fice. Since 7. and complete responsibility by ap- (whose explanation falls beyond the scope of this pointing a supervisory assembly of the wise. The legitimacy of the supervision of pen with frequency in history. It is impossible to expect it to hap. of these two responsibilities will lead to the deterio- equality. inequality of the citizens with the government. Slackening either countability. preventing violation and wrongdoing.] . Thus in the absence the elected legislative assembly rests conclusively on of divine leadership and the exceedingly rare inci." representatives are comprised of such individuals and However. ac. The level of vigilance. wisdom. not a rule.8 Thus the legislature should either in- stipulated in degree and kind. government. is limited later. And all of these stem for exceeding them. ration of the limits on power and reversion of con- ment achieved under Nushirvan's rule was an excep. given a lack of access to such divine their formal seat is called "the Assembly of National leaders. the well- essay). public representatives" of the Hidden Imam during Under these conditions. is of this sort. king tive branch is under the supervision of the legisla- of Iran. as return of possessive government only if the execu- happened in the case of Nushirvan [Khosrow. which relies on the con- likeness of such a rule only under two conditions: tractual powers of the umma [the Muslim commu- First. Other considerations concerning this issue. this is a status "whose true nature is incom. external affairs. and responsibility and the partnership. and ligious scholar]. such a leader is wishers of the nation. as we shall. knowing no limits. God willing. and the experts in internal and immune even to the slightest oversight and neglect. except in areas of conflict with religious land. "There is no laws. the Hidden Imam had "specific repre- sentatives" for the first seventy years of his occultation. all that has be no doubt about its universal application.120 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini leader will be innocent of base passions. 8. From what we have explained so far it is clear that Since the written document concerning political and the foundation of the first form of government [tyr- civil affairs of the nation is analogous to "practical anny] is absolute power. It is indeed rarer than the case. and the freedoms and clude some of the experts in religious law or be com- rights of all classes of the people are formally guar. according to Shi'i that time. strengthening the principle of vigilance. is punish. explain later. and to oligarchic autocracy of the legislature rarest of jewels. The correction and Violating the trust of the nation on either side and in confirmation of the representative assembly's deci- any form. prised of people who are given leave by such person- anteed. other penal measures applicable to betrayal of trust. and need for explanation after exhibition!" the points that must be observed in order to maintain The foundation of the second [constitutional] the integrity of the constitution will be mentioned form of government. in history. [In Shi'i Islam.—Trans. with no ruined religion. according to the dents of just kingship. whether by excess or penury. such a document is called the from a disregard of the above two principles. tive branch.] lic representatives. blessed with Second. and the legislative branch is responsible jumihr a long time ago. God willing.

still another verse [Sura 7. the situation changed. nothing much changed. hadith of the Prophet of Islam concludes that once even plants. circa 1571- their diametrical opposites. "whose people are our slaves. They con- from leaving for the holy land. the Prophet of Islam. ' Ali. not connected to deification of the kings. generalized the meaning of the word other nations realized the natural foundations of pro. All these. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 121 to delegation in affairs beneficial to the nation. the pace of the in the authentic and frequently quoted tradition: expansion of Islam was mind-boggling. "You consider me indebted to your hos- trary to the first form. 1674. Although in these cases the domination was Khattab. nonetheless 'Ali treated it similarly: He had to send for his son 'Abdullah to testify that his father's "In those days." Similarly. After "When the children of al-'As reach 30 in number. elabo- guided Muslims to free their necks from the yoke of rated on the sufferings of the children of Israel at wretchedness. They couldn't find any way to refuse or defend themselves." In the same sermon 'Ali explained the reign of the leaders of Iran and 9. has stated from the second to the first form. land. worse. like animals. So long as they were pro. They have is due the highest of prayers and salutations. circa 1329-1414. as soon as the Concordance]. and Islamic government did not degenerate greetings be to him and his pure progeny. he was reminded by his audience that he could be around the Sea of Iraq toward arid areas of the in- straightened by the sword if he diverged from the straight path. since the basis of the former is ber of wrongdoers as a critical threshold at which thralldom and of the latter liberty." The prescient pre-Islamic savagery and ignorance. "servant" in this context to "serfs" and "subordi- gressive government. to whom rants to idolatry." In trators. interpreted the word "servant" tyrannies of their own. as was the tra garment. tinued to languish in this state of abject ruin and de- Verse 22] Moses. this government is based on pitality even though you have enslaved the Israel- partnership. are the results of the ap. when everyone had received only one garment. the commander of the faithful. take the servants of God as their own servants. The Prophet designated this num- At any rate." He then ruled over the children of Israel. Con. and rights. sion." ollaries of Islamic government were transformed into [Hadith scholar Fakhr al-Din Turayhi. banishing them from the lush arable lands if he erred. the Qur'an tells that the Pharaoh mon: "the pharaohs took them as slaves. Verse 11] people as slaves." This generalization is further confirmed in would prosper and that the Islamic nation would the blessed verse [Sura 6. liberty. the Pharaoh says. badi. "and plication of the above two principles. Arabs]. and as "slave. the hands of the Pharaoh and his people in a ser- For example. so long as other nations too were enslaved in Bahrain Collection}." In another sermon. Verse 127] he says. subjected them to the worst tortures and made them mented and imprisoned in Egypt and prevented drink the poisonous cup drop by drop. Verse 94]: "you have left become their inferiors and. in the degree of their servitude. and that he had willingly given it to his father. Sura 13. the number of the fruits of the evil tree of tyranny ily. tells the feated subjugation. kings of Iran and Rome were their second garment was his. In one verse [Sura 26. Mu'awiyya [reigned 661-680] and the children of they shall turn the religion of God upside down and al-'As came to power. be returned to the behind your servants [upon death]. the opposite of liberty. Verse 47] financial accountability and supervision of adminis. case in Egypt.9 These two we shall subjugate them. [Muhammad ibn Ya'qub Firuza- Islam continued to enjoy a measure of stability de. On another occasion." [Qur'an. these two principles were Rome over the children of Israel and Isma'il [the applied so completely that the second caliph ['Umar ibn al. as well. God does not change the state of a people til they reach 30. when he asked to be corrected masters.] the author of Qamus [The spite its tyrannical leaders. after a few complaints of . However.] the author of Majma' al-Bahrain [The Still. The noblest of all. Pharaoh. tected. may peace be upon him. gation. "Ver." It is evident that the sla- principles and their corollaries were constituted by very of the Israelites is an expression of this subju- the founder of the religion. and all the principles and cor. they will alter God's religion and take change themselves. In the first days of Islam. although they did expounded on the meaning of slavery: "then they not worship him as the Egyptians did. including the right to ites?" In another blessed verse [Sura 23. it was inevitable that they nates. and were tor. 634-644] was publically rebuked for wearing an ex. the text of the holy they would begin to transform the form of Islamic Qur'an and traditions of the holy infallible ones have government from stewardship to tyrannical posses- on several occasions likened the servitude of the ty.

The difference between the two to us. God willing. the former is based on the head bent before God be made to bend to any control of bodies while the latter stems from the con- other?" Thus Husayn refused to acquiesce. The acquiescence of the umma the word "master" instead of "steward" here. as He had made those before bandits of the nation is not only an injustice to one's them. in this world as well as the next. who have made simi. addressed Hurr ibn Yazid timony to the mutual support of these two forms of Riyahi [a Kufan military officer]. Husayn. This is why all mutually protective of each other! It is also evident others in the history of Islam who have followed that uprooting this evil tree and liberation from this Husayn's blessed precedent. interpretations of the blessed verse. Me. and will establish their faith which He has own life and liberty. And far be it ambitious and hedonist hypocrites. In reply to the and Christians'] unquestioning obedience toward coarse and rude bunch of Kufans who had declared. according to the explicit . the of resisting the forces of absolutism. Taqlid [imitation] of reli- "We have descended upon you by order of your gious leaders who pretend to present true religion is cousin. Ei- of allegiance as an inferior. ['Ali's "They consider their rabbis and monks as lords. This to tyrants is likened here to polytheism. God has forbidden it the same conclusion. But those who disbelieve after this will be rep- bellion of the inhabitants of Iraq. Verse 31] hold that the verse refers to [Jews' Umayyad leaders with abject slavery. The above verse that allegiance to you as a slave. abject slavery—possible only through the heedful- lar sacrifices. he offered This argument confirms the astuteness and accu- up his life. to cleanse its body of the gious kinds. popes and their courtiers. thus complicat- vast ocean of resistance and freedom-seeking. he said: "And they will twelfth Imam." Truly. holy be His names. Verse 55] declares: "God has prom. they are all grain pick. peace be upon him and all those who The dismal condition of us Iranians is living tes- were martyred with him. in truth. You have limited my rebukes imitation of the ill-intentioned clergy and options to two: death and servitude. are called "resisters of injustice" and ness and awakening of the nation—is relatively easy "heroes of freedom. This will be. In order trol of hearts. verse [Sura 24. in which he robates. science who divide tyranny into political and reli- munity of the faithful. The prince of the oppressed. You shall live as a free and heroic further explicated in the discussion of the methods soul. himself stated. He made racy of the argument of some of the experts of this this generous sacrifice for the liberation of the com. They consider them as interrelated and impurities of hedonistic passions." He echoed his father's words: "How can a to believe that." Likewise.122 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini his blessed heart concerning the hypocrisy and re. Thus the difficulty of getting rid of ready to be martyred in his blessed stirrups: "You are political tyranny is rooted in religious tyranny's sup- the free one." ' Ali used be sacrificed for him. ing resistance to the former form of tyranny as well. confederated. and to the proud souls. "I hold no allegiance to any tyrant of cerning the conversion of the form of government my time. The two are allied and mutually fected from the enemy and stood [with Husayn]. deviousness and chicanery." This verse as well as the closing clauses of warned them that as a result of this behavior they the "Promulgation" prayer [a prominent piece of the will be deprived of his leadership and become slaves Shi'i liturgy] refer to the return of his holiness the of Umayyad rule [661-750]. as your mother named you [Hurr port of the political order. to preserve his freedom and monotheism. We can conclude that obedience to the autocratic ised to make those of you who believe and do right. endowments granted by God. and to on naked force. and his family." Also. Hurr. In addition. equated obedience to the [Sura 9. The difference leads us tude. the awaited Messiah—may our lives find the Umayyads evil masters after me." he replied: "I shall not give you my hand no different from obedience to political tyrants. orders of the rebellious tyrants of the umma and the leaders in the land. tyranny and slavery. As Husayn is in agreement with scores of other traditions con. and to the faithful. his property. means "free"]. which are among the greatest chosen for them. also leads us to from us to accept servitude. and forms of obedience is that political tyranny is based to the pure of heart. while religious tyranny is based on all those who prefer noble death to a life of servi. to They will worship Me and not associate any one with human beings. and to His Messenger. in early Islam. in the case of political tyranny and extremely diffi- ers of this abundant harvest and dew drinkers of this cult in the case of religious tyranny. after Hurr had de. and change their fear into security." younger son] Husayn. nor shall I confess my ther one is a form of idolatry.

peace be upon them. The dent in which [Muhammad's step-]daughter Zaynab story of 'Ali's refusal to provide for his needy brother [died 629] came to Medina and offered an heirloom from the treasury. Conversely. been captured by the Muslims in battle]. lib. been emphasized in ['Ali's] holy "sermon of dispar. when leading them to their God-given rights and liberties he asked all the faithful to exercise their right of just has been among the most significant goals of the retribution if he has unfairly injured any of them. Pharaoh's refusal and his of leadership. according to the text of the paigns. died 652]. a pretender to the divine mantle and a Second. a non-Muslim who had associates with God. when they one closer to monotheism and the worship of God were brought in front of him. When she tributes of ultimate possession of the creation. The Prophet of Islam bared his shoulder and holy Qur'an." All they sought was to liberate the Prophet once said in public that if my only daugh- the Israelites from slavery and torture. So they would ask for favors [from 'Ali] principle of equality in property is evident in the inci. holy texts. Even senior disciples. one recognizes the giving and accepting favors and discriminating based equality of a nation's people with their leaders in all on the closeness of association [with the Prophet]. laws and obligations and the great efforts of the They preferred earlier Muslims such as the "Emi- Prophet. and other prisoners of war. died 619]. after the statements we have ful 'Ali encountered so many enmities and distur- quoted above. according to ment before he returned the heirloom [to Zaynab]. peace be upon him. to establish grants" [who accompanied Muhammad to Medina in this principle. criminate between his uncle 'Abbas [ibn 'Abd al- leases the soul from its vegetative state and animal Muttalib. Yet he was careful to ask whether usurps this status is not only a tyrant and a usurper all the Muslims would forego their share of the pay- of the station of stewardship. taking Abu'l-'Asi [ibn al-Rabi'. [Sura 20. God's greetings be upon him. First. and take them ter Fatima ever commits a crime. the principle of equality in decrees is evi- transgressor to His inviolate realm. In his holy "sermon of disparagement. greetings to him. liberation from the yokes [of the kings of Iran and 619-686] and Malik Ashtar [a great warrior. thus guaranteeing the well-being of the 622] and the warriors of the battle of Badr [in 624] umma. not oppress them. They even guaranteed Pharaoh's would not differ in the slightest from the punishment continued reign and authority in his own land (as has of any other wrong-doer. it also brings died circa 670]. peace be upon them accidentally touched his shoulder during of the cam- and upon our Prophet. for God only deserves the at. may peace be upon her. her punishment to the holy land. was as 'Abdullah [Ibn] 'Abbas [an early Islamic scholar. It was for the revival of such a blessed tradition agement" [of the devil]). that the commander of the faith- 'Ali. it is tantamount to idolatry. even in the binding of their hands is why liberating the imprisoned and usurped nations and arms. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 123 text of the worthy Qur'an and the traditions of the in order to purchase the freedom of her husband. and to uphold the Israelites. and to the Pharaoh and his troops and the liberation of the reverse the endowment of fiefs. an ornament that she unquestionable authority in whatever He deems nec. such the mission of the Prophet. asked the man to retaliate if he wished. Also. hear harsh rebukes. Someone claimed that [the Prophet's] riding crop had Moses and his brother Aaron. Third. the Prophet He does. All of these are among His holy attributes. wept and announced that he would free her husband He who arrogates these attributes for himself and without payment. but also. He alone can be free of responsibility in what wife. the like Iranians. But the man raoh thus: "So let the Israelites come with us and do was satisfied to kiss [the Prophet's] shoulder. over later Muslims and newly converted Muslims Let us cite an example for each case. died Rome]. dent in the case in which [the Prophet] did not dis- eration from such an abject servitude not only re. the principle of equality in punish- from the yoke of slavery and abject servitude and ment is evident in [the Prophet's] last sermon. argued that one of the advantages of bances during his rule. infallible ones. his sharp rebuke of one of his . and approached with the heirloom. That special privileges. They were given no and His true and exclusive names and attributes. status into the realm of noble humanity. had inherited from her mother Khadija [the Prophet's essary. in every case. had been used to the practice of From the Prophet's biography. Verse 47] addressed the Pha. his cousin 'Aqil [ibn Abi Talib." principle of equality. 658] and the others. and in order to abrogate the apostasy persecution of the Israelites led to the drowning of of discrimination in the distribution of favors. and would. prophets.

heroes. which the reader has learned ity in Islam that put all other proponents of these from this essay to have been the practice of the virtues to shame. They even attributed downtrodden Shi'is than the cursed troops of Yazid . marriage. While the possessive form has caused government. even penal law. the free and coerced. has clearly sparked a back.124 Muhammad Husayn Na'ini daughters who wanted to borrow a necklace from the the outward appearance of women in the West (al- treasury for one night. and tesque and reprehensible disguises—contrary to the in calling its enemies the enemies of the Imam of the Qur'an's warning: "Do not mix the false with the age [the Hidden Imam]. They said tral pillar of Islam and discharge the great responsi. or Britain) to the political change from ab- stock—which made even his enemy. Verse of Islam and the integrity of the Islamic countries. know full well that this essay knows such liberation to be the goal of all spreading corruption. with God's help. they have mobilized to cloak this divine the ruin of Islamic societies and the decline of Islamic beneficence with ugliness. anarchy. Recognition of the need for be of the evils of slavery and the advantages of lib- change. with limited government. which are far- picious age—which is. businessmen—would not have risen in order lash. Fur- and extol his virtue as a leader—and countless other ther. the delegative form will protect against most the sun cannot be covered over with mud. that the godly jurisconsults and leaders of insane. 42] It portrayed the liberation of the nation from the This bunch of tyrants and oppressors of the umma. the the Ja'fari [Shi'i] religion have resolved to free the able and the disabled. Mu'awiyya solutism to constitutionalism. regardless of how unaware it may tect the essence of Islam. They know very well what we mean when we declared this struggle a denial of all moral limits and say that these so-called clerics "do more harm to the an attempt to spread apostasy. in accordance with the maxim. and his refusal to allow his lowed by Christianity in places such as Russia. sane and stewards. (The reader of these depreciators of the shari'a. "He who can't accom. Because the salvation and prosperity of the nation. that this principle will erase all differences between bility of leadership in Islam. abso- Islamic government. and the preservation of its essential rights. The religious form of absolutism. It was with a similar Muslims and non-Muslims in affairs such as inheri- motivation. is contin- vert the form of government from possessive back gent upon the limitation and responsibility of the to delegative. did freedom and equality. nor the Nile forms of corruption and prevent the dominion of the delta dammed with shovels. and debauchery can prophets and their just successors. had no motivation in authenticating this limited and responsible government in the most gro. movement with such explicit edicts and orders. sober. in conformity to achieve that which the proponents of religious with its ancient and ongoing duty to protect the evil despotism attribute to constitutionalism. and hide the truth knowingly. and the origin of only strengthen the position of irresponsible. They have resolved as well that noble endeavor. tance. as was his son Husayn. Prophet of Islam and his just successors. In this path [the religious matter how ignorant of the requirements of religion leaders] have engaged in a struggle needed to pro. The leaders of the Ja'fari reli- its best to describe the life-sustaining principles of gion. They have no other objective in mind tree of autocracy planted by the family of al-'As. too. plish all should not abandon all. except to protect the essence true. and that it denies ample of the praiseworthy prophets and their trusted any difference between children and adults. and so forth. They do not realize that states. ' Ali was martyred. All of these issues. of rights and powers.) The but to help their masters by committing these heinous proponents of religious despotism went farther and acts. the age in ther from the quest for constitutionalism than the sky which the enslavement and decline of the Muslims is from the earth. healthy and sick. and earnest attempt to erty and equality—at least understands this much: Its bring about the end of absolutism and to replace it sages and brave compatriots—be they clergymen." [Sura 2. and in order to follow the glorious ex. it is imagined to be. rights and duties. clutches of unjust tyrants as illusory. they attached to the essence of this are being terminated. for which All these endeavors served to preserve this cen." they ought to con. own son to borrow some honey from the public France. which was distorted by the evil lutist autocrats. though this is as irrele- [who would soon found the Umayyad dynasty] weep vant to constitutional government as could be. The Iranian nation—no infidels over the country. they mischaracterized the principle of equality similar stories are examples of the justice and equal. in terms of their faithful from the servitude of the tyrants in this aus. but to attain tree of tyranny in the name of protecting religion. and the brave.

nate—that is. remember when God took a promise from the people Second: During this period of the occultation [of of the Book. Verse 62 ] that the present form of constitutional government— It is time to rein in our pen. the umma is deprived of divine not keep back any part of it. for it is sure to affect its own kind [that and responsibility of government—is the right an- is. temptations and fallacies adduced against constitu- duction to an end at this juncture with the following tional government. They recognize that the blessed verse of former [absolutist] form is among the apostasies of the Qur'an [Sura 3. they set aside [the stewardship and [the Imam's] public representatives. to make it known to humankind. noth. and a summary of their cogitations of nonreligious philosophers. GOVERNMENT IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE 125 [circa 642-683] did to Husayn. as stated in the Qur'an: "Such was God's tradi. We shall swer and free of further limitations? postpone revealing their fallacies to appropriate sec. and the Hidden Imam]. even proconstitutional clergy will suffer]. rectness and legitimacy of the process of electing gion of Islam and in other religions. the sages responsibilities. as well as in the the nation's representatives." [Sura 33. and you will not find to limit [the powers of] government. Third: Based on the above-mentioned necessity tion among those before you. to reduce the degree of injustice and usurpation? tion. is none other than the They know how much we are hurt by their alliance second [constitutional] form. based on the two principles of limitation of powers dal no further. peace be upon him"! of yore and thinkers of today. Verse 187] speaks of them: "And tyrannical rebels of all times and periods of history. We shall bring the intro. and usurpation ing but scandal and damnation will result from their upon usurpation—or is it incumbent upon Muslims support of tyranny. This is God's unchanging tradi. to describe this scan. compounded injustice. Fourth: Discussion and dispelling of some of the tions in our five chapters. can one argue any change in God's tradition. Devolution to the with tyrants. ." They must one allow the former form of government to domi- realize that in this world and in the Hereafter. but how whose rule has been usurped [by mortals]. pledge] and sold it away for a little gain. summary of the five ensuing chapters: Fifth: Explication of the conditions for the cor- First: The foundation of government in the reli. Should wretched the bargain that they made.

Tajikistan: Izd-vo "Irfon. Ashraf Ghani. by the shari'a [Islamic law] of four wives that can ing Afghanistan a strong state with many dependen. pp. Tarzi is sometimes referred to as the father of modem prose in Afghanistan. He returned to Afghanistan in 1905. 'Abd al-Bashir Shur. May Schinasi. The specimen of Tarzi's work presented here is drawn from a book presented to subscribers of Siraj al-akhbar in September 1912. Afghanistan: muda Tarzi i Ego Gazeta Siradzh-ul'-Akhbar. mak. days. mostly in Damascus.1 The reign of the Great Amir [Dust Muhammad Khan. Sobir Orientale. polygamy.: Stanford University Press. No thought. 1880-1946 ul-akhbar (1911-1918) (Naples. taught history and geography at a military school. or policy." 1973). once again the would instill discord in their children from their early plague of disunity afflicted his sons and a destruc. also had a and his Newspaper. and also had intellectual contact with reformers in the Levant. number 3. and other territories were lost. Translation from Dari and introduction by Helena Malikyar. 1865-1933) was Afghanistan's foremost proponent of mod- ernization and reform within an Islamic context. opened a translation office. form- ing the foundation of modem education in Afghanistan. the male attendants. the bimonthly periodical that became the cornerstone of modem Afghan journalism. reflecting the version that en- joyed state sponsorship at the time. 1969). 1988). The Lamp of the News. Peshawar. Tarzi spent more than 20 years in the Ot- toman Empire. whose birthplace is claimed by both Afghanistan and Iran. Chih Bayad Kard? (What Is to Be Done?) "Literature as Politics: The Case of Mahmud Tarzi. Mahmud Tani-yi Mirzoev. as the latter term signifies the number set tached to the central administration of Kabul. Calif.2 We do not call it for internal reform. nationalism. a multitude of wives means twenty." Afghani- (Kabul. after Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (chap- ter I I). from each of whom would be born at public education. A Study of Seraj stan: Politics of Reform and Modernization. tive civil war inflamed the dynasty. Second. [Tarzi's sponsor. thirty. It was at this time that force the discord. (The Literary and Educational Activity of Mahmud Tarzi 2. however. Mahmud Tarzi. just as Tarzi's model for education policy was later adopted by the state. and Islamic—among the elite of Afghanistan and neighboring Mus- lim states. Afghanistan at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century: Na- 1. Because of his break from ornate literary styles. Italy: Istituto Universitario (Stanford. By con- cies. volume 29. 1842-1863] passed in tranquil. (Dushanbe. We must say that there were two main reasons for reigned 1826-1839. and iden- tity—Afghan. Central Asia. Afghanistan: Siraj al-Akhbar. He used this publication as a forum to spread his message of modernization. there was a lack of proper Baluchistan. good or wicked! The rival wives After the death of the Great Amir. least one child. All dependencies became at. Chaos and blood. 1979). only be allowed under specified conditions. Literaturno-prosvetitel'skaia Deiatel'nost' Makh. and India. the Diras. 63-72. 1911-1919 Nasharat-i Ittihadiyya-i Zhurnalistan. tionalism and Journalism in Afghanistan. Tarzi's account of Afghan history is sketchy and not always factual. stan. 1976. Afghani (Mahmud Tarzi the Afghan) (Kabul. Shalkut. Amir Habibullah Khan. It is likely that Tarzi was one of the main architects of this version. One was the practice ity and total affluence. was given to foreign trast. 1912). and assumed editorship of Siraj al-akhbar (The Lamp of the News). 119-159. Vartan Gregorian. Great efforts were exerted of marrying a multitude of wives. 14 Mahmud Tarzi What Is to Be Done? Mahmud Tarzi (Afghanistan. Neither was anything done in the area of forty wives. The son of a famed poet whose outspokenness led the family into exile. 1911-1919) multitude of wives and concubines in his harem. Tarzi studied with Afghani for seven months in Istanbul. pp. Rivalries and antagonism among the nannies. and the nurses would also rein- shed ravaged the country. Eastern. The Emergence of Modern Afghani.] 126 . such a civil war and fratricide.—Trans.

brave king. trol of the affairs of Afghanistan was passed on to the sulted in the new amir signing a most damaging and capable and strong hands of the wise. Here. his great glish. From their son that the late Amir Shir 'Ali Khan had built as an birth. generally rounded. and ignorance of patriotism and as after a period of foreign domination. he was defeated. As a the throne. The delega- English state. The misery and destruction that had previ- speaking. The En. the English army was sur- pleasure. but this time in manifold. intelligent. it will not be an exaggeration if we ment resulted in the killing of [British official Louis] say that because of this incident. carcass of worldly gains and committed all sorts of We will not discuss all the work and progress that contemptible indecencies. added to the ill intentions of some English troops left Afghanistan in safety. At this precise moment the aware of news from the outside world. old and young. the garri. approximately 300. Amir peace and negotiation. once again religiosity. policy and preemptively sent a delegation to the late spiracy of the Russian state and declared war on the amir. The much misery upon the English army. They would be un. the esteemed English Cavagnari [in 1879] and the imprisonment and sub. who could hold a weapon marched to the battlefield. as it be mentioned with damnation in the pages of Afghan has not yet been forgotten from our memories. In history. ascended from the regular army were ready to serve him. A certain annihilation. the exalted gov- lows in Kabul and began ordering the deaths of five. lack of education. the amir could have brought glish occupied Afghanistan for the second time. gitimacy of the Afghan government. with all the aptitude and potential to estab- [holy struggle]. it was Amir Shir 'Ali Khan [reigned If the Afghan nation could bring such calamity on the 1863-1865. The chaos of an uprising began to challenge the En. and died in Mazar-i Sharif. at such a sensitive time. and enlightened majesty. number of treacherous people. amir. armed civilians of the region and a number of soldiers was released and. state became greatly indebted to his majesty the late sequent exile to India of the amir himself. re. short. and pernicious agreement with the English. leadership Afghanistan became a mighty and power- Mullas [religious scholars] everywhere declared jihad ful state. Consequently. Therefore. which was signed at Zima. This agree. This ushered in an era of renewal for Afghanistan. the beacon of the nation and . ernment can also assert that it saved their troops from ten. sold out their faith in religion for the vile the independent state of Afghanistan was established. if the famous General [Frederick] Roberts [1832-1914]. though. Their names forever will was made during the tenure of his late majesty. anyone lish and build a great Islamic state in Asia. they were thirsty for the a number of reforms in the civil administration. His unbalanced state of mind after a long result of the agreement. for had he chosen. His son. He also brought people. In Qandahar too. the imprisonment. Their army was besieged at Shirpur. crossed the Amu River [from his exile in Central Asia]. He raised an be handed to the enemy when such a valiant com- army of about sixty to seventy thousand soldiers. they would be addressed with royal titles and excellent stronghold for the national army of Afghani- would spend their days playing games and seeking stan. and the con- royal advisors and an incompetent entourage. rose against the English. before the latter set out for Kabul. we will just mention that under his majesty's Most inhabitants.000 had been imprisoned by his father for many years. or twenty innocent Afghans on a daily basis. came the turn of his eldest and wisest son. remain limited to reading books in Persian ously befallen the English was threatening them again. WHAT IS TO BE DONE? 127 education and discipline for the princes. Their scientific education would. who Charikar district of Kuhistan. In blood of the enemies of their homeland! the end. Amir Shir 'Ali Khan made a po. In the end. who mander and chivalrous amir would lead such brave received modern military training. because of ignorance. fled to tion carried a confidential letter containing an offer for Turkistan. and writing decrees and orders. set up gal. Women. however. men. Such innate news also struck like thunder that his late majesty Amir ignorance and lack of education was so prevalent that 'Abd al-Rahman Khan [reigned 1880-1901] had no one could escape from its effects. The esteemed English state employed a prudent litical error in that he was deceived by the con. When his majesty arrived in the Muhammad Ya'qub Khan [reigned 1879-1880]. good English state claims that it has approved the le- under the pretext of avenging Cavagnari. 1869-1879] who captured the throne of English without having a king or a military leader. Afghanistan. and once more the entire country was imagine what kind of pandemonium and tumult could unified under one central command. Like hungry lions. After the demise of that founder of the kingdom.

oceans.128 Mahmud Tarzi the religion. rivers. as backwardness and the darkness of our age to the happened to so many of us before. The only reason for this dark. One month The Holy Qur'an has shown us that knowledge is life of lagging behind means a year of retardation. We must organize large gatherings of would have ended at the close of that golden age. and the opportunity of our duties toward ourselves and toward humanity for attack will soon be lost. and memorize it too quickly without pondering its and space would recite in unison: meaning. All our destitution and impoverish- gence results in a day of damage. and of being. The whole world will be enlightened by must carefully study the sacred book and translate its it until the end of days. we read our Qur'an this case. stones. withdrawal of that light. That kind of light will not First. most of us Mus- 1919]. as it appeared 1. Alas. More than in any other place. deserts. and specialists of Islam in each we believe that light shines over the entire world and and every Muslim country. Time is very limited. for in that golden time of happiness the rays of the light of that brightest of moons were still shin- ing in the hearts of people. We see must do it fast. however. and direct all of humankind. One day of dam. them. mines. the living "What is to be done at this time?" should also read it to improve their own lives. Yes. beneficial passages into all languages that Muslims ness and this abject baseness of ours is that we have speak. we can achieve the conquest of all things. and ness. it would be impossible to return to the state of affairs and put them to use for ourselves and our countries. scientists. we must read carefully our Holy Qur'an and distance itself from us until the day of judgment. with the help of science and is to be done?" Some say that even if we so desired. Regrettably. We do not attribute our once. One moment of negli. Our Qur'an expresses and If we carefully study questions such as "What explains to us that all things in the universe are were we and what have we become?" and "What conquerable. sky. If we dominate our mountains. Therefore. we have done nothing more than obey the ions of the Prophet [the first four caliphs] ended with commands of our Qur'an. we We. tion to take and very little time. In norance darkness. Whatever we do. We must move fast and wake up at the truth in a different light. we for all time. We do not apply this effective weapon to "It is useless to have regrets later. One and ignorance death. The Holy Qur'an is a sacred and steadfast book so that Muslims learn that this is not just a book for and a venerable right path that has been sent to guide the afterlife and for the dead. our Muslim brothers! We have much urgent ac- minds have become. But scholars. Amir Habibullah Khan [reigned 1901. This sovereign's ever-increasing innate talent lims have reserved that life-giving holy book for our and capability has caused continuous growth and dead. age entails a month of lagging behind." the needs of our time. mountains. and read from it only for the souls of departed advancement. we hear recita- it the beam of the scale of justice and equality in Asia. as a book for the continent of Asia that it would be appropriate to call dead. We must then publish the translations abun- distanced ourselves from that light. The serenity. They must think and deliberate on their state upon us are from our ignorance of the Qur'an. keeping them in clear Urgent Actions conscience. All of the miseries and adversities that have come other. consider this a lame excuse. the darker our hearts and O. and the righteous morality of the four compan. So much so that at this moment Af. ones. or else we will soon be hunted in our sleep. make its glorious commands our guide for this world Were that light limited to a particular time period. Muslims must ask this question of one an. all and the next. but one that covers the . and the world. We consider that great book. dantly and distribute them to the entire Islamic world. tions of the Holy Qur'an in cemeteries and before It is precisely for this reason that one is compelled corpses! This is not to say that we must not recite the to pose the question: Qur'an for the souls of the dead—rather. sent to heal and ghanistan has gained such an important place in the bless the inhabitants of the earth. all the trees. if we put into practice that have they done?" we will arrive at the issue of "What which is taught to us. The farther we have come from the bril- liant sunshine of that era.300 years ago. knowledge. that knowledge is light and ig- year of retardation is an entire lifetime of regret. In those gatherings. the just. ment is a result of ignorance and lack of education.

Therefore. ghanistan also suffers due to the animosity. There is and uncontrollable fear of this Islamic unity. We established all over the Islamic world. while such acts [as in the field of the Islamic world. It is therefore incum- our sins when we bow in prayer a couple of times or bent upon Muslims to draw strength from their ab- recite a few passages of the Holy Qur'an. Europe] has a great dren to schools. We find. if we truly a depreciated asset. of disunity. however. This is simply Societies. Let us begin with individuals. The Holy It is because we are ignorant of the Qur'an that Qur'an commands unity. and bloodshed that obviously prevails among its Curiously. should become . which unfortunately make no use of their minerals. or The same practice must be enforced in Iran and Af- Turkistan against their respective ruling states would ghanistan. rivalry. entire world. that is. no cure except to build an infrastructure in our coun- ever. Concurrently its obligation toward its homeland and national and jointly they should preoccupy themselves with honor. we must consider science and industry as those vile acts are proscribed. with much cer. and that is to send and expose our chil- The land of the Franks [that is. Just as prayer is prescribed in the Qur'an. tary and secondary levels. For citizen has become a soldier [in the Balkan Wars]. effort. as the Holy Qur'an dictates. solute faith in the Qur' an and sow the seeds of unity prayers benefit only one's self. the Ottoman Empire struggling in an abyss cusations. clubs. and Afghan states. He has bestowed the universe and its to God. The more we delay. where Muslims of different back. greater loss we will have to face. not this harmony and oneness. friendship. the community's advancement. Third. Iranian. European states. while Af- pathy and cooperation. Iran is an even worse case. Minerals are but one example. and races. Such people will surely be punished in this the task of protecting the Qur'an. there is only one remedy for Iran and principles of survival. China. is tries for scientific education. To suggest that all join the armed morality. especially recommended for independent countries Second. and seek it aggressively. Afghanistan. We cause meaning of the Qur'anic ordinances. We commit. these and many other unmentionable acts. slander. associations. The purpose of their ity for protecting its nationhood and its statehood by unity would be to replace malice and hypocrisy with participating in its country's armed forces has evaded benevolence. knowledge to their brothers. for lack of during the time of pilgrimage to the holy shrines of knowledge. lies. improvement. to provoke the Muslims of India. we would act differently. to all the tribes and clans only exploit their own mines but also those of the of the various Islamic nations. This task. and cooperation. we must such as the Ottoman. colleges. without exception. tion. They should then spread their means that each and every citizen. To grounds gather. both free and needy. progress. If we start work today. our aim and indeed the aim of all of Islam. and upon reaching the age of twenty-one. and Islamic uplift. acquired them. If Muslims are not yet there. and world and the next. and schools must be because they have the knowledge and we do not. also capable of industrial production. and harmony. especially remain deprived of thousands of things. of Islam. This is learned from our Qur'an. by contrast. their mines. then spread this unity. In addition to natural resources. example. clans. In fact. we feel that we have been absolved of all many tribes. civiliza. The nation that does not take responsibil- be to commit an atrocious crime. it is because of their lack of understanding of the falsehood. the faith. day by day we witness an increasing incli- creatures on us. Praise be book on us. so that they may bribery. WHAT IS TO BE DONE? 129 entire universe and all its creatures. hypocrisy. In bestowing that preserve their right to their own resources. nation toward such unity among Muslims. and the like] unsettle the foundations collect its fortuitous fruits. for resentment and envy by inventing lies and false ac. while others with the knowledge have Medina and Mecca. and bigotry. example. titude. Together with other Muslims they should forces does not mean that the entire population of try to reach the levels of education and sciences that Afghanistan must simultaneously take up arms. This unification must be based on the achieve this. We destroy any chance of brotherly sym. How. they are will require great sacrifice. and workshops. rights. It would be a terrible crime to Fourth. adopt unity as the very foundation of our principles. we commit such vile and immoral acts as bribery. It their rulers possess. we but rather to unite for the purpose of our own may see results in 10 years. and perseverance. in the esteemed Ottoman Empire every use the unification of Islam against Christianity. especially at the elemen- not to form a union and then confront the Christians.

I ignored my shortcomings and wrote two years. I pray to the Almighty. In this speaking out and writing are always better than not manner. shortcoming that they may find in this humble work. at the end of which they will leave the this piece.130 Mahmud Tarzi a conscript. fourth issue of my newspaper. progress. to bestow prosperity. I hope ocean has written this small and inadequate essay. ble essay will serve in opening the door for more tions to the above four items. writings of this sort. in His sublime of the first year. and en- essays on this topic have appeared many times in the lightenment upon all Muslim brothers. work will not adequately and entirely answer the Although there are many more things that we need question. and in provoking thought and debate. the issue of all saying or writing anything. It is therefore hoped that scholars and intel- lectuals who believe in the progress of Islam through Epilogue and Apology such means will produce writings of their precious This humblest of creatures of the Creator of land and and beneficial thoughts and suggestions. The duration of their training should be Islamic press. this hum- to do. that our generous readers will forgive any error or and has presented it to readers along with the twenty. Also. Despite the fact that better-written greatness. in a matter of a few years. No doubt the present becoming soldiers will have been resolved. which is the last issue In conclusion. at this moment I will limit my humble sugges. My courage came from the conviction that military with the knowledge of military basics. . "What is to be done?" However.

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Among them is not to feel disgust at honey even if it is found in a The intelligent person must consider the statement bleeder's glass. and antidotes from snakes. for the Visitor of the History of Algeria and Amir 'Abd al. later. often into glass cups. Tuhfa al. 'Abd al-Qadir dedicated himself to the mission of creating and guiding an elect circle of disciples toward the spiritual regeneration of the Muslim world. At the same time. 'Abd al-Qadir and the Algerians: Resis- wa tanbih al-ghafil (Reminding the Intelligent and Notifying tance to the French and Internal Consolidation (New York: the Unmindful) (Beirut. For gold is derived from dust. [An old medical technique involved the removal of Qadir) (Beirut. being within a vessel used for blood does not hood. be they measure the truth according to the person. not the truth according to be good. he went through an acute spiritual crisis. Born into a prominent Sufi family in western Algeria. Modernity: Sufism. Michel Chodkiewicz. A person who needs an 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhyi al-Din al-Jaza'iri. one should accept it. Lebanon: Dar al-Yaqzaal-'Arabiyya. it is not defiling proves to be true. 1995). and he is prepared be bad. They always to receive it from whomever possesses it. a mystic scholar who strove to adapt Islam to the modern era through a re interpretation of the teaching of the medieval mystic. Itzchak Weismann. and there is no need to feel averse toward from bulbs. tual Writings of Amir 'Abd al-Kader (Albany: State Univer- tion from Arabic and introduction by Itzchak Weismann. ever a statement is ascribed to a person they believe sured according to the truth. 1964). Salafiyya. His espousal of the scientific-rationalist approach and his criticism of blind imitation (tacj/id) were consolidated in the form of mystical visions after his release. Taste of 1. during five years of captivity in France. Dhikra al-'aqil Raphael Danziger. 15 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri Reminding the Intelligent. whether this because it is in this glass. he was impressed by the material progress achieved in the West. The selections translated here come from a book—completed just before 'Abd al-Qadir's arrival in Damascus. Ibn 'Arabi (I 165- 1240). Intelligent persons recognize that rather than the person who is stating it. ing. When- picked from among thorns. Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri. People should be mea. Netherlands: Brill. rather than commoner or notable.—Ed. This circle adopted the modernist ideology of the Salafiyya. when he settled in Damascus. 2000). 81-89. the statement is ascribed to someone they believe to gent person is a word of wisdom. 'Abd al-Qadir was chosen to lead the resistance to French occupation of the country in 1832.1 On Knowledge and Ignorance people's level in certain things. The goal of the intelli. even if correct. Holmes and Meier. they reject it. First published in 1855. blood. and first pub- lished in French translation—stressingthe compatibility of the scientific-rationalist approach with Muslim faith. The rose is it. pp. 1977). 2. The lowest level of intelligent the person according to the truth. 33-38. in contrast to the Islamic populist policies of Otto- man Sultan Abdulhamid II (reigned 1876-1909). Most people yield to this false impression. But.2 Since honey is not defil- person is known to be a person of truth or of false. The Spiri- 1966). If a statement blood is defiling in and of itself. Transla. circa 1807-1883) was an antico- lonial military leader and. they accept it. the narcissus make it so. even if erroneous. and Arabism in Late Ottoman za'irfi ta'rikh al-jaza'ir wa al-amir 'Abd al-Qadir (The Gift Damascus (Leiden. if to [the reputation of] people. Lebanon: Dar al-Yaqza al-'Arabiyya. Notifying the Unmindful 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhyi al-Din al-jaza'iri (Algeria-Syria. sity of New York Press. This is the utmost persons is to be distinguished from the common in ignorance and decadence. in addition to his efforts to prevent the anti-Christian riots of I860.] 133 . There. Following his surrender in 1847.

Such a person measures the tional beliefs that have become deeply rooted in their truth according to the evidence rather than accept. every perception has "heart"]. Such things do not confuse them. and the reality of the object more reprehensible and unsatisfactory than imitating will be revealed to their minds. As are hindrances that may prevent the forms from being we mentioned. uncritical acceptance and good faith. He needs placed between the mirror and the form. Third comes its fit. This person of the mind. and ignorance another mirror to be put behind his head. This is a for- People whom others follow are divided into two midable obstacle. They must fathers and ancestors while neglecting their own refer to them and arrange them in the specific way judgment. They imitate the opinions and beliefs of their without referring to the relevant sciences. this is like ignorance of the figure's reflected in the mirror. and calls others to do the same. people. duce a horse. the mind is a mirror capable of reflect. and between worthy and repugnant lect immersed in contemplating a certain truth may deeds. tion that the man imbibed in his youth by way of ions. Seekers cannot attain a thing ers. which prevents most people from types. Observing the it difficult to turn the mirror toward it. the poor condi. before it If he places the mirror in front of his face. and of the na- appear on its face one after the other. The Fifth is the ignorance of the direction in which the other type is destructive of themselves and of oth. of per. things. It Knowledge that is not self-evident can be caught is better to follow a beast than an imitator. in the correct direction. ions of the 'ulama' [religious scholars] and the de. one cannot use an ass and a camel. which is still incomplete. every piece of knowledge can be deduced only from vout are often contradictory and conflicting. These are the marks of the ignorant. which makes first one remains in front of his eyes.134 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri antidote but shrinks from taking it upon learning that the resulting wickedness that accumulates on the face it is extracted from snakes is ignorant. but ceiving truth. the back of Similarly. and if he places tion and corrosion of the mirror. a barrier that is ror nor the back of his head reflected in it. as when they are behind it. Their combination brings a third piece grounds for doing so is unjustified. and call upon others to engage in taqlid defined by the scholars. iron [from which mirrors used to be made]. in seeking knowledge and striving to a child's mind. there are odd paths that are even cause concerns the impurity of worldly concerns and more oblique to the goal than the example of the . by nature. The relation of the mind [literally. between true The fourth cause regards barriers (hijab). An intel- and vain beliefs. he re- perfect. Such people are veiled by tradi- themselves and others. as in the case of Similarly. It is true. The endeavor to uncover the reality of should be made aware that such aversion is pure ig. In this way they may find [imitation]. Similarly. inaccurate direction of the mirror toward the moves it from his eyes and can see neither the mir- objects. facing the eyes. only with the net of the acquired sciences. appropriate position of the two mirrors. the only a pair of horses. A second understand things. The opin. Minds may be de. however. ward it. who help both attaining the truth. and that it deprives him of the desired bene. copulation of male and female animals. direct it to reflect the back of his head. Even the necessary direction. since two antecedents. hinders that perception. his head will be reflected in the mirror directed to- ing the forms of all phenomena. norance. there ture of their combination. This is exemplified in the case of a person the mirror's form deriving from the substance of the who wants to see the back of his head in the mirror. to pro- Every human being is capable. is the blind following of books. harmonized and combined in a defi- preferring [one opinion to others] without any nite manner. is like the relation of a mirror to colored forms that Lack of knowledge of these sources. would clear and purify the mind. while the as to the location of the desired figure. combined in a specific way. ing it blindly. souls and stiffen their minds. and this will be reflected in the other mirror void of knowledge because of these same five causes. One is the knowledgeable. like the offspring produced from the tered by equally valid arguments. to the reality of things two specific sources. One is deficiency in the mind itself. and the avoidance of distracting occupations. For knowledgeable people it is easy to distinguish turning away from the direction of the desired truth. the seat of knowledge. Moreover. as it can be coun. These include a deficiency in location. of knowledge. and they do nonetheless miss it because of a [false] preconcep- not follow others by imitating their beliefs and opin. even if its shape is it behind his head. he cannot was given its round shape and polish. Thus. object is to be found. between correct and false statements. The blind cannot lead the blind.

Those who perceptible in any of the preceding levels. the stage of the in. Then one progresses to another level. created humankind devoid is incapable of arriving at them. Beyond are satisfied with rational knowledge will be harmed the intellect is a further level involving other matters by it like the sick person who is harmed by food. sciences are deluded. People find such knowledge in themselves and recognize it without knowing Validating Revealed Knowledge where it comes from. Humans need ing its content once they make it known to them. such as that of the sun. it is capable of perceiving insufficient to ensure our welfare. the tellect. just as the intellect it. These are the causes that prevent minds from not obtain by itself but rather requires [the aid of] recognizing realities. I mean. contemplation. inference. and the Criterion [the have said. revealed. people to adopt pure imitative knowledge and avoid kind as if nonexistent. are one is ordered to follow. since the intellect alone that God. the most exalted. is insufficient to preserve bodily health. the of any knowledge about His innumerable creatures. insofar as they could go beyond the tan. The sciences of the prophets are tained by studying the revealed books such as the superior to intellectual knowledge. is human- cannot perceive realities correctly without the lights kind's knowledge that a single item cannot be in two of success and guidance from God. that which. so the mind will not perceive the nal knowledge we mean that which is naturally com- reality of things if it does not move from concept to manded by the intellect. those who call on neither voices nor colors. intellect is the only means for comprehending such which only He can comprehend. Self-evident. Therefore. In the following stage He accorded them the of those groups but to combine them! The rational faculty of discernment to recognize abstract realities sciences are like nourishment and the revealed sci- beyond the tangible things. as from which the intellect is separated. which is apart from indirect concept. and these cannot do of all types. These movements are called thinking and knowledge (taqlid) and revealed knowledge (sama'). they are which one finds when turning one's attention to ac. is divided into self-evident and acquired see without light. to know the particulars of medicine and remedies by The proof that there are suprarational sciences is learning them from doctors. the Gospels. lect is perfected and delivered from illness. although necessary. God created human rationality are ignorant. Acquired knowledge is that obtained by plain the reality of things. a person who cannot see what stands in front of him The sciences located in the mind are divided into without moving the pupils of his eyes a great deal two types: rational and revealed. From there humankind ences are like medication. for example. The sick may be harmed proceeded to yet another stage. By the term ratio- from side to side. Thereafter. knowledge. which enabled them to perceive part of the fied with rationality at the expense of the revealed creation. they remained to human. By this [revelational knowledge] the intel- quire it. submitting to their commandments. but is knowledge located in the mind is revealed knowl- obtained only by trusting and obeying the prophets edge. most exalted. He then gave hu. which allowed them to perceive additional minds of all creatures are sick. as we Torah. so the mind knowledge. Like intellectual perception. Another type of that it can neither achieve nor be guided to. rate from the information brought by the prophets that Thus the rational sciences. namely the duties of worship. It is said: a discerning person who . which is received from the prophets. the level ment for them but the medications prepared by the of the intellect in which one perceives matters im. while those who are satis- sight. Normally. It is ob- and their successors. and there is no treat- things. is inherent in the nature of the mind and Qur'an]. happens to some. Nevertheless. in turn. although the intellect is sepa. or that a thing cannot be both existent and nonexistent. and approv. someone else. knowledge after it is learned. The intellect cannot do mankind the sense of touch to discern tangible things without the revealed sciences. which it can. but since humans could as yet grasp without the intellect. the Psalms. just as the senses are separate from by divine providence. REMINDING THE INTELLIGENT 135 mirror. by food if they neglect their medicine. and reflection. there remains knowledge learning. each mind is able. they do not recognize the ultimate cause [of their knowledge]—that it is of Know—may God give you success—that although course God who created it and guided them to that the intellect attained eminence and an ability to ex. Beware not to belong to either gible. places at the same time. Nevertheless. prophets. By understanding their concepts. to perceive such realities. And like the looking eye that cannot This. Similarly.

they would again have said. and possessing them Yet. unless God permits. if the It should be explained to them that the wisdom intellect understands that. There is also no Be careful not to assume that the revealed sciences correlation between wheat and horses to allow ex- are contradictory or incompatible with the rational changing them for a similar weight or shape. people felt by the prophets that the intellect rejects. Thus one sciences. he may find that the one who them. so why should I now give them to people who has it prefers to buy a garment rather than a horse. a tellect would have recognized that this is the truth. act- world would be ruined and the public interest impeded. it bans the sale of gold or silver for profit. Those who hoard gold and sil- "I buy and sell with the mutual consent of myself and ver without setting aside a certain amount for the poor my business partners. of them and serve as a standard. Consequently. the need for an adequate medium to decide between rives from the intellect's own shortcomings. Had it them. God did not create gold and silver especially their intellect is incapable of understanding the pun. tainly take place between these two. they cance. Gold and silver have no it. to understood the method behind the stipulation. Thus. Accordingly. modities]. The law forbids because they have no purpose in themselves. but they are means for all property? This is unreasonable!" And if these people purposes. for nourishment We therefore say: people who make dishes and and clothing. Therefore. it over for just any amount of wheat. while a friend silver]. and transactions. God most high creates nothing are merely two metals which have no utility. since the owner of the horse would not hand One's intellect brings one to this felicity. but actually has an overall signifi- ver table utensils. He entrusted the living of the poor to the ward off neither heat nor cold. God their accumulation without giving part to the poor and created them only to circulate among the people and needy. since their behavior is like that of a person . nor do they nourish the wealthy. in this example and its like. but to circulate among all ishment for such things and requires explanation. in relation to all commodities. I will do modities. which has no color with my property what I want and no one can dispute but reflects all the colors. This is deprived them of the rights accorded them by God. Nonetheless everybody needs them. "This is unacceptable. or else they will be burnt in hell. An example from Islamic law (shar'} involves the Regulation by gold and silver is possible precisely rulings concerning gold and silver. is like possessing everything. reply. Undoubtedly. A person may lack necessities and pos. the owner of a or else they would be burnt in hell. it prohibits the use of dishes and cups made out serve as means of exchange. in the case of one worse than those who hoard and amass [gold and who owns wheat but needs a horse. the thwart the underlying reason [of their creation]. ing like one who imprisons a judge and prevents him This is irrational!" from arbitrating and resolving disputes among the They are right [to say that it is irrational]. bearing an equal relation to the various com- would similarly reply: "This is unacceptable. I worked hard to gather If he is in need of food. It were sleeping and resting? This is unreasonable!" If is therefore necessary to have something that seems they were told not to eat and drink from golden or sil. and it would be tion. serve as a standard in all transactions. owns only that particular horse. for one person or another. Their value is unified of them. necessary to assess the relative value [of these com- edge. but the wealthy have oppressed the poor and body. they would burn in hell. In themselves these justify punishment. true that there are certain details in the laws brought would become impossible. the in. On the contrary. if people were told to give part of them to the poor. they would surely horse. for example.136 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri grasps all of intelligible knowledge and affirms that owns a horse but needs wheat. and its distress corresponds to its ignorance. They in vain. For example. because every person has many needs. Without buying and selling. to have no form. It resembles a mirror. horse may be worth a hundred dinars. amount of wheat has the same value. but this de. It is wheat. humankind's felicity corresponds to its knowl. it will confirm that hoard- behind God's creation of gold and silver is their use ing gold and silver is an act of oppression and will for the sustenance of the world. everything the Prophet doesn't know how to assess the value of a horse in ordained is in full harmony with sound reason. whoever uses them contrary to were told not to sell gold and silver for profit or else divine wisdom will be punished in the Hereafter. Why should I be punished for making use of my purpose in themselves. cups out of gold and silver are oppressors. They are sess unneeded things. An exchange will cer- the world has a creator has attained absolute perfec. and a certain which one should not abandon. since people. For this reason God created gold and silver.

rather than gold and silver. though for some Prophet from conveying necessities to others is an [rules] the human intellect alone is not a sufficient act of oppression. from all that might be cited. cannot fulfill the task of gold and making]. lead. If the intellect knows this. a butcher—any job that could be performed various needs. a being more abundant and more easily divided among tailor. iting the sale of gold and silver at a profit over a fixed fore permitted to buy it with gold or silver. The only purpose of buying gold guide. on for a fixed period for profit [as a form of interest- the other hand. we say that the foundation of society and the would not hesitate to approve of [this prohibition] basis of all religions are to promote love and har- and to punish those who transgress it. and izes and complies. after inquiring into their truth. [Gold and silver] are means to an among the noblest ends. to facilitate the attain- clay. copper. since they differ in the through instruction. the effect is as if they were dictions of the prophets intend to be harmonious with hoarded. it undoubtedly year. Nevertheless. which is obtaining his goal. These [chosen substances] Consequently. end and not ends themselves. holding food and drink. turning them into objects of commerce in their credit can assume the good-heartedness of their credi- own right. or knowledge the intellect is unable to obtain save vice versa. However. for instance. thus obstructing God or the reason. Moreover. silver who want to trade them for gold or silver are make it clear that the revealed law is not incompat- prevented from doing so. he is there. What is prohibited is interfering with by the meanest member of society. All the commandments and inter- stricted from circulation. it real- and silver for their own sake is to hoard them. to those who sell silver or gold can hold liquids. because by remaining re. ible with reason. . who wants to buy food might and support [of the creditor] as requirements. Prohib- not be able to exchange food for cloth. and its intended function. The intelligent person is com- ways they help satisfy the necessities of life. mutual assistance and cooperation. ignorant think farfetched. REMINDING THE INTELLIGENT 137 who turns the judge of the city into a hatmaker. silver pelled to accept them. thereby period thus preserves the utility of loans. They will regard aid of cloth. None of them contradicts it. An owner tor and believe in his kindness. buying gold with silver. is permissible. should be used for ment of other commodities. when it is properly guided. but clay. mony. whose gressing it. iron. is contrary to divine wisdom. Like the skilled physician who when the intellect understands this [role] it approves commands the secrets of various treatments that the both the prohibition and the punishment for trans. But owners of gold or These few examples. Copper. namely. such as selling at 10 to get back 20 after a silver. Those who We also claim that selling gold and silver for are in need and find someone who will give them profit. and lead. so are the prophets.

reigned 610-641]. Suavi was killed during this attempt. Turkey: Iletis. Translation from Princeton University Press. the form of gov. volume 2." died 642] (may God be pleased with him) will suf. Equality Ali Suavi (Turkey. Miisavat" (De. calling for constitutionalism in the Ottoman Empire. who made us believers in emperor. The Gazetesi (Journal of the Sciences). At that battle the number of Muslim troops was 41. and who made our ruler.: number 18. pp. Suavi served as a court librarian. 16 All Suavi Democracy: Government by the People. N. May 17. fice to explain the [nature of] the Islamic government.000.000 in another." maintains that Islamic precedent requires institutions of democratic consultation. [acting on behalf of] Heraclius [Byzantine Thanks be to God. equality). troops numbering 600. Suavi held a van'ety of administrative positions before em- barking on a career as a public intellectual in his mid-twenties.J. When Bahan began his speech with these words. §erif Mardin.2 Bahan invited Khalid ibn al-Walid to his tent on the pretext of discussing the terms of an armi. and in 1876 he appealed to Sultan Abdiilhamid II (reigned 1876-1909) to be allowed to return to Istanbul. our king the best sultanate. That is to say.im Yaymlan. criticizing the government. 360-384. His pamphlets and sermons in the §ehzade Mosque in Istanbul—introducing modern political terminology. 1870. Ismail Dogan. Khalid could not bear it and interrupted.000 [in one account] or 700. launching It so happened that a Byzantine commander named into an oration to refute the words of Bahan: Bahan. pp. in your prophet the Companions [of the Prophet Muhammad] with Jesus. Suavi launched an unsuccessful uprising against the sultan. "Demokrasi: Hiikumet-i Halk. and our [Christian] community the most words of Khalid ibn al-Walid [Muslim commander. 138 . who was more sympathetic to constitutionalism. Suavi published the journals Muhbir (The Reporter) and Ulum Gazetesi (Journal of the Sciences). the latter rose and made During the early days of Islam. Equality). influenced by conservative European thinkers. but rather equality. but in reality to seize him by trickery. Turkish and introduction by M. Tanzimat's Two Extremes: Munif Pasa and Ali Suavi) mocracy: Government by the People. but his revolutionary sentiments had not disappeared. 1083-1107. a teacher of young princes. In London and then Paris. Trained both in religious and secular schools. one of the first Ottoman works to use the term "democracy. and in all the prophets. there was no Lord Jesus the best of the prophets. Upon (sultanate). the forms of government are monarchy slice. Huseyin £elik. a speech in Arabic: "Thanks be to God. 1991). Some of kings. known as the Ciragan incident1 As is known. 1839-1878) was a leading figure in the Young Ottoman political reform movement and in the search for Islamic justifications of constitutionalism. 1. Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought (Princeton. Paris. and Khalid's arrival at Bahan's tent with approximately a democracy (government by the people. Ulum (Istanbul. he began to criticize constitutionalism. aristocracy (government of notables). France. Turkey: lz Yaymcilik. and commenting on foreign relations—made him famous and led to his banishment to the provinces. Ali Suavi ve Donemi (Ali Suavi and His Time) (Istanbul. 1994). hundred courageous warriors. In the 1870s. 1962). and later the director of the Galatasaray Lycee. In the following months. The article from Ulum Gazetesi pre- sented here. 2. Upon his pardon and return. whence he fled to Europe. excellent of communities. He was dismissed from Galatasaray in December 1877. §iikrii Hanioglu. or king. engaged in a battle with Muhammad (peace be upon him). hoping to replace him with his elder brother. Tanzimatm iki Ucu: Mtinif Pasa ve Ali Suavi (The [Ali Suavi]. sultan. who made our ernment was democracy.

they had no work other than serving claim to be a king over us. wearing a robe made from this know well the improper and shameless language that cloth. There was equality. they do not have an overpower- means is that at that time the Islamic government was ing force in their hearts such as fear of God. In their language. the men of God. loyal." and sat down. and so on. a democracy." Thereupon mained confined to their country but are being dis- 'Abdullah rose and answered the man: '"Umar. wanted to make himself and south. freedom is tantamount to saying The following incident likewise throws light on whatever comes to one's mind and doing whatever one the matter. Would such a beloved nightingale you have become privileged. There- but it was not enough." 'Umar asked. they did as they wanted. What will be the future of this nation that lacks a when one of the Companions arose and said. now see on you cannot have been made from that Democracy.3 What this them—that is to say." 3. we would immediately God. wants without any impediment. Com. The robe that we be ruined in a year or two. north. '"Abdullah. 1490-1574] found himself extraordinary]. Istanbul. The in any way superior to us. traordinary event that "[Mehmed] Ebussu'ud Efendi lished in a place and among a people [that were alike [Turkish religious leader. this prosperous with us. "Because you freedom and license in such a shameless country? have privileged yourself instead of remaining equal Undoubtedly this beautiful Paris. Because during the division of the Yemeni France that the entire world strives to imitate. government and reckoned to have miraculous powers. 'Umar turned to his son 'Abdullah [died 693] Since French ideas on democracy have not re- and said. they resort to against those who believe in God. bining the two pieces produced such a robe. and in the same room with a girl one night but controlled his desire and did not touch her. Those who read this newspaper One day 'Umar. At that time the ruler was 'Umar ibn al-Khattab [sec. answer this man. fore. that a man who spends two hours in the company of May God be pleased with all of them. he possesses circa 427-347 B. Now a French party. Bukhara. and Kabul. a single united." Upon hearing these sing in such a dunghill of [corrupt] hearts? words. wants to Europeans recognized kings. In Europe. 634-644]. we can go repeat in conversations and in our books as an ex- on to say that this form of government was estab. morality limiting liberties within the community if from now on we will not listen to you." Then Morality in our big cities is worse than in those the objecting Companion said. which has been growing day- Thus at a time when Byzantines. unless it be that he is more system of equality that Plato [Greek philosopher. But they do not have men of God among about the Commander of the Faithful. we will con. We have reached such a position tinue to listen to 'Umar. that is annihilate the monarchy and create equality in a demo- to say Khalid and the Companions. Thus an idea came to When cloth from the Yemen was divided among some Frenchmen. Do we not by the people. Tehran. In this way good morality. and it may not even occur to .] had merely imagined became a the virtue of piety required by the principle of Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong. thought this way cratic system. observant. a man may stay with a woman for ond caliph. pious than us. received the same share as everybody else. DEMOCRACY: GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE I 39 whom we ourselves chose to charge with our affairs. and equality is understood. That is to say. west. of the Europeans. in sum they were men of God. is a nightin- piece. pious community. the Commander of the lished a newspaper to deny the existence of God in Faithful. they will one day cause trouble even in a robe from the cloth that he had received as his share. three days and nights. They had no fear other than the a man like us—so much so that if our ruler were to fear of God. So I gave my own share. let us take a glance at these lands of ours. and by-day in the name of freedom and equality. a woman and controls his desire will be pointed out Now that the meaning of democracy. Cairo. was addressing the Companions from the pul. reality in their time. and pub- the Companions. "If so.C. Thus you must have received a bigger piece gale that can sing loudly only in the rose garden of than us to be able to make such a robe. Commander of the Faithful. early May in Paris. '"Umar. 'Umar. the seminated through the press to the east. We would never think that our ruler was good morals. pit to encourage them to jihad [religious struggle]. [that is to say] equality. Armenians. they had no institutions (tanzimat) other than depose him. it does not possess an overpowering force to restrain "Why?" The Companion responded. will cloth you too received your share.

You yourself even dispatched "Verily an evil patron. in short. or to the passion Council of Ministers. When four of our eld. This form of high offices upon the others. and Khalid. achieve? "You be Abu Dharr [al-Ghifari. Halidiyye Sufi Principes de la science politique [Principles of Po- leader. died 653]. For when the morals? term "sound" is used in Muslim jurisprudence and Mustafa Fazil Pasha [1829-1875. In our country. This is such a people that they litical Science}. Egyptian political science. a devout compan- For example. and util- . the people of erned by democracy. This way of govern- quito. refining our morals.140 Ali Suavi him [to have sex with her]. Verse 13] "Those women. 'Ali [ibn Abi Talib. the proper form of government is in which one of them becomes sultan and bestows the one that guarantees these rights. 656-661]. and I'll then be 'Umar "Women too are human beings. Let us." women to war along with men. Monsieur [Felix Esquirou de] Parieu did not even feel the loss of a vast territory like Al. erly statesmen gather in the name of patriotism. A government is required that will not only sat- The present disposition of the peoples of our isfy the material needs but also see to the moral needs countries does not simply expect the government to of such an immoral and leprous people. each Answer: What a nice idea! What a sound conclu- of them wants to announce his leadership and become sion! There is no doubt that this is so. [1815-1893] states (p. so many people in the name of freedom and patrio- havior. how- commander. be brought under control with good est degree by the sighs of all those believers whom morals or not? There lies the problem. This superior force is the They once proposed the principle of democracy monarchy. practicability. This nevertheless is con. 644-656]. move from theory to practice. 1712-1778] form of egalitarian government and the most in ac. Tashkent." thinkers of modern Europe say the same. ever. through superior force. Unfortunately. Sura 22. and verily an evil friend. sufficiently ma- jump over it [a leading Tanzimat statesman and Ot. must be ripened. tism. It is necessary for us to educate ourselves by Cyprus. He replied. Young Ottoman movement]. The political decent people. the democratic way of government is excellent for and Bukhara as if they were the buzzing of a mos. has been silenced with a membership in the sire due to the warmer climate. 1813-1893]. one of the ablest governors Today if even 'Umar came to us. It bent down so low that 39 Ali Pashas could ment. to Hajjaj [ibn Yusuf." We have become such a nation that when four of Question: Since freedom and equality are among our school children gather. Rhodes. All our situa. what would he under the 'Umayyad caliphate. fect education of times and obstacles. however. the meaning of this phrase cannot prince and Ottoman statesmen who financed the be separated from feasibility. government is democracy. the well-being of the majority. entitled [Ahmed Ziyaeddin Giimiishanevi. Let us consider What market can there be for the values of broth. It heard the rumblings in Samarqand." to socialize with men. 382): "In civilized societies geria. whether it is possible to establish democracy in this erhood and equality among a people with such place or not? Here lies the problem." Istanbul are not all like the shaykh of Gumiishane In a book published this very year. 660-714]. but you are not. and extremely well organized through the per- toman grand vizier. says: "If there exist men of God. tured. he encouraged in the name of patriotism and freedom tions and acts are similar to this matter of sexual and whom he made prisoners in the fortresses of desire. can this be." 'Umar would reply: [Qur'an. they should be gov- cord with the holy law. those men were not you. and Acre. whether attributed to increased sexual de. He has not been affected in the slight- whatever cause. 1815-1871]. Jean- Everybody knows that democracy is the highest Jacques Rousseau [French philosopher. If a ruler like regulate their material needs. suppose someone got up and said: ion of the Prophet. Those were It is not just Hajjaj who says this. despite the fact that he is as rich aroused by veiling in the cities—no such impatience as Croesus and not in need of any high offices or im- being observed among nomads and peasants—or to perial favors. one which will instill good morals in people fourth caliph. Rather they look for a 'Umar is wanted. They have the right for you. they start playing a game the rights of man. that is to say the sultanate. then one must have men of God like government that will also satisfy their moral needs— 'Uthman [third caliph. who until yesterday led sidered an indecent act.

The basic idea dition that it would retain its autonomy and admin. [All Suavi must have garbled his source on the admin- mixed. how could this work in a Catholics and Protestants are not mixed. it is inhabited by many peoples differing in language. extremely suitable for its present ties. trative independence and special privileges. of government by the people is that the people gather istration. It only administers the coun- It is. Moreover. six cantons were democracies. however. for all that they consti. rather indicate the contrary. A region with a population of 600. and religion. it is not the truth. these coun. the regions with popula- lation is only two and a half million people.000 individuals. do we not? That republic is composed of no is called a state.4 system of government because of its circumstances. Nine can. government does not intervene in the administration which is the size of our Danube Province.—Trans. that Yes.000. known respectively as Cities. cantons were aristocracies administered by aristo- racy in the Ottoman country bad morals? We have crats. This federal government is made up by a republican regime? What is more. DEMOCRACY: GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE 141 ity. This is be- practiced. There is also a vice-president. The presi- tries have been living under the protection of [larger] dent of the federal government is elected for four powers. the mosque. Previously. ering and consultation. 35 states. Finally. Monsieur Parieu says: "If the truth in question is pious and devout. and townships. it is a form being in the world up to now. This federation has a government in the city towns are suited by their situations to be governed of Washington. years. Something else that has to be said is that in truth There the republic is nothing other than a federation democracy is an illusion. It is divided in a place like the Ottoman country. each state is populated by one or little state with a small population through such gath- another of the various Christian sects. prac.000 each. can government was created by the federation and However many republics may have come into union of various independent provinces. larger state? How could the individuals composing tons are exclusively Catholic. The federal The biggest republic in Europe is Switzerland. Territories. that is to say. and utility" (p. Its popu. there is no other religion but Chris. and seven exclusively such a population congregate? Doesn't everybody Protestant. counties.000 people Marino. Townships are governed from the nearest place." cause the form of government was not uniform: three Is the only reason for the inapplicability of democ. it was only recently that Switzerland be- ticability. indeed they may administratively into states. the United States of America. This means that there is morality not ripe and mature. and Dis- Where do we currently find democracy? In San tricts. of a senate and a house of representatives. where then was spoken about morals as an example. There are need to be made or decisions taken—just as in the only 4. This country. each of which joined on condition of pre- Is there anything remarkable about the fact that serving its administrative independence and privi- these and similar countries that resemble our small leges. the truth cannot be separated from feasibility. not like in France. While it may be possible to govern a tianity. and that a federal government was set up in Bern to ward by our own jurists: "One must not issue a legal have oversight [of federal affairs].] . custom. the opinion based on sound doctrine that is no longer term "republic" was just an empty title.000 Jews in a population of two and a half days of the [early] caliphate people congregated in million people. means people and kratos government. they provide no ex. Liibeck has a population of 30. The fact that the equality? country is divided between various continents. and its size are all obstacles in cannot provide any model for our world. There are only six places in the twenty- two cantons where Catholics and Protestants are 4. of the states. of government suitable to that region and to the cus- amples to show that equality can be put into practice toms and circumstances of that region. The Christians in Switzerland are extremely istrative system of the United States of America. There are tute a nation. The same idea is expressed in the rule put for. What we have there is a federation where and decide in consultation on whatever regulations only two tongues exist (German. For is not its literal mean- of various states with each other. French). come a federation divided into twenty-two cantons. however. Every state preserves its adminis- more than 8. 386). tions of 600. That is to say. for in politics there. For instance. in ing government by the people? In Greek demos Switzerland each state joined the federation on con. one hears of a big republic in the New World. The Ameri- the way of democracy and equality.

Only long- can it actually accomplish in France. and freedom. England. or any. Just look how those Frenchmen talk is that of Switzerland. and popu. it should not. the ministers keep their offices. cultural. go by the majority opinion. if the equality can be achieved in. and inimical to its good order. The chamber of deputies that works best India. What in differentiating the concepts of "soundness" and is the relevance of this method for us? In essence. all the while participate in the chamber through electing a seeking world domination like Caesar. whelming force. High Council [of Reforms] (Meclis-i Ali-i [Tanzimat]) tice. ity over the provinces in this huge country? nisia in Arab Africa—what a fantasy! Answer: These are entirely different questions. majority of votes. principle of consultation—the form which France has Having dwelt upon this matter. whether or not they pre- experience has shown everywhere that one has to fer their own rulers. the Ottoman state. we have succeeded adopted this method in this very year 1870 A. ity with them [the French]. deputies. Yet a conclusion has been reached from this should be enlarged. dation in the specific regions of Rumelia and lation. however tyrannical they may be. There is no chance of this. or geographical affin- posed of many deputies is virtually impossible. The accountability of ministers ernment as far as is practicable. When repub. The point we have to grasp is that the Ottoman With the measures we have proposed. must be a state in conformity with state would establish its state power on a strong foun- its geographical location. Anatolia. no ethnic. where it currently is able to collect taxes However much republicanism puffs itself up. then they leave office. lems. And religions. What should be done? to call the opinion of the majority of the deputies The parliamentary [form of government should be present the opinion of the people? Unfortunately. time? Would the state be able to impose its author- or Bulgaria in Eastern Europe forming one with Tu. In the end.000 people pretentiously about freedom and equality. equality. religious. a chamber of deputies elected by discussion: "If a state accepts a chamber of deputies. be held accountable. circumstances. since unanimity in chambers com. deputy. while the republicans in England and France that in the republics which exist today. let us again consider how democracy and tion it. . term policies will provide a remedy for fiscal prob- where else? We have to look at practice. and tongues be gathered and united? if the majority vote turns out to be against the conduct Could a federation be formed as in the case of of policy by the ministers. Bringing provinces under control requires over- lican regimes were established in France and England. speak about democracy. It is because of this impossibility enough. adopted]. chamber of deputies. Indeed the current rule to the French republic? is to go by the majority of the deputies actually Question: Should the administration in Istanbul present in the chamber. remain as it is now? Under these circumstances. what and conscript soldiers directly. let individuals are subsumed under this contract? As a them ask the Algerian Arabs. sects.000 If there is going to be freedom and equality. the people should be opened.142 All Suavi have work to do? How and when would they satisfy republic assaulted the Orient as her initial act.D. so that it has to be a sultanate. How could these many different ethnicities. The French whelming force. That's it. In our own opinion. America? To believe in the possibility of such an Question: Under the circumstances. for example. our "political truth" at both the levels of theory and prac. for example. would the alliance is to believe in the possibility of Serbia in treasury be able to raise money in a short period of Europe forming a federation with Egypt in Africa. is it not meaningless Answer: No. the gather. There every 20. or Algeria. Yet how not possible to establish a real democracy based on long-lasting these republics were to prove! Strangely this conception. the time has they became a source of corruption for the peoples of passed for the state in Istanbul to acquire such over- the world. they ing of the people has given way to the gathering of have no wish to relinquish their hold over Canada. The members examine and ques- derstood. the Ottoman majority of the deputies give their approval with a lands. that is to say government based upon the such are the limits of feasibility and practicality. who have absolutely matter of fact. Does this not mean that the votes of 20. She their needs? compelled the Ottoman state to enter into extremely We can therefore judge with certainty that it is harmful alliances with England and Russia. and the ministers should it possesses the spirit of a republican form of gov." means that their conduct of policy is discussed in the If all these points about democracy have been un. and the ministers respond.

this is inevitable. . If not. Tripoli For those who share our views. Istanbul could only lodge a pro. if Tunisia. there is no remedy for it. mention for this in the history books. cause of its own survival. they will establish the best and the most adopts a policy of attempting to create a unified Af- enduring Muslim state in the world. in Barbary. God knows best what is right. And until the Day of Judg- In that event. But if Istanbul and unite. then it will have found itself a great ally in the Africa. DEMOCRACY: GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE 143 As far as Africa is concerned. and henceforth favors the birth of such a the overwhelming power of Europe will conquer state. then rican state. That's it. ment the Ottoman dynasty will be given honorable test as strong as the one it made regarding Algeria. and Egypt can come to their senses That is to say.

Arasmda (Personalities and Events from the Time of Namik number 4. General freedom is ment of right and the suppression of wrong. 1868. Mill! Egitim Basimevi.J. and worked on the commission preparing the Ottoman constitution. until performance of his patriotic play Vatan yahud Silistre (Homeland orSilistria) prompted public demonstrations. upon which the continued existence of human. Kemal returned to Istanbul and founded the newspaper Ibret (The Moral). he studied Sufism. Turkey: Istanbul and the Newspaper "The Moral") (Istanbul. He also joined a constitutionalist group later known as the Young Ottomans Soci- ety. a government official who served in various regions of the Ottoman Empire. 1^. in eastern Anatolia. Kemal fled to Europe to publish an opposition journal. 1938). and produced his first poetry. Thus the constitutive element of following legal rule: Namik Kemal. Hurriyet (Liberty). Bulgaria—then an Ottoman province—he learned Arabic and Persian. pp. force that comes into being from the conjunction of duce a preponderant force to safeguard the indi. 283-336. Turkey: Maarif Matbaasi and and introduction by M. is that protected within society because society can pro. The following year. volume 9 (Istanbul. Kemal Ozon. Namik Kemal Devrinin Insanlan ve Olaylari Counsel in the Matter). §erif Mardin. "Wa shawirhum fi'l-amr" (And Seek Their Kuntay. Namik Kemal ve Ibret Gazetesi (Namik Kemal Namik Kemal (Namik Kemal) (Istanbul. "Namik Kemal. 2 volumes (Istanbul. the service rendered by society in individuals as a whole. In the 1860s.1 Being created free by God. Mustafa key: Maarif Matbaasi. Hurriyet (Liberty). 1948). especially women's educa- tion. In Kars. 54-72. A shar' [religious law] proof of this claim is the ity is dependent. Translation from Turkish Kemal). Turkey: Remzi Universitesi Edebiyat Fakiiltesi. pp. the sultan turned against con- stitutionalism and had its proponents arrested. England. so too conjoined powers naturally belong to all Accordingly. public. N. Pardoned after three years. Therefore. 1971). Sura 3. of another individual. §iikrii Hanioglu. 144 . In 1870. pp. July 20. The 1. while working at the government Translation Bureau. 1944-1957). dom. 17 Namik Kemal And SeekTheir Counsel in the Matter [Quran. Mehmed Kaplan. and was banished from Istanbul through appointment as assistant governor of Erzurum.: pedisi (Encyclopedia of Islam). Kemal was appointed to the Council of the State. defending Islam against Eu- ropeans' accusations of backwardness. and he was exiled to Cyprus. 1840-1888) was a leading advocate of constitutionalism and a famous poet and playwright He received little formal education and spent much of his childhood accompanying his grandfather. Kemal was banished to the islands of Rhodes and Chios—now in Greece—where he continued to write. just as all individuals vidual from the fear of the aggression on the part have the natural right to exercise their own power. and consequently in every this world is the creation of a preponderant force. London. In Sofia. Tur. society the right to sovereignty belongs to the absolutely indispensable for the protection of free. Princeton University Press. man is naturally obliged sovereignty. 1962). which is charged with the establish- to benefit from this divine gift.Verse 159] Namik Kemal (Turkey. Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought (Princeton. Mithat Cemal Kitabevi. individual forces. Omer Faruk Aktin." Islam Ansiklo. he began writing newspaper articles on literature and social problems. He penned most of the journal's articles—including the one translated here—explaining constitutionalism in an Islamic context and attempting to reconcile shari'a (Islamic law) with European theories of law.

some of these documents contain For example. AND SEEK THEIR COUNSEL IN THE MATTER 145 If the people of a town gathered and appointed There are two major means to keep the state someone as qadi [judge] over themselves to judge within the limits of justice. than society's delegating the performance of the Let us glance at the fundamental regulations of our aforementioned duties to some of its members. Yet none of these documents has ernance that. found. while the members of the government. including a liberal critique the Prophet] "the leader of the tribe is its servant" of the Ottoman legal system]. it could not right. cavils.Here Namik Kemal uses it principles should be issued to ensure that the admin- rather to present rulership as a public service. But if the may emanate from the state would thus be checked. em- principle by such actions as appointing one of its bodied in such phrases as "without reaching the de- members permanently as an absolute ruler. according to its exigencies and ethics. The excuses. monarchs have no right to govern other Rescript of Gulhane [Ottoman reform program of than the authorization granted to them by the umma 1839].—Trans. and the recently delivered monarchs. either verbally or 2. gree of freedom. This is obviously nothing other from this. laws] is its actions. and the authoriza." Furthermore. After this.] istration of the Ottoman state is indeed based upon . because an individual has no right to Since the rights of man are determined by reason wrong himself. these two principles into conformity. since civilization is evident. through publication. The apt saying in the hadith [tradition of imperial speech [of 1868. people of a town gathered and pledged allegiance to The second is the method of consultation. ing the real and essential meaning of certain phrases It is nevertheless one of the basic principles of gov. which will least limit the freedom of the individual. and the present state of affairs of our to violate the rights of individuals. so the appointment of an never be saved from the unfettered exercise of will." and in some others many super- stowing legislative authority upon a [single] indi. That is. previous sultan or caliph would retain no authority The state is a moral personality. their obscurities a way of acting that would harm those who come should be clarified. the clarity and methodical structure to constitute a base stance. state authority should be realized in the way for the administration of a civilized state. into consideration. administration. neither does the public have the right and tradition. should be formulated—for example. The making of whatever. Furthermore. this person takes the legislative power out of the hands of the would [indeed] become sultan or caliph. As long as both of these are held The public cannot perform the duties attached to in the same hands. no umma would wish to infringe this limitations denying the freedom of the people. their erations. and circum. [Traditionally this saying of the Prophet was under. Ac. the Rescript of Reform [Ottoman decree of in the form of allegiance [bay'a]. given that sovereignty belongs stood to commend a willingness on the part of someone in high office to perform small private services for his inferiors to the people. imam [leader] and the establishment of a government Thus the necessity for a council of the umma arises are indispensable. the judicial activity of this the fundamental principles of the administration from person could not be valid. place. "regardless of time. no society can have the authority to choose superfluities should be pruned. or be. and the necessary principles after it. Today we are in possession of the cordingly.2 described as fundamental principles can be deduced Each umma can delegate command to a greater or from the general character of these documents by tak- lesser degree. Some rules that may be hints at this. The first is to emancipate cases arising among them. fluities regarding the details of administration are vidual. 1856 guaranteeing equal rights for members of all tion granted to ministers through appointment by religious communities]. fully proceed. judicial authority would the domain of implicit interpretations and to make still belong to the qadi appointed by the state because them public. and denials that jurisdiction is a right of the government. and the execution [of [the Islamic community]. the actions of the government can this right for themselves. the aforementioned imperial it is a consequence of natural law that the circum. which someone for the sultanate or caliphate. Even if it wishes to do so. rescripts and decrees must be corrected by bringing stances of one generation affect the succeeding gen. the requisite freedom for everyone to scrutinize the state and criti- cize the actions of the government. a rescript of fundamental (as opposed to "pulling rank"). because the imamate is a right of the umma laws is tantamount to its will.

these result well known. In any case. 1787. it is our state that compels the continue to do so as much as they can. tector of rebels. However. the Western Powers cannot refrain from put- Sergeyevich] Menshikov [Russian general. ceit. Europeans conclude that Let us first consider the truth of this Eastern Ques. purses [1. It is true that the Western Powers have defended ing the Christian subjects of the Sublime State. mercial interests and safeguarding the European bal- sia has encouraged to come forward. in fact. The claim their men along with us in order to resist Russian that "rule belongs to the victor"3 cannot be applied intervention. been attempting to accomplish her goal by provok. the West. And yet. lies could do. And tance of Russian domination of the region]. tervention to defend the Ottomans or a costly accep- and despite all the talk about their prosperity. because they do not want to leave gionists [and the Crimean War broke out]. there is no consultation. and there can be Furthermore. nic group in the Ottoman lands and thereby creating terventions and securing our future existence by cor. the Crete insurrection alone) will soon reduce the ficials are not accountable. this idea does not collective European guarantee as a constitutional enjoy much currency for now. since the Europeans are accustomed to freedom. because those fa- state. the of. a costly in- to the Christians to whom we have promised reform. the Muslims are ignorant of the pleasure of freedom tion which is so much talked about: As is known. even if a clear preponderance exists. At that juncture the Sublime Porte the idea of granting autonomy to each and every eth- should have succeeded in preventing all foreign in. whether true or false. Then the Europeans will be compelled regardless of the magnitude of the privileges granted to choose the lesser of two evils [that is. What will be the result of all this? The state will man Empire]. Europeans to follow this course. they No means other than the method of consultation say. state to a condition in which it lacks the power to and there is no oversight on the part of the umma. for the sake of protecting their com- rope has been helping the complainants whom Rus. ance [of power] against the aggression of the north- these actions may appear as a major contradiction. they [Ottoman statesmen] both promised to man state. a confederation like Germany has been debated in recting the fundamentals of the state and obtaining a Europe for a long time. by including these reforms in the Treaty no barrier against Russia as strong as a united Otto- of Paris. Then it will be nize the rules and make the ministers accountable enjoy order?" and "Can a man be free without being 3. while Russia has absolutism. resist Russian invasion as well as the [Ottoman] al- For these reasons the Europeans do not believe us. and in the future they will However.5 or 2 billion Ottoman piasters] because of damentals of the administration are corrupt. or at least standing as the pro- 1867] to Istanbul [in 1853] to protect their coreli. Russia wants to annihilate the Sublime State [Otto.146 Namik Kemal freedom and justice. and readily submit to the noose of oppression. can be found to dispel these troubles. they unless concealed behind a thousand curtains of de- proposed to us the reformation of our tyrannical ad. [This saying is generally taken to mean "one judges able to criticize members of the government verbally by the mainstream. ignoring exceptional cases. while the Western states prevent her undoubtedly sink if it does not modify its present from carrying this out. however. every intelligent person reform the conditions of the Christian subjects in the realizes that as long as this tyrannical administration name of the sultan and granted the [European] guar. Eu. ern savages [Russia]. This is an era in era Powers sacrificed their resources and the lives of which nobody can resist public opinion. Now whenever Christians make allegations The continuation of foreign intervention (as is against the state. the Sublime Porte mollified Europe by mously shrewd European states know that this policy granting certain privileges to the Christians alone. ting pressure on us. the treasury lost three or four million in their acquisition of rights. which is the very when members of the government speak about the object of our discussion. contentedness of the people. At first glance. would be vulnerable to separatism. The inevitable consequence of or through publication?" Another misfortune is that this is the method of consultation. foreign interventions cannot be antor states a right of supervision in this matter. us up to now. This is because the fun. ministration. Instead. Yet given these [Christian] complaints of victim- When the Russians sent [Knyaz Aleksandr ization. "Could a country that lacks deputies to scruti.] . In spite of this."—Trans. prevails in the state. At the end of the conflict. stopped. Russia alone in its intervention.

tobacco. [Namik Kemal appears to have deliberately omitted a ness of the foundations. tion. As was made clear in regions.] . some farmers refused to accept it. Who knows what hidden agenda Second." munificence. the absolutist claim to outright ownership [of the can Civil War. drinking so lethal a poison as public opinion. it is said that lations for salt. not "owner not a matter of experience that trying what has al. sultan] became the cynosure of the people and the even when the government distributed cotton seed caliph of Islam. Is there any possibility that word—al-yawma—that shows that the verse refers to the Day in the future people will have a warm affection for of Judgment. is the adoption of the method of con- liras have been raised to 40 million through consoli. whose the establishment of a council of the people would thousand harms caused the destruction of so many violate the rights of the sultan. when it was calculated stem from the adoption of the method of consulta- as less than 26. personages. Would build. One of the major reasons for this is that the to reform the character of the state. Therefore. Sura 40. which established its state by protecting reli- present administration. Everybody views official gion." Let us now glance at the internal dimensions of In fact. so long as our and the principles of freedom. it is argued that the religious and cultural there may be? We would not dare to accept it. As for the imagined detrimental effects that would term debt was 29 million liras. of kingship" [malik al-mulk. In the gatherings of highly important caused harm because the foundations are corrupt. The religion of Muhammad rejects to the provinces free of charge because of the Ameri. Sura 3. almost all responded by saying: "We cannot commit suicide by external threats toward the state will be eliminated. The to its present level if we had already adopted the only measure that will eliminate the present oppres- method of consultation and established an assembly sion and profligacy. the Omnipotent. French emperor used the occasion of the Cretan cri- Then if the people of a province resort to arms under sis to advise the Sublime Porte that it should seek the the pretext of being oppressed. instead of regarding us as a administration? Furthermore. Verse 16]4 come from the state. First. and put an end to the mistrust of the people? Could the internal debt of 22 million of the people. even the ministers cannot deny that help individuals regain health with the support of today the nation is faced with the threat of extinc. Just as a physician can only To begin with. the Sublime Porte to justify their claim to Europe. ity to declare that the value of the consolidated long. All consultation]. it is asked how a people speaking seventy- Many persons who had the confidence of the public two different tongues could be convened in one assem- came to occupy high office. but they could not ac- complish anything.—Trans. personality. Then Europe will treat the government unless they themselves supervise the us as a civilized nation. as is now the case. so also the administration's measures tion. the opinion of the public is not a poison the matter: but an elixir of health. It was thanks to this fact that the [Ottoman declarations as attempts at disinformation. depend upon the assistance of the people ings and other expenses have plunged the treasury who are the constituent elements of the state. In fact. for the same reason: the rotten- 4." heterogeneity of the Ottoman lands and the ignorance And how could people not be mistrustful? A hun. we should not forget the fact that our esty the sultan is heir to the esteemed Ottoman dy- people harbor a deep hatred and mistrust toward the nasty. a title reserved for God ready been tried can only lead to regret? in the Qur'an. the right of the sultan in our coun- we assume that the future actions of the government try is to govern on the basis of the will of the people will not conform to its past habits. sultation. this claim. the One. His title is "one administration maintains its present character? Is it charged with kingship" [sahib al-mulk]. Verse 26]. In fact. state] in the incontrovertible verse: "Whose is the When asked the reason for their rejection of this kingdom today? God's.5 million [liras]? Would the [tax] regu. AND SEEK THEIR COUNSEL IN THE MATTER 147 known that everyone is free. which is a moral country's wealth is in sharp decline. His Imperial Maj- Second. and road construction. when a while ago the scarecrow planted against Russia. they responded: "Nothing good can [Qur'an. in reality these have no basis. their organs. they will be unable regarding the necessary reforms. have been put into effect? On what basis can our introduction. public opinion of the people of Turkistan [Turkey] ties in the council of the nation. what has been said above proves dation? Would [the government] have had the audac. of the people are reasons against this [the adoption of dred thousand policies have been put into effect. when they have depu.

itself today. such deceptive superstitions. . Members from all denominations serve in age of majority. or raised an objection to appropriations for than even the savages of Montenegro? Can it be that holy sites and pious foundations. and upon continuing the op- gious expenditures [purchasing non-Muslim land]. in position aimed at achieving this method of admin- return for which [non-Muslim communities] have istration. if it did not pre- troops to Crete because they wished to protect the vent these lands? Are we at a lower level of culture Greeks. Montene. us be fervent so that we can move forward without gro. While doing so. How can anybody speak cil. whose O my God! In all provinces there are provincial only necessary qualification will be attaining the councils.148 Namik Kemal bly. take into consideration nal regulations of the assembly are issued. and all of them debate issues in the provinces to become members of the State Coun- official language [Turkish]. If we have any love for the nation. Give serious thought pendent. Why should [our people's] ignorance pre- of] the deputies to be convened opposed dispatching vent us [from having a council]. O Ottoman liberals! Do not give any credit to tious assembly whose members are absolutely inde. like the rebels of Crete. and Egypt each have councils of the delay. Serbia. membership in which is dependent upon pos- of linguistic heterogeneity in light of this obvious fact? sessing perfected political skills? Is it supposed that a council of the people is a sedi. Let Let us come to the matter of ignorance. and what kind of response would be given if [some people. we could not find people to become deputies. who achieved. and whose administration is not based on any to the dangerous situation in which the nation finds rules? Once the fundamental principles and the inter. who would the accomplishments that the opposition has already dare to protect those. It will be obvious that the salvation of the desire to separate themselves from the integral nation? state today is dependent upon the adoption of the Who would dare to say a word about [Islamic] reli. when we can find people in the these councils. let us acquired real estate valued several times more? be fervent in advancing this meritorious policy. method of consultation.

whose number is increasing daily. he learned European languages at a Greek high school and Middle Eastern languages from special lessons at Islamic schools. and then the press bureau of the Sublime Porte in Istanbul.and beacons. he was asked to conduct his studies at home and lived his last years under virtual house arrest. Ottoman Empire: Kasbar Matbaasi. he published his own articles and plays. 1883-1884. §emsettin Sami (§emseddin Sami) ve Eserleri (§emseddin Sami Bey: His Life and Works) (Ankara. 384-322 tion. and he was compelled to destroy the parts he had completed.]: §emseddin lation from Turkish and introduction by M. 1126- stroyed. in North Africa. and the veiling of women. hav- pean civilization those ancient civilizations—for all ing recourse to these ancient works. pp. The following year.C. (Turkish Authors of the Fourteenth Century [A. §emseddin Sami was the author of the first modern geographical and histori- cal dictionary of the Ottoman Empire. although civilization lizations—and of its predecessor Greek civilization passed through many hands before reaching those of are extant. He also established a series called the "Pocket Library" to publish short essays for the general public. Ottoman Em. is tantamount to trying to benefit earlier—are like mere drawings made on a wall with from the wick of an oil lamp in the presence of sun- coal by a child in comparison to a painting by the light. dealing with them is a duty reserved to his. Although he was appointed to official positions. and linguist One of seven children in a prominent Albanian family. his newspaper ar- ticles—including the one translated here—were outspoken in promoting positivism and modernization. Turkey: Turk Dil Kurumu Tanitma Yaymlan. §tikru Hanioglu. 1. his at- tempt to translate the Quran into Turkish was frustrated by the authorities. he was granted an imperial pardon and returned to newspaper work in Istanbul. It seems that he suppressed his more radical opinions in these pamphlets—on the Islamic roots of European civilization. 179-184. These publications.day civilization consider Aristotle [Greece. On Dorduncu Asnn Turk Muharrirleri: §emseddin Sami Bey pire. Sami Bey) (Istanbul. Many works them in high esteem.B. along with his participation in Albanian cultural activities.1198] as two great mentors of civilization and hold tory and to the science of archaeology. Ismail Hakki. Agah Sim Levend. Thus the scholars and philosophers of present- famous artist Raphael [Italy. volume 1. Istanbul. in comparison to modern-day Euro. for example. or contenting that the later ones were always more perfect than the oneself with them. Hikmet Turhan Daglioglu. journalist. but given the existence of [modern] works the Europeans. those old civilizations have already been de. "Medeniyet-i cedidenin umem-i islamiyeye nakli" (Transferring the New Civilization to the (Istanbul. 1969). and many other lexicons. At the same time. caused the government to treat §emseddin Sami as suspect. Gune§ (The Sun). 18 §emseddin Sami Frasheri Transferring the New Civilization to the Islamic Peoples §emseddin Sami Frasheri (Albania-Turkey. 1483-1520]. Furthermore. Following graduation. 1934).1 As may be understood from our previous articles on of Islamic civilization—the latest of the ancient civi- [Europe's] history and state.] and Ibn Rushd [Andalusia-Morocco. In addi. yet in today's schools they do not teach Aristotle's History of Animals or The §emseddin Sami Frasheri. 149 . §emsettin Sami Bey: Hay an 1895). Turkey: Resimli Ay Matbaasi. 1850-1904) was a leading Ottoman intel- lectual. Islamic Peoples). Meanwhile. Trans.M. he worked for the gover- nor of loannina. number 4. which resulted in his banishment through appointment as editor of the official gazette of Tripoli.

the fact that lit a lamp in gloomy centuries enveloped in the dark. For just as we cannot cure even malaria people who have acquired a new fanaticism—view- with the medicine of Ibn Sina. yet it is essential that rea. they have been lit by his ancestors. things in their hands today is something that was bor- We can affirm that it is not the religion of Islam rowed from our ancestors. tian nations. to extract their books from underneath the dust the first. civilization while maintaining that the true civiliza- dom of Ibn Sina.150 § emseddin Sami Frasheri Canon of Medicine by Ibn Sina [Iran. the people. sheer folly. sciences and pave the way to transfer contemporary naticism in front of the light of the sun. exaggeration. and insulting that telegraph. however much effort and expense is required large dose of medicine intended to cure an illness to revive the medicine of Ibn Sina. and although it is less detrimental than 869]. ignorant masses of our own nation take rowed many things from us. and the chemistry of Jahiz [Iraq. nor use the us. present-day civilization is in the hands of the Chris- ness of ignorance. thanks the same effort and go to the same expense to put into to the efforts of these preachers of civilization. we must make and incompatible with Islam has decreased. since the survival and glory of Islam are up of Muslim discoveries. acquired this new fanaticism: The Europeans bor- tian nations. with the chemistry of Jahiz and the wis. At last the sun rose. sermons. some of our literary figures who are un- tion flooded the world. the light of educa. But because there is as much It is true that religious zeal would impel a man to exaggeration as truth in what they assert. its harmfulness cannot be denied. and an imitation. rather the cause is the religious difference and seed. and thus ancestors or more precisely our coreligionists who deem distancing themselves from it and guarding lived eight or ten centuries ago. Europe borrowed a seed of which prevents Muslim nations from becoming civi. ber of people among the Muslims who view Euro- lim languages. To go be. books. the wisdom of Ibn creates a new one. circa 776. saving the Muslim peoples from igno. 980-1037]. they each civilized nations—in other words. none of the themselves against it to be a religious duty. and leave the study of the works of Islamic fanaticism is a most weighty duty for those who want scholars to the students of history and antiquity. and so to make them warm to the new yond this and to draw a curtain of ignorance and fa. to be of service in civilizing the Muslim nations. finding the way with the help of To avoid such fanatical reactions on the part of their lamps. is this goal. tion is ours—has correspondingly increased. the number of those own century. and to found schools pean civilization as a product of unbelief contrary to and colleges devoted to teaching them. and to con. we must do so by borrowing science This new fanaticism is like an illness arising from and technology from the contemporary civilization an overzealous physician's treatment. and planted that lized. to publish them. and all available means to spread the view Therefore. This effort has gone to ex- son and wisdom should overcome any such feeling. Just as a Today. that European civilization was borrowed from the rance and once again bringing them to civilization Muslims. that Islam is no obstacle to true civiliza- are among the most important priorities of any zeal. Shattering this of Europe. if we wish to be. For this reason. come civilized. tremes by exceeding the limits of necessity. conflict which exists between the Muslim and the They rendered great services to humanity. they used newspapers. is a most worthy one. ment of darkness. imperfect. however. Gradually people left this environ. and that most of science and technology which ous person who loves his religious community and we see in the hands of the Europeans today is made fatherland. civilization from the Islamic world. tion. In order to achieve tent ourselves with the weak light of those lamps. so a new idea has arisen from this Rushd. civilization to the Islamic nations. so we can neither ing European civilization as something stolen from operate a railroad engine or steamship. Yet circulation among us the best scientific works of our as a result of their exaggerations. The num- of libraries and translate them into the various Mus. that is to say from our it to be a symbol or requisite of Christianity. The duty we owe to those happy with this situation have attempted to make lamps today is simply to cherish and respect them for European civilization seem less loathsome in the eyes their role in getting us out the darkness. of the people. one senses be content with the lamp which he knows to have that alongside the good they have done. This It is a regrettable circumstance that. because today duty compels us to say the following to those who have civilization seems to belong exclusively to the Chris. also done some harm. It is natural that a seed should decompose in the . This effort of these people contingent upon this alone. pamphlets.

it has brutally destroyed those who eyes. pagans contradicted Islam. rather we should be ashamed of it. even the best steel. Why then do so that the light of knowledge and true religion may we not want to benefit from European civilization. and threw it ences were accused of heresy and severely punished. There is no alternative. away. crowbars. Islamic scholars were she had reached a bright place with the help of the light viewed as sorcerers. who established that are precipitating their annihilation. and waged a war imitation of our old lamp. or that depending on works of Greek greatly benefit it. order to achieve progress in civilization and save the [caliph] Harun al-Rashid [reigned 786-809]. and gunpow- main in darkness by closing our eyes! der." while some of us say "this is an als gathered together. The rust of fanati- an ongoing enterprise at that time. The knowledge that profligate in their religion than the ancient Greek Europe derived from the scholars of Islam was very pagans. That seed decomposed. . in darkness of ignorance and fanaticism must be removed high esteem and paid tribute to them. viewed Greek and purposes a war must be declared against fanati- civilization with similar contempt. Some among us say "this is not a sun but a time have attempted to appease it. In our society. Can we wax proud of this? There is nothing here There too at first appeared some scholars who tried to be proud of. for all intents the caliphate on the ruins of Babylon. after dropping this lamp and allowing it to nate fanaticism by appeasing it. they demolished it. in whose footsteps they proudly followed. and held Greek fanaticism as there is between light and darkness. in [caliph Abu] Ja'far [al-]Mansur [reigned 754-775]. and to elimi- because. and only then did civiliza- Had the pioneers of Islamic civilization such as tion begin to move forward. but by Companions of the Prophet who had the honor of present-day standards it is nothing. tation of. with the result pean people of the book [Christians and Jews] more that its very genus has changed. and a mere imi. fanaticism was often an obstacle darkness of ignorance which surrounded her. but once on the road to civilization. children of the Companions of the Messenger its true and essential luster. would the Islamic civili. together illuminate and reinvigorate people's minds accusing it sometimes of blasphemy and polytheism and hearts. and the Muslim nations from the ignorance and Bedouinism caliph Ma'mun [reigned 813-833]. Finally. the and sometimes of being an imitation? Are the Euro- cycle has been repeated many times. against fanaticism with axes. At that time she conversing with the Messenger of God? borrowed a lamp from us in order to escape from the In Europe. and its future is secured. this would in fact Chaldeans. too. of God (may God bless him and grant him salvation) There is as great a difference between religion and borrowed it in its entirety. or are we more pious than the children of the considerable by [the standards of] the time. and had ceased to cism must be removed from religion so it shines with exist." thereby preferring to re. hand in hand. The sages. to reconcile religious texts with science. and just as within a short time rust eats up and destroys zation of which we are so proud today have materi. the intellectu- just before dawn. maintained that cism to crush it by force and thus open the road to that civilization was derived from. and those cultivating the sci- of that lamp. But because fanati- go out. revived it. the civilization of their ancestors the Far from damaging religion. civilization. for fanaticism is the rust of religion. she no longer needed it. so also fanaticism stains even the alized? Although Greek civilization was no longer most truthful religion and rots it. TRANSFERRING THE NEW CIVILIZATION 151 earth in order to bear fruit. we do not even desire to benefit from a sun of cism is not the sort of monster that can be won over civilization which rises and shines before our very with kindness. too.

then honorable brethren have mentioned. Lebanon: Khayats. both of which were short-lived. leading him ultimately to settle in Egypt in 1898. '"Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi's 2. pp. Eliezer Tauber. al-Kawakibi received a thor- ough education in the Islamic sciences and in the major Islamic languages of the region: Arabic. number 2.1 The Seventh Gathering. al-'Aqqad. The following selection is drawn from al-Kawakibi's famous account of a fictional series of meetings in Mecca. to take Mecca] said. which is used in such to benefit from your personal views concerning the situations. ch. at which twenty-three representatives from around the Muslim world—including thirteen Arabs— assemble to discuss pan-Islamic resurgence and criticize Ottoman tyranny. the association as. Khaldun Complete Works of Kawakibi) (Beirut. Rahme. In the 1870s." [the fictional delegate from cooperate in writing down your speech. volume 10. like the rest of the brethren. President. writing. representatives from Damascus and Alexandria] to "Mr. Three Reformers: A Study in Modern Arabic Dirasat al-Wahda al-'Arabiyya. marily Aleppo. because. in keeping with the rules. 1854-1902) was one of the most influential Islamic reformist thinkers in the eastern Mediterranean at the end of the nineteenth century. reading. Lebanon: Markaz S. that is. [Al-Sayyid al-Furati—probably the alter ego of the au- Reformist Ideology. In this process. 1. The eminent Damascene looked at his colleague sion. Joseph G. and parts of northern Iraq. Rahme. His historical significance in the Islamic modernist trend of thought lay in his elaboration of an Arab pan-lslamism intended to reform the decaying Muslim world. On the morning of this day.] 152 ." 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi. The Emergence of the of Towns [Mecca]). Ottoman Turkish. and Persian. pri- Other. after summarizing all of the opinions that the [from Alexandria]. Arab Pan-lslamism. possibly poi- soned by agents of the Ottoman sultan." cause of stagnation. pp.2 "In turns listening to the spoken statements and writing addition to your attention to organizing meetings and them down. among others. intellectually. al-Furat (The Euphrates). 1993). he edited the official paper in Aleppo. Egypt: Matbu'at al-Majlis al-'A'la. who indicated his approval. First Political Thought (Beirut. al-Husry. by Joseph G. 5. "In addition. Wednesday. al-Kawakibi experienced chronic persecution by the authorities. He died suddenly in Cairo in 1902. privileging Arabs over non-Arabs and advocating the establishment of an Arab caliphate. 1995)." Journal of Islamic Studies. al-Rahhala Kaf (The Traveler K) (Cairo. Translation from Arabic and introduction M. 'Abbas published in 1902. 358-367. and the minutes of the preceding [meeting] Damascene and the eloquent Alexandrian [fictional were read.—Trans. Despite holding a number of administrative and public posts in Otto- man Syria. in al-A 'mal al-kamila lll-Kawakibi (The Arab Movements (London: Frank Cass. problematic other. "Umm al-Qura" (The Mother 1999. Born into a well-established family of notables in Aleppo. 1966). the association expects also ther of them knows short-hand. and reviewing—you are the most wide-ranging of us. AI-Kawakibi's thought was influenced by his contemporaries SayyidJamal al-Din al-Afghani (chapter I I) and Muhammad Abduh (chap- ter 3). 19 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi Summary of the Causes of Stagnation 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (Syria. whenever they said: "We are willing to render this service. 159-177. and established two independent newspapers. nei- fulfilling editorial duties. which is the topic under discus. al-Kawakibi decentered the primacy of the Ottoman Turks and transformed them into an internal. and the Internal thor—was the fictional representative of northern Syria. 1899] in hearing. the association requests the eminent sembled. have been expressed knowledgably and consistently 24 Zi'l-Qa'da 1 3 1 6 [April 5. 1958). addressing al-Sayyid al-Furati.

Policymaking is divorced from power and re- 5. (D) 3. Denial of the umma's freedom of speech and 7. (F) deceitful 'ulama [religious scholars]. (D) of the dead and their shrines. (F) 25. (D) 22." Then he edge is a veil. (F) 26. Neglecting the wisdom of the community. Fragmentation of the umma into factions and 6. (D) the pious early Muslims. religion there are secret matters and that knowl- my speech is feeble. Obstinacy in denouncing religious freedom in with the letter D. [Al-Furati] ences are incompatible with religion. 34. Confusion of the umma's beliefs due to the action. (F) 24. (F) 33. Alienation of Muslim minds [literally." ignorance of its merits. judges. and belittling of that which is ideas of the umma [Muslim community]. Effect of the doctrine of predestination on the not demanded. as follows. Burdening Muslims with that which God has 1. and some are derived the quest for guidance. and I have little to offer. and the eminent Damascene 15. work. (D) "It can be concluded from our blessed association's 17. Reversal of the practice of taking property from of the flatterers. Belittling of religion by the exploiters of Sufism. political and the opinions of recent writers. (D) stems from the totality of numerous causes. (D) from fundamental [causes]. the rich and giving it to the poor. (D) rightly-guided leaders. Yet all of them can be 19. Introduction of innumerable superstitions into cials [to implement] matters that destroy their the public sphere by deceivers and worshipers religion. Honoring knowledge by stipends through which 10. as already discussed. Deceit of liars and flatterers [who state] that in affection and obedience though I am really incapable. forsaking scrip- causes. while delegat- treating it as entertainment and a game. of the association's studies. (F) 11. Requiring what would not be required if one The First Kind: Religious Causes sought guidance from the Book [the Qur'an] and the sunna [practice of the Prophet]. (D) ries from the index list that I extracted from the 20. Requiring leaders. (D) 8. and religious offi- 12. SUMMARY OF THE CAUSES OF STAGNATION 153 Al-Sayyid al-Furati said: "[I shall comply] out of 14. omissions. Failure of practicing 'ulama' to affirm divine deliberations that this stagnation. and of the hajj [pilgrimage] assembly. Penetration of manifest or hidden polytheism did not linger and plunged into his speech. The leaders' natural inclination toward deceit- ligion due to adulteration and severity. (F) through the threats of astrologers. The abandonment of religious tolerance and sponsibility. "hearts"] ciating with flatterers and the wicked. Coercion and mistreatment of high-minded. Loss of justice and equality of rights among the tive details of religious laws. Introduction of scriptural borrowings. Banishing noble and liberal leaders. Giving oneself over to specious ideas and arti- ficial distinctions in religion. (F) and fanciful interpretations. through additions. (D) ful 'ulama' and ignorant Sufis. (D) 32. (F) leniency in religious practice. Inability to relate statements to practices in re. Undue allegiance to madhhabs [schools of law] reduced to three categories: religious causes. (F) 16. (F) commanded. Effect of asceticism on effort. (D) 23. 29. (F) [causes] with the letter F and the derivative [causes] 21. 28. 27. fables. He said: into the beliefs of the laity. (D) 9. The surrender to taqlid [imitation of previous one or a few causes that can easily be resisted. unity. not from 18. Denial of a livelihood and honor to practicing and harmful innovations into the religion by 'ulama' and seekers of knowledge. rulers give preferment to the elite. I will read to you summa. and asso- 13. distinguishing the fundamental Friday [prayer]. (D) umma's [social] strata. Corruption of the religion by the obscurantism 31. Some scholars] and the abandonment of reflection and of these causes are fundamental. (D) plethora of conflicting opinions in the deriva. and loss of its security and aspirations. (F) turned away from the desk. (F) The Second Kind: Political Causes 4. geomancers. (F) 30. (D) ing service in religion to the ignorant. tures and the path of the pious early Muslims. (D) 2. Belief that the philosophical and rational sci- and eloquent Alexandrian took his place. and moral causes. Effect of dissension [arising] from debates about religious beliefs. (D) . of magic and humbug. Religious severity by later legists in contrast to political parties. and beauty of life.

Furthermore. (F) we would digress from the aim of our gathering. Dissolution of the bonds of religious responsi. disregarding repetitions. (F) harmful and bitter conditions whose exposition and 49. of their inhabitants. Heterogeneity of juridical laws. The dominance of flattery' s fabrications. Restriction of political concern to taxation and tails and explain them. espe- to hatred of God. (F) self and persisting in his autocratic policies. (D) 52. Enmity toward the higher sciences because of 58. and the confu- the comfort of ignorance and abasement. of the Ottomans try. Adherence to the principle of centralized admin- 56. exists in the fundamental administration of Islamic tence in unwise policies. (F) destroyed. (F) cially in the last 20 years. more the neglect of zakat [alms tax]. Stubborn and arrogant insistence of most lead. Standardization of administrative and penal among turbans [that is. (D) the sultan's power for the sake of preserving his noble 46. they too share some of these fundamental prob- 48. orating. so that its condition deteriorated. Estrangement from engagement with and dis. and their avoidance of any kind of glory guished brethren. general stagnation. after it rushed to reorganize its affairs 41. Inasmuch as the disorder that 36. (D) governments has an important role in producing the 37. (F) 60 years. Descent into alienation by those who are suc. administrative leadership should reside in those distant parts [so as to Then al-Sayyid al-Furati said: "These summarize know] the situations and the particular features the causes of stagnation that the brethren of the as. (D) headings of the problem only. I therefore add the following ers on despotism. "As for the rest of the Islamic kingdoms and emir- product of their continued existence. Inattention to the avoidance of polytheism and istration despite the distance of certain parts its evil portents. Preference for earning a living in the military The Policy and Administration and in government service. of the kingdom was lost and the remaining third was bility. The 50. Loss of collective financial strength because of lems. enumerating them by means of the other than ostentation and wealth. 40. Foolishness of most leaders and their persis. (D) doing so. (D) itants in terms of [their] races and customs. Immersion in ignorance and acquiescence to It has experienced most of these disorders in the last it. 47. Corruption of teaching. Loss of mutual counseling and giving free rein [innovations].154 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi 35. (D) following. (D) 53. Loss of the strength of associations and the by. and lowliness. Among the factors determining the ruin of 45. (D) 43. due causes I wish to discuss in summary form are the to cowardice and fear of disappointment. that is. this most powerful state whose affairs concern all Muslims. (D) causes to the ones already discussed by my distin- 38. cases. Lingering in apathy as a way of comforting the not improve either taqlid nor its blameworthy bida' self. (F) 5 9. Neglecting the demand for general rights. Loss of religious and moral education. (F) 54. In cessful in religious and worldly affairs. Abandoning action because of low expecta- tions. it would take too long and the military. Were I to give de- 39. (F) cussion of public affairs. (F) from the capital. "Moreover. the causes that I will mention are the fundamental origins of the disorder in the current poli- The Third Kind: Moral Causes cies and administration of the Ottoman empire. (D) . traditional religious laws despite differences in the characteristics of scholars] and in everything that is recorded the empire's parts and differences in the inhab- in the Book. (F) ates. during which time two thirds 44. (D) thorough examination would take too long. servil- ity. Submersion of leaders in luxury and carnal ap- petites. [in the Tanzimat reforms of the mid-19th century]. (F) sion of the judiciary in [dealing with] analogous 55. the state was the loss of men and the squandering of and giving spiritual guidance. rather than indus. as suppression and division. sermonizing." 51. they suffer from other. Loss of the power of public opinion through sociation have set forth. it damaged its ancient foundations and did 42. Delusion that religious knowledge is found 57. (D) one would suppose.

as a ner. as inhabitants and rendering it impractical for well as hatred toward the administration. SUMMARY OF THE CAUSES OF STAGNATION 155 60. tribes of the Hijaz. this neglect of matters by cial authority to certain families—like the those who are responsible for them leads nec- rulership of Mecca and the rulership of the large essarily to the debasing of the administration. ants. despite the enmity and hatred that God planted 69. their merits and defects. due to a of lack manders. blood. capitulations. ally know. Gross discrimination among various subject 7 6. with the aim of complicating understand. Loss of the sanctity of religious law and the among them till the Day of Resurrection. ministration expends all of that on its neighbors such as erecting rules that conflict with religious so that they will turn a blind eye to the [country's] law. (D) omission and commission was well known. 77. as if the empire had no master. the ad- 68. 61. Preferential treatment of those base in descent. tencies in the hiring of [government] employ. Adhering to the practice of appointing to par. ner. this makes agreement upon administrative in morals. and their welfare. the neighboring coun- their indulgence for it. If the public were to learn it would of sustaining cliques. people despised by their ian interests without consultation of the sub- colleagues in the 'ulama' or the army. 73. Iraq. sovereignty. and if it spoke. Administration of property in a centralized man- races regarding subsidies and penalties. the compromise of done well or badly. Administration of the treasury in a loose man- who are incapable of administering them. from the administration of the Ottoman government . heavy debts that are being paid with [the loss ticular positions in certain professions. not just outward obedience. among all the races and nationalities found in 72. Adhering to the principle that administrative 70. Obtuseness toward or willful neglect of the tention to the integration of morals with proce. Administration of important political and civil- Minister of Defense. and they will put up concern. The state must select them from of concern for the future. in the absence of some compelling policy destructive. like the of] territory. who hold sway over policy impossible. Shaykh al-Islam [chief religious official] or the 75. and rights. tries would have no means to exert pressure. silencing experts who know of its defects. Then al-Sayyid al-Furati said: "Some of these ministration being methodical in name but ar. (D) free persons and have authority over those who 63. them—even though its damage in every act of portant matter. press] inquiry into administrative activities. rights. Adhering to [the practice of] racial inconsis. through seeking to con. (F) empire became mortgaged to foreigners with 64. Failure to attend to the customs of the inhabit- leadership and governors are never held ac. and then flatterers. (D) to forbid its growth. force of [secular] laws. or when there is need. and com. but with no at. Permissiveness in reward and reproof due to in. and money. until the they will not ally with him against the state. governors. (D) their affection. so as to gain countable for their actions. needs of the times. favorites. and the [government's] refusal to discuss the leader and the led will not agree on any im. 66. without any supervision. [all this] so that and damage without any accounting. 67. though the suppression ees. so that jects. it would act. Suppression of awakened thought in an effort the kingdom in order to satisfy them. purchasing with- result. bribery. Administration of external affairs through attention to whether administrative matters are bootlicking. of natural growth is utterly futile. are their superiors. with the rotten stink of their rule. Adhering to a policy of customarily giving spe. the progress of the inhabitants. the challenge of events. and dures among ministers. painful sights. Inattention to fostering religious requirements. appeasement. and insisting on ad. temptation ing between the employees and the [local] and [corrupting] inducements are the result. their morals. extravagance without reprimand. them to intermix and secure the administration. lest the public learn the truth of the ploying too many of them with the purpose matter. rules. and habitual speak. and is detested by them. Carelessness in the selection of [government] so as to prevent their divulging what they re- employees and [civil] officials. 65. needlessly em. there would be a great uprising. by not abiding by and executing [religious law]. and in education. vince them and satisfy their concerns. Administrative confusion resulting from inat. Were it not for tention to explaining to the umma and seeking those sights and smells. causes I have mentioned are old maladies inseparable bitrary in practice. and the Euphrates— 74. the governor enrages those whom he out budgeting. 71. and [to sup- 62. development.

'It is worth put- sider its leader to be its head. Heedlessness of balancing [military] power and Ayyubids [Kurdish dynasty. North African dynasty. or for centuries. The only As is apparent to those who contemplate and scruti. They had a genuine and complete congruence peasant. not like Arab. Differences in the natures of the subjects and [reigned 661-750]. hatred toward the Arabs. were it not that the 965] said: The people exist only through kings. There is no ra- with them. the [probably the Mamluk dynasty in Egypt. circa 1149-1215].exception in this regard was the Turkish Moghuls— nize the histories of nations. sul and emperor. Withdrawal from life and apathy. 915- one could be patient with them. the greatest and most that is. then to its morals. so that it was not long until they become 86. 1519-1558]. the contemporary ones are be- [Ayyubid sultan. or the reverse. and the descendants of Muhammad 'Ali [ruler able status to their husbands].' that is.1517]. all of 80. 84. will danger has come close—may God forbid it—to the Arabs succeed with 'ajam [non-Arab] kings?' heart.' that is. 336-323 B." of the most important maxims of governments is to Then he said: "Connected to these causes are a adopt the characters of the subjects. as can be proved by the 1451-1481]. Similarly. and as the European colonial states matters of daily life. [Afghan dynasty. Heedlessness of the need to apportion labor and the non-Arabs who established states in the Islamic time. such as the Buyids [Turkish dynasty. as follows. world. it has a great significance. Abandoning attention to educating women. The least a foreign government should do is conform to the subjects' characters. the shepherds and the subjects. 'Kibti so that they were truly heads to those bodies. Mongols] became Persians and Indians. the Muwahhidun [Almohads. would like to do in the present era. 1169-1260]. the 'Abbasids [750-1258]. —their saying about the Arabs of Syria: 'Ne §am'm It is only this congruence that makes the umma con. Genghis [Khan. Success can not be had in any other way. and the shepherds. nor do they agree Khattab. 1169-1193].' a camel's head on the body of a bull.' for Egyptians. 1038-1194]. They intermingled with them and became part "As to the incongruence of morals between the of them. 1805-1849. with their subjects and armies in morals and instincts. Charles V of Germany [Holy Roman proverbs about Arabs that flow from their tongues: Emperor. on the contrary. §ekeri ve ne Arab'in yiizii. 1250- development of qualities that make them of suit.]. then to its nationality. —their use of the phrase 'kor fellah. acculturated. and [Napoleon] Bonaparte [French con. 1799-1815]—did not accomplish 'Arab beggar. —their use of the phrase 'dilenci Arab. may God be pleased coming Frenchified or Germanified. without resentment or [the need for] them are temporary manifestations that will disappear coercion. so that [Macedonian king. that is. Perhaps as the wise al-Mutanabbi [classical Arab poet. Weakness of character. [Mehmed] the Conqueror [Ottoman sultan.' . of Albanian-Turkish origin] 85. 79. at least until it suc- Miscellaneous Causes ceeds in attracting them to its language. so that it gives itself ting up with the Arabs for the sweets of Damascus. 'Umar [ibn al. Saljuqs [Turkish dynasty. 'Arab Gypsy'. Inattention to the fitness of wives [that is. and some of wholeheartedly. second caliph." good in themselves.' meaning 'rude tion. Heedlessness or negligence in organizing the 1130-1269]. just as the Tatar Moghuls [that is. general apathy. Peter the Great [Russian tsar. 1696-1725]. the Ottomans. 82. 932- 81.' that is. even if the commitment be temporary. Circassians 83. 1206. 'Egyptian Gypsy. and to unite with few miscellaneous causes that I shall examine after them in habits and tastes. of Egypt.who. even if the habits are not enumerating them in summary fashion. take pride successful kings and conquerors—such as Alexander in preserving the otherness of their subjects. 634-644] and Salah al-Din to become Arabized. their great feats except through sincere determina. Heedlessness of [the need to] yield to expertise. 1062]. Mongol ruler.C.they do not seek their Turkification. Arabized and molded by the characteristics of the Arabs. as did the Umayyads 78.' that is.' for Arabs of the Hijaz. —'Arab fingenesi.156 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi since its establishment. with the disappearance of their producers. as was indicated by the president in his first "There is no disagreement about the fact that one remarks.tional cause for such [behavior] except their intense 1227]. Ghurids preparedness.

" . and if it were not for the religious is.' that is. because he knows that I do —their saying.' or small. —'Arab akh.' tional Turkish delegate]. with two expressions.' And the second Furati is a well-spoken orator and a worldly knight. SUMMARY OF THE CAUSES OF STAGNATION 157 [Literally: 'Neither the sweets of Damascus. they joined Islam in blind obedience —their saying. Then al-Sayyid al-Furati said: —their saying. "Moreover. For [it is said that] the "To all that. Turks." fenesi. in fear of astrological misfortune. But today our time has drawn to a close. 'pis Arab. The cause discussion. 'Nerde Arab. if the Exalted Master permits. and the research to which he pointed deserves much tion of suspicion about their Islamic faith.' or corrupt. 'Bunu yaparsam Arab olayim. President said: "Our brother al-Sayyid al- decay: lice. may I become an Arab. 'Arab jawbone. 'filthy Arab. and therefore we adjourn till our appointment tomor- except for the establishment of a few mosques—and row. 'Arab taste.'] names mentioned from the pulpits. animals.' that is. The first is the Arab saying not the one who makes you laugh.' that not exaggerate.' that is. nor the if it were not for their rulers wanting to have their face of the Arab. of this suspicion is that the Turks did not serve Islam. and the plague. 'Arab existing superstitions.' necessity.' that "I beg pardon from al-Maula al-Rumi [the fic- is. of which he is aware. nerde tambura. even these would —their use of the term 'Arab' for slaves and black not have been established. 'Arab mind.' an indica.' that is. the Arabs do not reciprocate. I would not have spoken so clearly and openly. 'If I do that. which added greatly to tabiati.' to their grandees. except sincere counselor is the one who makes you weep. expression: calling [Turks] 'Byzantines. there is a lute. 'Arab and in respect for fire-pits." about them: 'Three were created for oppression and Mr.' or excessive babble. 'Where there is an Arab.

falsely. Alusi came from a long line of prominent religious scholars.'alamin [God's Proof to Mankind]. Imam [leading scholar] ['Abd al-Wahhab] al- stricted or absolute freedom of Islamic legal inter. "The first section of the introduction. 1857-1924) was the foremost proponent of religious re- form in late Ottoman Iraq. After the Ottoman Young Turk Revolution of 1908. with the Quran.' The time has come for the pen to gallop along the schools] who admire them. conservative scholars plotted to remove him from Baghdad for allegedly spreading Wahhabi ideas. 'Arabiyya. the most famous of whom was his grandfather." He also stated. but to safeguard me against hold that the claim of ijtihad in this age—by wrongdoing and lapses in word and deed. A prolific writer. and to upon. and others. "I responded to those who Him I turn in repentance. on Him I depend. Egypt: 'Abd al-Qadir al-Tilimsani. no matter how learned—is the Protection and Refuge from all ills. Ghayat al-amani fi'l-radd 'ala wa-ara 'uhu al-lughawiyya (Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi and his al-Nabhani (The Utmost Desire. His modernist inclination appears in ar- guments for the harmony of modern scientific views. but their effort failed. Alusi gathered a small num- ber of religious students who continued to pursue Islamic reform in Iraq. which heretics from various Islamic madhhabs [legal 1. stirring up the dust of contro. "I into false accusation. volume 1. his publishers wrote Alusi's name by hand on each copy of the book. I cited on this 1932] wrote. and should not be relied success only through Him. the author of a major exegesis of the Quran. First published in 1903. I ask God. Commins. He also contributed to the reform movement by searching for and publishing the works of earlier scholars like Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328). 1992). 20 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi Ijtihad and the Refutation of Nabhani Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi (Iraq. the Imam [Abu'l-'Abbas] Ibn pretation]—a capability claimed. Around 1890. into a separate treatise. Sha'rani [1492-1565]. Ibrahim Samarra'i. Imam ['Abd al- Wahhabi [scripturalist] group and other ignorant Ra'uf] al-Munawi [1545-1621]. a Refutation of Nabhani) Views on Language) (Cairo. Translation from Arabic Shukri al-Alusi wa-bulugh al. for God is [Wahhabis] and others. 1958). he taught in several Baghdad mosques and seminaries. 1850. by the Hajar al-Haytami [1504-1567]." I made this discussion racecourse of debate. In 1902. he began to criticize popular veneration of saints' tombs and the inclusion of music and dance in Sufi rituals. Egypt: Jami'at al-Duwal al- (Cairo. 1907). It should be ignored. like heliocentrism. Muhammad Bahjat al-Athari. on a scholar who objected to ijtihad. al. This se- lection is excerpted from a polemical attack. Introduction and the Rise of the Arabs) (Beirut. and he won a prize from the Stockholm Ori- ental Languages Academy for his three-volume history of the pre-lslamic Arabs. al-Sayyid Mahmud pp. Lebanon: al-Mu'assasa al- by David D. He is also no- table for attracting the attention of European scholars. entitled al-Siham al-sa 'ibah versy in the face of the most intractable opponent. Jami'iyya li'1-Dirasat wa'1-Nashr wa'1-Tawzi'. published anonymously. he addressed such controversial religious issues as independent reasoning (ijtihad} in Islamic law and innovations in worship. claim ijtihad in this age in my book Hujjat Allah 'ala [Yusuf] al-Nabhani [Palestine-Lebanon. li-ashab al-da 'awi al-kadhiba [Arrows that Strike who has mounted the steed of obstinacy. After a traditional religious education. Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi. issue statements of religious scholars such as the on the termination of al-ijtihad al-mutlaq [unre. 44-60.'arab (Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi by Hager El Hadidi. I will achieve false. After presenting the the Exalted. edited by Devin Stewart. [al-Nabhani] continued. not to allow the tip of my pen to descend prologue of that treatise. 158 . Those Who Make False Claims]. He befriended the great French Orientalist Louis Massignon (1883-1962).

and excused to claim a higher level. IJTIHAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 159 should serve to persuade every person endowed with the era of [Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad] al-Shafi'i common sense and sound understanding. and the stricted ijtihad—is addlepated and his thinking dis. what then might you think about others? In- masse. those who have produced authoritative variant opin- Din] al-Suyuti [1445-1505] claimed ijtihad. to interpret within a particular legal school]. and a slan- tinued for about a thousand years. indicating his that anyone who claims it—let alone claims unre. or school of the Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal [780-855]. 'When Jalal [al. To mention all the fallacies turbed. and Ibn The First Point al-Salah was about 300 years ago. that of unrestricted ijtihad! himself. unless it is said.]. it is not claimed today except [independent interpreter of the law]. and it will become apparent to you the end of his discussion of this topic. the year I [al-Nabhani] wrote the may God be pleased with him. as was stated by the ars of the legal tradition concerning whether or not great Shaykh Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-'Arabi [1165. O God! This is great slander!'" that prevented him from looking into the matter.]. 1028-1085] and Small Compendium]. his bankruptcy of all knowledge. randomly. which is the lowest of all the discontinued. falseness of his claim. however. I could to select among the legal opinions proposed within dictate them from memory. like someone who rides blindly and strikes included in his discussion would take a long time. ignorance.' [Ibn Hajar] said." Then he [767-820].' Moreover. sent back the part of their expressions correctly allow themselves petition without writing any answer. or 12th century A. They wrote him a petition presenting a num. the leading scholars said about [Abu'l- ber of legal questions on which Shafi'i jurists had Mahasin] al-Ruyani [13th century]. for we are in the der against them. "Ibn al-Salah cited a scholar on theology and articles of faith. conceive mentally of the level of unrestricted ijtihad. his con. the author of al- proposed two different rulings considered equally Bahr [The Sea]." Then he quoted al-Jami' al-saghir [The that is. Abu'l-Ma'ali al-Juwayni. Imam al-Haramayn [the Imam of Mecca and Medina. Muhammad] al-Ghazzali [1058-1111] are among tary on this book: "[Ibn Hajar] said." [Al-Nabhani] by those of defective mind and religion. deed.H. 'If there through wilaya [here.'alamin. has been a longstanding debate among leading schol- cial status or closeness to God]. singular wajh] within the Shafi'i legal temporaries attacked him and criticized him en school. with respect to the era of Ibn Hajar. Shaykh Muhammad of the Islamic jurisprudence to the effect that.D. "Then Shihab al-Din Ibn Hajar said. They demanded that if he had even the lowest produced wujuh—this despite [al-Ruyani's] state- level of ijtihad—that is. after stated this explicitly in many of his treatises. 'Contemplate the difficulty of this level. This senseless jabber continues until levels of ijtihad. and not in its details. that he was not among those who valid. '[Taqi al-Din] Ibn al-Salah [al-Shahrazuri. 1181-1245] and his followers stated that [ijtihad] had terminated about 300 years before their time." If such great scholars a particular legal school]—then he should explain the are not qualified for ijtihad al-madhhab [the ability opinion he considered most acceptable in this regard. Al-Suyuti. how then and provide the appropriate evidence according to the could those who cannot even understand the greater rules of ijtihad.. since he lived in the sixth century [A. All the people of Najd follow the seventeenth year of the fourteenth century [A. So [ijtihad] has now been discon. saying that he was busy with other concerns Glory be to You. there has not been a mujtahid mustaqil said. which al-Munawi Hujjat al-Islam [the Proof of Islam] [Abu Hamid also quoted in the beginning of his large commen. who lived in beliefs of Shaykh Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab the tenth century. as follows. "As for ijtihad.H. ijtihad al-fatwa [the ability ment. a lie. [Ibn Hajar] to the following points: said. He did . [1703-1787]—is a false accusation. 'Even if someone could so instead we will criticize his argument in general.D. an outstanding mystic's spe.' Ibn Then [al-Nabhani] quoted a number of statements by Hajar said.. ions [wujuh. 1240]. adopting his opinions book Hujjat Allah 'ala al. he would be too ashamed before God to claim it for Al-Nabhani's thesis will be addressed according any person of these times. scholars corroborating his view that ijtihad had been I mean ijtihad al-fatwa. "If all of al-Shafi'i's texts were lost. by Ibn Hajar." on the individual points of law and agreeing with him [Al-Nabhani] said. 1899-1900 A. so as of To attribute the call for ijtihad to the Wahhabiyya— today it has been discontinued for 600 years'—that the term [al-Nabhani] uses for those who share the is.

be learned in the Qur'anic espouses it. "A group of my nation will continue sup- clared that ijtihad is the utmost exertion of effort on porting the truth until God's command arrives"— the part of a jurist in order to arrive at a probable that is. sions of the topic. God. eponymous founder of the school of law to which dents and supporters of the Shaykh Wahhabiyya is he belongs]. and the condition them a sect of Muslims apart from the ahl al-sunna of hadith transmitters and texts. [For technical mat- [people of the sunna. is an ters of hadith science and theology. and returned to the one who upholds it. who is able to not his father. and recognize valid. even that it actually occurs. posed within a single school]. Below this is mujtahid al-futya [inter- either plain ignorance or an insult. nor was this involves the rational capacity for acquiring necessary implied by their argument. both of which are preter restricted to the legal opinions already pro- clearly wrong. lieve in God and the Last Day. prop. the scholars of ju- risprudence mentioned numerous issues under this The topic of ijtihad has been exhausted. This is good for you ity and invalidity. the the particular case at hand alone. the full requirements for someone to act ditions they laid down for ijtihad are not impossible as an official witness in court cases]. This aptitude claim that the gate of ijtihad is closed. Despite that.160 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi not claim ijtihad. the Exalted. is mujtahid restricted to a madhhab. ijtihad being di. and you have learned that the con- bity [that is.] it is sufficient for injustice and an aggression. it should be a mid-level [or higher] expertise in the Arabic lan. references to which we must turn in cases of disagree- visible. He did. refer it to God and the Messenger. Conditions [permitting This is a summary of the jurisprudents' discus- such interpretation] are legal capacity—and not pro. and it was the Shaykh. since 'Abd al-Wahhab is lower than that of absolute or unrestricted mujtahid Shaykh Muhammad's father. citing as evidence the hadith [of the be mentioned here in brief. some relevant issues should permissible. The scholars have de. dismissed. enjoin doing legal content. then disagreed on ars of Islamic jurisprudence have discussed it exten. if you be- erly analyze cause and effect. You have also learned from necessary for adoption by others of a mujtahid's our summary of their statements that they did not verdict in a court case—and aptitude. standing of the intended meanings of speech. among you. [unrestricted interpreter]. recognize similar and dissimilar cases. that is. Some held that it is permissible. [A mujtahid] must also attain supported by any evidence. This ability is the foundation of and the best of settlements. In addition. The rank [and not al-Wahhabiyya]. said: "O you who believe. it is a false and slander. who supported the articles of faith. and mental acuity. and Reconciliations] by Ibrahim ibn Musa al-Shatibi. keen under. ment. To associate the people consensus exists. the occasions of Revelation. therefore. nor did he call on anybody to adopt verses and hadiths [narratives of the Prophet] with him as an authority. for the schol. nor was it indicated by a knowledge of the law as a whole. which is only but may exist in any era. God willing. who becomes thor- oughly versed in the law and able to perform tarjih [demonstrating the preponderance of one alternative The Second Point ruling over another]. thing." [Qur'an. This issue will be ruling. derive legal rulings from the texts of his Imam [the commanding good and forbidding evil. so to call stu. Verse the legal craft. an innate. thrown back in the face of the person who guage and theology. Others held that it is not died 1388]. be familiar with legal issues on which good and forbid doing evil. the mujtahid to rely on the assessments of hadith ex- ous accusation. [Such cases] involve a mujtahid al-mutlaq discussed below. It is preferred that he designating the Shaykh should be al-Muhammadiyya be able to search for contradictory evidence. whether it is permissible for an age to be devoid of sively. so that obey God and the Messenger and those in authority he might be able to deduce legal rules from evi. prooftexts. Sura 4. however. the Hour of Judgment. . rubric that we need not relate. Sunni Muslims]. Stupid or incompetent people are 59] The opinion that ijtihad has terminated is not incapable of ijtihad. Prophet]. particularly in the book al-Muwafaqat [The a mujtahid. single and multiple chains of transmis- tice of the Prophet] with the Shaykh and to consider sion. and if you are at variance over some- dence. Even more odd is that the adjective perts and leading theologians. or knowledge of scriptural prooftext from the Qur'an or the sunna. abrogating and abrogated scriptural of Najd and those who follow the sunna [the prac.

] 200. none of which has God granted any demonstrated in the Scripture.]. [muqallids] said. God. If the authority agrees with what correctness] have flouted God's decree and His law is contained in the Qur'an and the sunna. he rejects the scriptural evidence and does not thereby emptying the earth of people who uphold accept it. however. and consider him more acceptable for 1111]. IJT/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 161 The Third Point who speak with knowledge have vanished from the earth. Sura 12. No one should rule or give a legal opin- [those who engage in taqlid. and contradiction. They also disagreed about legal analogy. and Abu Hamid [al-Ghazzali. send to this umma someone to renew its faith. whether a scriptural prooftext from the neither wujuh nor ihtimalat.taqlid than others? What gives you the right to per- erable variant rulings] but not wujuh. in response to this opin. circa 750. forbid taqlid Shashi. the jurist with a false judgment that openly contradicts the gives a verdict or legal opinion accordingly. it is sufficient ibn al-Mubarak [736-797].form this selection. al-Qaffal [Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ' Ali al. and ijtihad leads him to adopt. These opinions [about the closing of the God's proofs for Him and stating that no scholar has door of ijtihad]. and 'Abdullah "Concerning these invalid opinions. a second group who produced ihtimalat [pref. peace be upon him. 7th particular [mujtahid]. falsehood. The fol. stated that nobody has proof for Him. it is not permissible to of those who uphold God's proofs for Him. He will continue to al-Awza'i [707-774]. upholding many Prophet. other- statements of His Messenger.' sure the completion of His Light and make manifest This is the opinion of many Hanafi jurists. and the authority [a reference to the Qur'an.tire Muslim community to follow him. Zufar ibn al-Hudhayl [died 775]. peace be upon him. the world is devoid cording to you or others. wise.H. and Sura 53. 200 [816 A. will en- 805]. Verse 23]. who could produce a wajh that others of lesser do you forbid a man from choosing positions that status could adopt in their judgements and rulings.H. while you forbid selection of what has been diverse opinions.Qur'an or the sunna. shall never be devoid of those who uphold God's the Maliki jurist [died 955]. and a third group who produced evidence. [Another] group said that to object to those who uphold them: If no one is al- nobody could choose rulings after al-Shafi'i. by what right can you choose to adopt should be relied upon among those associated with certain scholars as authorities and not others? How him. or the adoption of an ion without considering the statement of the one he authority's opinion without independent proof of its imitates and follows. One group of level of invalidity. the sunna. such as Abu'l. such as Ibn How do you allow yourselves to choose taqlid of a Shurayh [possibly Shurayh ibn al-Harith al-Kindi. Others have said that nobody genuine Truth that He revealed through [the Prophet]. that a group among His umma [the been able to choose between legal rulings since the Muslim community] shall remain faithful to the year A.D.Scripture [the Qur'an] or the sunna of His Messen- Jawziyya. or a statement of a companion of the when the gate of ijtihad was closed. 1292-1350] said. the rejection of [circa 699-767] and [his students] Abu Yusuf [Ya'qub God's proofs. No one is allowed any longer to examine God's The hadith expert [Muhammad] Ibn al-Qayyim [al. have reached the utmost existed since the early eras of Islam. Sufyan al-Thawri [716-778].lowed to choose between rulings after those you have lowers of al-Shafi'i disagreed about whose opinions mentioned. 'No jurist has the right to choose They represent the espousal of religious positions between alternative legal rulings after Abu Hanifa without any basis in knowledge. Waki' ibn al-Jarrah [died circa 812].rulings of the Sacred Law. as you see. which is not supported by any Ma'ali [al-Juwayni]. to extract the rulings of the ion [that ijtihad has been terminated]: "Muqallids Sacred Law. has been able to select rulings after ['Abd al-Rahman] and that every hundred years. died 976]. an instance of consensus or erence unclear] and others. They divided [legal scholars] into three Scripture of God and the sunna of His Messenger? levels: a first group who produced wujuh. and al-Hasan Ibn Ziyad al-Lu'lu'i [734-819]. died of others. Verse statements of the Companions? 40. how do you . ac- "According to these scholars. died 798]. and the sunna of His Messenger as sources for the Muhammad ibn al-Hasan [al-Shaybani. in agreement with the who could not. "One should also object to this opponent: If. such as Ibn Hamid [ref. and how do you force the en- century]. those choose between rulings after [A. and the abandonment of the Qur'an al-Kufi. Bakr [Abu the truth of the saying of His Messenger that the earth al-Fadl ibn Muhammad] ibn 'Ala' al-Din al-Qushayri.ger.

an opinion about the religion of God on the basis of 'Eight hundred men. Ibn al-Majishun [died 829]. and Shurayh? Where among the followers [of from inauthentic hadith reports. but when the new moon of lustrious followers. unmatched by those of other than those of Companions [of the Prophet] who were scholars—the other groups can argue as much or even more knowledgeable than he. They would say: 'We are not capable . Tawus [ibn Kaysan]. and blessed with more numerous and more il- month of the year 200. ibn 'Abd Allah ibn 'Utba. tance with teachers and authorities whom later schol- Qushayri]—to select the opinion of Malik [ibn Anas. died find the likes of the two Sa'ids. and the sayings and legal opinions of scholars] 'Ata' [ibn Abi Rabah]. and their ingenious use of ibn 'Abd al-Rahman [al-Makhzumi]? What made evidence? When those among them who upheld the [later] imams more fortunate with their followers than validity of legal analogy used this method. the opinion of your chosen authority in favor of the Ahmad Ibn al-Mu'adhdhal [ninth century]. and Jabir ibn Zayd? And Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Bukhari [810-870]. Masruq. second caliph. [Yet you haps their greatness. [the Maliki jurists] all of these contending groups as follows: This opin- Ashhab [died 819]. 'Ikrima.162 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi permit yourself—you who were not born until sixty ority—precedence in time. or the vast number and illustrious 710-796. and their likes. their efforts to record later imams] are the likes of Nafi'.] despite their extreme vented later scholars from following their example. ers of 'Umar [ibn al-Khattab. and the closest to the texts of scripture.' What of Zayd capability of selection and ijtihad to the protectors ibn Thabit. ars did not meet. Sahnun ibn Sa'id [777-855]. the Companions—such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal. 'Alqama [al-Kufi]. rather status of their followers. and other opinions of Companions and Successors who were jurists of the same rank would have been able to earlier. the sunna of can one find the likes of [the 7th and 8th century His Prophet. so per- able. fame. with the great catastrophes and wonders of the world that followers of later imams. one of the companions of 'Abdullah Ibn of Islam—the most learned of the Muslim commu. 656-661]. both scholars and the masses. to express died 678]. more knowledgeable. ion of yours. founder of the Maliki madhhab]. the God-given affection of the faithful towards as if [the later scholars] had said: 'These [early Mus- them. 634-644] "One should object to the others: Is it not one of and 'Ali [ibn Abi Talib. about whom al-Bukhari wrote. 816] they Ibn Mas'ud [died circa 652]. How can one compare the follow- the month of Muharram in the year 201 appeared and ers of ['Abdullah] Ibn 'Abbas [619-686]. Sulayman ibn Yasar [al-Hilali]. in order to hold water—if you insist on Mutarrif ibn 'Abdullah [died 835]. both Companions and Succes- personal judgment and analogy. Asbagh ibn al. asceticism. bility to select rulings. on that night [July 30. you mentioned the capa. and we are in no way their by the Muslims. 'Abbas? Where among the followers of [later] imams nity concerning the Scripture of God. or jurists from the more for their own chosen authority's superiority on major cities who are equal to him. their ability to distinguish authentic Yazid]. against themselves. ['Abdullah] the sun disappeared. ['Amir ibn Sharahil] 884]. or the follow- choosing what they had been free to choose before. al-Aswad [ibn of the sunna. piety. despite their wide knowledge al-Sha'bi. and elevated status pre- refuse to grant them this status. and Abu Bakr examination [of texts]. where among the followers [of later imams] can one Dawud ibn 'Ali [founder of the Zahiri madhhab. for example. 'Urwa [ibn al-Zubayr]. in numbers and revered sta- you grant only the imam?. transmitted knowledge from him. their precise Zayd. equals. for their status did not allow them erence of the particular [mujtahid] whom they accept to derive religious learning directly from the Qur'an as an authority on the basis of some type of superi. acquain- years after the year 200 [apparently a reference to al. more pious. It is also possible to object to According to this position. Salim. tus? What of Abu Hurayra [companion of the Prophet. their these [earlier figures] with their followers? It is true analogies were the most accurate. that the latter enjoyed the status of their era. Zayd ibn Thabit [died would have been prohibited—all of a sudden—from 665] and Mu'adh ibn Jabal [died 627]. adhering to a contradiction—forces you to leave aside Faraj [died 838]. al. Kharijaibn [the following generation of Muslims]. and the tremendous respect accorded to them lims] were too lofty for us. the least question. Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh [circa 778-853]. and the sunna. to engage in ijtihad. al-Qasim the sayings of the Companions and the Successors [ibn Muhammad]. piety. or later jurists? these points or others. more as- choose between rulings to until the end of the last cetic.' They stated this explicitly and testified to it "Though each group of them argues for the pref. Mujahid [ibn Jabr al-Makki]. fourth caliph. 'Ubayd Allah Shafi'i. while you deny the sors. al.

then said. All of this indicates that prophecy ended with the 14) God. For ijtihad. provide evidence that it has been sealed. lous preservation from change and modification. [He] 'raised among the Meccans a messenger from however.' ings of the Companions. peace be upon him. texts from the Qur'an and the sunna which God's bounty. said. also informed us that Seal [Muhammad]. glory be to Him. The people walk around it and wonder apportions the means of livelihood among them in at its beauty. but they say. except for a single who dispense the favor of your Lord? It is He who corner brick. we have seen evi- (Sura 62. glory be to Him. Muhammad] by arguing that He had denied it to peace be upon him. sigh. as saying. glory be to Him. for before him they were clearly in error. may God be pleased with him. 'And for others dence indicating that the science of shari 'a and its among them who have not joined them yet. and I am the last of to make some submissive. legal rulings for all ages and times. 'My na. has made broad? Even if jurists Exalted. "I and the prophets prominent men and town leaders. took my hand and brought me out with him near the Verse 4)" This ends the statement of the hadith ex. and exaggeration or shortcoming. God. As it and tasted its sweetness? Why do you limit that for prophecy. He gives whosoever He '"Ali ibn Abi Talib.' (Sura 62. In the Sahih [Collection of Sound Hadiths]. make [these scriptural texts] the arbiters of their disputes. a few of those of later time. but a messenger of God and the seal kinship with you. but because of our own incapacity and defects. one does not know which is better. who recites His revelations to them. Ijtihad is not like a prophecy so that grapes. God. "Muhammad is not the father of any live in your era. people's hearts muwaqqi'in [The Notification of Court Clerks]. in both We have therefore made do with [the opinions of] their subsidiary topics and their fundamental theo- someone who is more knowledgeable of [the Qur'an ries.' God. [In Iraq. those who follow the teachings of [the Qur'an and sunna].—Ed. put in its place!' I am that brick. would uphold his "One should object to them: Why do you blame thesis. who quotes the Prophet. before me are like the following example: A man one else of lesser stature." The fact that prophecy has been sealed are better than what they amass. peace be upon him.' son of an owl. not because of defects in the Qur'an or the deviant predecessors—are evidence of his ignorance sunna. al- censured those who opposed the prophecy [of Bukhari cites Abu Hurayra.' (Sura 62. cemetery. of the Ignoramus al-Nabhani's Thesis parison. we have seen no evidence of its termina- amongst them.' (Sura 56. giving it to some. grow up with you. peace be upon him.] . while being the most moderate of faiths. and its miracu- its beginning or its end. He is scholars shall continue until the Hour of Reckoning. The Fourth Point Indicating the Invalidity and hold up scholars' statements to them for com. Verse 40) wishes among his worshipers. and raises some in position over others. God is master of great bounty. mighty and wise. or even in the say- the Law.' (Sura 43. without any side in Heaven) are 'a multitude of those of old. Verse 2) He also said. Kumayl ibn Ziyad al-Nakha'i [died circa 778] said. either in the Book of God or the sunna of His reforms them.2 such as himself. saying: 'Are they the ones builds a fine and beautiful house. that human reason or imagina. 'That is the bounty of God. since only one who is more ignorant than the and sunna] than we are. the tion cannot fathom. 'O Kumayl ibn Ziyad. please. its inclusion of tion is like rain. fection of the shari'a [sacred law]. and have a close man among you. Verse 32) is also supported by rational proofs such as the per- "The Prophet. Rather. and teaches them the Scripture and Messenger. Verse 3) Then He related. accepting statements that agree with [these sources] and rejecting those that contradict them? Any knowledge which has no evidence to indicate it Just because you have not yet reached this bunch of is unacceptable. in. Ibn Qayyim's passage makes it perfectly clear that 2. Verses 13. The favors of your Lord the Prophets. God bestows gifts upon whom He of the prophets. When we reached the desert he began to pert Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya in his book I'lam al. tion. formed us that the foremost believers (who will re. said." (Sura 33. the owl is held to be the epitome of igno- the statements made by al-Nabhani—following his rance. //I/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI I 63 of this. bring their suits to them for a verdict. and bankruptcy in the fields of knowledge. why do you deny it to those who have reached it could be said to have been sealed by so-and-so. 'Would that this brick be this world.

Such people are not ibn Mahdi [died 813] considered Hammad ibn Yahya ones who call to the faith. so that the outstanding features had born a large number of offspring or as the result of a vow of the faith might not be erased and its signposts not on the part of the owner." It is related that' Abd al-Rahman gathering and piling up wealth. Yes. or merely Prophet]. Look. Until God's command arrives. while their the student who learns as a means to salvation. "the more you put it into practice"—'"but al-Khatib [al-Baghdadi. forgiveness for myself and for you. Also [the report]: "This nation is the most perfect selves. they would not be described as His proofs so that they might convey them to their having such good qualities. from over the Qur'an with His proofs and ascendance Thabit. Hammad ibn Yahya al-Abahh. the best among them are those that are ality. They were allowed to roam. They might use the by [Abu 'Isa Muhammad] al-Tirmidhi [died 892]. ['All] pointed to his chest.'" [Al-Tirmidhi] said: "This is a reliable but of delights. the earth will never be ers]. and souls ascend to divine heights. "This is a wealth decreases as you spend it. they shall remain so. (Sura 5. Knowledge gains for a hadith in detail in his book. Knowledge is the fine hadith. Through them. who reported. trying to gain power citing Qutayba. who follow anyone who shouts.] prophets of the Israelites. follow the people of truth. indeed. companion of the over His worshipers with His blessings. lest His 'Ammar [ibn Yasir. God defends [days] of the umma." In the same chapter." In another hadith. They are most like sa 'iba al-Abahh a trustworthy transmitter. remain impervious to the light religion. These 'Amr [died circa 680] [appears the report]: "If there [persons] are few in number. God made its scholars to applied to camels accorded an honored status because they succeed one another. of nations. here! Here is knowledge!' and Truth. This and related customs are rejected in the Qur'an. tool of religion for worldly gain. how I long to meet them! I ask God's of knowledge. Its Prophet is the seal of the prophets.'" This was recounted by Abu Nu'aym [al- you. Knowledge brings them near the truth of re. Their bodies live in this world. prophets continually ture. camels. peace be upon him: 'A might be lost. so that they find easy what the affluent find most capacious. "The Messenger of God." ruler and wealth is the one ruled.'" come attracted to it. easily driven by lust. Knowledge guards may leave. He used to say. and drink freely. [In pre-Islamic Arabia. the scholars of this nation are like the on their knowledge cease to benefit society. without any insight in their peace be upon him said: 'My nation is like rain: one bosom. yet their statements are were no mujtahid to uphold God's proofs in the last great in the eyes of God. "O God. so that doubt penetrates their heart at the first does not know which is better. not affected by their tormentors or detractors. 948-1038] in Hilyat al-awliya' [The Adorn- more you give away'"—or according to another ver. one of the best in letter and in spirit. Knowledge grows the Isfahani. its beginning or its sign of specious challenge. sentatives of God on earth and the propagators of His bend with every wind. the best nation ever brought to the people. The love of knowl. O God! Yes. Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya has interpreted this edge is a creed to adhere to. Among the Israelites. or obsessed with uncommon hadith. Oh. where he wrote after his death. but you guard wealth. and they welcome that which frightens the There are three types of people: the divine scholar. vanish. the term sa'iba (unhindered) be no prophet after him. Remember what I am telling you. it may end up in the hands of [This hadith] is also confirmed by the report related people who cannot be trusted. If you wish. and were exempted from most labor. Here is knowledge! Scholars for Him": "This is confirmed by the following au- shall live on until eternity. 1002-1071] said. their likes shall live on in the hearts group of my community shall remain steadfast in the [of humankind]. or be bent on the pursuit end. ignorant. and fail to resort to a solid support. and there will 3. on the authority of devoid of those who uphold God's proofs. so that they were [always] led Verse 103) Alusi's point here is that scholars who do not pass by prophets." peers and plant them in the hearts of people like them. you Knowledge is better than wealth. as well: .164 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi are vessels. difficult. died 657] and 'Abdullah ibn proofs and pronouncements come to nought. but the effect of wealth disappears about 'Ali's statement. 'If unworthy bearers be. shall not be devoid of those who uphold God's proofs while scholars live on. succeeded one another.3 Their knowledge dies with the death of its "[Hammad] is one of our shaykhs [respected teach- bearers. ment of the Saints] and by other authors. Miftah dar al-sa 'ada scholar obedience during his lifetime and fine praise [The Key to the Abode of Happiness]. Abu Bakr sion. from Anas [ibn Malik. indeed the earth once it is exhausted. These are the repre- the riffraff rabble.—Ed. Though they themselves thentic hadith of the Prophet. The hoarders of money die. pas.

" their religion [directly] from the Scripture and sunna. as was he should explain the opinion he considered most stated by the great Shaykh . however. and consensus. If the earth were to become devoid and not legal analogy. without intellect or "When Jalal [al-Din] al-Suyuti [1445-1505] claimed discernment. Rather. We leave this matter up to God. "Thus This hadith shows that Islamic religious knowledge spoke Ibn Hazm. as will be seen in what follows. . according These seedlings of God are the people of knowledge to him. Al- possible for an era to be devoid of a mujtahid. edge can they grasp. what is the mean. there is a report of profess. "I don't know. He said in one of his poems: Verse 255) . indi- upon him. text of the Scripture avers. I respond that even if Ibn Hajar related the text of have defective minds and defective faith? Is this not the quotation accurately. He is far from [Al-Nabhani] quoted Ibn Hajar al-Makki as saying." than their enemies do. he is not trustworthy." or "The scholars have the collection of sound hadith?. The Sixth Point idity of the senseless drivel the ignoramus al. ijtihad. ". is that the mujtahid need not have all the of the topic of ijtihad! But it is no wonder that such knowledge contained in the Preserved Tablet. God's mercy be upon him. This point will be treated ex- of scholars. unless it be through wilaya. and the misinterpretations of the ig." That is my norant. except what He will. haustively in the appropriate place below. his contemporaries attacked him and criti- cized him en masse. as the texts of his books indicate. as Suyuti. It is said that Imam Malik was asked 40 questions Nabhani. . the Shaykh Muhyi This has been transmitted by the Imam Abu Hanifa al-Din [Ibn al-'Arabi] is among those who claimed and others. acceptable in this regard.. saying that he prudence have stated. Or anybody else. my words are. The Have any religious scholars. Indeed. and excused himself. We have quoted sufficient material for the purpose at hand. ever considered this term part upon him." from the Scripture. In Or. sunna. In addition. it would be devoid of seedlings of God. experts in jurisprudence response in defense of Imam al-Suyuti. 1263-1328]. It indicates that knowledge will continue to judgment. these three alone are the sources of the law. al-Khawlani [Abu Idris or Abu Muslim. "The Prophet says. and not even a little of His knowl- ijtihad al-mutlaq. and pious works. said: "God will continue to plant in this cated in these verses that he deduces legal rulings faith seedlings that serve to maintain obedience. knowledge and enlightenment. We have already noted that it is not ate evidence according to the rules of ijtihad. and reliable members of each successive generation." is immune to the distortions of extremists." That is my knowledge. died 699 or 682] who said that the Messenger of God. be carried through the ages. . century after century. ing any answer. it is not level of ijtihad—that is. IJT/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 165 "This knowledge will be passed on by the virtuous They claim that I follow Ibn Hazm [994-1064]." (Sura 2. who are prepared to derive ing into this matter. for but the statement of an ignorant person who has been he fabricated even greater lies than this against the struck by the touch of Satan? Then. Shaykh al-Islam [Ibn Taymiyya. They demanded that if he had even the lowest [Al-Nabhani's] statement—"As for ijtihad.Nabhani included in the introduction to his book. Why do those who fulfil the was busy with work that prevented him from look- conditions for ijtihad."—has neither mean. and his ing of his statement: "unless it be through wilaya"! lies are apparent. ijtihad al-fatwa [the right to claimed today except by those of defective minds and choose from among alternative legal opinions]—then defective faith. and provide the appropri- ing nor effect. the pre. ranting come from an ignorant heretic like al. the ignorant injure themselves more and said in response to 36 of them." but I am not among those who say. of ['Abd al-Rahman agreed unanimously on the opinion I Ibn] Abi Hatim [circa 854-938]. sent back the petition without writ- Hanbali and traditionalist scholars of Islamic juris. peace be Muhyi al-Din. We have learned from this [fourth] point the inval. "The tenses of liars. mercy be or the points of law. They wrote him a petition pre- senting a number of legal questions on which Shafi'i The Fifth Point jurists have considered two disparate rulings equally valid.

may [the Abu'l-'Abbas Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyya. whose brilliance and ijtihad as well as of their own opinions and sharply censured adher- righteousness and scholarly excellence are generally ence to their statements without proof. [Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya The Shaykh al-Islam Taqi [al-Din] al-Subki [1284.. the great scholar of primary Sunni madhhabs] forbade the blind adoption mankind.deserving of being followed. one is ing from him. The poor man did not realize that differentiated between taqlid and ittiba' [critical ac- he was committing the foulest of sins."—my response is: This state- ment is beneath consideration on account of the ar- guments of the hadith expert Ibn al-Qayyim we have The Eighth Point Indicating the Invalidity presented in the third section above and the texts and of the Ignoramus al-Nabhani's Thesis evidence of the falseness of this statement that we included there. and . I am referring to own opinions or those of others. because he follows the same he.of his faith and exercise caution for the sake of his munazzam. at the beginning of his Mukhtasar [The Abridge- See how Ibn Hajar claims a consensus here on the ment]. pick up a bundle of fire wood and excellent arguments. or Malik?' He said. May God thank him for his effort. As for Ibn Hajar's statement—'"Ibn al-Salah and his The point here is that the words of fanatics such as followers stated that [ijtihad] had terminated about these. independent work in which he presented valuable without realizing it. peace be on him until the end of time—are not surprising com. and demons that he saw fit to attack sors [the generation after the Companions]. and Ibn al-Salah was about 300 cannot be used in valid arguments. must accept the sound hadith and forsake all state- munazzam (Strung Jewels) in the course of insulting ments by mujtahids that contradict it. "I heard [Ahmad ibn text] continues in this manner. as of today. that ijtihad had been discontinued 600 years before That is why many of the imams have stated that one his era. circa 817-889] said." Isma'il ibn Yahya al-Muzani [791-878] said continue to shower him with divine mercy and favor. Each of the imams has stated that if a hadith is sound. "I have summarized this from the teachings ijtihad of al-Subki. making it apparent to Hanbal] say that ittiba' means following what has any impartial judge that Ibn Hajar followed his come down from the Prophet. "The four imams [the founders of the four 1355.'Don't imitate either of them for your faith. but follow the worst of paths. They do not ad- years ago. for he let himself be so seduced by his free to accept or reject the opinions of the Succes- whims. 300 years earlier. and 1066]. and the Companions. [This statement] setting forth the correct approach through brilliant is cited by [Ahmad ibn al-Husayn] al-Bayhaqi [994- proofs. desires. He states here it must be followed and its purport must be accepted. it has been dis. but at the same time I would have him know whose lofty status neither al-Subki himself nor his that al-Shafi'i prohibited the blind adoption of his teachers could even approach. Abu Da'ud said. precisely and clearly with a snake in it and so get bitten. undertook to refute [Ibn Taymiyya] in an someone who gathers firewood at night: he might. in addition to the preceding statements.of al-Shafi'i and the gist of his statements in order retical and whimsical approach and method. . May God treat him with His justice.. so. may God student] examine [al-Shafi'i's teachings] for the sake the Exalted have mercy upon him. In al-Jawhar al.upon him." [Ibn Hajar's ceptance]. however. in relation to the cannot be granted any serious consideration. since he lived in the sixth century [A. whereas he wrote in his book al-Jawhar al. Al-Shafi'i said acknowledged. and his statements are inconsistent. and a calamity whose misfortune will reflect to what has come down from the Prophet. The or 12th century A.'" Ahmad the great mujtahids. but then to make them more accessible to the interested stu- cannot bring himself to admit the ijtihad of one dent. 'Is al-Awza'i more Taymiyya made—even though they were a horren. In the book Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyya: I'lam al-muwaqqi'in. Ibn Hajar's argument shifts.D. argument of the heedless al-Nabhani has crumbled and continued for 600 years'—that is.]. Therefore. dous offense whose sinful effect will never be un." Abu Da'ud [al-Sijistani. After these.states]. may God bless his soul and brighten that he who seeks knowledge without proof is like his tomb. soul. because they speak according to their whims.H.166 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi The Seventh Point whims and chose the path of error. Adhere done. [Ibn Hajar] said: "The outrageous statements Ibn "I asked Ahmad [ibn Hanbal]. time of Ibn Hajar . peace be upon him. here to the evidence. a critic of Ibn Taymiyya].

peace be upon him [who must be obeyed]. a religious duty for His worshipers. 'I am only human. "Did they con. and vari- today are to be given more weight than authentic ous species [a debate raged over which sorts of pro- prophetic hadiths that contradict the opinions of the duce were subject to alms-giving requirements]. draw ing to the madhhab or practice according to the from the sources that they draw from. Should he practice accord- tate Malik. "Nobody is allowed to adopt our opin. that a man base his exercise of religion on taqlid. and consensus that God. al-Thawri. citing Ibrahim [al-Nakha'i]. agreed that no one is infallible. Thus needs to repent. [Abu Hanifa] seen what I have. which went against ele- Hanbal] also said. "These [people] should to adopt all of their own statements blindly.' All [of the four imams] us have written books. and this is the essence of error. then adopted the instructed [people] to pick and choose from the words of Ibrahim. said: 'Obey me as long as I obey God. used to and leave aside the hadith from al-Sahih and not rule say. was asked 'It is limiting to a man's knowledge to adopt the about a man who studied law according to one of the opinions of other men regarding matters of his faith. O Abu 'Abdullah. in all of what he com- ten that someone related such-and-such. "It is a sign of limited understanding [Ibn Taymiyya] answered: "Praise be to God. I am sometimes correct and by it. It is the best I can do. ments of his madhhab. informed him what a Turkish judge say: "If I were to see a text in Munyat was indicated in the sunna concerning these [mat- al-musalli [The Wish of the Worshipper. be upon him. You must compare my statements ignorance. a Hanafi ters]. or al-Awza'i. God's mercy be upon him. sunna." be upon him. the words of God and His Messenger for the words Abu Bakr. God's mercy be upon him. the Mighty and Sublime. These four "It was a transmission as reliable as that from imams. He Malik stated explicitly that anyone who abandoned did not require this nation's obedience to any particu- the words of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab for the words of lar person." [Ibn any known scriptural text. in everything he commanded and forbade. the best [of the of one like Ibrahim. Rather. speech of anyone except for the Messenger of God. and someone else related such-and. peace ion until he knows the evidence on which it is based. restricted. After that." Malik inquired.' Malik. the Exalted. 13th century]. he would have ceded tradicts this text. I would accept what is in the Munyat likewise. or one lesser than he?! Ja'far al. alms to be paid for vegetables. except God's Messenger. The Ninth Point when Abu Yusuf. 'Don't adopt your faith from men." [Ahmad ibn hadiths that contradict his madhhab! Hanbal] said. a generation later] except His Messenger. Imam Abu Hanifa said.' That is why. "Don't imitate me. /JT/HAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI I 67 from his Companions. Muslim community] after its Prophet. sider the words of 'Umar to be authentic?" I replied. for if I disobey God. 632-634]. mujtahid. having writ. not abrogated. It has been established in the Bishr ibn al-Walid [8th century] reported that Abu Qur'an. judgment. used to say." Just look at this stupidity and tremendous sometimes wrong. for studied hadith at a later time and found authentic they are bound to make mistakes. met with the imam of Dar al-Hijra The dim-witted al-Nabhani's opinion implies that the [Medina]. and asked him about the statements of one who is accepted as an authority sa' measure. or contradicted by cept or reject the opinions of the Successors. 'I cede to your legal text by Sadid al-Din Kashghari. That is why several of the [four] imams such. and one of them. the most learned of Abu Hanifa's disciples. Ibrahim al-Nakha'i [666-715. made obedience to Him and His Messenger. warned people not Ibrahim. and if someone comes up with a better opinion.' Established reports . "O Abu 'Abdullah! People among you owe me no obedience. Shaykh al-Islam Abu'l-'Abbas Taqi al-Din Ibn Al-Shafi'i.'"" their duty. Malik ibn Anas. and had my master and a hadith in Imam al-Bukhari's al-Sahih that con. mercy be upon them all. 'This is my opin- ion. citing 'Umar mands and forbids. peace be upon Firyabi said: "Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Dawraqi told him. hadiths. with the Qur'an and sunna. so what about those who abandon Siddiq al-Umma [The Truthful One of the Nation. first caliph. one is free to ac." Lord of the worlds. Yusuf said. I have heard Malik. and don't imi.' madhhabs and became accomplished in it. Taymiyya. we will accept it. as was be asked to repent. Malik ibn Anas. but then He also said." Then Malik stated.' or words to this effect. God's mercy be upon him. the Ex- me that al-Haytham ibn Jamil told him: 'I said to alted. peace be upon him. and [Abu Yusuf] responded. peace ibn al-Khattab. may God bless his pure soul.

but says that he does not know quisition knowledge of religion is a religious duty. Ijtihad been proved clearly. strated that they had some twenty reasons for aban- he is faced with two options. or the practice of some of the Ansar cause someone might object that the speculative abil. is not an disputed by scholars and finds scriptural prooftexts excuse to abandon the scriptural text. tic and that its transmitter is trustworthy. such it. belief that it is not authentic. If. This is to be dis- is allowed only when necessary. Others say that taqlid is one opinion to another because of some truth which allowed without restriction. If someone examines an issue that has been of probity—such a case. or shifting from one opinion to is not a monolithic capability. 'So fear God as much as rulings of the shari 'a through the appropriate scrip. of other imams. In son knows at the same time that this hadith is authen- this case. First.168 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi relate that the Prophet. If you later find that the text is con- acquiring knowledge of religion. too. might be incapable of must follow it. legal analogy. Our writings that appear to corroborate one of the disputed opin. in defense of the distinguished imams have demon- ions and are not contradicted by any other known texts. the clear meaning of the Qur'an does not contradict however. and that the text of a sound hadith has priority over that there would not exist any evidence on the side the unambiguous texts of the Qur'an. mujtahid when his ijtihad changes. but the prophetic texts remain reasons of the first person are invalid with respect to protected from violation in practice—and this is the the second person. so that the ac. Those who do not know this do not terms of knowledge and understanding of the law. or taqlid} has heard a hadith and then abandoned it— issue. if it indeed occurs. one should respond To acquire knowledge of religion means to know the that God. he may follow the opinion that seems more anonymous. If he did otherwise. they are only re. but not in another field. To change from lutely prohibited from taqlid. Whoever abandons a hadith on more correct option. and occur to people's minds or remain hidden to them in . but may be parceled and another simply out of custom or whim—such acts are divided.' (Sura 64. However. it becomes apparent to another person that ijtihad regarding this issue might be incomplete. tradicted by more convincing evidence. then the ing issue with another. his agreement with one imam implies tak. just because he is the have shown that they were justified in their rejection imam of the madhhab in which he studied law—but of certain hadiths for these reasons. in tural evidence. the Exalted. [early Muslims of Medina] contradicts it—and at the ity of this particular person might be limited and his same time. Still others say that taqlid becomes apparent is praiseworthy. have knowledge of religion. tified in rejecting these hadiths for these same rea- vention contradicted by the conventions of others sons. We the opinion of the later jurist.' Implicit in this "His situation would be completely different from statement is that those whom God. so you "Some people. topic. shying away from an opinion that has the most correct of these opinions. but another per- likely to him. said. that its transmission is Second. however. only a mere con. or "We have made this partial concession only be. such as when the time tinguished from insisting on an opinion unsupported allowed for producing such a proof is limited—this is by any proof. Some say that anybody tion would then be like that of the independent capable of using evidence to establish proof is abso. When a muqallid [person engaging in field. or issue. He makes him and His Messenger. you can. the Exalted. or some such reason. your situa- quired to do what they can. and the deeds [of the Ansar]—then the first person's tural text. said. Each person's ijtihad varies according to his especially if it was narrated by a person with a record ability. peace be upon him. he would be respect to the second person. knowledgeable in matters of religion. than the scriptural text. To this person. are jus- this is not a legitimate legal proof. topic. does not make knowledgeable in matters of ion is supported by proof which carries more weight religion are not wished well by Him. the Mighty and that of someone who claims that the opposing opin- Sublime. Verse 16) Your best attempt. God willing. of the opposing opinion sufficient to reject the scrip. then such a person would be required to reason [for rejecting the hadith] no longer holds with follow that text. 'When God wishes somebody well. Legal understandings following speculation and the dictates of whim. A man might be a mujtahid in one particular reprehensible. in view of the texts that indicate it. he were capable of complete ijtihad. indicates that the first opinion is more likely. the grounds that the clear meaning of the Qur'an. We. what that proof is. he might follow doning practice according to certain hadiths. if one person rejects a hadith in the who have studied in the madhhab?. legal analogy. would be most disobedient toward God.

regard. glory be to Him. for there is no god but He. of God. scholar of recognized learning has ever professed it. is He for what they ascribe to Him!' (Sura 9. In relation to with in His words. because everyone is commanded to fear God as . the Exalted. because of the statements expert Ibn al-Qayyim. or other such reasons which render invalid the 'Umar ['Umar's son] and Ibn 'Abbas. You are not more lar to what God. 'Umar. or adopting the available] on the part of someone with a major ritual opinions of others—such as a Companion or some impurity. If this gate is opened "Suppose someone were to challenge this peti. Debate among [later] imams is similar. 'Ali. adopt. Ibn Mas'ud. The Tenth Point able than others in certain areas. Ubayy [ibn Ka'b. ing instead the statement of Mu'awiyya ibn Abi From the book I'lam al-muwaqqi 'in. knows best. practiced in accordance with Bakr and 'Umar are more knowledgeable than Ibn it. 661-680]. to be gods apart from ions of the Prophet] Abu Bakr. or 'Umar?' The people don this hadith. he declared Muhajirun [early Muslims who fled from Mecca to it permissible. IJTIHAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 169 a process we cannot entirely fathom. 'Abu Bakr said [such-and-such] edgeable and most pious—or not? Concerning this and 'Umar said [such-and-such]!' So Ibn 'Abbas issue. the evidence that contradicts the scriptural text. and you tell me that Abu Bakr and cially the case if someone abandons a hadith because 'Umar said [something else]!' When [Ibn 'Abbas] he believes that its use was abandoned by the was asked about [temporary marriage]. it tioner who is seeking guidance [to whose question would be necessary to turn away from the command- Ibn Taymiyya is responding]. and others. This is espe. [to adopting later imams as ultimate authorities]. Too holy 652]. peace be upon him. One understands from the words of the dim-witted "People abandoned the statements of 'Umar and al-Nabhani that for the last thousand years Muslims. Mu'adh. 'Are you more ments of God. may God be pleased with them." bate. It is to be rejected. presenting Medina] and the Ansar—the people of Medina and as contradictory evidence the statement of 'Umar. to. person seeking afatwa engage in [a type of] ijtihad saying. the various imams are like [the Compan. tus among his followers as a prophet among his and-so has been contradicted on this issue by his people. 'This and that are equivalent. Verse These Companions were equal to one another in de. because Imam so. arguing with Ibn 'Abbas about temporary mar. and no blood money due for the loss of fingers or toes. 'Uthman [died God. asking.] despite their awareness that Abu who heard it from them. 'Stones are about to rain down on you from the already discussed: the correct opinion is that he ought sky! I tell you that the Messenger. ness and followed a way other than that of believ- dence from the Qur'an and sunna they cited. the Exalted. Each imam would have the same sta- would be a corrupt comparison. they de- ferred the question to God and His Messenger. and adopted the statements of Abu Musa other figure—has departed from the path of correct- al-Ash'ari [died 662] and others because of the evi. but later hears 'Who has more right to be followed. son of Mary. and that anyone deriving his ablutions with sand or dry ground when water is not faith from the Qur'an and sunna. or some Muslims [tend to forget this. They ers. peace be upon him. the Messenger that the Muhajirun and Ansar did not in fact aban. Ibn Mas'ud. similar prominent figures. If they were at odds about something. there are two schools of thought. that some of them. monks and Christ. 31) God. so he remonstrated: contradicted by a preferable [hadith]. in order to choose the right mufti for consultation. be pleased with them. said to him. may God. died circa only one God. But they pressed him. They consider their rabbis and each other. peace be upon him. and His Messenger. faults the Christians knowledgeable than this or that imam.' A certain per. so others—who are said not to have abandoned a hadith he showed that 'Umar had not intended what they unless they believed it to have been abrogated or claimed. son. Exalted. said [one thing]. and this would alter the religion. as we have said. appealing only to the one he estimates is most knowl- riage. peace knowledgeable or is the Imam so-and-so?' This be upon him. This is simi- equals among the other imams. mercy be upon him: "Must the he transmitted from the Prophet. even though some of them were perhaps more knowledge. This is one of the implications of his false words abandoned the statements of 'Umar regarding the and worthless statements. even though they had been enjoined to worship 656]. have had to adopt the opinions of one ing the performance of tayammum [performing ritual of the four mujtahids. His interlocutors objected. by the hadith Sufyan [caliph. east and west.

more distinguished in status. which one one is obliged to follow the madhhab of a particular should be followed? There are three approaches to scholar. they ought not cessors. The noble opinion. a madhhab is not appropriate for and His Messenger upon the Companions." [Ibn al-Qayyim] states: "When impose such an obligation on the people. or a statement the imam in behavior. or other untenable implications of evi- that he follows this imam and adopts his path. or called for it? Does a single word of their [early] centuries of Islam and the early generations statements indicate it?! of Muslims came and went entirely free of such prac. time. and His claim a madhhab. Egyptian. are entitled to the obligations imposed by God. and their successors are the same obligations to. imposed on all who succeed them until the Day of tional inquiry and deductive reasoning and are versed Resurrection. and scholarly by the [first] four caliphs that contradicts his imam. Indeed. This nor is the mufti. This is clarified by noting that one madhhab of an imam comparable. to limit himself to the positions of disgraceful heresy has recently befallen the Muslim one of the four imams. because only those who possess the means of ra. Moreover. had claimed to be a jurist. how astonishing! The madhhabs of the issue. and the madhhabs of the Successors and their because there are no religious duties except what God successors. Is the those who state that one is obliged to adopt one of layperson obliged to follow one of the well-known the four madhhabs. which have been presented above. "The obligations imposed by God. and God and His altogether ceased to exist. learning. or a Hanafi claims to his own. who says he is a Shafi'i. One is that [the layperson] is not obliged—and Companions of the Messenger of God. and one is more pious landish than this is the opinion of those who state that while the other is more knowledgeable. neither he nor anyone else would be under a legal opinion from any of the followers of the the obligation to follow the madhhab of an ordinary imams or others that he wishes and that he is not man. then it would be prohibited for him to petition legal fessional secretary: one does not become such things scholars outside his adopted madhhab. It is as if he obligations of his belief. 'I am a Shafi'i' or have a madhhab say: 'He believes that this madhhab 'I am a Hanbali. none of the leading scholars of Islam has not be limited to the hadith transmitted by the people ever professed this opinion. which dent invalidity that indicate the invalidity of the can only be true if he takes after [the imam} in knowl. except for the madhhabs Messenger have not obliged anybody to follow the of four souls from among all the leading scholars and madhhab of an ordinary man. a Maliki. and deductive reasoning. Moreover. and more he should follow it. peace be upon this is the correct and undeniable opinion. so he must fulfill the his mere utterance of such a statement. or a pro. have died and and His Messenger have imposed. the true position is that he may petition possible. Even if they follow one. the Suc- laypeople. whether it be Hijazi. Iraqi. and give precedence void of all meaning? It is not imaginable that a lay. tices. how can he properly claim to be related to such a person be required to reject the text or the him except through an empty claim. or even preferable. More out- two muftis differ over an issue. In addition. peace be upon him. knowledge. degree. such that he would have to accept all of his obliged by the consensus of the Muslim community.' If what they say is correct. for they are higher in of his region or any other region. over them to the opinion of the imam he follows. the scholar should community. a statement de. Religious duty does not differ or in the various madhhabs on account of this ability. though it might differ in terms of execution or those who have read a book on the points of law or amount according to variations in ability. adopting as his faith jurists. method. Even if it were the contrary. madhhabs or not? There are two opinions on this "O God. If a hadith is sound. to follow the just by saying so. but nevertheless says. With his would require that. when faced with a text by the ignorance and the extreme disparity between him and Messenger of God. This is him. change. or Yemeni. these ideas edge. a grammarian. the Exalted. and all the imams of Islam.170 Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi much as one can. Those who consider that a layperson can this at all. by consensus .' and so on. the Exalted. opinions and reject the opinions of all others. does not become so by he has adopted is the truth. according to this madhhab and have learned the legal place. and even more outlandish is the opinion of this issue. premise on which they are based. Has any of the leading scholars ever held this this man's opinion and no one else's. On man can properly have a madhhab. and circumstance—but this is also inherent in opinions and statements of its imam. Syr- knowledgeable of God and His Messenger than to ian. Someone who is not qualified for Messenger. statements of the Companions.

Muqallids. one is not obliged to limit oneself to al-Nabhani's thesis concerning the closing of the gate the seven well-known variant readings of the Qur' an. Rather. no invalidating element occurred. qallids. of ijtihad is false and heretical. pressed blame. in the second. lives. This is the opin. who follow their he has not fulfilled his obligation. These opinions are both reliably reported for which the Messenger. not dismissing any of authority.H. deavor to seek the truth as far as this is possible. they are not invalid. The third opin. then it is permissible to single man who followed their disastrous ways in the read according to it. according to the most correct opinion. [the petitioner for legal opinions] may not without knowledge will realize their error. and prayer performed using it virtuous centuries. IJTIHAD AND THE REFUTATION OF NABHANI 171 of the Muslims. ion is that if he prays the standard prayers using it. and has a sound chain opinions of another Companion. madhhabs or seek out what he wishes from whatever The hadith expert Ibn al-Qayyim criticized mu- madhhab he finds to contain it.. or the successors of the Successors. and ion espoused by Abu al-Barakat Ibn Taymiyya. and the muqallidun try to prove us wrong by identifying a Companions after him read. and other respected scholars have also written useful books on this issue. We know necessar- but if the reading one adopts matches the unpointed ily that no single man during the time of the Com- text of the Uthmanic codex. on property. that the miserable or move our pen concerning it.D. from the arguments book—we would not have needed to open our mouth presented in the ten points above." refuting the arguments of the ignorant concerning the termination of ijtihad. They shall be in a diffi- for the standard prayer were not completely met. one may read and pray according to it. or 10th century A. Even if one reads a version which others. in the first case. he must en. when those who made religious arguments However. Had this Conclusion ignoramus [al-Nabhani] not raised the issue—even though it has nothing to do with the topic of his It should be apparent to you. but which cessors. peace be upon him.]. as they were termed by the Mes- remains valid. extensively in his book I'lam al-muwaqqi 'in. it is invalid. for they seek out the easiest obligations among the various did so without any justification. occurred in the fourth century [A. Let the the Messenger of God. but if he uses it in supposed authorities in everything they say. peace be upon him [that is. permit- other prayers. Nor did such a person exist among the Suc- departs from that of the Uthmanic codex. the requirements wrong. ex- from the Imam Ahmad [ibn Hanbal]. ting or prohibiting the taking of women. are in grave danger. peace be upon him. . without knowing whether this is right or the grounds that. is correct in terms of panions engaged in the blind adoption of all of the Arabic grammar and usage. of his opinions while dismissing all the opinions of by consensus. the first The second opinion is that prayer performed using three centuries of Islam]. tion]. This heretical innovation. senger of God. and cult position before God [on the Day of Resurrec- that.

he founded the journal ictihad (Rational Interpretation) in Geneva. Despite having founded the organiza- tion that came to power in the Constitutional Revolution of 1908. 1981). the most cruel and treacherous of creatures is best sesses the requisites and specifics of a real work of 1. 1938). edited by M. 55-60. 3-8. Cevdet was a devout Muslim and had even written a eulogy of the Prophet until his education at the Royal Military Academy in Istanbul turned him toward European materialism. a photograph exactly reflecting the original. through reading. volume 1. to the sense of hearing. alia (Leiden. whose opposition to Ottoman absolutism led to their exile. Tarih-i Islamiyet (The History of litical Thinker and His Time) (Istanbul. use the words "bring into existence" because I have through listening. and to the center of perception and verified that there is no such history [of Islam] in consideration. 172 . Persian. culminating in the unprecedentedly negative reaction to Cevdet's Turkish translation of Reinhart Dozy's controversial work on the history of Islam. "Ifade-i Miitercim" (Preface by the Trans. clopedia of Islam. Turkey: 09dal Islam) (Cairo. which we call consciousness. it faced considerable opposition from Ottoman Muslims. in effect. Supplement. Switzer- land. later called the Committee of Union and Progress. one or both of these. and all existing copies were confiscated. Cevdet became increasingly open in his campaign against religiosity." He therefore argued that materialism should be promoted in Islamic terms—"stitched onto an Islamic jacket. This translation—whose introduction is presented here—was banned. Bir Siyasal Dusunur Olarak Doktor Abdullah Cevdet." as he put it In 1889. In 1904. later moving it to Cairo. It is obvious that open eyes cannot coexist down. In subsequent years. People with Real history is like that. Th. Cevdet's closest associates entered parliament while he was stigmatized as a collaborator of the European Allies' occupation of Istanbul after World War I. History is the most eye-opening branch of the lines and details of which are neither toned up or sciences. in Reinhart Dozy. pp. §ukru Hanioglu. In the Turk- ish Republic. Translation from Turkish and introduction by M. and to submit it to the attention and con- mits the conditions and transformations of the world sideration of our brothers in religion. whereas religion is the science of the masses. M. Egypt: Matbaa-i ictihad. and must be like that. he helped to found the Ottoman Union Committee. is like a motion picture that trans. While Europeans considered the journal Islamist. It was necessary to bring God and whose tyranny and treachery overshadow into existence a "History of Islam" that truly pos. through the three major Islamic languages. and Turkish. Nesjiyat. the ers. The reason for this deficiency should To put it in another way. history." Ency- pp. "science is the religion of the elite. Brill. with absolutism and disinformation. Egypt. The folly history are either negligently written works or take of Muslim tyrants who claim to be the shadow of advantage of negligence. Abdullah Cevdet ve Donemi (Doctor Abdullah Cevdet: A Po- lator). and as a Kurdish nationalist1 History. Arabic. I deliberately to vision. According to Cevdet. Cevdet could not return from exile until 191 I. 1908). 1869-1932) was a leading publicist and freethinker who used Islam to promote modernization and materialism. Netherlands: E. including a notorious article ridiculing prayer. '"Abd Allah Djevdet. Houtsma et §iikrii Hanioglu. J. Other open eyes can discern oppression and freedom and books that are not like this and yet are still called will develop a desire for justice and truth. 21 Abdullah Cevdet Preface by the Translator Abdullah Cevdet (Turkey. history is similar to a be sought mainly in the absolutism of Muslim rul- photographic plate that has not been touched up. Karl Siissheim.

will make it clear how tire- sor Doctor [Reinhart] Dozy [1820-1883]. to about forty years ago. is a thousand times more Muslim We should possess the courage to face the truth than vagabond Hamids [a reference to the Ottoman regardless of how harsh it is and how strongly it con- sultan." and "One hour's search the divine magnificence of reality and truth. Guy's article entitled "Islam in the Last Forty The distress of mind of one who seeks justice Years." for "The author is from the Netherlands. The best acts of Failing to find the truth. and which possesses the other than preserving the textual integrity of the origi- qualities of enormous erudition and thorough re- nal. "Religion is social Culture and virtue will reduce all religions to one relations"—which. who spent than the History of Islam. and are already is nothing other than social relations—then it is plain doing so: how far most of us Muslims are inadequate in our re- The warring of 72 sects ignore." We have found a "History of Islam" 'ulama' [religious scholars] of Islam. consider the hadith of the Prophet. that possesses the required qualities among the su- His massive volume "Sources of Islam. mere fables they worship are those aiming to benefit and save all God's explore." soon to perb works of the famous Dutch Orientalist. . The times for naive or mis- his entire life in teaching and study. "The Muslim is one from whose hand and enemy. and "R. Guy is a young Orientalist. Learned. as we have said. A. and what restricted ourselves to the judgment of "wisdom is an outstanding zeal for understanding he possesses. whose tradicts our former beliefs and feelings. An ignorant. Bravery is not deeds and desires are nefarious. or even sacri- 1390] ficing oneself. beginning with one's own self. "Religion We are of the opinion that today there is no book is social relations (mu 'amala}" [a hadith. or tradition more beneficial to the Muslims. There are only four letters which we have added search. they have question we respond in the following manner: Being been differentiated from the footnotes of the author a Muslim does not consist in [having a Muslim] by appending to them the initials "A. circa 1325. thus a stranger to the religion [of Islam]." Mr. religion is nothing other than social reading of which would be a more absolute necessity. people. 1184. bless him and grant him salvation]." name. We should demonstrate our bravery by Muslim. the believer's stray camel: wherever one finds it. fasting." We have translated this work [first this essay is the same method that we have always published in 1863]. Abdiilhamid II. Doctor Dozy has covered the history of Islam down lowing couplet ofShaykh Sa'di [Iranian poet. into Turkish from its French version entitled to the text. states that religion religion. it is nothing lutely impartial good sense. or even lack it altogether. The history of Islam during 1292]: these last forty years is reproduced from our erudite friend A.A. He has such Can overthrow the king from his realm. one The method that we have followed in translating appropriates it." Every learned and virtuous person is a grief of truth. beneficial to them. If we seriously lim even if he stems from the lineage of the Prophet. lim. relations. virtuous Doctor Dozy. [Hafiz. It is our own Prophet only just exposing ourselves to the bullets of the who says. that of justice and truth. Iranian poet. Profes- be published in French. a non-Mus- radiallahu anh [May God be well pleased with him]. We must possess the power to abandon the un- tongue people are safe. a high degree of knowledge of Islamic affairs and of the obscurities of the Islamic religion that it would be We strongly sensed the Muslims' need for a "His- appropriate to say that he has no match among the tory of Islam. and of for knowledge is better than a thousand years' acts adorning ourselves with the decoration of the sublime of worship. PREFACE BY THE TRANSLATOR 173 summarized in the awful truth embodied in the fol. immoral person is not a Mus- displaying a moral courage of this kind. We have less a researcher this young Orientalist is.C." "The best of men is he who dignified dignity of our ignorant selves in the face of is the most useful to people. placing them in parentheses: they are Essai sur I'histoire de I'islamisme [Essay on the "S.A." for salla'llahu alayh wa sallam [May God History of Islam]. and who strove leading works full of silly tales and deceptions is long to enlighten the minds of God's people and to be passed thanks to the enlightenment of evolution. and performing the prayers. reigned 1876-1909]. none the attentive of the Prophet]. ligion. So is it Some of our observations and additions are given possible to trust what he says?" To this inevitable at the bottom of the pages as footnotes. which is a product of an abso- used with a religious scrupulousness.

to reach a life-giving conclusion. 17-18." it may be easily understood that Islam could provide such a lesson.—Trans. pp. Here then is the aim of the study of history: by lana Jalal al-Din al-Rumi [Iranian poet. only confirm the truth of the famous couplet by Mau.] lim fanatics but include Dozy and Guy. True Islam cannot coexist with ignorance and We repeat and confirm that the aim of translating oppression. fathers. 1921). of letters. and they have criticize Islamic fanaticism. for example Dilmesti-i Mevlana become a conventional nongreeting to unbelievers at the end (Rumi 's Language of Spiritual Intoxication) (Istanbul. and that ignorance and oppression [Qur'an.174 Abdullah Cevdet Those ignorant pietists who are not aware of this cannot take root in places where Islam rules subtle social aspect of the exalted religion of Islam can supreme. If we take into consideration the fact and publishing this work is to present for the under- that the word "Muslim" is derived from the word standing of the Muslims a book the study of which "salvation.—Trans. [Cevdet used this couplet in other writings as well to speak these words to the Egyptian pharoah. Here Cevdet's intention must be to exclude Mus- man Empire: Orhaniye Matbaasi. "Peace be upon those who follow right guidance!" pression prevail. and to de- He considers to be God the place of his prayer!2 rive a salutary lesson of awakening. Sura 20. 1207-1273]: examining the affairs and changes of the past and drawing on the adventure of our fathers and grand- With head on the ground and backside in the air. Otto. Moses and Aaron are instructed to 2. cannot live in places where ignorance and op.] . Verse 47]3 3. [In the Qur'an.

' The Principles of Consultation and all mankind can be divided into two groups: those Liberty in Islam concerned with the other world. Musa Kazim published a pamphlet de- fending the Ottoman government's declaration of jihad (holy struggle). 289-293. and genies. maintaining that he was a devotee of the Naqshibandiyya Sufi order. Turkey: Ayyildiz Matbaasi. 22 Musa Kazim The Principles of Consultation and Liberty in Islam and Reform and Review of Religious Writings Musa Kazim (Turkey. was enjoined to communicate from God to 1. 1981). Turkey: Turk Tarihi Kurumu Basimevi. and 1917. Introduction by M. while opment. 1919). Each of these can then be subdivided The divine ordinances that our lord Muhammad. pp. into two groups: matters of fundamental principles. after a series of resignations and removals. 157-158. During World War I. Sadik Albayrak. 1908. and Shaykh al- ls/am (chief religious official) of the Ottoman Empire. Osmanh Ilmiye Salnamesi (Yearbook of Ottoman Shaykh al-lslam Musa Kazim: Religious and Social Essays) Religious Scholars) (Istanbul. In 1910. and those concerned with this world. translated in the first part of this chapter. 626-628. the British exempted him from imprisonment on Malta and banished him instead. Due to illness. His opponents frequently accused him of being a freemason. 1858-1920) was a leading member of the 'ulama' (religious scholar) branch of the Committee of Union and Progress. he denied the charges in a pamphlet in 1 9 1 1 . Amire. Turkey: Milli Kelamiyye'nin Ihtiyacat-i Asra Gore Islah ve Te'lifi" (Reform Gazete Yaymlari. 1909. Milletlerarasi Tiirkiye Sosyal ve Iktisat Tarihi delivered at the §ehzade Club in Istanbul on August 20. Following the Ottoman defeat. 1972). kara. Under the new regime. The first selection was published as a Musa Kazim Efendi's Ideas on State and Society. the second piece was a speech 610 in V. 1916).Ricalinin Teracim-i Ahvali (Biographies of Notable Religious ciples of Consultation and Liberty in Islam) and "Kiitiib-i Scholars of the Late Ottoman Era) (Istanbul. 1990). "§eyh-iil-Islam pp. whose exalted mission happily coincided The fundamental ordinances pertaining to the next with the period of the human mind's highest devel. Ottoman Empire: Matbaa-i (Istanbul. Musa Kazim: Dini. an Ottoman senator. extending the duty of jihad to all Muslims. where he died in 1920. pp. volumes 4-5. Prophet of the end of times and apostle sent to men and matters of detail. Abdiil- and Review of Religious Writings According to the Require. not just Ottomans. On the day of the revolution's tri- umph. in Musa Kazim. Ottoman Empire: Evkaf-i Islamiye Matbaasi. he became a member of the Ottoman Senate and an organizer of clerical support for the regime. §iikru Hanioglu. he was reappointed in 1 9 1 1 . first to Bursa and then to Edirne. "Islamda Usul-i Mesveret ve Hiirriyet" (The Prin. 603- manifesto on July 24. he authored a thirteen-page manifesto on Islam and constitutionalism. Son Devrin Osmanh Ulemasi ilmiye Musa Kazim. Kongresi. Educated in a traditional manner. he was tried in a military court along with other leaders of the Committee of Union and Progress. respectively. 243-247. 1916. Kulliyat-i §eyh'ul-islam gious Officials) (Ankara. 175 . Tebligler (Fifth International Congress on the So- Translations from Turkish by M. defending Islam against its Christian critics and defending constitutionalism against its Muslim critics. world are concerned with matters of doctrine. iftima'i Makaleler (Collected Works of pp. §ukru Hanioglu and Yektan cial and Economic History of Turkey: Communications) (An- Tiirkyilmaz. Musa Kazim taught religious studies at seminaries and modern schools in Istanbul until the Constitutional Revolution of 1908. 233-237.kadir Altinsu. Osmanh §eyhiilislamlan (Ottoman Chief Reli- ments of the Age). he was appointed Shaykh al-lslam." pp. David Kushner.

176 Musa Kazim

ordinances on details pertaining to the next world are great Messenger to men and genies who was the re-
concerned with acts of worship. In addition, the fun- cipient of God's revelation. If such a holy person,
damental ordinances pertaining to this world relate who had received God's revelation, was commanded
to the administration of the affairs of the country, to consult with his umma in every matter, then all
while ordinances on details pertaining to this world Muslims, especially the exalted caliphs, are all the
are about transactions and punishments. more obligated to consult with the umma.
Without having fundamental ordinances pertain- In the second verse, God shows that the affairs of
ing to the next world, executing ordinances on de- Muslims consist in consultation among themselves.
tails pertaining to the next world would be absolutely With this, He confirms in a categorical fashion that
useless. For example, it is self-evident that worship the order for consultation is the greatest pillar of
and acts of piety would not be of the slightest bene- Islam. Thus all those who bear the exalted title of
fit to someone who does not believe in the existence "Muslim" are under the obligation to obey this heav-
of God and His uniqueness. Similarly, it cannot be enly order and divine command.
imagined that anything will be gained from imple- In the third verse, God orders us to make judg-
menting ordinances on details pertaining to this ments between people with justice and equity, and
world unless the corresponding fundamental ordi- this reveals that rendering justice in all cases is a
nances are executed. For example, unless justice and religious duty.
equity are respected, no benefit can be expected from In the fourth verse, it is enjoined: "Be just, for this
the punishment of criminals. is the closest thing to piety."
The basic principles of the fundamental ordi- Likewise, in the fifth verse, it is enjoined: "You
nances pertaining to this world are: should not deviate from justice whenever you speak,
even if the matter concerns your closest relative."
Consulting the umma [Islamic community] in every The sixth verse tells us that "God commands you
matter. to deliver to the owners that which is held in trust with
Respecting justice and equity in every matter. you." Since the content of an order stems from some-
Entrusting the affairs of the country and the inter-
thing that is incumbent, it is absolutely clear, accord-
ests of the umma, which are a divine charge, to
qualified persons. ing to the tenor of this verse, that entrusting the affairs
of the nation and matters of the state—the greatest and
Our proofs of these are noble Qur'anic verses (and most important of all trusts—to those who are quali-
some hadiths [narratives] of the Prophet), like the fied is one of the duties incumbent on their authority.
following: God specifies those who are qualified for this
sacred trust in the noble verse: "The noblest among
And seek their counsel in the matter. [Sura 3, Verse you in the eyes of God is the most pious." [Sura 49,
159] Verse 13] It is clear from this exalted verse that the
And their affairs [are decided in] consultation foremost quality that persons undertaking the duties
among them. [Sura 42, Verse 38] of the religious community must possess is piety.
When you judge between men, you should judge Aristocratic birth and nobility play no part whatso-
justly. [Sura 4, Verse 58]
ever in this matter. Piety means avoiding the viola-
Be just; it is closer to piety. [Sura 5, Verse 8]
tion of the rights of God and humans, and it is thus
If you speak, be just even if the matter concerns
a relative. [Sura 6, Verse 152] dependent without any doubt upon knowing those
God commands you to deliver to the owners that rights. Therefore, a person who would undertake one
which is held in trust with you. [Sura 4, Verse 58] of the duties of the religious community must be
well-informed about that duty, and be one of those
In the first of these verses, God orders His Mes- powerful and capable people who are distinguished
senger to consult with the umma in every matter. by their integrity and ability.
Since, as explained in the science of jurisprudence, Accordingly our Prophet, the teacher of all beings,
an order to do something entails that its contrary is the most perfect of salutations be upon Him, person-
forbidden, it is established that according to the ex- ally always favored consulting his umma in every
alted tenor of this noble verse, failure to consult with matter of public import. During his lifetime, he en-
the umma was absolutely forbidden, even to that trusted the administration to those who were quali-

PRINCIPLES OF CONSULTATION AND REFORM AND REVIEW 177

fied for it. In this regard, he paid no attention to such What justice this was, what freedom, what equal-
considerations as kinship or friendship. All the ap- ity! A Jew comes and is tried along with a caliph. If
pointments made by the Prophet were based upon one of them sits, the other cannot be left to stand. If
competence. He never deviated from justice and eq- one of them is called by his name, the other cannot
uity in the slightest degree in any matter. be called by his honorific or title.
Integrity, competence, justice—these were the All these are uncontested facts. Here is history,
qualities that the Messenger of God wanted! These the history of humanity! Here are deeds, the deeds
are the virtues that the Prophet sought! While he was of Islam. Study them, examine them! Is it possible
alive, while he was leaving this world, his hopes were to see a sign of the smallest degree of inequality, the
always, always directed to these: Integrity, compe- smallest degree of injustice, the smallest degree of
tence, and justice! arbitrariness? Do you need proofs for the fact that
It is well known that three days prior to his de- Islam treated everyone equally, without distinction
parture to the next world, he ascended to the blessed of race, creed, religion, and nationality, and that it
pulpit and demonstrated to his umma and all his granted everyone his personal liberty and all his le-
Companions with his last breath that he was justice gitimate rights?
incarnate in these lofty words: Here is a famous trial for you! This is a trial in
which 'Ali [ibn Abi Talib, fourth successor of the
O my umma and companions! If I have taken Prophet, 656-661] is defendant and a Jew is plain-
anybody's property, here is my property, let him
tiff. The two are at law in the court of Qadi [Shurayh
come forward and take it. If I struck anybody in the
ibn al-Harith al-Kindi, judge in Kufa, 7th century].
back, here is my back, let him come forward and
strike me in the back. Hasan ['Ali's son, 624-669] comes to give evidence
in favor of his father. The judge refuses this. 'Ali
Thanks to such superior virtues of his, he left for- accepts this, and shows no sign of resentment. The
ever in the hearts of the umma an inextinguishable judge calls the Jew by his name but mentions 'AM
affection for himself, an affection that is genuine, by his honorific as "O Father of Hasan!" This angers
sincere, and free from hypocrisy of all kinds. The 'Ali. He senses a hint of inequality in this. That is
rightly guided caliphs [that is, the first four succes- what that virtuous government was like, that is what
sors of the Prophet], who were honored with that the leaders of that state were like, that is what the
sacred post after him, literally followed in the sub- justice, equality, and freedom dispensed to the sub-
lime footsteps of the august Messenger. In this way jects of that government were like.
they showed to all peoples who were lost in the dark- This is such a firmly established truth that today
ness of ignorance, and groaning under the yoke of all civilized peoples around the world are obliged to
slavery, the meaning of humanity, civilization, free- admit and acknowledge it.
dom, equality, justice, prosperity, and happiness. Thus it is clear that the fundamental principles
Thus on these firm foundations laid down by our that form the bases for humanity and civilization—
Prophet, a virtuous government, the like of which has principles such as consultation, equality, freedom,
never been seen on the face of the earth, was estab- and justice—are a legal right granted by God 1300
lished and this bright sun of truth spread the glitter years ago to Muslims and all human beings. This
of justice to all regions of the world, thanks to the right was quite simply given to us by God. Nobody
assiduous and unremitting efforts of the rightly else is entitled to claim to have conferred it. But,
guided caliphs. Within a short time, [this govern- alas, after the time of the rightly guided caliphs, the
ment] shone the light of happiness on more than a political ordinances of religion were cast in a differ-
hundred million wretched people who were longing ent mold, persons acceding to the caliphate thought
for freedom, yearning for justice, and craving for of their own personal interests. They yielded to their
equality. It was such a virtuous government that all hedonistic desires, and in order to realize their aims,
peoples who took refuge in its protection, be they they usurped these rights, this freedom, this equal-
Muslims, non-Muslims, Christians, or Jews, one and ity, this justice granted to the Muslim umma and to
all enjoyed equal rights. In the eyes of the law, the all human beings by God as a favor for which grati-
right of a Christian or a Jew was owed the same re- tude is due. Affirming that "obeying those in author-
spect as the rights of the caliph. ity is a binding duty" [paraphrase of Qur'an, Sura

178 Musa Kazim

4, Verse 59], they failed entirely to take into con- temporal realms was settled in this way. It was not
sideration the conditions that limit this obedience. deemed necessary to write books.
They wholly uprooted the firm pillar of Islam from Then in the time of Successors [to the Companions
its foundations. They set a bad example for those of the Prophet], differences emerged. As a result, to
who came after them. They spoiled the faith of ig- maintain the unity of Islam, books began to be writ-
norant people, who were ignorant of the conditions ten. Because, if there are differences of opinion, this
that prevailed at the beginning of Islam and of the could lead to conflict, and divisions might arise among
ordinances of the holy law, telling them that "Islam the Muslims. God forbid that the emergence of divi-
prevents progress." The result was that this false sions would, by weakening the power of the umma,
idea prevailed in all regions of the world until the lead to its destruction. For that reason, they began at
fortunate day of the accession to the throne His that time to prepare books in an attempt to eliminate
Royal Highness [Abdulhamid II, Ottoman sultan, conflicts and distinguish truth from error.
reigned 1876-1909]. In particular, books on the science of theology were
Since God is the true protector of this religion of written. It was said that the possessors of understand-
Islam and has promised to preserve and forever pro- ing would recognize the truth. And this worked. How-
tect the freedom-granting ordinances of the illustri- ever, in these books there was no mention of philoso-
ous shari'a [religious law] of Muhammad, our sul- phy, as the philosophical sciences had not yet been
tan immediately upon his accession to the caliphate introduced to Islam. Each issue was interpreted by
put the principle of consultation into effect and pro- reference to a verse or a hadith. This was the mode of
mulgated the constitution [in 1876], with the exalted thinking of the ancient 'ulama' [religious scholars],
intention of carrying out the duties of the caliphate because that was the need at the time.
with which he had been charged by God. Later, the philosophical sciences were introduced
However, he was unable to put the ordinances to Arabic through translation. As a result, many other
comprehended in this exalted law [the constitution] disciplines and madhhabs [schools of thought]
into effect, owing to the incitations and instigations emerged. For instance, up to that time nobody knew
of certain traitors to the religion and nation. Thank about the "Aristotelian" school, because there was
God, today such false obstacles have been entirely no mention of it. This was the first [new philosophy]
removed, and thus His Royal Majesty feels that the to appear. Similarly, nobody knew what "naturalism"
time to put this exalted law into effect has come, and meant; there was no such notion. These ideas, appear-
he has set about carrying out this sacred duty made ing along with all those [new] disciplines, also had
incumbent upon him by God. And because of this, their adherents, but they were few. Later, the
he has placed all the Islamic world and humanity at Aristotelians turned out to be the most popular, and
large in his debt. May God bless His Royal Majesty the number of its followers increased significantly.
and make him successful with His divine guidance, Consequently there emerged a need to defend reli-
and make the Islamic community and Ottoman na- gion against these people. As the need to defend re-
tion always happy and cheerful with the gift of such ligion against both polytheists and Aristotelians was
freedom. Amen. perceived, books began to be written for this purpose:
that is, philosophy was added into the science of the-
ology, because this was necessary. This is the science
Reform and Review of Religious of theology practiced by contemporary 'ulama'.
Writings According to the But how did this happen? First, the 'ulama' stud-
Requirements of the Age ied these sciences, then they defended the beliefs of
Islam against philosophy, writing books for this pur-
During the first years of Islam, the obvious meanings pose. This went on for a very long time. Later, the
of the verses [of the Qur'an] and hadith [narratives polytheist school failed to attract much support, [so]
of the Prophet] were deemed sufficient. Especially the major struggle was against the Aristotelians.
during the time of our Prophet, everyone would settle Eventually, the Aristotelians also disappeared. That
issues they were confused about by asking the is, science changed, and the Aristotelians' principles
Prophet directly. There was no need to write or read were overturned. Hence there was no longer a need
books—any issue related to either the religious or to defend against them. Since there were no adher-

PRINCIPLES OF CONSULTATION AND REFORM AND REVIEW 179

ents of these sciences and no one to support and ad- This is the argument of today's philosophy. So if
vocate these disciplines, why should we protect re- we argue against them that the heavens are not eter-
ligious rulings by articulating defenses against them? nal, but created—they will laugh at us. "What are you
After the disappearance of these philosophies, the talking about?" they will say.
"materialists" took their place. Inevitably, naturalists [We might respond:] "Then humans are not eter-
also gained in popularity. Now a need arose to de- nal, but created."
fense against these [philosophies]. Just as the promi- "Of course they are created. The earth is divided
nent 'ulama', especially the recent generation, into many layers, and humans only recently appeared
struggled against the naturalists, Aristotelians, and on the upper layer. Do you know nothing about ge-
polytheists, and succeeded [in this struggle], now a ology? This is obvious. Who says that humans are
need arises for us, too, to struggle against our con- eternal?"
temporary opponents. "I do not know, someone said it once upon a time.
"Is it appropriate for us to alter [the earlier I am arguing against that."
struggles]? Let us continue with the model of their Then they will say, "Find those people and argue
[earlier] struggles. . .." against them." So it is obvious that our current teach-
If someone makes this argument, we would reply: ing must be reformed accordingly. There is an urgent
"Very well, but against whom?" Since there is no need for the writing of books that will refute the
faction of scholars—or as they are recently called, philosophy of our era.
philosophers—pursuing this mode of thinking, why But if it is said, "We will repeat the old arguments
should we put forth these defenses? anyway"—then that is a different matter. But religion
[Aristotelians used to say:] "This universe is com- cannot be defended in this way. The Aristotelians
posed of 13 spheres. The first is earth, the second is also accept the existence of God, saying: "God ex-
water, the third is air, the fourth is light, and there ists. There must be a cause of the existence of this
are nine celestial spheres, all of which are concen- universe, and this is the prime mover (wajib al-
tric. These celestial spheres are eternal, and the type wujud). But this prime mover is necessary [that is,
and kind of the remaining spheres are also eternal. the philosophical system must assume God's exis-
Thus, the universe is eternal." tence], not autonomous [as in Islam]. For this reason,
Now nobody says such things. Therefore even if the universe is eternal, since that which emanates
we say we are defending Islam by shouting, "No, you from a necessary agent is eternal. Since God is nec-
are wrong to call [the world] eternal, it may be cre- essary, the universe is eternal, because the universe
ated," what would be the use? Today's philosophy emanated from Him, and emanated without any
agrees with us: "Yes, the earth is finite." And the cause." We used to argue against this: "No, God is
creatures on it are also finite.2 Then [they say]: "What not necessary, but rather autonomous."
we call the heavens are not nine concentric spheres, If you say this now to contemporary philosophers,
as Ptolemy [ancient astronomer, 2nd century] argued. they will laugh at us. "What are you talking about?"
Such a heaven does not exist." Even if we say it does, they will say. There is no God, according to their
who would listen [to us]? Since the adversary does theory, much less "necessary" and "autonomous."
not even accept the existence of the heavens, how can Thus, there is no use in mentioning the issues of
we convince them by saying that it is created? Phi- necessity and autonomy.
losophy currently believes that space is infinite, and The ancient authorities concluded that "God has
that the bodies in it are similarly infinite. With re- no attributes. He is the True One. Therefore it is ab-
gard to form, these bodies are finite; only the funda- surd to represent Him with certain attributes. Since
mental atomic particles are eternal. There is no form God is the prime mover, He is free of necessity. If
in this universe that is eternal—all are finite, only He had attributes, how could He be the True One?
atomic particles are eternal. Then there would be a need for attributes, but such a
need is incompatible with his being the prime mover.
He is self-existent, omniscient, almighty, all-desirous,
2. [Musa Kazim is playing with two meanings of the term
hadith, translated here as "created": in the Islamic argument,
and so on. Knowledge is identical with Him, power
it means "created by God"; in the modern scientific argument, is identical with Him, anything that we call an at-
it means cosmologically "finite."—Ed.] tribute is identical with Him."

180 Musa Kazim

The Mu'tazilites [early Muslim rationalists] also impossible to argue against them. Indeed, earlier
adhered to this [line of thinking], as they acknowl- 'ulama' did just this. First they were educated in the
edged. Perhaps one could now make a similar de- sciences of contemporaneous philosophers, then they
fense: "No, God has attributes, God is omniscient in convinced them with their words. Now if we try to
knowledge, almighty in power, immortal in life. He defend ourselves with our present level of knowl-
is all-desirous in His will, and all-speaking in His edge, we will be ridiculous. Because we do not know.
word." If you said this against our opponents, they First of all, let us be educated in those sciences. Then
would tell us, "We do not accept the basis [of your let us defend Islam on the basis of these sciences. Now
argument], much less the matter of the attributes." In it is time to recognize this need. There is no use in
brief, our opponents today, that is, the philosophers, displaying fanaticism in this respect. In fact, it would
do not accept the divine and the prophetic. Actually, be harmful. The literature shows that all of the 'ulama'
some naturalists have accepted the existence of God. in every era wrote books in accordance with the needs
However, if you investigate the matter further, what of the day. As a result, later 'ulama', in translating
they call God is Nature. philosophy into Arabic, deemed it necessary to reform
Therefore, our most pressing task is to review the the science of theology, and added many new topics
theological books in accordance with present needs. from naturalists and theologians. We have the same
And how are we to do this? First of all, we have to need. We must also reform the theological books in
know the sciences of our opponents. Otherwise, it is accordance with the needs of our era.

23 Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi

Guiding Mankind to Act on the
Basis ofTelegraphic Messages

Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (Syria, 1866-1914) was the leading proponent of Islamic mod-
ernism in early twentieth-century Damascus. His publications numbered more than two
dozen and covered religious disciplines such as Islamic law, theology, and exegesis; Mus-
lim religious customs; and Arab history. He came from a family of minor religious func-
tionaries and obtained his religious education from the city's leading religious scholars.
Qasimi emerged as a proponent of reformist ideas in the 1890s, but he was not able to
openly publish his work until the Ottoman Constitutional Revolution created a freer po-
litical climate in 1908. He was one of a handful of liberal religious scholars in Damascus
who favored constitutional government. Moreover, a younger generation of Syrians with
inclinations toward Arab nationalism drew inspiration from his call for an Arab cultural
and literary revival. His religious and political views made him the object of Ottoman
suspicions and conservative scholars' hostility. Consequently, he endured several episodes
of persecution. His religious writings focused on two themes. One exhorted Muslims to
overcome historical divisions into rival legal schools and sects by returning to the Qur'an
and the practice of the Prophet as the only bases of authority. The other emphasized the
rational character of Islamic beliefs and practices. In this passage, Qasimi seeks to dem-
onstrate that Islamic law possesses methods and principles, in particular the principle of
ijtihad (independent reasoning), that allow for the adoption of new technology. To sup-
port this view, Qasimi cites an extensive series of classical Islamic authorities and texts.1

In the name of God, the beneficent, the merciful ions of famous 'ulama' [religious scholars] on this
Praise God, lord of the worlds. Prayer and peace issue, and I shared with him both general and detailed
on our master Muhammad, seal of the prophets, and texts about it. I told him that 'ulama' of the last cen-
on his exemplary family and Companions, and on tury and current leaders of knowledge have devoted
their sincerely believing Successors until the Day of much attention to the issue of the telegraph. They
Judgment. have lent it meticulous scrutiny and have taken the
A judge asked me if he may act according to well- utmost care in understanding it. Some favor acting
established information in a telegraphic message according to it in both social transactions and reli-
from an authority, such as a governor, another judge, gious rituals; while others would act according to it
or another trusted source, announcing on the basis only in certain categories of transactions; yet others
of legally acceptable evidence the start or the end of favor using it in beginning and breaking the fast,
Ramadan [the month of dawn-to-dusk fasting], given depending on the conclusions they reach in under-
that celestial bodies rise at the two places at the same taking ijtihad [independent reasoning]. I said that I
time.21 replied to him on the basis of the legal opin- have not heard of a single major scholar who has

Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi, Kitab al-irshad al-khalq (Book of the Late Ottoman Syria (New York: Oxford University Press,
People's Guidance) (Damascus, Syria: Matba'at al-Muqtabas, 1990); Zafir Qasimi, Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi wa-'asruh
1911), pp. 2-11. Translation from Arabic and introduction (Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi and His Era) (Damascus, Syria:
by David D. Commins. Maktabat Atlas, 1965).
1. Nizar Abazah, Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (Jamal al-Din 2. [The timing is essential because Ramadan is deemed
al-Qasimi) (Damascus, Syria: Dar al-Qalam, 1997); David D. to begin and end with the appearance of a new moon.—
Commins, Islamic Reform: Politics and Social Change in Trans.]

181

182 Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi

issued a legal opinion against acting according to tele- Islam's qualities include its guidance to methods
graphic messages in all circumstances. There is no of discovering laws through extensive study and rea-
such report from any renowned scholars whose legal soning, so that experts may easily relate all benefi-
opinions are followed. What kind of scholar could fall cial inventions to Islam's stipulations, certainties,
into such confusion on this matter when he knows that generalities, and apparent meanings. Furthermore,
the telegraph is the prop of kingdoms' vital affairs? Is Islam provides for the adoption of beneficial inven-
it possible for the most perfect of all laws to neglect a tions because of its magnanimity and its agreement
matter of general public benefit, especially one of the with ease and mercy.
greatest technical advances, when the principles of the Both ancient and recent jurisprudents, mercy and
shari 'a [Islamic law] provide for every time and place? contentment be upon them, have adopted new con-
The lofty shari'«' s basic legal principles cannot invali- veniences and ways of life according to the basic
date the telegraph; rather, they connect it to similar legal principles and specific regulations of the
matters that are well known. They remove the mask shari'a. If that were not the case, then why are there
of obscurity from the face of controversy with the so many huge volumes of rulings and abundant legal
extensive study and reasoning of its profound think- opinions on various cases? Are they not for novel
ers. Because the legal opinions of the 'ulama' on this situations that have arisen in both recent and ancient
issue tend to be fairly brief, I have sought to explain times? Of course they are. Thus it is necessary to
in detail their sources. For in generality resides con- adapt to novel situations in human society on the
fusion, while in detail there is neither doubt nor con- basis of the well-known principles of the true reli-
jecture. This is what has prompted me to compose this gion. Doing so helps people in both religious and
book. I seek the assistance of the Exalted One who worldly matters, and allows them to live according
gives success in arriving at the correct conclusion. to firmly established customs.
The founders of the legal schools, God be pleased
with them, acquired their stature and are considered
Preface on Method exemplars of knowledge because they attained such
proficiency in deriving specific regulations and such
Part One: The excellence of Islam includes the ap- judiciousness in religious understanding that their
plicability of its principles to the laws of civilization. knowledge became the standard of the religious sci-
Islam's magnanimity includes the way specific regu- ences. They reached this distinction only by plunging
lations can be derived from its basic legal principles. into the details of affairs after studying the underly-
Ancient and modern generations have adapted to new ing rationales of existence, tracing every specific regu-
situations on the basis of well-known principles. lation to a basic legal principle, and adopting a stat-
Every age has men who uphold God's will with ute on the basis of that principle. A sage once said,
proofs. The basis for knowing the proper statute for "The Muslims' mujtahids [religious scholars qualified
any given case is its evidence. to perform ijtihad] have taken into consideration many
The excellence of Islam includes the applicabil- principles of their law and adapted to the customs of
ity of its basic legal principles to the laws of civili- various places and times, according to the Book [the
zations; the suitability of its principles to the needs Qur'an] and the sunna [the precedents and advice of
of every time and place; basing its rulings on bring- the Prophet]. Therefore, the Islamic legal schools,
ing benefit and preventing harm; its distinction in taken altogether, suffice for the discovery of all reli-
removing encumbrances and fetters; its opening the gious laws to regulate social transactions in all parts
doors of ease and facility; and its blocking the ways of the world, while complying with the basic principles
of anguish and difficulty. of religious rulings." He supports this opinion by re-
Its magnanimity includes the rise of the madhahib ferring to such principles of legal extension as custom
[schools of Islamic law] from its wise sources; the and the consideration of benefits.
acquisition of its principles from the luminous niche The introduction of the telegraph resembles ear-
of its lamp [the Qur'an]; and the breadth of its spe- lier innovations that did not exist in the time of the
cific regulations to allow for the adoption of neces- Companions or the Successors or the founders of the
sities and luxuries, however much inventions and legal schools, but on which contemporary legal ex-
discoveries multiply. perts have issued legal opinions—innovations such

GUIDING MANKIND TO ACT 183

as cannons and clocks used for fasting and prayer, ancestors and numerous later generations. Later gen-
and countless other matters in worship and social erations depend on earlier ones for all their scholar-
transactions. The telegraph is but a drop in the ocean ship and for the treasures they stored. But mental
of discoveries and inventions in coming ages, includ- faculties vary from one person to the next. Grasping
ing conveniences and benefits for people of all the purposes of the shari'a and the underlying ration-
classes—as the Qur'an states, "There will be created ales for deriving specific regulations, discerning the
what you do not know." [Sura 16, Verse 8] If we do kernel from the husk in various matters that are the
not adopt the telegraph according to fixed principles subject of ijtihad because they are not textually stipu-
of discovery through reasoning and analogy, then do lated—these are paths that the ancestors pursued and
we not congeal religion and block the way of ancient methods followed by prominent men to the present
and recent generations, and forever constrict what God day. Ahmad Ibn Paris [possibly al-Qazwini, religious
made wide through understanding and discovery? scholar, 10th century], God have mercy on him, said,
One of the Muslims' greatest blessings is that "Who forbade later generations from contradicting
every age has men who uphold God's will with earlier ones? Do not accept the view of whoever says,
proofs and clarify obscure issues with proper meth- 'The former left nothing for the latter.' Leave aside
ods. This is evident from the numerous religious the view of another who says, 'How much did the
judges in every place who rule on issues that were former leave for the latter?' Is this world nothing but
not stipulated in the two noble sources [the Qur'an changing times? Does not every time have its men?
and the sunna]. They extract rulings from the two Are not the sciences after the fundamental principles
sources by resorting to extensive study and reason- anything but the fruits of understanding and reason?
ing. The abundance of legal opinions and judges is Who ever restricted excellence to a particular age and
an emblem of the survival of ijtihad until the Day of stopped it at a certain time? Do not later men study,
Judgment. Every age has men who uphold the shari 'a compose, and see things like earlier men? What
with proofs. Anyone who wishes may refer to the would you say to contemporary jurisprudents if they
book, "The Virtue of the Notables," by Imam [Jalal needed to know the statute for a situation that had
al-Din] al-Suyuti [Egyptian scholar, 1445-1505], never before occurred? Do you not know that every
which contains long lists of mujtahids—and that was heart has a mind, and every mind reaches its own
in just one particular place. How many other men conclusion? Why do you constrict what is wide, for-
would be counted in all places? Indeed, it would be bid what is permitted, and block the clear way? If
a boundless ocean. people were limited to the books of the ancients, then
Some worthless fellow might suspect—and it is a great deal of knowledge would be lost, penetrat-
said that suspicion is a sin—that current advocates ing minds would go astray, articulate tongues would
of scholarly reform intend to use ijtihad to establish be blunted, and we would hear nothing but repeti-
a special legal school and to call on believers to ad- tion. Do you urge the revival of what the ages have
here exclusively to it, to deviate from the views of covered over, the renewal of what the passage of time
the founders of the madhahib, and to detract from the has worn out, the relegation to files of what contem-
nobility of earlier generations. God save us from such porary minds have created, and the denial of this era?
ignorance and misunderstanding! Whoever thinks Even so, if one sought that, he would miss the mark
this way is more lost than a herd of cattle. What rea- and you would still read of new discoveries that will
sonable person would call for an increase in sectari- thrill and delight you."
anism and divisiveness? Instead, the intention is to The jurisprudents stipulated that the mujtahid
arouse the concern of leading scholars to become must know those situations that are the subject of
familiar with issues through evidence, to research consensus [one of four bases of Islamic law, along
their sources, to explore the books of the ancestors with the Qur'an, the sunna, and analogy], so that he
and the founders of the madhahib on basic legal prin- would not give a legal opinion in opposition to con-
ciples and specific regulations, to become familiar sensus. [Abu Hamid Muhammad] al-Ghazzali [major
with the ways of extracting and discovering rulings Iranian religious scholar, 1059-1111] wrote, "The
and with the proofs of agreement and disagreement, desired end is that one know that his legal opinion is
then to aspire for the strongest evidence and to seek not opposed to consensus, either by virtue of know-
the firmest opinion, as was the custom of the upright ing that it agrees with one of the legal schools or by

circa 1344. Therefore. 1703-1762] wrote. the saying on which rulings are based is an exact science. You can elimi- dence consists only of difference and likeness. Second is knowledge of dence consists of cramming in one's mind shari'a combining likenesses and distinguishing between dif. 'To according to a text or through discovery of rulings whomever God wishes well. This last kind is the most valuable. person." Imam al-Suyuti wrote. "How much stubborn The Imam Badr al-Din [Muhammad ibn Bahadur] al. one who suspends the law with legal fiction. "It is for the basic legal principles in all eventualities. or a need to urinate." Part Two: On the opinions of the founders of Shaykh Muhammad ' Abduh [modernist Egyptian the madhahib about the essence of religious scholar. 'The judge should with which the authors of consensus had no famil. as long as acquainted with the real meanings of jurisprudence. God's call with his heart and mind. and it is uncon- The second meaning is called "the science of simi. 'Jurisprudence is the knowledge of likenesses. Third nate the confusion for such an arrogant one and re- is the discussion of knotty issues for the purpose of move his ignorance by saying. only by the 'ulama'. One type riddles.184 Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi knowing that this is an unprecedented occurrence of the Prophet. numerous disputations and crams them with the ideas sage of time. upon them be peace. Only . without distinguishing between perceptive ones and sions among the ancestors that some say that jurispru. The only one who has this quality is as well as its sources and its underlying rationales.' ets' instruction about them. rulings issued by specialists in deriving regulations. the most complete. quizzes. distinctions between categories? Who could get con- 1392] wrote. not on the Imam Wali Allah al-Dihlawi [Indian religious basis of those principles' literal meanings. and the meaning is made clear. then confusion are the heirs of the prophets. 1849-1905. For example. By it the jurisprudent becomes prepared to ness in both worlds. Its meanings and underlying ra. nale of its ruling in every ordinance.' is also under- iarity. On this meaning there are so many discus. Fourth are sophisms. and the most laws for his servants so that they may enjoy happi- perfect. He gives understanding through reasoning. God jurisprudence and jurisprudents. after the proph. every ruling and understanding the underlying ratio- tions are derived. Fifth is knowledge of the consists of perceiving the intentions of the law in principles and exact rules by which specific regula. 'Knowledge of sharpening the mind. opinion." disappears. pain from an illness. "The specific regulations are simpletons. gance and pride." stood to imply that he does not judge when he is in discomfort because of hunger. It is truly the root of jurisprudence. tionales are attained at first only by the prophets." known through the basic legal principles. how- a great science by which one becomes thoroughly ever much people's conditions change. but on the scholar. prayers and peace be upon him. First is knowledge of the rulings for cases Prophet's saying. its limit: All reach the same conclusion. that is sufficient. ferences. not with arro- velops a command of it. wrote. This type gets the same result for both the only if he is thoroughly acquainted with all of the believer and the unbeliever. One is able to make connec. have mercy upon him. even to He also wrote. upon him be peace. ditional. one who stands at they are discovered through reasoning. some of our masters have of one partisan side in a kind of battle of minds. and legal fictions. "Knowing the purposes basis of implied meanings. The perceptive individual finds application larities and likenesses. see chapter 3]." from one age of history to another. A good person. God's prayer and peace be upon him. the judicious believer who hears and hearkens to One becomes proficient at understanding it and de. not issue a decision when he is angry. fused about the meaning of jurisprudence in the ings. a wicked shari'a's meanings. "Jurisprudence includes several mean. ignorance is removed solely by maintaining clear Zarkashi [Egyptian religious scholar. God provided the most general. to know the rulings for '"The second type takes the forms of rulings from unprecedented events that do not cease with the pas. who "If the categories are kept distinct. people endure. "The scholar is the heir out looking at the time and place of the speaker or the of the Prophet. that purpose does not change undertake ijtihad. those who blindly imitate precedent.'" ing only that something came from somebody with- Imam al-Ghazzali wrote. shari'a ordinances falls into two categories. On this the masters have written of religion?' One may hold the view that jurispru- extensive commentaries. and one who acts according to the law. tions and extract meanings. know- said.

his opponents denied. Their view was that the grand- like examples that are the basis for analogy. and they affirmed each other's practice. 'The office of judge is a well-established duty torrent from which there branch out tributaries. and then the sayings of the Companions. If it contains no tains around forty examples that include the compari- ruling. He compared all new creation. They are all rational comparisons by the Quran or the sunna. to the creation of the heavens the Successors. nesses are the bases of comparisons from which are "When one seeks to know the ruling for something. 1292-1350] wrote. They have said. but only those who Prophet]. Then re. "Take them as an example of a Ibn al-Qayyim further wrote.' [Qur'an. to reject the notion that they are dissimi- in the rulings of his Companions. lar. father does not preclude the brothers from inheriting." the second its branch. you should use analogy and know then limbs of limbs. to use analogy for cases not covered in the Qur'an Hanafi scholar. which Part Three. It is re. then one consults the sunna.'"Umar's instruction comparison. If none of these sources Verse 43] Using analogy in coining likenesses is a contains a ruling. they acted to reject the notion they are similar. then one performs ijtihad and seeks property of the mind. The Qur'an con- one should first consult the Qur'an. and Qur' an or the sunna. in the sunna of God's and the mental ability to detect similarity in two simi- Messenger. then one consults the rulings of the rightly same ruling. then and an established custom. analogy in shari'a. So understand that when tributaries of tributaries. 948-1038]. God guided His servants to use it for situations as the doctor's students know the purposes of the not covered by His book [the Qur'an]." Isfahan. died circa 813] that 'Umar ibn Prophet's son-in-law and fourth caliph] and Zayd ibn al-Khattab [companion of the Prophet and second Thabit [a companion of the Prophet] used analogy caliph. died ther and brothers. "Whoever or the sunna is an authority for proponents of using knows the Book and the sunna. God gave people the instinct the closest ruling in the Qur'an. axis of inferential reasoning in its entirety involves lated from Abu 'Ubayda [companion of the Prophet. 'This letter from standing delves into it. and lar objects. God be pleased with him. He compared the life of the dead after death to the life of the earth after the death of vegetation. of making things easy. are knowledgeable understand. He made the first generation the root and rank in knowing the law's purposes. which He instructs His servants to realize that the Imam [Muhammad] Ibn al-Qayyim [al-Jawziyya. 634-644]. be He exalted. ent objects. God's prayer and blessing upon him. known the rulings of similar things. He compared life after death to awakening after reasoning to derive specific regulations for sleep. It is one of the basic principles and of religion by witnessing the circumstances in of the shari 'a and it is indispensable for the jurispru- which commands and prohibitions were issued.'" to fingers and said. Hijaz. and the founders of and earth—just as the second generation followed the the madhahib used analogy and first. wrote to for determining inheritance in the case of a grandfa- Abu Musa al-Ash'ari [companion of the Prophet. If that contains son of a thing to its like and show that they have the no ruling. Sura 29. On how the Companions. The Companions [of the 'Umar to Abu Musa was not rejected by any Com- Prophet] who were jurisprudents learned the rules of panion. to distinguish between two different objects. He compared medicines that he prescribes by long practice and the second generation to the first generation in vari- experience. Zayd compared their rela- litigants seek a decision on a matter that is not in the tionship to a tree from which a limb branches off. circa 750-805] said. It is said that the on it. Abu Nu'aym [religious scholar. God. the sayings of the . God be pleased with them. solve on what you think is most beloved to God and ['Abdullah] Ibn 'Abbas [619-686] compared molars what is most likely to be right. All like- religious scholar. ruling of something is the ruling of its like. GUIDING MANKIND TO ACT 185 an individual with a refined mind and upright under. 'AH likened their relationship to a 662]. They agreed that rulings could be issued on deriving specific regulations. the basis of analogy." Muhammad ibn al-Hasan [al-Shaybani. The Companions attained the highest ous places. It is well known that 'Ali ibn Abi Talib [the gious scholar. said. and "The Companions allowed this practice. and Sufyan ibn 'Uyayna [reli. Damascus. equating similar objects and keeping separate differ- circa 581-639]. just dent. 'These are guided caliphs [the first four successors to the likenesses we offer the people. He coined comparisons and used them in vari- events that are not stipulated in ous instances.

blessing upon him and his family). that the way to in their prayer. and Part Four. 'I would perform the evidence in order to reach an independent opin- ijtihad and spare no effort. Verse 59] from specialists. Those who ponder would have known it. [Abu 'Isa ijtihad. Abu'l-Ma'ali al-Juwayni. 'And if you do not find whether a scholar capable of ijtihad must perform a ruling in God's book?' He said. Al-Hafiz Ibn Do they not contemplate what the Qur'an says.'" "All this amounts to a command to ponder and in- From this hadith it may be gleaned that the Law. that is. and investigation. but it is rated as sound Verse 83] in another collection. "It is agreed that if one exhausts Abu Da'ud [al-Sijistani. Verse 2] collections [those of al-Bukhari.' and he struck his chest. Sophists claim that the path to knowing not possess the law. lim ibn al-Hajjaj. however. the ultimate the soundness of a hadith on studying with the lead. they must say so. or if they err. and [Ahmad ibn then one is not allowed to follow its contrary. and indeed any know them is by ijtihad. pilgrimage. died circa 946] relied in establishing In whatever matter you disagree. died 889]. ion. died 870. comparing the case at hand to its most similar analogue. 'I would judge by God's to taqlid. It is sound indeed. "The basic issue in this matter is the that a religious judge either belongs to a particular hadith [saying of the Prophet] related by Mu'adh [ibn legal school or is independent (as I explained at Jabal. [Sura 4. utmost to reach the proper decision. 'Praise God to give success to the Ghazzali] chose to forbid a scholar from imitating messenger of the Messenger of God. reflection. companion of the Prophet died 627]. But if one has not yet undertaken ijtihad and peace be upon him. [Muhyi al-Din] dons contemplation. and he pleased the Messenger of God." come under some ruling. Verse 10] ers of jurisprudence and ijtihad. on any other opinion. refer it to is sufficient to dispense with rote learning of hadiths God and the Messenger. [Sura 42. and the findings they would not be able to derive laws. act al-Husayn] al-Bayhaqi [994-1066]. another's opinion with no proof. 'By the sunna of it. God's Messenger. Muhammad] al-Tirmidhi [died 892]. and he said that this If you are at variance over something. The Prophet said to him. The . God's blessings and ion. as he has anyone else. But they do regulations. and is not deficient in learning. 'How would you of ijtihad—as commoners are—then he may resort act as judge?' He said.' The Prophet then said." of the Muslim jurisprudents—they are able to per- form ijtihad on whatever new situation may arise. not taqlid religious duty or prohibition. Whoever is asked about The Imam al-Haramayn [the Imam of Mecca and them must issue a legal opinion after striving to the Medina. and reported by [hadith collectors] Ghazzali wrote. and study the case. and a particular ruling appears to be correct. There is disagreement. 1028. Egyptian religious scholar. 'Abu al-'Abbas [al-Tabari] Ibn Verse 24] al-Qass [jurist. On the necessity of ijtihad about they may judge accordingly. because if it were not for the the truth is taqlid. The hadith con. and that taqlid is obligatory. O people of vision! [Sura 59. wanted to send Mu'adh to has not studied the matter. and if one is incapable Yemen. [Sura 4.' This hadith may not cited as evidence the Qur'anic passages: come from either of the two major canonical hadith So take heed. it is not a path to hold in the prophetic heritage and are the heirs of the knowledge in either basic legal principles or specific prophets in deriving specific regulations. It is well known 1085] said. 1372-1449] wrote. 'And if even if the scholar has researched an issue. dressed only to religious scholars. or Hajar [al-'Asqalani. and practice accordingly new occurrences." The Judge [al- Muhammad said. 1165-1240] Al-Ghazzali goes on to say.' The Prophet then said." Ibn 'Arabi [Iberian religious scholar. and Mus. died 875]. The Legal Opinion in Islam). it is ad- giver determined the mujtahid's [method of] ruling. studied you do not find it there?' He said. vestigate. judgment rests with God. God be length in my book. fasting. He felt this was appropriate. it is not addressed to commoners. and they are unable to act on In every age novel occurrences must inevitably this. If they perform ijtihad [imitation of a leading religious scholar].186 Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi Companions of the Messenger (God's peace and material which the Lawgiver gave them from His law. Al- pleased with him. as to book. and abandon one's own opin- cerns the time when the Prophet. The imitator aban- It is one of God's laws by His decree. or if he is permitted to imitate somebody else. "Taqlid is accepting refers to this: "All of the mujtahids have a firm foot. have their hearts been sealed with locks? [Sura 47.

'God will raise those of be pleased with him) stated. The Qur'an says. This is not attained by imitation but by knowl- [Sura 2. the distortions of the excessively zealous.' [Sura 58. Verse 111] occurrences. they banish from it Do not follow that of which you have no knowledge. [Sura 12.' liars. and the presumptions of Speak lies of God you cannot even conceive. Verse 36] pretations of the ignorant. the mujtahids. the inter- [Sura 17. GUIDING MANKIND TO ACT 187 falseness of their view is demonstrated in a number you who believe and those who have knowledge to of ways. Verse 11] Muhammad (peace ing passages from the Qur'an: be upon him) said. 'The men of rectitude in every generation bear this knowledge. Therefore. high ranks. 'Bring your proof. namely.'" Thus wrote al-Ghazzali. edge. as al-Ghazzali (God standing. Verse 169] We bear witness to only what we know. one must have recourse to the possess- ors of knowledge.' [Sura 1. We oppose their opinion with the follow. There is "All of this is about imitation and the command to no way to know the rulings or to assure the heart on seek knowledge. From these words Verse 81] it is known that in order to discover rulings for novel Say. . the 'ulama' have high such matters except by ijtihad.

§iikru Hanioglu. and "Islam Kadmi: Thought). He also wrote for modernist journals and newspapers. gain- ing fame for his knowledge of Arabic literature and jurisprudence and serving on the regional appeals court. numbers 8 and 11. 1864-1923) was a religious scholar and politician whose radical ideas on polygamy and other issues caused heated debates during the second Ottoman constitutional period (1908-1918). or needs extensive discussion." Islam. 1914. Mansurizade Sa'id followed the same path. These antagonists have been [religious law]. and after its rise to power in the revolution of 1908. because not shari'a has been subjected to a great deal of criticism one of the defenders of Islam has set out the true on the part of Europeans and civilized peoples in position: that there is no preferred doctrine in the general. but was not appointed because of his radical religious views. In 1914. carrying on their hostile propaganda on the basis of lygamy. Istanbul. and that it could be reconciled with modern- ization. he served in various official capacities. pp. which had caused an outcry in Islamist circles. Among these views was his position that polygamy could legitimately be banned in an Islamic country. but in Islam its prohibition is not possible. never cease "The religion of Islam is different from other reli. Ot. 188 . if ve Dti$iince (Labor and Thought). Said Bey. and baseless accusations directed the viewpoint of the shari'a." in Ahmet Polygamy). Islam Mecmuasi (Islam Journal). [Mansurizade Sa'id].' "Since polygamy is permitted in the Islamic shari'a against the shari'a. to the discretion of the rulers. January-March 1961. Halil. number 27. 2-3. "Mansurizade Sail Bey. "Mansurizade M. Mansurizade Sa'id worked with the secret Committee of Progress and Union. he was seriously considered for the office of Shaykh al-lslam." their belief that the shari 'a contains a legal doctrine "Polygamy is forbidden in other religions and na. Mansurizade Sa'id was elected to parliament twice from Saruhan and once from Mentese. editor. that it is an issue left prevails in the Islamic world as a result of the shari 'a. He also taught Muslim jurisprudence at the Law School in Istanbul. "Mansuroglu Ailesi ve Kiiltur Tarihimizdeki toman Empire. Born into a family in Izmir that had pro- duced many 'ulama' (religious scholars). "Islam Kadmi: Ta'addiid-i Zevcat Islamiyetde Men' Olunabilir" (The Muslim Woman: Po. the Islamic The disputes continue to no purpose. Translation from Turkish and introduction by M. They imagine that medieval savagery still shari 'a regarding polygamy. 1. regarding polygamy. Ta'addiid-i Zevcat Miinasebetiyle" (The Muslim Woman: On Mecdut Mansuroglu. to speak of the advantages of polygamy. and to main- gions in regard to the issue of polygamy. arguing that Islam was not an obstacle to progress. pp. Meanwhile those who defend tions. to our Cultural History). number 25. 24 Mansurizade Sa'id The Muslim Woman: Polygamy Can Be Prohibited in Islam Mansurizade Mehmed Sa'id (Turkey. including negotiations with the Austro-Hungarian government over its annex- ation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. seeking to preserve this doctrine. as expressed in a series of articles excerpted here. and that po- negative comment serve only to strengthen the slan." i$ ve Diigunce (Labor and lygamy Can Be Prohibited in Islam). In 1907. that Islam in no way Islamic attempts to counter this veritable flood of hinders the prohibition of polygamy. Islam cannot refuse to accept po. pages 233-238 and Hizmetleri" (The Mansuroglu Family and Their Contribution 325-330. 6-8." "In Islam polygamy has to be accepted. serving from 1908 until 1918. of such wrong opinions and beliefs. November-December 1959. calumny. the chief religious authority of the Ottoman Empire. lygamy is not an issue which raises difficulties from der." Because tain that it is in accordance with reason.

the first rests on revelation. that is obligatory according to shari 'a. are is not established by scholarly opinion based upon incontrovertible ordinances free of any dispute or personal judgment and analogical reasoning. in short if they go against the orders and the ordinance is unconditional means that even if the prohibitions of shari 'a. because on issues where science. then the Lawgiver is being disobeyed. there is no place for it in the face of unconditional command to obey the authorities. an ex. tion. agreement among the schools nor clashes of opinion. and scholarly opinion is another. Is it to abandon its own demands and impose ties. it can be done on the authorities. however. such a matter. But limiting the scope of the lation that it is a duty to obey all the orders of the text in this way means establishing an exception to authorities regardless of what they are. voided altogether? Because ijtihad is not permissible on issues where Thus it is obviously necessary to supplement the there is a text. tions of the shari'a. limiting the scope tory to obey the authorities in whatever they order of the verse and explaining the exception to it mean or prohibit. which seems to ments. commands and ordering things it prohibits. the views of the jurists and opinions of the conformity to demands that are incompatible with schools are unanimous. Both of them. . as I have explained. there is no place for such opinion. there is no which the verse contains. this is an ordinance of unrestricted applica. this is an how could it be a duty imposed by the shari 'a to obey issue that is fully resolved on the basis of reason and the authorities? Would not the shari'a have been revelation. as I have explained. We encounter neither dis- them? Suppose that the authorities give the order. it follows that. ception which specifies that one should not obey If. then there is no duty to obey authorities go against shari'a. subject to the the unconditional character of the ordinance. they obeyed regardless of what they order or prohibit. This is because. a point to be made here. The cerning the matters in which the authorities should scope of texts can be limited through reason. condition that these must not contravene the shari 'a. While and those in authority among you" [Qur'an. as I will explain. Of these two judg- be objected that such an exception. such a clear-cut text. there is a text. In sum. they contravene the orders and prohibi- when the command of the authorities contradict com. and enjoin obedience obedience to the Creator. One disagreement. evident reason and necessity. is one thing. as explained in the relevant through scholarly opinion. Thus. there is no place for ijtihad and by the jurists at large. THE MUSLIM WOMAN: POLYGAMY 189 Let us then set out a truth which is accepted by cannot resort to opinion in the face of a text. then according to the shari'a it mands and prohibitions of the shari'a. and the second contradict texts but in reality is laid down by texts. Sura 4. in the view of the jurists. It performance of something that is forbidden by would indeed seem logical to say that the fact that shari'a. basis of reason. however. mention reason as the first of them. reason Since the verse does not mention any restriction con. it is in the nature of a It is this: the verse "obey God and the Messenger narrowing of the scope on the basis of reason. on reason. prohibiting things it them. Thus it could is not permissible to obey them. it is impermissible to limit the scope of texts by re- Verse 59] commands absolute obedience to the course to scholarly opinion. possible to imagine any law at all—not just the and this is sin. The Prophet has stated that "no obe- shari'a—which would disregard its own commands dience is due to a creature in a matter involving dis- and prohibitions in this way. but not be obeyed. Thus the ordinance we learn from this that if the authorities order the contrary of something verse is unrestricted and unconditional. In sum. it is still The reason is that if the authorities are obeyed in necessary to obey the authorities. from An exception of this kind is established by self- a revealed text. that the commands and prohibitions of the Lawgiver it is established by clear evidence of reason and reve- must not be violated. When the legal theorists enumerate This verse states that the authorities should be ways in which the scope of texts can be limited. And yet it is im." to commands and prohibitions which contradict Thus on this question of obedience to the authori- them. [interpretation]." In such a case. by adding as a condition possibility of opposing self-evident reason. "Do not obey the Lawgiver [God]. on is- the founders of all the [four Sunni] schools of law sues pertaining to texts. in the same way. ably be doubted. or order the There is. one which cannot conceiv. since it stems. and it is thus to be understood that it is obliga.

Verse 3] the authorities are not ordering the omission of an The authorities. As I have explained. Thus no resolution thority be imagined? is to be found in this line of argument. only one of the basic principles of jurisprudence but convertible fact that the authorities have a wide au. the authorities have full or prohibit anything. I stated at the outset. hibition actually exists. The discus- Had the authorities not been empowered by the sion goes on and on. and only their permis- permissible issues were denied. the shari 'a would have criticized. as I have explained. the authorities have no It is the same with marriage and divorce. discuss the subject of polygamy want to resolve the tions tantamount to its own. Thus it is beyond any doubt that. verse that states. and the shari 'a continues to be shari 'a to order and prohibit. since issue orders and prohibitions on all matters regard. tainty. three. in mat- ing of such texts. there is no obstacle to this in the shari 'a. of co-wives]. The ing which the shari 'a takes no stand. This authority not be implemented or have any effect. and that it is there- manded by the shari'a or order an act which is fore necessary to prevent it by making a law against prohibited by it. they would be left sibility is specified. the Accordingly the authorities have broad power to shari 'a would confirm rather than invalidate it. cannot be attained in polygamy. as is based upon an unambiguous legal text. This is because in such cases two. that if the authorities ban something com. there- larly. as I have ex. it would be an order issued by the authorities. or four. what is allowed. that the shari'a Thus the shari'a reinforces the commands and does not countenance such a solution. issue orders or prohibitions and to legislate. since in the No disagreement among the schools or conflict of view of shari 'a the authorities have a wide power to scholarly opinion can take place regarding the mean. is also in accord with the demands of reason and the thority in ordering or prohibiting within the general fundamental law of nature. bidden. munity's general moral values regarding these issues. a power that is ordinances of the shari 'a on polygamy would then not subject to limitation. which is impossible to achieve. because the shari 'a decrees polygamy. hibit it by law. and in. This is not In sum. such an imaginary prohibition by saying that fairness plained. if they prohibit something. It decrees making a law against it. they say. indubitable. The reason is that if the prohibition conflicts with orders and prohibitions of the authorities. have full power to prohibit polygamy outright or to Thus this ordinance is free of any doubt or uncer. be neither more nor less than the contents of this law. thus obligatory act or the performance of a prohibited act. Thus as long as the pro- category of licit things. Since. Simi. If the authorities order question by arguing that according to the shari'a something. The shari 'a grants to the authorities a power so It is also worth mentioning that some of those who great that it considers their commands and prohibi. since it explic- prohibitions of the authorities. polygamy. that is to say the government. It appears." [Sura 4. then their orders have the force of a legal polygamy is conditional on fairness [in the treatment obligation just like commands of the shari'a. if their authority in such of the shari 'a regarding them. and the verse would have no power to make laws which accord with the com- force or meaning. ters that are licit. it voids such it. If such a law were to be issued. with no authority according to the shari'a to order in the eyes of the shari'a. As with authority to prohibit something obligatory or com. but simply licit. it is an established. and that it is therefore necessary to pro- that obeying the authorities is a duty. there exists no command or prohibition mand something prohibited. and it is the unambiguous sense of the text. Can any greater au.190 Mansurizade Sa'id From this it follows that it is a duty to obey all Now polygamy is precisely something which is orders or prohibitions of the authorities in matters neither commanded nor prohibited in the shari 'a. it is necessary to ban polygamy by something prohibited under the shari'a. and regarding which the shari 'a neither commands nor which is simply declared to be licit by the [Qur'anic] forbids—things that are neither obligatory nor for. however. Therefore. this will become fore. this will not be valid. it is necessary to explain that . subject it to certain conditions. "Marry the women who please you. itly declares polygamy to be licit. voided rather than confirmed their [right to] com. the prohibition prevails. Thus there is nothing to be gained in the face of mand and prohibit—just as it decrees. that anything that the authorities prohibit becomes It is indeed true that fairness is unattainable in prohibited by the shari 'a. that which is allowed can- and cannot be restricted in any way. this rule has no exceptions.

It for the law. Our aim here is simply to point out verse in question. [. So much so that the time has long Thus there is no conflict of opinion or scholarly come to show the real face of the shari 'a in relation disagreement concerning the scope of the verse. it is not broad power of the authorities in ordering and prohib- something invented by me on the basis of my own iting to a certain degree. is also worth mentioning that. can restrict or limit the a different issue. .. .] .] polygamy. by the shari'a to make laws regarding matters which ary importance. there is nevertheless no doubt scholarly opinion. nal article. very explicit verse. to an issue which has been covered with the dark veil There is only the arrogant and stubborn clamor of of ignorance and fanaticism for many years. this would raise commentators on the Qur'an. That is to say. among others. and ignorance and fanaticism arising from the panic at the which at the same time has generated endless and prospect that this could make it possible to prohibit fruitless debates. . as [Babanzade] Ahmed Na'im Bey that this restriction is of the type discussed in my origi- [1872-1934] maintains.. and it would merely be one reason are licit. no would not serve the public interest.] The issue of the prohibition of polygamy in ruler may only be used beneficially" does restrict the Islam is essentially a straightforward matter. when there is a public interest in doing so. [. and not from scholarly opinion. it is a restriction arising from sarily follows the principles of jurisprudence and a reason. No jurists resorting to their own opinion. while the fundamental rational principle that "the discretionary power of the [. . THE MUSLIM WOMAN: POLYGAMY 191 there is no such prohibition in the shari 'a. It is something that neces. The issue of fairness is of second. and it is that it is within the powers granted to the authorities simply imaginary. The verse is quite explicit and unequivo- If it is objected that a law prohibiting polygamy cal.

Following the Constitutional Revolution of 1908. Hilmi Ziya Ulken. where he served in minor government positions and. Ziya Gokalp Dogumu 'nun 80. There are two possible procedures to verify this There is strong evidence for the argument that thesis: the first is to compare the foundations of Islam Islam is the most modern religion and in no way con- with those of modern civilization directly. which it approached [the principles of] Islam. In 1898. following the Otto- man defeat in World War I. Foundations of Turkish Nationalism: The cyclopedia of Islam) (Istanbul. and was restricted to his home town of Diyar-i Bekir. he quickly became an important figure in the Committee of Union and Progress. 1939). 579-617. 1988). Introduction by M. he was elected to parliament from Ergani Madeni and turned down the post of minister of education. on the Occasion of the 80th Anniversary of His don: George Allen and Unwin. the Daru'l-Hilafeti'l-Aliye. On his return. 214-223. he was arrested for his contacts with the Young Turk opposition.1 In one of our previous essays we have put forth the itself with modern civilization only to the extent to thesis that Islam and modern civilization are compat. he sought both Western and Islamic educations. within a community that was under the domination tent to which Christianity remained remote from the of a powerful state and that had no hopes for politi- principles of Islam. he became a professor of sociology at the University of Istanbul and taught sociology at a modern-style religious school. such as one presented here. In 1912. 25 Ziya Gokalp Islam and Modern Civilization Ziya Gokalp (Turkey. Riza Kardag. "Islam and Modern Civilization. Ziya pany. Islam. flour- modern civilization." in Turkish Nationalism and Western Civilization: Selected Essays of Yazi Hayati. Christianity originated ond course. on the other hand. "Ziya Gokalp. because it will show us that to the ex. In 1919. in 19 13. Turkey: Kiiltiir ve Turizm Turkey: Ikbal Kutiiphanesi. applying theories of idealism to Ottoman society. and that it was able to reconcile ished among a people free from external domina- tion who had the capacity to establish an independent Ziya Gokalp. at the time of their rise. pp. read hundreds of books in French on sociology. pp. and philosophy. Turkey: Diyarbakin Tanitma Dernegi Yayim. In his most famous articles. he was court-martialed as one of the leaders of the Com- mittee of Union and Progress. psychology. 1894-1909. The tension he experienced between the two led to a suicide attempt in 1894. published in 1917. should be sought in the social conditions existing cations for Islam. he re- sumed his writing and was elected to parliament from Diyar-i Bekir. translated from Turkish by Niyazi Berkes (Lon. 1956). ible. First Birth (Istanbul. Gokalp's Sociology) (Ankara. 1876-1924) was a founder of Turkish nationalism. 1950). Life and Teachings of Ziya Gokalp (London: Luzac & Com. he published widely. Encouraged by his father. spent a year in prison. Ziya Gokalp. ond is to enquire whether the points of incompatibil. the sec. it failed to reconcile itself with cal independence. Turkey: Kanaat Kitabevi. Turkey: Maarif Matbaasi. 1894-1909 (Ziya Gokalp's Early Life as a Writer. and Gokalp lived with a bullet in his brain until his death. an admirer of Namik Kemal (see chapter 17) and other modernists. volume 13. 192 . flicting with modern science. Cavit Orhan Tiitengil. 1987). §ukrii Hanioglu. and exiled to Malta for two years. and modernization" of the Ottoman Empire. Ziya Gokalp'in Hayati ve Malta Gokalp Sosyolojisinin Temel llkeleri (The Foundations of Ziya Mektuplan (Ziya Gokalp's Life and Malta Letters) (Istanbul. Here we shall first follow the sec. Uriel Heyd. Yildoniimu Munasebetiyle Ziya Gokalp 'in Ilk (Ziya Gokalp) (Istanbul. The first reason for the existence of a fundamen- ity or agreement between Christianity and modern tal opposition between Christianity and Islam civilization present favorable or unfavorable impli. 1959). §evket Beysanoglu. Gokalp promoted the "Turkification. 1931). according to his own account. In ad- dition. Ali Niizhet. Islamification. Bakanhgi Yaymlari." in Islam Ansiklopedisi (En- 1.

which commands in accordance even when the conditions changed. As this government would be settled. the spiritual governments but. sacred. religion. It did not appropriate the state to itself categories. Religion is the sum total of nization already in existence. expression. When Christianity accepted the need for a spiritual istence in Christendom. Aesthetic and rational rules are ing laws as matters outside the concern of religion. where the accounts of piety of our actions cred being of its own creation. ascribing to each a different sanction. criteria of ethical rules are 'urf. was not that point of view of Islam. on the time. confirmed the same thing. no need would have been felt to went much farther by bringing that court into this establish a spiritual government. and formulated it in the slogan "render and thus makes them sacred. But the spiritual government was com- fect in Islam. legal sanctions. was relegating the state to a non. and then it would have regarded it as a sa. and of the state or. At the time of three categories—those relating to piety. as such. and the other as the sacred. way at all. Modern sociology entirely justifies and confirms this The real nature of things. in the Middle Ages. of righteousness and ethical teachings. it would have attempted undoubtedly to cre. realm of religion. at the same time it divides them into three sacred realm. Over against ers entirely to the government and has concerned these points of view. although they lacked such an organization at carefully. Christianity. it appears that this is not a defect but. gious community]. and the doctrine of social contract. This government. something similar maxim "shari'a [religious law] decides for zahir to the case existing in Islam. tem. of the ethical rules. in its attempts to sup- would have been within the religion and. sacred institution. This conception is con- unto Caesar that which is Caesar's and unto God trary to the interpretations of ethics and law from the that which is God's. which were a sort of parliament legislating laws However. "State" means a public authority which has the contrary. a port its spiritual government by a material sanction. it attributes to them a supra- itself exclusively with pronouncements on matters individual." Thus. rather. non-sacred. there would be no duality of temporal and in the so-called courts of inquisition. It accepted the separation of state and religion as a Islam takes ethical and legal rules as religious rules principle. the Roman state and its laws ity. those of the judicial rules. Although Chris. by accepting the state out. two kinds of government came into ex. a merit. quisitiveness to the realm of the inner private con- dicial matters as part of religion. . The because it looked down on it. Although Islam brings everything sacred under side of religion. of persons. Christianity seems at point of view of utilitarianism. The spiritual Europeans who have compared Christianity and courts of Christianity extended their penetrating in- Islam usually believe that Islam's acceptance of ju. although spiritual. Christianity. it did not take it as a mere metaphysical poral government. Hereafter. first sight like a religion that has left judicial pow. when the problem is investigated more on matters of piety and making ecclesiastical laws. This attitude. pened. to moral- the rise of Christianity. the sanctions of 'urf [community tionality and of religion. historical materialism. and thus it took the all beliefs that are taken as sacred by an umma [reli- matters of organizing a government and maintain. originally sanctions of the rules of piety are otherworldly sanc- due to the fact that the Romans were foreign to the tions. and therefore they are outside of religion. did not disappear altogether mores]. spiritual government. it nevertheless brought to the world All the investigations of modern sociology have but a new government under the name of Heavenly King. however. religious provisions are divided into dividuals whose safety it undertakes. because they are sacred. It also had its coun- their ideas from the same sources think the same way. In Islam. believed in the existence of a supreme court in the ate one. [outward appearance]" is well known. Thus. Even some Muslims who have received posed not only of these courts. dom. science of man and attempted to measure the faith ganization as part of religious organization. In Islam. it would also demand a material sanction. with ma'ruf[the good] and prohibits in accordance tianity took on political government outside of the with munkar [evil]. government. In Islam. All of them are religious were in force. the power to enforce its judicial rules over the in. Islam birth. ISLAM AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 193 state. If Christianity had not found would not content itself with a mere spiritual sanc- an already existing order of state at the time of its tion. and to judicial affairs. If this had hap. is a de. one as the non-sacred. Christianity found a political orga. and early Christians both from the point of view of na. world and institutionalizing it. cils. and transcendental character.

as if this were issued as law. Islam never tual government such as we find in Christianity. the fatwa [religious ences existing between these and the regime accepted ruling] issued by a certain office does not prevent the in Islam. Islam did not establish issued laws providing earthly punishments for mat. ters of piety. but they were not established in it.194 Ziya Gokalp As politics is based on national sentiments per. are court. like those of jihad [holy struggle]. sacrifice of interests and life for the sake interpretations of the popes were infallible. Gregory VII ifta'. A judicial decision abrogates another act of a astical sovereigns in general. In the Greek Orthodox Church. provisions of religion. it is not permissible to decide matters of piety son who has the qualifications to ifta' has the right on the basis of the rule of the majority in such Coun. the fact that the learned are few and "muftis" have to follow the "fatwas" of the pope or the ignorant many may not be an obstacle to the rule of the Councils. In Islam." shows how wide are the limits of the free. In Islam. a kind of ifta' in a similar manner. such as Councils. ifta's within such limitations. were cultivated not abrogate ijtihad" will be understood better when among all Muslims as common virtues. "Ijtihad does not abrogate ijtihad. and the differ- ions of the learned. do not have to make their than those given by inexperienced learned persons. As spiritual pub. any per- Thus. of the majority. The majority commits few mistakes on politi. and ecclesiastical courts. and the qadis ceived by men of action through experience. These modes of relations may be reduced to four dition of the Prophet] saying. are under the of the majority in political matters may be an ad. it would have invented a spiri- tion are more dangerous. The hadith [tra. On matters of piety. The acceptance of the of the popes. For this reason. but no one may ever have the same cils. Holy Councils did not content themselves with promulgat. the decrees of the Holy Synod have the authority of are entirely matters of learning and specialization. The believers. secular institutions. obligation of following what the caliph has decreed equate basis. It constituted any Council and never made enactments was because Islam did otherwise that organizations on any matter of faith or worship on the basis of having a spiritual authority or the authority to issue majority opinion. having acquired the right of leadership in . credness of the state. 1073-1085] had said: &qu