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Dr.

Nelson Muthu, Asstistant Professor


FR-5, ME Extn, Department of Mechanical Engineering
IIT Guwahati
THEORIES OF FAILURE
Failing Factors
Principal or Normal Stress
Stress
Shear Stress

Strain Principal Strain

Maximum Strain Energy


Energy
Shear Strain Energy
Typical stress vs. strain diagram for a ductile material
(a). Highly ductile fracture;
(b). Moderate ductile fracture.
When the maximum
shear strength in actual
case exceeds maximum
allowable shear stress in
simple tension test the
material fails.
Good for ductile
materials.

 
2
    Tresca Hexagon

     
2
When the total
strain energy in actual
case exceeds the total
strain energy in simple
tension test at the time of
failure, the material fails
Good for ductile
material
1 
. .   ! "  " #  2$  "  # "  # %
2
1
. .    
2
When the shear strain
energy in the actual case
exceeds shear strain energy
in simple tension test at the
time of failure the material
fails.
Highly recommended
for ductile materials.
1
&'   "     
6)
*

+ + ,-  &' 0

. /,+  &' 
6)
Brittle fracture in mild steel
AUSTENITE

100

80

60

40

20

-200 -100 0 100 200 300


A material fails if
the maximum principal
stress induced in a material
under complex load
condition exceeds the
maximum normal strength
in a simple tension test.
Good for brittle
materials.
   ,   
When the maximum
normal strain in actual
case is more than
maximum normal strain
occurred in simple tension
test case the material fails.
Not recommended.

2   /, 2   /
15
Maximum Shear Stress
Ductile Material Maximum Strain Energy Density
Maximum Distortion Energy Density

Maximum Principle Stress


Brittle Material
Maximum Principle strain

16
 The state of plane stress shown at critical point of a steel mechanical component.
As a result of several tensile tests, the tensile yield strength is   250 Mpa for the
grade of steel used. Determine the factor of safety (F.S.) with respect to yield using
(1) The maximum-shearing-stress criterion
(2) The maximum-distortion-energy criteria
y

-40 MPa

80 MPa x

25 MPa