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RIVETED JOINTS 1457 RIVETS AND RIVETED JOINTS Classes and Types of Riveted Joints.—Riveted joints may be classified by application as: 1) pressure vessel; 2) stmctural; and 3) machine member. For information and data concerning joints for pressure vessels such as boilers, reference, should be madeto standard sources suchas the ASME Boiler Code. The following sections vwill cover only structural and machine-member riveted joints. Basically there are two kinds of riveted joints, the lap-joint and the butt-joint. In the ordi- nary lap-joint, the plates overlap each other and are held together by one ot mote rows of rivets, In the but-joint, the plates being joined are in the same plane and are joined by means of a cover plate or butt strap, which is riveted to both plates by one or mote rows of rivets. The term single riveting means one row of rivets in a lap-joint or one row on each. side of a butt-joint; double riveting means two rows of rivets in a lap-joint or two rows on each side of the joint in butt riveting, Joints are alsotriple and quadruple riveted. Lap-joints may also be made with inside or outside cover plates. Types of lap and butt joints are illus- trated in the table on starting on page 1461. General Considerations of a Riveted Joint.— Factors to be considered in the design or specification of ariveted joint are: type of joint; spacing of rivets, type and size of rivet; type and size of hole; and rivet material. Spacing of Rivets: The spacing between rivet centers is called pitch and between row center lines, back pitch or transverse pitch. The distance between centers of rivets nearest each other in adjacent rowsiscalled diagonat pitch. The distance fromthe edge of the plate tothe center line of the nearest row of rivets is called margin. Examination of a riveted joint made up of several rows of rivets will reveal that after pro- gressing along the joint a given distance, the rivet pattern or arrangement is repeated. (For abut joint, the length of a repeating section is usually equal to the long pitchor pitch of the Tivets in the outer row, that is the row farthest from the edge of the joint.) For structural and machine-member joints, the proper pitch may be determined by making the tensile strength af the plate over the length of the repeating section, that is the distance between rivets in the outerrow, equal to the total shear strength of the rivets in the repeating section. Minimmm pitch and diagonal pitch are also governed by the clearance required for the. hold-on (Dolly bar) and rivet set. Dimensions for different sizes of hold-ons and rivet sets are given in the table on page 1467 When fastening thin plate, it is particularly important to maintain accurate. spacing to avoid buckling. Sige and Type of Rivets: The rivet diameter d commonly falls between d= 1.2/1 and d = 14, Where tis the thickness of the plate. Dimensions for various types of Ameri- can Standard large (14-inch diameter and up) rivets and small solid rivets are shown in tables that follow. It may be noted that countersunk heads ate not as strong as other types. Sige and Type of Hole: Rivet holes may be punched, punched and reamed, or drilled. Rivet holes are usually made: Mg inch. larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the rivet although in some classes of work in which the rivet is driven cold, as in autornatic machine riveting, the holes are reamed to provide mininmmelearance so that the rivet fills the hole completely. When holes are punched in heavy steel plate, there may be considerable loss of strength. unless the holes are reamed to remove the inferior metal immediately surrounding them. ‘This results in the diameter of the punched hole being increased by from to ¥ inch Annealing after punching tends to restore the strength of the plate in the vicinity of the holes. 1472 RIVETS British Standard Small Rivets for General Purposes BS641:1951 (obsolescent) a ett ET et pe ee Heel pet asin * TU tot ig ig" = ae | oe vexing a i | Ser | as ven —L+ a ee hg Sel ore eel ep fied wih: Sexy iat Get “eh nen apps ie nari, ne jek TH | Tyee oie lf lH .@i | | ee a *Gage numbers are British Standard Wire Gage (8.W.G.) numbers. Alldimensionsin inchesmnless specified otherwised. RIVETS 1471 Head Dimensions and Diameters of British Standard Rivets BS 275:1927 (obsolescent) This standard does not apply to Boiler Rivets ip ok fo a i [3% | 395 Ith t—Fhap x Prooh| | Nweasunen Cd SAA PROMIERE AN PAN HEAD WITH mS a vend NECK 2s am fersoy eso EMP obs Lp sh eA hsv | P aS at = a beri ROUNDED Far AOUNDED hat COUNTERSUNK COUNTERSUNK COUNTERSUNK — COUNTERSUNK HEAD HEAD HEAD (45°) HEAD (45°) ; Size oniaa Riet Raton aoa aan . Tae LO Min % cA Ma % Mea Ye % Me Ye Me % Me Me % Mee % % % % % % % %e % % % % Ny % Ny % % % Sq % Sq Me Ns Me a Ns Me 1 1 We % 1 Su he Mp Wh We M6 Ve % " a me Hs mn Wye 1%. he My Vie. 1% me we me = m i 1% We Me Me %e i % i i = ® s % Oe 1 Pa Te % ” i a i 1% M% 1% 1% 1% 1% % ® me ™ ® ' 1K 1% 1% 1% 1% % % ry 1% % 1% “Tolerances of the rivet diameter are as follows: at position X, plus ¥inch, minus zero; at position ¥, plus zero, minus Y, inch; at position Z, minus ¥%, inch but in no case shall the difference between the diameters at positions X and Y exceed Ye inch, nor shall the diameter of the shank between positions X and ¥ be less than the minimum diameter specified at position ¥. The location of positions Y and Z are as follows: Position Y's located 44D from the end of the rivet, for rivet lengths 5 diameters long and under, For longerrivets, position Vis located 434 from the head of the rivet. Position Z (found only on rivets longer than 5D) is located 4D from the end of the rivet. © At the recommendation of the British Standards Institution, these sizes are to be dispensed with wherever possible All dimensions that are tabulated are given in inches. RIVETS 1469 ‘Table 2. American National Standard Small Solid Rivets ANSUASME B18. 1.1-1972 (R1995) Tianers et Rive Rivets Timer Rete Se [Shank Diameter Een Daa Teed eg Tomah No*_[TMas. [Min —[ Max, [Min] Max. Mins [Nom [ Mas. [Min Son] vost [amis] oais [01s | oa [ooo] J ous) ois soz | oor | aos | 0225 | o2s | oos | oom | x | os | one too. | 007 | oo | o2s | 02m | oosr | oors | 1% | orm | ase rae. | 0107 | our | 026s oosr | ooas | x | o19s | ours toe | om | ous | ozs oow | oo | y, | oass | ors i | ons | oor | o2as oon | oo | im | oa | ows ty | 0122 | ons | 020s oos | oon | x | 029 | a2 tw | 012 | ons | 0310 oow | oom | % | oa | oze ty | 016 | 010 | 03a oow | ooxs | | oa | 0240 am | ons | uo | oa oo | oo | % | o2% | 256 zum | oaso | ou | oan 0009 | o ye | om | oan a | 016s | oust | os oo | oo | x, | 32 | oss ait | o4ss | ose | ass oon | oo |» oa | o3ie am | or | aro | 036s oor | 002 | ye | oase | oss sw | 01% | ori | o3se ooss | oom | xy | o3ss | 36s om | 020 | aisr | oa oom | oo | 3% | oan | os: rw | 0223 | ozs | oat ow | oo | om | oat | 0306 sm | o27 | ozs | oazs | oss | oso | ooss | x | ous | oars ow | oa | a2 | o4 | ose | oor | oor | 2% | oa | oss tow | o2n | oa | osos | oars | ois | ooss | se | o47 | oaso rw | 026 | os: | osx | as | ois | oo | x | osm | caso um | o2ss | 027 | os7 | os | ons | oo | 2% | osas ws | oao | oa | oso | oss | ors | or | ong | ose ws | oa7 | oms | 07a | oss | ois | ors | me | oma | asses Size numbers refer to the approximate weight of 1000 rivets. Bed Rite ‘Shank Head Head Point Dimensions Diameter £ Dana Heist it Da Teng Not [Mx [iin Win [Mx [ Min [Nominal Nominal 1} ams] 0079 2a | a0] —aax0 | — ons ‘O0T® 15 | 007 | oom o302 | oost | ox | oor oars 2 | om | oavs 033 | oom | aow | oom oars un | or | ons 0303 | 00s | ons | o0s7 oars | ons | ono ox | 006s | aos O09 ose 9 | oid | oss 025 | 006 | oasi om aoot s | oust} ore. oass | oom | aoss | ous ooo 7 | ous | ors oasr | 007s | aos | oust as © | 0206 | os oss | 000 | oss | 016s ans s | 022 | ozs oes | 40s | aos oss ans 4 | om | oan oss | one | ate | 20 aust Length tolerance on belt rivets is plus 0,031 inch, minus O inch. Size number refers to the Stub’s iron wire gage number of the stock used in the shank of the rivet. All dimensions in inches. Note: American National Standard Small Solid Rivets may be obtained with or without points. Point proportions are given in the diagram in Table 1